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Sample records for adhd inattention symptoms

  1. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    DSM-IV distinguishes two symptom domains of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. The present study examines the aetiologies and developmental relations underlying the associations between inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity over time, based on a representative population sample…

  2. Parenting Mediates Symptoms and Impairment in Children With ADHD-Inattentive Type.

    PubMed

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel T; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates potential pathways between inattentive symptom severity, positive and negative parenting practices, and functional impairment (i.e., academic, social, and home impairment) in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I). Participants included 199 children and their parents and teachers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial intervention for children with ADHD-I. Boys constituted slightly more than half the sample; children averaged 8.6 years of age (range = 7-11) and were from varied ethnic/racial backgrounds. As part of the initial screening and assessment procedures, parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing child behavior and parent/family functioning. Results supported both main effects of symptoms and parenting on impairment, as well as a mediational path between symptoms and impairment via parenting, as observed by parents in the home setting. Specifically, higher severity of inattention was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Negative parenting contributed to homework and home impairment, and positive and negative parenting contributed to social impairment, incrementally above and beyond the impact of inattention symptom severity alone. Negative parenting partially mediated the relationship between inattentive symptom severity and impairment, such that higher rates of inattention were associated with higher rates of negative parenting, which in turn was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Results provide support for underlying mechanisms for associations between symptoms and impairment in children with ADHD-I and identify potential intervention targets to improve impairment experienced by these children.

  3. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  4. Lack of Association of Handedness with Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Findings about the association of left-handedness and ADHD are inconsistent. While abnormal brain laterality is reported in children with ADHD, it is unclear if hand preference is associated with ADHD, severity symptoms, age, gender, comorbid psychiatric problems, or parental characteristics. Method: Subjects were 520 boys and girls…

  5. A Cross-Lagged Model of the Development of ADHD Inattention Symptoms and Rapid Naming Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Willcutt, Erik; Dmitrieva, Julia; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has identified contemporaneous associations between cognitive deficits and symptom phenotypes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, no studies have as yet attempted to identify direction of effect. The present study used cross-lagged path modeling to examine competing hypotheses about longitudinal associations…

  6. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  7. Pharmacotherapy of inattention and ADHD in adolescents.

    PubMed

    McBurnett, Keith; Swetye, Michael; Muhr, Heather; Hendren, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the current use of stimulants in adolescents. The evidence base for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents is meager compared with that of ADHD in children, and much recent research of older populations with ADHD has been directed toward adults rather than adolescents. The structure of psychosocial treatment of ADHD differs across developmental ranges. For example, in children, treatment of ADHD uses direct behavior modification via parents and teachers. Treatment approaches then change toward contracting in adolescents (acknowledging the emerging independence common at this age) and toward self-management and coaching in adults. Medication for ADHD, however, does not substantially differ across developmental epochs. In supplementation of data, specifically on adolescence, much of our understanding of treating adolescents comes from upward or downward extension of the child and adult data. Symptomatic treatment (treatment for inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsive behavior) has always been a parallel approach to diagnostic and developmentally specific selection of treatment based on an incomplete literature. In recognition, this article assumes that inference from children or adults to adolescents, in the absence of adolescent-specific data, is commonplace and often confirmed with clinical experience. Such inferences, in the face of literature gaps, in no way obviate the need for continued research focused on adolescence.

  8. A Twin Study of ADHD Symptoms in Early Adolescence: Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattentiveness Show Substantial Genetic Overlap but Also Genetic Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A previous paper in this journal revealed substantial genetic overlap between the ADHD dimensions of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness in a sample of 8-year old twins drawn from a UK-representative population sample. Four years later, when the twins were 12 years old, more than 5,500 pairs drawn from the same sample were rated again on…

  9. Validity of the Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Symptom Dimensions: Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Barkley, Russell A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Martinez, Jose V.; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the latent structure and validity of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. We evaluated mother and teacher ratings of ADHD and SCT symptoms in 140 Puerto Rican children (55.7% males), ages 6 to 11 years, via factor and regression analyses. A three-factor model (inattention,…

  10. The Effects of Inattentiveness and Hyperactivity on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: Does a Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary; Adams, Thomas; Stauffacher-Gros, Kirstin; Mandel, Howard; Wang, Zhewu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To addressed the nature of associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychopathology in adult military veterans. Method 95 combat veterans with PTSD (n=63) and without PTSD (n=32) were recruited for this study. PTSD was assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and ADHD was assessed with Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self Report: Short Version (CAARS-S:S). Results PTSD participants endorsed greater hyperactivity/restlessness,, inattention/memory problems, and impulsivity/emotional lability scores than participants without PTSD. Among PTSD participants, inattention/memory problems and impulsivity/emotional lability were significant predictors of total PTSD symptoms, but only inattention/memory problems significantly predicted PTSD symptoms when other ADHD symptom clusters were considered simultaneously. Conclusion Our data suggest that inattention may serve as a risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms following combat exposure. PMID:25882836

  11. The role of inattention on academics, fluid reasoning, and visual-spatial functioning in two subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether subtype differences and the role of inattention in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominately inattentive type (ADHD-PI) and controls on measures of achievement, problem solving, and visual-spatial abilities are present. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the relation between ADHD symptoms and performance on visual-spatial-motor tasks. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI and controls, all aged 8 to 16 years old, were compared on tests of achievement, fluid reasoning, and visual-motor skills. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI performed significantly poorer on the mathematics calculation, written expression, fluid reasoning, and visual-motor tests compared with the controls. Inattention, but not hyperactivity or impulsivity, was found to significantly predict performance on these measures. The role of inattention on these tasks is important for understanding why children with both subtypes of ADHD experience significant academic problems even when performing in the average range on achievement tests.

  12. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  13. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  14. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  15. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  16. Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maria; Hwang, Heungsun; Toplak, Maggie; Weiss, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of inattention and working memory in predicting academic achievement in 145 adolescents aged 13 to 18 referred for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Path analysis was used to examine whether auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory would mediate the relationships between classroom inattention symptoms and achievement outcomes. Results provide support for the mediational model. Behavioral inattention significantly predicted both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial working memory performance. Auditory-verbal working memory was strongly associated with adolescents' achievement in reading and mathematics, while visual-spatial working memory was only associated with achievement in mathematics. The path from inattention symptoms to reading was partially mediated by the working memory variables, but the path from inattention to mathematics was not mediated by working memory. The proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data and explained a substantial amount of variance in the adolescents' achievement outcomes. These findings imply that working memory is a risk factor for academic failure for adolescents with attentional problems.

  17. Association of the dopamine receptor D1 gene, DRD1, with inattention symptoms in families selected for reading problems.

    PubMed

    Luca, P; Laurin, N; Misener, V L; Wigg, K G; Anderson, B; Cate-Carter, T; Tannock, R; Humphries, T; Lovett, M W; Barr, C L

    2007-08-01

    Twin studies have provided evidence for shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific reading disabilities (RD), with this overlap being highest for the inattentive symptom dimension of ADHD. Previously, we found evidence for association of the dopamine receptor D1 gene (DRD1) with ADHD, and with the inattentive symptom dimension in particular. This, combined with evidence for working memory (WM) deficits in individuals with RD or ADHD, and the importance of D1 receptors in attentional processes and WM function, suggests that DRD1 may be a common genetic influence underlying both disorders. Here, in a study of 232 families ascertained through probands with reading problems, we tested for association of the DRD1 gene with RD, as a categorical trait, and with quantitative measures of key reading component skills, WM ability, and inattentive symptoms. Although no associations were found with RD, or with reading component skills or verbal WM, we found evidence for association with inattentive behaviour. Specifically, DRD1 Haplotype 3, the haplotype previously found to be associated with inattentive symptoms in ADHD, is also associated with parent- and teacher-reported symptoms of inattention in this sample selected for reading problems (P=0.023 and 0.004, respectively). Together, the replicated finding of Haplotype 3 association with inattentive symptoms in two independent study samples strongly supports a role for DRD1 in attentional ability. Furthermore, the association of DRD1 with inattention, but not with RD, or the other reading and reading-related phenotypes analysed, suggests that DRD1 contributes uniquely to inattention, without overlap for reading ability.

  18. Inattention symptoms and the diagnosis of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among youth with generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Elkins, R Meredith; Carpenter, Aubrey L; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur in childhood. Inattention symptoms can be hallmarks of both conditions, however assessment tools of inattention may not effectively distinguish between the two conditions. The present study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the high-end specificity of the Attention Problems Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for detecting comorbid ADHD among youth with GAD (N=46). Results support the utility of the Attention Problems Scale for accurately distinguishing between the two groups (AUC=.84, SE=.06). Specifically, a cut score of 63 achieved the most favorable values across diagnostic utility indices; 74% of GAD youth with ADHD scored above this cutoff and 91% of GAD youth without ADHD scored below this cutoff. Findings provide support for the use of the CBCL Attention Problems Scale to supplement diagnostic interviews and identify inattention associated with ADHD among GAD youth.

  19. Is Emotion Recognition Related to Core Symptoms of Childhood ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Noorazar, Gholamreza; Shahrivar, Zahra; Banaraki, Anahita Khorrami; Beigi, Parvane Farhad; Noorian, Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Objective Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have some problems in social relationships which may be related to their deficit in recognizing emotional expressions. It is not clear if the deficit in emotion recognition is secondary to core symptoms of ADHD or can be considered as an independent symptom. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of detecting emotional faces and its relation to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in children with ADHD compared to a typically developing (TD) group. Methods Twenty-eight boys diagnosed as having ADHD, aged from seven to 12 years old were compared to 27 TD boys using a computerized Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT). Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II) were also administered to assess the severity of inattention and impulsivity. Results The percentages of angry, happy and sad faces detected by children with ADHD were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control group. The time spent in recognizing happy faces was higher in the ADHD group (p=0.04). The sequential regression analyses showed a significant association between angry and sad targets recognition and inattention (P<0.05), as well as between oppositionality and angry faces detection (P<0.05) when hyperactivity-impulsivity was added to the model. Conclusion It can be concluded that children with ADHD suffer from some impairments in recognizing angry, happy and sad faces. This deficit may be related to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:28331501

  20. Validity of the sluggish cognitive tempo, inattention, and hyperactivity symptom dimensions: neuropsychological and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José J; Barkley, Russell A; Bauermeister, José A; Martínez, José V; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the latent structure and validity of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. We evaluated mother and teacher ratings of ADHD and SCT symptoms in 140 Puerto Rican children (55.7% males), ages 6 to 11 years, via factor and regression analyses. A three-factor model (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and SCT) provided the best fit for both sets of ratings. Inattention was the strongest correlate of lower scores on neuropsychological, achievement, and psychosocial measures. Externalizing problems were most strongly associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity, and internalizing problems were most strongly associated with parent-rated SCT and teacher-rated Inattention. SCT was not associated with executive function but was negatively associated with math. Inattention accounted for a disproportionate amount of ADHD-related impairment, which may explain the restricted discriminant validity of DSM-IV types. The distinct factors of hyperactivity-impulsivity and SCT had unique associations with impairing comorbidities and are roughly equivalent in predicting external correlates of ADHD-related impairment.

  1. A Two-site Randomized Clinical Trial of Integrated Psychosocial Treatment for ADHD-Inattentive Type

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth; Zalecki, Christine; Kaiser, Nina M.; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the efficacy of the Child Life and Attention Skills (CLAS) program, a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school, for youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Inattentive Type (ADHD-I). Method In a two-site randomized controlled trial, 199 children (ages 7-11) were randomized to CLAS (N=74), parent-focused treatment (PFT, N=74), or treatment as usual (TAU, N=51). We compared groups on parent and teacher ratings of inattention symptoms, organizational skills, social skills, and global improvement at post-treatment, and also at follow-up during the subsequent school year. Results CLAS resulted in greater improvements in teacher-reported inattention, organizational skills, social skills, and global functioning relative to both PFT and TAU at post-treatment. Parents of children in CLAS reported greater improvement in organizational skills than PFT and greater improvements on all outcomes relative to TAU at post-treatment. Differences between CLAS and TAU were maintained at follow-up for most parent-reported measures but were not significant for teacher-reported outcomes. Conclusions These findings extend support for CLAS across two study sites, revealing that integrating parent, teacher, and child treatment components, specifically adapted for ADHD-I, is superior to parent training alone and to usual care. Direct involvement of teachers and children in CLAS appears to amplify effects at school and home and underscores the importance of coordinating parent, teacher, and child treatment components for cross-setting effects on symptoms and impairment associated with ADHD-I. PMID:24865871

  2. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  3. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  4. Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I.

  5. The use of compensatory strategies in adults with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kysow, Kate; Park, Joanne; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-10

    This study examined the use of compensatory strategies reported by adults with ADHD symptoms and their relation to measures of functioning. Forty-nine adults (55.1 % female) completed a structured diagnostic interview to assess ADHD, and responses were coded for compensatory strategies: Adaptation, Paying Attention, Organization, External Support, and Avoidance. The majority of adults with ADHD symptoms reported using compensatory strategies, and their reported strategy use in childhood was related to their use in adulthood. No gender differences were found in the use of strategies, although Organization and External Support were used more often for inattention than for hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Use of the compensatory strategy, Adaptation, was significantly related to measures of functioning, and the use of strategies reduced the negative relationship between ADHD symptoms and parenting difficulties. Results encourage the development of compensatory strategies among adults with ADHD symptoms, as well as provide recommendations for treatment programs.

  6. Do Symptoms of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children with ADHD Symptoms Represent Comorbid Internalizing Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Annie A.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hodgens, Bart; Patterson, Cryshelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) are correlated with inattention and internalizing difficulties. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether symptoms of SCT reflect comorbid internalizing disorder with ADHD or a separate syndrome. Method: Using a clinical sample of youth evaluated for behavioral and learning…

  7. Differentiating between comorbidity and symptom overlap in ADHD and early onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Udal, Anne H; Egeland, Jens; Oygarden, Bjørg; Malt, Ulrik F; Lövdahl, Hans; Pripp, Are H; Groholt, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Reported rates of comorbidity between early onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a wide range, perhaps due to developmental issues and differences in interpretation of overlapping symptoms. We compared questionnaire-based and neuropsychological measures of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity, in children/adolescents with ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C; n26), concurrent ADHD-C and BD (n15), BD (n25) with Controls (n69). Sub-analyses were performed on BD with and without inattention symptoms. The two ADHD-C groups displayed neuropsychological impairments that were not found in the BD group in spite of subjective and questionnaire-rated inattention. The findings caution against over-diagnosis of ADHD in BD.

  8. The Association of ADHD Symptoms and Reading Acquisition during Elementary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Kerner auch Koerner, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were…

  9. The role of maternal and child ADHD symptoms in shaping interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the children had ADHD, and the remainder were comparison youth. After statistical control of children's ADHD diagnostic status and mothers' educational attainment, mothers' own inattentive ADHD symptoms predicted poorer self-reported social skills. Children with ADHD were reported to have more social problems by parents and teachers, as well as received fewer positive sociometric nominations from playgroup peers relative to children without ADHD. After control of child ADHD status, higher maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity each predicted children having more parent-reported social problems; maternal inattention predicted children receiving more negative sociometric nominations from playgroup peers. There were interactions between maternal ADHD symptoms and children's ADHD diagnostic status in predicting some child behaviors and parent-child relationship measures. Specifically, maternal inattention was associated with decreased prosocial behavior for children without ADHD, but did not influence the prosocial behavior of children with ADHD. Maternal inattention was associated with mothers' decreased corrective feedback and, at a trend level, decreased irritability toward their children with ADHD, but there was no relationship between maternal inattention and maternal behaviors for children without ADHD. A similar pattern was observed for maternal hyperactivity/impulsivity and mothers' observed irritability towards their children. Treatment implications of findings are discussed.

  10. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Integrated Home-School Behavioral Treatment for ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; Easterlin, Barbara; Zalecki, Christine; McBurnett, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school (Child Life and Attention Skills Program) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I). Method: Sixty-nine children ages 7 to 11 years were randomized to the Child Life and Attention Skills…

  11. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior.

  12. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  13. Parent Adherence in Two Behavioral Treatment Strategies for the Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Mary; Hinshaw, Stephen; McBurnett, Keith; Pfiffner, Linda

    2016-11-03

    We examined the effects of parent adherence on child outcomes in two treatment strategies for the Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-I): behavioral parent training adapted for ADHD-I (Parent-Focused Therapy [PFT]) and a multicomponent intervention that combined PFT, a child life skills group, and a classroom intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills Program [CLAS]). In a 2-site randomized controlled trial, 199 children (7-11 years of age) were randomized to PFT (n = 74), CLAS (n = 74), or treatment as usual (n = 51). Parent adherence was rated separately by parents and clinicians. Child outcomes included ADHD-I symptoms and parent- and teacher- rated impairment social, organizational, and home impairment. Results from multiple regression analyses utilizing a composite of parent and clinician ratings showed that parent adherence predicted improvement in all 3 parent-rated child impairment outcomes and no teacher-rated outcomes in the PFT treatment group. Adherence ratings did not predict any parent- or teacher-rated outcomes in the CLAS treatment group and did not predict ADHD symptom change in either treatment condition. These findings suggest that when parents are solely responsible for teaching and reinforcing new child skills and behaviors (as in PFT), their adherence to the assigned intervention may be especially important for improvement at home. It may be less critical in multicomponent interventions, like CLAS, where the responsibility for teaching new child skills is shared among parents, teachers, and child group clinicians. Parent adherence does not appear to impact child improvement in the school setting.

  14. The Effects of Childhood ADHD Symptoms on Early-Onset Substance Use: A Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are…

  15. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  16. Semantic language as a mechanism explaining the association between ADHD symptoms and reading and mathematics underachievement.

    PubMed

    Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M

    2012-11-01

    ADHD is associated with academic underachievement, but it remains unclear what mechanism accounts for this association. Semantic language is an underexplored mechanism that provides a developmental explanation for this association. The present study will examine whether semantic language deficits explain the association between ADHD and reading and mathematics underachievement, taking into account alternative explanations for associations, including verbal working memory (WM) impairments, as well as specificity of effects to inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 546 children (54 % male) ages six to twelve (M = 9.77, SD = 1.49). ADHD symptoms were measured via maternal and teacher report during structured interviews and on standardized rating forms. Children completed standardized semantic language, verbal WM, and academic testing. Semantic language fully mediated the ADHD-reading achievement association and partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics achievement association. Verbal WM also partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics association but did not mediate the ADHD-reading achievement association. Results generalized across inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Semantic language explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement and partially explained the association between ADHD and mathematics underachievement. Together, language impairment and WM fully explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement, in line with developmental models suggesting that language and WM conjointly influence the development of attention and subsequent academic achievement. This work has implication for the development of tailored interventions for academic underachievement in children with ADHD.

  17. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. [Symptom variations in ADHD: importance of context, development and comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Wohl, M; Michel, G; Mouren, M C; Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children and is associated with significant impairment in social and academic functioning. Its recognition is based on congruent information from different sources, because most ADHD children and adolescents are not completely aware of impairments caused by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fluctuations in symptom expression may complicate the diagnosis: during clinical examination or tests sessions, ADHD symptoms may be less severe than usual or completely absent. This review examines variations in ADHD symptoms due to environmental context, internal state, circadian factors, development, psychiatric comorbidity and discusses their clinical relevance. Generally, ADHD symptoms are pervasive and identified in different areas of functioning. Despite their chronicity, they show a relative context-dependency. An unfamiliar environment or situation may lessen symptoms. The same happens in dual relations or in calm settings, when the child receives attention and positive reinforcement from the adult. On the contrary, the classroom situation with its high stimulation level (noise, visual distractors, large class size) is likely to reveal or accentuate instability, impulsivity and inattention. Independently from objective symptom fluctuations, the impact of ADHD symptoms, and their consequences on self-esteem may also vary with the degree of environmental mismatch. Recent research in experimental psychology also draws attention to the motivational state of ADHD children: preference for immediate gratification and delay aversion may explain why most of them show satisfactory attentional capacities in certain activities (for instance video games or TV), while showing impairment in school work or in other effortful tasks. The diagnosis of the full ADHD syndrome requires significant impact on functioning in at least two areas. Some children with "situational" ADHD are impaired either in

  19. Parent-teacher agreement on ADHD symptoms across development.

    PubMed

    Narad, Megan E; Garner, Annie A; Peugh, James L; Tamm, Leanne; Antonini, Tanya N; Kingery, Kathleen M; Simon, John O; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-03-01

    Parent-teacher agreement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom ratings ranges from low to moderate. Most studies evaluating parent-teacher agreement have not assessed measurement invariance across raters. Hence, it is unclear whether discordance across raters is due to differing ADHD constructs across raters or other factors (e.g., subjective differences across raters). Additionally, the effect of development on parent-teacher agreement is relatively unknown. To address these limitations, the present study used parent and teacher ADHD ratings from a large (N = 6,659) developmentally diverse (ages 4-17) sample. Using exploratory structural equation modeling on half the sample, and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the other half of the sample, confirmed a 2-factor structure with significant cross-loadings for the 18 ADHD symptoms. CFA invariance analyses demonstrated that the 2-factor symptom structure was similar across raters and age groups. After confirming measurement invariance, the correlation between latent factors within and across raters was examined for each age group as well as across age groups. Parents reported greater severity of ADHD symptoms than did teachers, and both parents and teachers reported higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity in younger children than in older children and consistent levels of inattention across development. Finally, correlations between parent-teacher ratings of like factors were weak for inattention and moderate-strong for hyperactivity/impulsivity, and the magnitude of parent-teacher agreement did not vary across development. In conclusion, while parent and teacher ratings of ADHD behaviors are only weakly to moderately correlated, each reporter provides unique and valid clinical information as it relates to ADHD symptom presentation.

  20. Social Functioning in Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…

  1. Neurocognitive Functioning in AD/HD, Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Gilbert, Sharone N.; Raj, Anu; Zhu, John; Pope-Boyd, Sa'brina; Stepak, Brenda; Vail, Lucia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    The Predominantly Inattentive (PI) and Combined (CB) subtypes of AD/HD differ in cognitive tempo, age of onset, gender ratio, and comorbidity, yet a differentiating endophenotype has not been identified. The aim of this study was to test rigorously diagnosed PI, CB, and typical children on measures selected for their potential to reveal…

  2. Motor skills development in children with inattentive versus combined subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Marsha; Bender, H Allison; Macallister, William S

    2014-01-01

    The relations between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and motor skills are well documented, with research indicating both early and lifelong motor deficits in children with this disorder. Despite neuroanatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, which may predict differential rates of motor impairment between ADHD subtypes, evaluation of motor skill deficits in children with different presentations are limited in scope and equivocal in findings. The present investigation evaluated early motor development history and objectively measured motor skills in children with ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). One hundred and one children with ADHD-I (n = 53) and ADHD-C (n = 48) were included. Variables included Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), history of motor delays, and utilization of early intervention services, as well as objectively measured motor impairment as assessed via tasks of fine-motor coordination. No between-group differences were found for FSIQ, but differences in age emerged, with the ADHD-I group being older. No differences in early motor delays were observed, though a considerably higher percentage of children with ADHD-C demonstrated early difficulties. Surprisingly, although children and adolescents with ADHD-C reported more frequent utilization of early intervention services, those with ADHD-I exhibited greater levels of current motor impairment on objective tasks. Given the over-representation of older children in the ADHD-I group, data were reanalyzed after excluding participants older than 10 years of age. Although the between-group differences were no longer significant, more than twice the number of parents of children with ADHD-C reported early motor delays, as compared with the ADHD-I group. Overall, children with ADHD-I were more likely to exhibit current objectively measured motor impairment, possibly due to later identification, less intervention, and/or different neurodevelopmental substrates

  3. Predictors of different types of developmental coordination problems in ADHD: the effect of age, gender, ADHD symptom severity and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, A

    2010-08-01

    It is known that developmental coordination problems in children with ADHD are very common. However, it is not clear whether different subtypes of coordination problems are associated with ADHD comorbidities, inattentiveness severity, and impulsivity/hyperactivity severity. A clinical sample of 122 children and adolescents with ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The parents completed the validated and reliable Farsi version of DCD-Q regarding their children. The internal reliability of the DCD-Q was high for the full scale and the subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the fit for the hypothesized factor structure of the DCD-Q was poor. Linear regression analysis indicated that the scores of validated DCD-Q in children with ADHD, except for the fine motor/hand writing score, were not predicted by the variables of gender, handedness, age, inattentiveness score, hyperactivity/impulsivity score, and oppositional defiant behavior score. The fit for the hypothesized factor structure of the DCD-Q is poor in children with ADHD. Fine motor/hand writing was predicted by inattention severity. The other subtypes of developmental coordination problems in children with ADHD cannot be attributed to the variables of gender, inattentiveness severity, hyperactivity/impulsivity severity, comorbidity with separation anxiety symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior score, and handedness.

  4. Persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among college students: Possible association with ADHD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as measured the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over four years: 1) persistent nonmedical users of prescription stimulants; 2) persistent users of marijuana who did not use prescription stimulants nonmedically; and, 3) consistent non-users of drugs. Results: ADHD symptoms were associated with being a persistent nonmedical user of prescription stimulants, after adjustment for race/ethnicity, sex, SES, and other illicit drug use. No associations were observed between ADHD symptoms and being a persistent marijuana user or non-user. Conclusions: ADHD symptoms, and in particular inattention symptoms, appear to be associated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Future studies are needed to clinically validate these observations. PMID:20484709

  5. Interrelations between executive function and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in preschoolers: a two year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brocki, Karin C; Eninger, Lilianne; Thorell, Lisa B; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-02-01

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components - simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and working memory (WM) - at age 5 and 6 as well as their predictive relations to ADHD symptoms at age 7. The results showed that simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 independently predicted complex inhibition and WM at age 6. In addition, EFs primarily predicted symptoms of inattention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity even at this young age. Finally, age 6 complex inhibition was shown to act as a mediator in the relations between simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 and symptoms of inattention at age 7. These findings provide novel longitudinal support for the theory that fundamental EF components show a progression with age toward more complex executive control (see Garon et al. Psychological Bulletin 134(1):31-60 2008). Further, complex inhibition, implicating both inhibition and WM, seems to be a particularly strong correlate of ADHD symptoms in young children and should as such be the focus of future studies examining the relation between cognitive function and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

  6. Head Motion and Inattention/Hyperactivity Share Common Genetic Influences: Implications for fMRI Studies of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Ebejer, Jane L.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Duffy, David L.; Hickie, Ian B.; Thompson, Paul M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Wright, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Head motion (HM) is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN) scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females) including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females) including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN). This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5) and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4), and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and Inattention or

  7. Head Motion and Inattention/Hyperactivity Share Common Genetic Influences: Implications for fMRI Studies of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Ebejer, Jane L; Gillespie, Nathan A; Duffy, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Wright, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Head motion (HM) is a well known confound in analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data. Neuroimaging researchers therefore typically treat HM as a nuisance covariate in their analyses. Even so, it is possible that HM shares a common genetic influence with the trait of interest. Here we investigate the extent to which this relationship is due to shared genetic factors, using HM extracted from resting-state fMRI and maternal and self report measures of Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity from the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviour (SWAN) scales. Our sample consisted of healthy young adult twins (N = 627 (63% females) including 95 MZ and 144 DZ twin pairs, mean age 22, who had mother-reported SWAN; N = 725 (58% females) including 101 MZ and 156 DZ pairs, mean age 25, with self reported SWAN). This design enabled us to distinguish genetic from environmental factors in the association between head movement and ADHD scales. HM was moderately correlated with maternal reports of Inattention (r = 0.17, p-value = 7.4E-5) and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity (r = 0.16, p-value = 2.9E-4), and these associations were mainly due to pleiotropic genetic factors with genetic correlations [95% CIs] of rg = 0.24 [0.02, 0.43] and rg = 0.23 [0.07, 0.39]. Correlations between self-reports and HM were not significant, due largely to increased measurement error. These results indicate that treating HM as a nuisance covariate in neuroimaging studies of ADHD will likely reduce power to detect between-group effects, as the implicit assumption of independence between HM and Inattention or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity is not warranted. The implications of this finding are problematic for fMRI studies of ADHD, as failing to apply HM correction is known to increase the likelihood of false positives. We discuss two ways to circumvent this problem: censoring the motion contaminated frames of the RS-fMRI scan or explicitly modeling the relationship between HM and Inattention or

  8. Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults: What Is the Appropriate "DSM-5" Symptom Threshold for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…

  9. Behaviors that Discriminate ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Primary Symptoms, Symptoms of Comorbid Conditions, or Indicators of Functional Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether behaviors that differentiate children and adolescents with ADHD from those without are related to the primary diagnostic criteria (i.e., inattention and impulsivity--hyperactivity), symptoms of comorbid conditions, functional impairment, or a combination, and to determine whether…

  10. Symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention can mediate deficits of postural stability in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Rochelle, Kim S H; Witton, Caroline; Talcott, Joel B

    2009-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder associated with impaired postural control. However, such deficits are also found in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is present in a substantial subset of dyslexia diagnoses. Very few studies of balance in dyslexia have assessed ADHD symptoms, thereby motivating the hypothesis that such measures can account for the group differences observed. In this study, we assessed adults with dyslexia and similarly aged controls on a battery of cognitive, literacy and attention measures, alongside tasks of postural stability. Displacements of centre of mass to perturbations of posture were measured in four experimental conditions using digital optical motion capture. The largest group differences were obtained in conditions where cues to the support surface were reduced. Between-group differences in postural sway and in sway variability were largely accounted for by co-varying hyperactivity and inattention ratings, however. These results therefore suggest that postural instability in dyslexia is more strongly associated with symptoms of ADHD than to those specific to reading impairment.

  11. Prediction of preschool aggression from DRD4 risk, parental ADHD symptoms, and home chaos.

    PubMed

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a child's DRD4 risk, parental levels of ADHD symptoms, and the interactive influence of these factors on the development of preschool aggression. Additionally, the study investigated the role of home chaos as a mediator between parental ADHD symptoms and child aggression. The sample consisted of 84 4.5-year-old children and their parents. Children were genotyped for the DRD4 polymorphism. ADHD symptoms were self-reported by parents when the child was 2 to 6 months old. Parental reports of home chaos and the child's aggression were collected 4 years later. Child's DRD4 risk and parental ADHD symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of preschool aggression. However, contrary to our hypotheses, no interactions were found between the child's DRD4 risk and the levels of parental ADHD symptoms. Home chaos played a mediating role in the relation between paternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and the child's aggression was not significantly mediated through the level of home chaos. The current study emphasizes the importance of longitudinally investigating the contribution of parental ADHD symptoms to child aggression, while also exploring the differential contribution of maternal/paternal inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Moreover, home chaos was found to be a significant environmental mechanism through which paternal ADHD symptoms affect children's aggression in the preschool years.

  12. Pharmacological Management of a Youth with ADHD, Marijuana Use, and Mood Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a 16-year-old boy who is referred by his parents to address his academic decline and mood symptoms. He was diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 7 years ago, but his parents had opted not to have it treated. The patient has prominent inattention and distractibility, with complaints of internal…

  13. Understanding the Phenotypic Structure of Adult Retrospective ADHD Symptoms during Childhood in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranby, Krista W.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kollins, Scott H.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Yang, Chongming; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and the phenotypic structure comprising inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms has been the focus of a growing body of recent research. Methodological studies are needed to better characterize phenotypes to advance research as well as clinical…

  14. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    PubMed

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-09-15

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  15. Gene by Environment Interactions Influencing Reading Disability and the Inattentive Symptom Dimension of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jenni; Pennington, Bruce F.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reading disability (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are comorbid and genetically correlated, especially the inattentive dimension of ADHD (ADHD-I). However, previous research indicates that RD and ADHD enter into opposite gene by environment (G x E) interactions. Methods: This study used behavioral genetic…

  16. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  17. Factor structure of symptom dimensions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD.

  18. Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control, behavioral regulation, fluid reasoning, and planning compared to the ADHD groups. Number of symptoms of ADHD or AS was found to be significantly related to ratings of difficulty with behavior regulation, metacognition, and general behavioral regulation across the sample. These findings indicate that children with AS or ADHD may have a differing EF profile and thus, may respond differentially to interventions.

  19. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

  20. Family Adversity in DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes and Associated Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carla A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Stawicki, Julie Ann; Rappley, Marsha D.; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between a family adversity index and DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and associated behavior problems. The relationship of family adversity to symptoms and subtypes of ADHD was examined. Method: Parents and 206 children aged 7-13 completed diagnostic interviews and…

  1. Longitudinal Prediction of the One-Year Course of Preschool ADHD Symptoms: Implications for Models of Temperament-ADHD Associations

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica L.; Roberts, Bethan A.; Zastrow, Brittany L.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often conceptualized as an extreme trait, there remains controversy about the best way to understand associations between temperament traits and ADHD. The current study examines longitudinal associations between temperament traits and ADHD during early childhood in order to critically examine vulnerability and spectrum models of trait—ADHD associations. Study participants were 109 children between the ages of 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers and teachers/daycare providers, community-recruited for ADHD-related problems. Primary caregivers completed the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule semi-structured diagnostic interview at the initial appointment and one year later. At the initial appointment, primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Questionnaire as a measure of child temperament traits. Results from the initial time point indicated that high neuroticism and high surgency were associated with inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms, and low effortful control was associated with hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. However, none of these traits predicted the one-year course of ADHD symptoms. Results are more consistent with a spectrum (vs. vulnerability) model of trait-psychopathology associations, suggesting that traits, but may not influence longitudinal course during early childhood. PMID:25598568

  2. Longitudinal Prediction of the One-Year Course of Preschool ADHD Symptoms: Implications for Models of Temperament-ADHD Associations.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan A; Zastrow, Brittany L; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often conceptualized as an extreme trait, there remains controversy about the best way to understand associations between temperament traits and ADHD. The current study examines longitudinal associations between temperament traits and ADHD during early childhood in order to critically examine vulnerability and spectrum models of trait-ADHD associations. Study participants were 109 children between the ages of 3 and 6 and their primary caregivers and teachers/daycare providers, community-recruited for ADHD-related problems. Primary caregivers completed the Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorders Schedule semi-structured diagnostic interview at the initial appointment and one year later. At the initial appointment, primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Questionnaire as a measure of child temperament traits. Results from the initial time point indicated that high neuroticism and high surgency were associated with inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms, and low effortful control was associated with hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. However, none of these traits predicted the one-year course of ADHD symptoms. Results are more consistent with a spectrum (vs. vulnerability) model of trait-psychopathology associations, suggesting that traits, but may not influence longitudinal course during early childhood.

  3. Effect of Developmental Quotient on Symptoms of Inattention and Impulsivity among Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of developmental quotient on symptoms of inattention and impulsivity was examined among 198 toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There were two levels of developmental quotient: (1) low (less than or equal to 70; n = 80), and (2) typical (greater than 70; n = 118). Symptoms of inattention and impulsivity were assessed using 14 items…

  4. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components.

  5. The Relationship between ADHD Symptom Dimensions, Clinical Correlates and Functional Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Annie Artiga; O’Connor, Briannon Colleen; Narad, Megan Elizabeth; Tamm, Leanne; Simon, John; Epstein, Jeffery Noah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To better understand how heterogeneity in ADHD symptoms relates to heterogeneity in functional impairment domains in children with ADHD after accounting for demographic variables and comorbidities, in particular oppositionality and internalizing symptoms. Method Parents and teachers (n=5,663) rated child/adolescent impairments across impairment domains in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as well as symptoms of ADHD and comorbidities. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to assess the relationship between parent- and teacher-ratings of ADHD symptom domains and functional impairments after accounting for personal factors and comorbid disorders. Results Symptoms of inattention were the strongest predictor of ratings of academic (math, writing, etc.) functioning, while hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were the strongest predictor of classroom disruption even after accounting for the presence of learning disorders and oppositional symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD accounted for minimal variance in interpersonal functioning or participation in organized activities after controlling oppositional symptoms. Conclusion The ADHD symptom domains demonstrate domain-specific relations with various ADHD-related functional impairments. In addition, the results highlight the role of oppositionality in interpersonal relationship difficulties and participation in organized activities. PMID:24042078

  6. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD.

  7. Multilevel analysis of ADHD, anxiety and depression symptoms aggregation in families.

    PubMed

    Segenreich, Daniel; Paez, Marina Silva; Regalla, Maria Angélica; Fortes, Dídia; Faraone, Stephen V; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-05-01

    A strong genetic role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated by several studies using different methodologies. Shortcomings of genetic studies often include the lack of golden standard practices for diagnosis for ADHD, the use of categorical instead of a dimensional approach, and the disregard for assortative mating phenomenon in parents. The current study aimed to overcome these shortcomings and analyze data through a novel statistical approach, using multilevel analyses with Bayesian procedures and a specific mathematical model, which takes into account data with an elevated number of zero responses (expected in samples with few or no ADHD symptoms). Correlations of parental clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) to offspring psychopathology may vary according to gender and type of symptoms. We aimed to investigate how those variables interact within each other. One hundred families, comprising a proband child or adolescent with ADHD or a typically developing child or adolescent were included and all family members (both biological parents, the proband child or adolescent and their sibling) were examined through semi-structured interviews using DSM-IV criteria. Results indicated that: (a) maternal clinical variables (ADHD, anxiety and depression) were more correlated with offspring variables than paternal ones; (b) maternal inattention (but not hyperactivity) was correlated with both inattention and hyperactivity in the offspring; (c) maternal anxiety was correlated with offspring inattention; on the other hand, maternal inattention was correlated with anxiety in the offspring. Although a family study design limits the possibility of revealing causality and cannot disentangle genetic and environmental factors, our findings suggest that ADHD, anxiety and depression are variables that correlate in families and should be addressed together. Maternal variables significantly correlated with offspring

  8. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of sapropterin to treat ADHD symptoms and executive function impairment in children and adults with sapropterin-responsive phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Burton, B; Grant, M; Feigenbaum, A; Singh, R; Hendren, R; Siriwardena, K; Phillips, J; Sanchez-Valle, A; Waisbren, S; Gillis, J; Prasad, S; Merilainen, M; Lang, W; Zhang, C; Yu, S; Stahl, S

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly inattention, and impairments in executive functioning have been reported in early and continuously treated children, adolescents, and adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). In addition, higher blood phenylalanine (Phe) levels have been correlated with the presence of ADHD symptoms and executive functioning impairment. The placebo-controlled PKU ASCEND study evaluated the effects of sapropterin therapy on PKU-associated symptoms of ADHD and executive and global functioning in individuals who had a therapeutic blood Phe response to sapropterin therapy. The presence of ADHD inattentive symptoms and executive functioning deficits was confirmed in this large cohort of 206 children and adults with PKU, of whom 118 responded to sapropterin therapy. In the 38 individuals with sapropterin-responsive PKU and ADHD symptoms at baseline, sapropterin therapy resulted in a significant improvement in ADHD inattentive symptoms in the first 4 weeks of treatment, and improvements were maintained throughout the 26 weeks of treatment. Sapropterin was well-tolerated with a favorable safety profile. The improvements in ADHD inattentive symptoms and aspects of executive functioning in response to sapropterin therapy noted in a large cohort of individuals with PKU indicate that these symptoms are potentially reversible when blood Phe levels are reduced.

  11. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  12. Adolescent girls' ADHD symptoms and young adult driving: the role of perceived deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.

  13. Decreased Regional Cortical Thickness and Thinning Rate Are Associated with Inattention Symptoms in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Karama, Sherif; Evans, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of inattention symptoms in a large sample of healthy children. Method Data from 357 healthy subjects (6.0–18.4 years of age) were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. In cross-sectional analysis (first visit, n = 257), Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problems (AP) scores were linearly regressed against cortical thickness, controlling for age, gender, total brain volume, and site. For longitudinal data (up to three visits, n = 357/672 scans), similar analyses were performed using mixed-effects linear regressions. Interactions of AP with age and gender were tested. Results A cross-sectional “AP by age” interaction was found in bilateral orbito-frontal cortex, right inferior frontal cortex, bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and several additional attention network regions. The interaction was due to negative associations between AP and thickness in younger subjects (6–10 years of age) that gradually disappeared over time secondary to slower cortical thinning. Similar trends were present in longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Higher AP scores were associated with thinner cortex at baseline and slower cortical thinning with aging in multiple areas involved in attention processes. Similar patterns have been identified in ADHD, suggesting a dimensional component to the link between attention and cortical maturation. The identified association between cortical maturation and attention in healthy development will help to inform studies of neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. PMID:22176936

  14. Family Psychiatric History Evidence on the Nosological Relations of DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes: New Data and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stawicki, Julie Ann; Nigg, Joel T.; Von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Background: A key issue in the nosology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has concerned whether the DSM-IV combined (ADHD-C) and primarily inattentive (ADHD-PI) subtypes are in fact distinct disorders, or instead are fairly closely related, perhaps differing only in severity. Pertinent to this question, but in short supply, are…

  15. Genetic associations between the ADHD symptom dimensions and Cloninger's temperament dimensions in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Merwood, Andrew; Asherson, Philip; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD.

  16. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  17. Differences in academic and executive function domains among children with ADHD Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Types.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Cynthia A; Homack, Susan; Jarratt, Kelly Pizzitola; Wolfe, Monica E

    2006-10-01

    Differences between the subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) continue to have a place in the clinical and research literature. The purpose of this study was to examine differences specific to academic and executive function deficits in a sample of 40 children, aged 9-15 years. Although there was a tendency for the Predominantly Inattentive (PI) group to evidence lower performance on calculation and written expression tasks, these differences dissipated when IQ was included as a covariate. For executive function domains of set shifting, interference, inhibition, and planning, differences emerged for interference, but only when girls were excluded from the analysis and no control for IQ was made. For parent ratings of executive function, expected differences were found on the Inhibit scale with the Combined Type (CT) group evidencing greater problems in this area; this difference remained even when girls were excluded and IQ was controlled. Implications for research and practice are presented.

  18. Inattention, Working Memory, and Goal Neglect in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Elisa, Rebecca N.; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Parris, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Executive function deficits have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been theorized that the symptom inattention is specifically related to problems with complex verbal working memory (WM). Using the Conners Adult ADHD rating scale, adults aged 18–35 were assessed for ADHD symptoms, and completed tasks designed to tap verbal and spatial aspects of WM (Experiment 1). Results showed that high inattention predicted poor performance on both simple and complex verbal WM measures. Results relating to spatial WM were inconclusive. In a follow up experiment based on the theory that those with inattention have problems receiving verbal instructions, a measure of goal neglect assessing integration of information into a task model in WM was employed (Experiment 2). Results showed that high inattention uniquely predicted performance on this task, representing the first reported association between inattention and the phenomenon of goal neglect. The results from both experiments lend support to the WM theory of inattention. PMID:27713716

  19. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning and Attachment Representations in Early School Age as Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B

    2016-06-27

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more "at-risk" samples, these findings could also suggest that parent-child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  1. Parental Cognitive Errors Mediate Parental Psychopathology and Ratings of Child Inattention.

    PubMed

    Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda

    2016-09-24

    We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe.

  2. Identifying ADHD Symptoms Most Associated with Impairment in Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, and Adolescence Using Teacher Report.

    PubMed

    Zoromski, Allison K; Owens, Julie Sarno; Evans, Steven W; Brady, Christine E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and impairment within a sample that includes children in early childhood (n = 250), middle childhood (n = 269) and adolescence (i.e., high school; n = 269). Nested multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the extent to which each ADHD symptom dimension (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) is most associated with impairment in academic, social, and behavioral functioning within and across three developmental levels. Results indicated for academic impairment, inattention is more predictive than hyperactivity/impulsivity at all ages. For social functioning, both with peers and teachers, hyperactivity/impulsivity is more predictive than inattention but only for early childhood students; at the high school level, inattention is a significant predictor of social impairment. For behavioral functioning in the classroom, the pattern is mixed across dimensions and ages with HI decreasing in predictive utility across the three age groups and IA increasing in predictive utility. Forward stepwise regression was used to determine which of the 18 ADHD symptom items are most associated with impairment within and across developmental levels. Findings indicate that the symptoms that were most predictive of impairment varied by age group and by domain of impairment. Implications for assessment are discussed.

  3. Childhood and current ADHD symptom dimensions are associated with more severe cannabis outcomes in college students

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L.C.; Henry, E.A.; Willcutt, E.G.; Kinnear, M.K.; Ito, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated higher risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD). However, these studies are limited in that most did not: (a) differentiate the role of hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) and inattention (IN); (b) control for associated psychopathology; and (c) consider more fine-grained CUD-related measures. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to age of cannabis initiation and DSM-IV cannabis dependence, craving, and severity of problems related to cannabis use while statistically controlling for symptoms of comorbid psychopathology in a non-clinical sample of young adults. Methods Cannabis variables, current use of cigarettes and alcohol, current and childhood ADHD, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were assessed in 376 male and female undergraduates. Results Results indicate that current and childhood IN were independently associated with more severe cannabis use, craving, and problem use-related outcomes in young adulthood (p’s<.01) and that childhood HI symptoms were associated with earlier initiation of cannabis (p<.01). Further, current IN symptoms moderated the relationships between level of use and more severe outcomes (p’s<.01), such that higher IN strengthened positive associations among use and problem cannabis use. Associations with ADHD symptom dimensions and current use of alcohol and cigarettes were also present. Conclusions Thus, current and childhood inattention symptoms as well as childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms emerged as significant factors in cannabis-related outcomes in young adults, even after statistically controlling for important confounding variables. PMID:24332802

  4. Adolescents' ADHD symptoms and adjustment: The role of attachment and rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Oshri, Assaf; Eshkol, Varda; Pilowsky, Tammy

    2014-03-01

    The associations between attachment style, ADHD symptoms, and social adjustments were examined in a community sample of adolescents. Five hundred and eight junior high school students completed questionnaires pertaining to attachment style, ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity), and rejection sensitivity, and were rated by homeroom teachers on social adjustment. Analyses supported a 3-profile pattern of attachment styles: secure, dismissing, and preoccupied. The 3 attachment profiles showed differential risk on adolescents' social adjustment, as well as on ADHD symptoms. The secure profile showed the most adaptive outcomes on all of the examined adjustment outcomes, compared with the other 2 profiles. In contrast, the preoccupied attachment profile showed the highest levels of ADHD problems, angry and anxious expectations, while displaying a similar level of maladjustment to the dismissing profile. In addition, structural equation modeling was used and supported a model that tested an indirect link between attachment security and adolescent adjustment via an ADHD latent factor. Findings suggest that clinicians and educators should pay attention to relational patterns (attachment styles) in adolescence, as these may serve as a developmental precursor for ADHD and a range of adjustment problems in school.

  5. Reduced Working Memory Mediates the Link between Early Institutional Rearing and Symptoms of ADHD at 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tibu, Florin; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Children who are raised in institutions show severe delays across multiple domains of development and high levels of psychopathology, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low performance in executive functions (EFs) are also common in institutionally reared children and often do not remediate following improvements in the caregiving environment. ADHD symptomatology also remains elevated even after children are removed from institutional care and placed in families. We investigate whether poor EF is a mechanism explaining elevated rates of ADHD in children reared in institutional settings in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). In the current study, we examine the potentially mediating role of poor EF in the association between institutionalization and symptoms of ADHD at age 12 years. A total of 107 children were assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) on working memory, set-shifting and planning. We also obtained concurrent teacher reports on their levels of ADHD symptoms (inattention and impulsivity separately). Institutionalization strongly predicted elevations in symptoms of inattention and impulsivity at age 12 years (ps < 0.01). Indices of working memory and planning were also associated with ADHD after controlling for potential confounders (ps < 0.03). Mediation analyses revealed that poor working memory performance mediated the link between exposure to early institutionalization and higher scores of both inattention and impulsivity. These results replicate and extend the findings that we reported in the BEIP sample at age 8 years. Together, they suggest that compromised working memory is a key mechanism that continues to explain the strikingly high levels of ADHD in late childhood among children institutionalized in early life. Interventions targeting working memory may help to prevent ADHD among children exposed to institutional care. PMID:27933019

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  7. ADHD and Academic Attainment: Is There an Advantage in Impulsivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Pupils diagnosed with ADHD and pupils with ADHD symptoms tend to do less well at school than their symptom-free peers. This has been found to be particularly true for predominantly inattentive pupils. This paper aimed to establish the relative importance of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity to the academic progress of young children. A…

  8. Neurocognitive functioning in AD/HD, predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes.

    PubMed

    Solanto, Mary V; Gilbert, Sharone N; Raj, Anu; Zhu, John; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina; Pope-Boyd, Sa'brina; Stepak, Brenda; Vail, Lucia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2007-10-01

    The Predominantly Inattentive (PI) and Combined (CB) subtypes of AD/HD differ in cognitive tempo, age of onset, gender ratio, and comorbidity, yet a differentiating endophenotype has not been identified. The aim of this study was to test rigorously diagnosed PI, CB, and typical children on measures selected for their potential to reveal hypothesized differences between the subtypes in specific neurocognitive systems (anterior vs. posterior attentional systems) and processes (arousal vs. activation). Thirty-four CB and 26 PI children meeting full DSM-IV criteria for subtype both in school and at home, without confounding reading disability or emotional disorder, were enrolled along with 20 typically developing children. Neurocognitive functions measured included attention, inhibitory control, working memory, learning, and executive functions. Tasks included the Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Buschke Selective Reminding Test, ad the Tower of London (TOL), as well as instruments developed by Posner and Sternberg, and tasks assessing the impact on reaction time of [corrected] varying preparatory intervals and stimulus/response complexity. After co-varying for IQ, subtypes differed primarily on measures of impulsivity during tests of vigilance (CPT) and executive function (TOL), with the CB group showing greater impulsivity than both other groups. In addition, the PI group showed worse performance than CB and control groups on the WISC-III Processing Speed Index. Whether analyzed with or without an IQ co-variate, there was no support in the data for hypothesized differences between subtypes in functioning of the anterior vs. posterior attentional systems, nor in involvement of arousal vs. activation processes. The results indicate that the PI and CB subtypes are best differentiated by ratings, observations and tests of cognitive tempo and behavioral impulsivity. Neuropsychological methods have yet to identify critical

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  10. ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Egan, Theresa E; Sacchetti, Gina M; Tams, Sean T; Wymbs, Frances A

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) often have elevated ADHD and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the risk of ineffective parenting and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether child ADHD/ODD behavior and parent ADHD or depressive symptoms uniquely or synergistically predict the quality of parenting and interparental communication during triadic (mother-father-child) interactions. Ninety parent couples, including 51 who have children diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child (84 % male) exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Parents reported their own ADHD and depressive symptoms, and parents and observers rated the quality of parenting and interparental communication during the interaction. Actor-partner interdependence modeling indicated that child ADHD/ODD behavior predicted less positive and more negative parenting and communication, independent of adult ADHD and depressive symptoms. Parent couples including two parents with elevated ADHD communicated more positively while managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than couples managing children behaving typically or couples with only one parent with elevated ADHD symptoms. Couples including one parent with, and one parent without, elevated ADHD or depressive symptoms parented less positively and more negatively, and communicated more negatively, when managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than when managing children behaving typically. Taken together, depending on the similarity of ADHD and depressive symptom levels in parent couples, adults managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior may parent or communicate positively or negatively. Findings highlight the need to consider the psychopathology of both parents when treating children with ADHD in two-parent homes.

  11. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's<.05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, had longer response latencies, and increased variability in response time. Moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD.

  12. Obsessive-compulsive adults with and without childhood ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Oguz; Metin, Baris; Metin, Sinem

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The prevalence of childhood ADHD symptoms was 40.9 % (n = 34) and that of adult ADHD was 16.9 % (n = 14). Patients with childhood ADHD symptoms had an earlier onset of OCD, higher scores of the BAI and BIS-11. The scores of the Y-BOCS and HDRS-17 did not differ between those having and not having childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood history of ADHD symptoms is common in adult OCD patients who have never been diagnosed as ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with an earlier age of OCD, more severe anxiety and higher impulsiveness. Even remitted ADHD may be a risk factor for OCD in later life.

  13. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  14. Energy Drinks and Youth Self-Reported Hyperactivity/Inattention Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Deborah L.; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Grilo, Stepanie A.; McCaslin, Catherine; Schwartz, Marlene; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) Describe patterns in sweetened beverage consumption by race/ethnicity and sex, documenting both the amount and types of sweetened beverages consumed; and (2) examine the association of sweetened beverage consumption with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms among middle school students in a single urban school district. Methods Middle-school students (N=1649; 47% Hispanic and 38% Black, non-Hispanic) from 12 schools, randomly selected out of 27 district schools, completed health behavior surveys in Fall 2011. Students reported quantity and types of sweetened beverages consumed in the past 24 hours and completed the five-item Hyperactivity/Inattention Subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms. Results Amount and variety of reported sweetened beverage consumption (including energy drinks) were greater among males versus females and among Black and Hispanic versus White students. Risk of hyperactivity/inattention increased by 14% for each additional sweetened beverage consumed, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, sex, school lunch eligibility, family structure and sugary food consumption. Students reporting consumption of energy drinks were 66% more likely to be at risk for hyperactivity/inattention after adjusting for number of drinks, other types of drinks consumed and other potential confounders. Conclusions Results support recommendations to limit consumption of sweetened beverages and to avoid consumption of energy drinks among children. Interventions to reduce sweetened beverage consumption should explicitly focus on energy drinks and other emerging sweetened beverages such as sports and sweetened coffee drinks. More research is needed to understand the direction of effects and the mechanisms behind the association between sweetened beverages and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. PMID:25676784

  15. An Examination of the Specificity of Motivation and Executive Functioning in ADHD Symptom-Clusters in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Motivation and executive functioning are central to the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that motivation should show specificity of association with ADHD-impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms, whereas executive functioning should show specificity of association with ADHD-inattention symptoms. This study tests this specificity-hypothesis and extends previous research by conceptualizing motivation to include both reactivity to reward and punishment. Methods Executive functioning was assessed using two different laboratory measures (the Wisconsin-Card-Sort and Stop-Signal Tasks) and motivation was measured using a laboratory measure of sensitivity to reward and punishment (the Point-Scoring-Reaction-Time Task). Results Findings suggested specificity of association between executive functioning and symptoms of inattention, and between motivation and symptoms of impulsivity/hyperactivity. However, support varied across indices of executive functioning. Conclusions Results provide support for multiple component models of ADHD symptoms and extend the literature by providing a theoretically based conceptualization of motivation grounded on developmental neuroscience models of motivated behavior. PMID:23836192

  16. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Brown, Hallie R; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children's ADHD.

  17. Associations between ADHD Symptoms and Smoking Outcome Expectancies in a Non-Clinical Sample of Daily Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Goldenson, Nicholas I.; Pang, Raina D.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Smoking outcome expectancies for positive reinforcement (PR; beliefs that smoking produces desirable outcomes) and negative reinforcement (NR; beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect) are modifiable cognitive manifestations of affect-mediated smoking motivation. Based on prior data and theory, we hypothesized that NR and PR expectancies are associated with ADHD symptom levels in a non-clinical sample of cigarette smokers. Methods Daily cigarette smokers (N=256) completed self-report measures of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcome expectancies. Cross-sectional associations of overall ADHD symptomatology and the ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention (IN; difficulty concentrating and distractibility) and hyperactivity impulsivity (HI; poor inhibitory control and motor activity restlessness) with PR and NR smoking outcome expectancies were examined. Results Higher levels of overall, IN and HI ADHD symptoms were positively associated with NR smoking expectancies after statistically controlling for anxiety, depression, alcohol/drug use problems, nicotine dependence and other smoking expectancies. Although neither HI nor IN symptom dimensions exhibited empirically unique relations to NR expectancies over and above one another, the collective variance across IN and HI was associated with NR expectancies. PR expectancies were not associated with ADHD symptoms. Discussion and Conclusions While PR and NR expectancies may be important etiological influences in the overall population of smokers, NR outcome expectancies appear to be disproportionately expressed in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Cognitive manifestations of NR motivation, which may be modifiable via intervention, are prominent in smokers with elevated ADHD symptoms. Scientific Significance Beliefs that smoking alleviates negative affect may underlie ADHD-smoking comorbidity. PMID:26871681

  18. Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

  19. Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: Their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Depue, Brendan E.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the association between brain activation in a group of young adults in the face of an attentional challenge (the Stroop task) and inattentive symptoms was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicated a broad array of brain regions that are linked to behaviors compromised in ADHD, including executive function/cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum), reward and motivational circuitry (ventral striatum), and stimulus representation and timing (posterior cortex and cerebellum). Also implicating these regions as being important for the manifestation of ADHD symptoms, the variability in the size of the BOLD signal across individuals was significantly higher for the ADHD group than for the control group, and variability across the time series in individuals with ADHD was linked to symptom severity and behavioral performance. The results suggest that a diverse set of brain structures is linked to ADHD symptoms and that the variability of activation within these regions may contribute to compromised attentional control. PMID:20399622

  20. Symptom-correlated brain regions in young adults with combined-type ADHD: their organization, variability, and relation to behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Depue, Brendan E; Burgess, Gregory C; Willcutt, Erik G; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ruzic, Luka; Banich, Marie T

    2010-05-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely diagnosed psychiatric disorder of childhood that may continue to manifest itself during adulthood. Across adults and children, inattention appears to be the most developmentally stable symptomatology of ADHD. To determine the neural systems that may be linked to such symptoms, the association between brain activation in a group of young adults in the face of an attentional challenge (the Stroop task) and inattentive symptoms was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results implicated a broad array of brain regions that are linked to behaviors compromised in ADHD, including executive function/cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum), reward and motivational circuitry (ventral striatum), and stimulus representation and timing (posterior cortex and cerebellum). Also implicating these regions as being important for the manifestation of ADHD symptoms, the variability in the size of the BOLD signal across individuals was significantly higher for the ADHD group than for the control group, and variability across the time series in individuals with ADHD was linked to symptom severity and behavioral performance. The results suggest that a diverse set of brain structures is linked to ADHD symptoms and that the variability of activation within these regions may contribute to compromised attentional control.

  1. Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Douglas; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B

    2017-01-01

    High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5–18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regulation of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated. PMID:26212755

  2. The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms: A cross- disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members.

    PubMed

    Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M; Schoot, Rens van de; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Daniëlle C

    2016-03-30

    Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as measured by the YGTSS,Y-BOCS,CAARS and AQ, in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/ numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The results are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies.

  3. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  4. Comparison of the DSM-IV Combined and Inattentive Types of ADHD in a School-Based Sample of Latino/Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Matos, Maribel; Reina, Graciela; Salas, Carmen C.; Martinez, Jose V.; Cumba, Eduardo; Barkley, Russell A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this investigation was to examine the construct validity and distinctiveness of the inattentive type (IT) and combined type (CT) of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a Latino/Hispanic sample. Method: A comprehensive assessment was conducted with a clinically diagnosed school-based sample of 98 children aged…

  5. Expressive Writing Difficulties in Children Described as Exhibiting ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Three groups of children of different ages who were considered by their teachers as showing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls were tested in a series of expressive writing tasks, derived from a standardized writing test. In the first study, 24 sixth- and seventh-grade children with ADHD symptoms wrote…

  6. Validity of proposed DSM-5 ADHD impulsivity symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Ünsel Bolat, Gül; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Bilaç, Öznur; Massuti, Rafael; Uysal Özaslan, Taciser; Bolat, Hilmi; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-10-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) working group on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) proposed the inclusion of four new impulsivity symptoms. However, they were not included in DSM-5 due to the lack of sufficient evidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the proposed four ADHD impulsivity symptoms with respect to: (a) ADHD factor structure; (b) performance in predicting clinical impairment; (c) specificity for ADHD diagnosis and (d) best symptomatic threshold to predict clinical impairment. The sample comprised 416 children (31 ADHD subjects according to both DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5, 20 ADHD subjects according to just one diagnostic system and 365 controls) from 12 schools. Diagnoses were derived using semi-structured interviews and ADHD rating scales. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that addition of the four new impulsivity items provided a slightly better factor structure if compared to models including only 18 items. Regression analyses showed that only one of the new impulsivity symptoms (impatient) was part of the list of best predictors of impairment. None of the four new impulsivity items was specifically associated with ADHD diagnosis. The best cutoff point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension for predicting impairment did not change significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that the determination on how to best capture impulsivity dimension as part of the ADHD construct needs more investigation and that there is not enough evidence to include these four assessed impulsivity symptoms as part of the ADHD criteria.

  7. Early pathogenic care and the development of ADHD-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Pütz, Vanessa; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-09-01

    Early pathogenic care that is characterised by disregard for the child's basic emotional needs can lead to severe global psychosocial and cognitive dysfunction and deviant developmental trajectories of brain maturation. Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a developmental disorder associated with early pathogenic care that is characterised by markedly disturbed ways of relating socially in most contexts. In addition to other severe emotional dysfunctions, children suffering from RAD often display a high number of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. It is not yet clear whether ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to pathogenic care represent a true comorbidity of ADHD or similarities in behavioural dysfunction with a different neurodevelopmental pathway in terms of a phenocopy. In this review, we summarise the findings on the neurobiological consequences of early pathogenic care. Pathogenic care is considered a form of care by a primary caretaker involving a lack or a loss of expectable care, e.g., by early separation, frequent change in caregivers, institutionalisation or neglect. The reviewed studies suggest that a primary dysfunction of limbic brain circuits after early pathogenic care might lead to an interference by motivational or emotional cues impinging on prefrontal executive functions resulting in behavioural similarities with ADHD. Thus, the complex phenotype observed after early pathogenic care might be best described by a dimensional approach with behavioural and neurobiological similarities to ADHD coinciding to a certain degree as a function of early experience. Based on this evidence, suggestions for the treatment of ADHD-like symptoms in children after adverse early life experiences are provided.

  8. DNA methylation profiles at birth and child ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Bouwland-Both, Marieke I; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Stolk, Lisette; Eilers, Paul H C; Uitterlinden, André G; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-02-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable psychiatric disorder. In addition, early life environmental factors contribute to the occurrence of ADHD. Recently, DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism potentially mediating genetic and environmental effects. Here, we investigated whether newborn DNA methylation patterns of selected candidate genes involved in psychiatric disorders or fetal growth are associated with ADHD symptoms in childhood. Participants were 426 children from a large population based cohort of Dutch national origin. Behavioral data were obtained at age 6 years with the Child Behavior Checklist. For the current study, 11 regions at 7 different genes were selected. DNA methylation levels of cord blood DNA were measured for the 11 regions combined and for each region separately. We examined the association between DNA methylation levels at different regions and ADHD symptoms with linear mixed models. DNA methylation levels were negatively associated with ADHD symptom score in the overall analysis of all 11 regions. This association was largely explained by associations of DRD4 and 5-HTT regions. Other candidate genes showed no association between DNA methylation levels and ADHD symptom score. Associations between DNA methylation levels and ADHD symptom score were attenuated by co-occurring Oppositional defiant disorder and total symptoms. Lower DNA methylation levels of the 7 genes assessed at birth, were associated with more ADHD symptoms of the child at 6 years of age. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and to investigate the possible underlying mechanism.

  9. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation.

  10. The structure of adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Alperin, Samuel; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors representing executive dysfunction/inattention (including, but not limited to, all the DSM-5 inattentive symptoms, with non-DSM symptoms having factor loadings comparable to those of DSM symptoms), hyperactivity, impulsivity, and emotional dyscontrol. Empirically-derived multivariate symptom profiles were broadly consistent with the DSM-5 inattentive-only, hyperactive/impulsive-only, and combined presentations, but with inattention including executive dysfunction/inattention and hyperactivity-only limited to hyperactivity without high symptoms of impulsivity. These results show that executive dysfunction is as central as DSM-5 symptoms to adult ADHD, while emotional dyscontrol is more distinct but nonetheless part of the combined presentation of adult ADHD.

  11. Mediating role of childhood emotional abuse on the relationship between severity of ADHD and PTSD symptoms in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Bilge; Agachanli, Ruken

    2016-05-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of PTSD symptom severity with severity of ADHD symptoms while controlling the effect of childhood trauma in a sample of male inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 190 male inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C). PTSD and ADHD scores were mildly correlated with severity of childhood trauma and types of traumas, the only exception was emotional neglect, which was not correlated with PTSD and ADHD. Severity of ADHD symptoms was associated with the severity of PTSD symptoms, together with the severity of childhood trauma in a linear regression model. In another linear regression model where dimensions of ADHD and childhood trauma were considered as independent variables, emotional abuse and both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive dimensions of ADHD were associated with the severity of PTSD. These findings suggest that the severity of adult ADHD symptoms is related with the severity of PTSD symptoms, while severity of childhood trauma, particularly emotional abuse may have an mediating role on this relationship among male inpatients with AUD.

  12. Predicting ADHD Symptoms in Adolescence from Early Childhood Temperament Traits.

    PubMed

    Einziger, Tzlil; Levi, Linoy; Zilberman-Hayun, Yael; Auerbach, Judith G; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Arbelle, Shoshana; Berger, Andrea

    2017-03-20

    Extreme levels of certain temperament traits can be early markers of different developmental pathways of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the long-term utility of using these traits as predictors of ADHD is not fully known. This study includes 64 male adolescents (M age = 13.5), who have been followed since birth as part of a longitudinal study. The primary aim was to test effortful control (EC), activity level, and anger, measured in early childhood - both with mother's reports and laboratory assessments -as predictors of ADHD symptoms in adolescence. Further, we investigated the specificity of this prediction to the different ADHD symptom domains. The results demonstrated that early temperament dimensions of EC and activity level were predictive of ADHD symptoms about 10 years later, when the participants reached adolescence. Moreover, activity level showed specificity only to hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms whereas EC was a predictor of the two symptom domains. Anger had a predictive correlation with ADHD symptoms; however, it did not have a unique predictive contribution. These results emphasize the relevance of EC and activity level in the developmental course of ADHD. Identification of early risk factors can lead to more efficient design and implementation of intervention programs.

  13. Growing out of ADHD: The Relationship between Functioning and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to ascertain whether people in partial remission (IPR) or in full remission (IR) of their ADHD symptoms continue to have neuropsychological deficits and clinical and psychosocial problems. Method: IPR and IR groups are compared with fully symptomatic ADHD patients and normal controls. Results: The results show a decline…

  14. Symptom Manifestation and Impairments in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah A.; Fettes, Peter; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the nature of impairment resulting from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for students in a post-secondary education (PSE) setting, the authors analyzed the symptoms and associated impairment of 135 students with a diagnosis of ADHD who were recruited via Student Disability Services in Canadian post-secondary…

  15. Improving Expressive Writing Skills of Children Rated for ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Caeran, Monica; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the expressive writing abilities of children described by their teachers as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and of matched controls and the effects of two types of facilitation. A group of 35 ADHD children and matched controls are given the task of composing a letter either under standard…

  16. The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Frederick, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between father residency status and children's symptoms of ADHD using a large, nationally representative and community-based sample. To achieve this…

  17. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  18. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  19. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  20. Refining Diagnostic Procedures for Adults With Symptoms of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Coxe, Stefany; Molina, Brooke S G

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder that afflicts individuals into adulthood. The field continues to refine diagnostic standards for ADHD in adults, complicated by the disorder's heterogeneous presentation, subjective symptoms, and overlap with other disorders. Two key diagnostic questions are from whom to collect diagnostic information and which symptoms should be contained on an adult diagnostic checklist. Using a trifactor model, Martel et al. examine these questions in a sample of adults with and without self-identified ADHD symptoms. In this response, we highlight the importance of their finding that self and informant symptom reports differ in a sample of adults who acknowledge ADHD symptoms. We also review issues that continue to face the field related to model specification, evaluating symptom utility, and sample composition, discussing how these issues influence conclusions that may be drawn from Martel et al. and similar investigations. We conclude that the article makes an important research contribution about the nature of self and informant ADHD symptom reports but emphasize that symptom checklist refinement must occur through a broad lens that considers work from a range of sample types and clinically informative analytic strategies.

  1. Expressive writing difficulties in children described as exhibiting ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Pedron, Martina; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Three groups of children of different ages who were considered by their teachers as showing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls were tested in a series of expressive writing tasks, derived from a standardized writing test. In the first study, 24 sixth- and seventh-grade children with ADHD symptoms wrote a description of an image. The ADHD group's expressive writing was worse than that of the control group and associated with a higher number of errors, mainly concerning accents and geminates. The second study showed the generality of the effect by testing younger groups of children with ADHD symptoms and controls with another description task where a verbal description was substituted for the picture stimulus. The third study extended the previous observations with another type of writing task, the request of writing a narrative text. In all the three studies, children with ADHD symptoms scored lower than controls on four qualitative parameters (adequacy, structure, grammar, and lexicon), produced shorter texts, and made more errors. These studies show that children with ADHD symptoms have school difficulties also in writing-both in spelling and expression-and that these difficulties are extended to different tasks and ages.

  2. Associations between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…

  3. ADHD symptoms and pain among adults in England.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Kamio, Yoko

    2016-12-30

    Prior research has produced conflicting findings on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain, while studies among community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and pain in the general adult population, and the extent to which this association is influenced by comorbid common mental disorders (CMDs). Data came from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey which included a representative sample of the English adult household population aged ≥16 years (N=7403). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to obtain information on ADHD symptoms, while pain was assessed by the degree to which it interfered with work activity in the previous month. The Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) was used to evaluate six categories of CMDs. In a binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic factors and physical health conditions, an ADHD symptom score ≥14 was strongly associated with extreme pain (odds ratio [OR]: 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.09-4.74). The OR was attenuated greatly after further adjustment for CMDs (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05-2.58) but remained statistically significant. Adults with ADHD symptoms have higher odds for experiencing pain. CMDs are influential in this association but do not fully explain it.

  4. Prediction of childhood ADHD symptoms to quality of life in young adults: adult ADHD and anxiety/depression as mediators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Nien; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-10-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may persist, co-occur with anxiety and depression (ANX/DEP), and influence quality of life (QoL) in later life. However, the information about whether these persistent ADHD and ANX/DEP mediate the influence of childhood ADHD on adverse QoL in adulthood is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether adult ADHD symptoms and/or ANX/DEP mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL. We assessed 1382 young men aged 19-30 years in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires for retrospective recall of ADHD symptoms at ages 6-12, and assessment of current ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms, and QoL. We conducted mediation analyses and compared the values of mediation ratio (PM) by adding mediators (adult ADHD and ANX/DEP), individually and simultaneously into a regression model with childhood ADHD as an independent variable and QoL as a dependent variable. Our results showed that both adult ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms significantly mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL (PM=0.71 for ANX/DEP, PM=0.78 for adult ADHD symptoms, and PM=0.91 for both). The significance of negative correlations between childhood ADHD and four domains of adult QoL disappeared after adding these two mediators in the model. Our findings suggested that the strong relationship between childhood ADHD and adult life quality can be explained by the presence of persistent ADHD symptoms and co-occurring ANX/DEP. These two mediators are recommended to be included in the assessment and intervention for ADHD to offset the potential adverse life quality outcome in ADHD.

  5. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown.

  6. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Parent Ratings of ADHD and ODD Symptoms across Gender for American and Malaysian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder…

  7. Symptoms of ADHD and Close Friendships in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship of ADHD symptoms to different aspects of close friendship quality as rated by both adolescents (target adolescent and a close friend) within a friendship dyad. Method: Participants were 41 same-sex friendship dyads who completed questionnaires about their friendship. Separate symptom dimensions of…

  8. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  9. Relationship of self-mutilative behaviour with history of childhood trauma and adult ADHD symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2017-04-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of self-mutilative behaviour (SMB) with the severity of childhood trauma and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 188 inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (Adult ADHD Scale). Among inpatients with AUD those who have a history of SMB constituted the SMB group (n = 57, 30.3%), and those without a history of SMB constituted the group without SMB (n = 131, 69.7%). Risk of high ADHD risk was 2.5 times higher among those with SMB. Adult ADHD Scale and CTQ-28 scores were also higher in the group with SMB. In the first backward logistic regression model, the severity of ADHD symptoms predicted the presence of SMB, together with the severity of childhood trauma, whereas in the second model, physical neglect and inattentive (IN) dimension of ADHD predicted the presence of SMB. These findings suggest that the higher severity of physical neglect and adult IN dimension of ADHD may be related to SMB among inpatients with AUD.

  10. Qualitative Review Synthesis: The Relationship between Inattention and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sarah Anne; Dueck, Katherine; Rogers, Maria; Tannock, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Background: A body of literature has emerged that links inattentive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to poor academic achievement. Major variation across studies renders conclusions about this relationship complex. Purpose: This review will provide a qualitative synthesis of these studies that (1) use community samples…

  11. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  12. Autism and ADHD Symptoms in Patients with OCD: Are They Associated with Specific OC Symptom Dimensions or OC Symptom Severity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anholt, Gideon E.; Cath, Danielle C.; van Oppen, Patricia; Eikelenboom, Merijn; Smit, Johannes H.; van Megen, Harold; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the relationship between autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom, and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom dimensions and severity has scarcely been studied. Therefore, 109 adult outpatients with primary OCD were compared to 87 healthy controls on OC, ADHD and…

  13. Improving expressive writing skills of children rated for ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Caeran, Monica; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the expressive writing abilities of children described by their teachers as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and of matched controls and the effects of two types of facilitation. A group of 35 ADHD children and matched controls are given the task of composing a letter either under standard instructions or with facilitation (a guide scheme), preceded by a brief training on how to use the facilitation. Results show that both groups drew benefit from the guide scheme. Despite the fact that differences between groups were maintained after the training for the case of spelling errors, the poorer performance of ADHD children vanished. It is concluded that ADHD children have poor expressive writing skills, but this can be improved through the help of a guide scheme preceded by brief training.

  14. Sex, ADHD symptoms, and smoking outcomes: An integrative model

    PubMed Central

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Mitchell, John T.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Beckham, Jean C.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Both females and individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been found to be at increased risk for a range of smoking outcomes, and recent empirical findings have suggested that women with ADHD may be particularly vulnerable to nicotine dependence. On a neurobiological level, the dopamine reward processing system may be implicated in the potentially unique interaction of nicotine with sex and with ADHD status. Specifically, nicotine appears to mitigate core ADHD symptoms through interaction with the dopamine reward processing system, and ovarian hormones have been found to interact with nicotine within the dopamine reward processing system to affect neurotransmitter release and functioning. This article synthesizes data from research examining smoking in women and in individuals with ADHD to build an integrative model through which unique risk for cigarette smoking in women with ADHD can be systematically explored. Based upon this model, the following hypotheses are proposed at the intersection of each of the three variables of sex, ADHD, and smoking: 1) Individuals with ADHD have altered functioning of the dopamine reward system, which diminishes their ability to efficiently form conditioned associations based on environmental contingencies; these deficits are partially ameliorated by nicotine; 2) Nicotine interacts with estrogen and the dopamine reward system to increase the positive and negative reinforcement value of smoking in female smokers; 3) In adult females with ADHD, ovarian hormones interact with the dopamine reward system to exacerbate ADHD-related deficits in the capacity to form conditioned associations; and 4) During different phases of the menstrual cycle, nicotine and ovarian hormones may interact differentially with the dopamine reward processing system to affect the type and value of reinforcement smoking provides for women with ADHD. Understanding the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying cigarette addiction in

  15. Sex, ADHD symptoms, and smoking outcomes: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Mitchell, John T; McClernon, F Joseph; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2012-05-01

    Both females and individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been found to be at increased risk for a range of smoking outcomes, and recent empirical findings have suggested that women with ADHD may be particularly vulnerable to nicotine dependence. On a neurobiological level, the dopamine reward processing system may be implicated in the potentially unique interaction of nicotine with sex and with ADHD status. Specifically, nicotine appears to mitigate core ADHD symptoms through interaction with the dopamine reward processing system, and ovarian hormones have been found to interact with nicotine within the dopamine reward processing system to affect neurotransmitter release and functioning. This article synthesizes data from research examining smoking in women and in individuals with ADHD to build an integrative model through which unique risk for cigarette smoking in women with ADHD can be systematically explored. Based upon this model, the following hypotheses are proposed at the intersection of each of the three variables of sex, ADHD, and smoking: (1) individuals with ADHD have altered functioning of the dopamine reward system, which diminishes their ability to efficiently form conditioned associations based on environmental contingencies; these deficits are partially ameliorated by nicotine; (2) nicotine interacts with estrogen and the dopamine reward system to increase the positive and negative reinforcement value of smoking in female smokers; (3) in adult females with ADHD, ovarian hormones interact with the dopamine reward system to exacerbate ADHD-related deficits in the capacity to form conditioned associations; and (4) during different phases of the menstrual cycle, nicotine and ovarian hormones may interact differentially with the dopamine reward processing system to affect the type and value of reinforcement smoking provides for women with ADHD. Understanding the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying cigarette addiction in

  16. Introduction and Overview to ADHD--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoie, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    In this 10-part series, which will run every other month through 2008 and 2009, "EP" will explore Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is technically defined as a neurodevelopmental, biological condition characterized by three hallmark symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity. Each of these symptoms has a special meaning…

  17. Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

    2009-01-01

    The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…

  18. The Contribution of Maternal ADHD Symptomatology, Maternal DAT1, and Home Atmosphere to Child ADHD Symptomatology at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith G; Zilberman-Hayun, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Berger, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Children of mothers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased genetic and environmental risk for ADHD. The unique and interactive contributions of a maternal dopamine receptor gene (DAT1), maternal ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive), and home atmosphere to the prediction of ADHD symptoms (hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive) in 7- year-old boys (N = 96) were examined using data from a longitudinal study of familial risk for ADHD. During the first 6 months of the study, mothers and their spouses completed a questionnaire about the mother's ADHD symptoms. Home atmosphere questionnaire data were collected 4 years later. At the 7-year assessment, mothers reported on their child's ADHD symptoms. Negative home atmosphere was significantly associated with child hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms. Maternal inattentive symptoms were significantly correlated with both child symptom dimensions. Regression models, with child genotype and maternal education controlled, showed main effects for maternal inattentive symptoms, maternal DAT1 10/10 genotype, and home atmosphere in the prediction of child inattentive symptoms. Only home atmosphere predicted child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was a significant home atmosphere x maternal hyperactive-impulsive symptoms interaction in the prediction of child hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Boys with higher levels of symptoms came from homes characterized by higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with higher levels of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. There was also a trend (p = 0.075) for a maternal DAT1 x home atmosphere interaction. Boys with higher levels of inattentive symptoms came from homes with higher levels of negative atmosphere and had mothers with the homozygous 10/10 genotype. The maternal heterozygous 9/10 genotype did not predict child symptoms.

  19. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  20. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  1. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD.

  2. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  3. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predict Levels of Depressive Symptoms during Emerging Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Are ADHD Symptoms Associated with Delay Aversion or Choice Impulsivity? A General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with choice impulsivity is examined. Findings were found to indicate that primary constitutional processes that underlie choice impulsivity and their potential role in behavioral inattention are important. It was also found that behavioral and brain processes that underlie choice…

  5. Emotion regulation mediates the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in youth.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-05-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including increased rates of suicidal ideation and suicide completion. Despite these very serious outcomes, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and depression in youth. The present study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in 69 youth between the ages of 10 and 14, with (n = 37) and without (n = 32) ADHD. Parent and youth ratings of depressive symptoms and ER were collected. Youth with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer ER ability relative to youth without ADHD. ER fully mediated the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  7. Persistent Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants among College Students: Possible Association with ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…

  8. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Clinically Significant ADHD Symptoms from Grade 3 through 12 in a High-Risk Sample: Predictors and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Tyler R.; Kalvin, Carla B.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of clinically significant ADHD symptoms were explored in a sample of 413 children identified as high-risk due to elevated kindergarten conduct problems. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were modeled simultaneously in a longitudinal latent class analyses, using parent reports collected in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. Three developmental trajectories emerged: 1) low levels of inattention and hyperactivity (low), 2) initially high but then declining symptoms (declining), and 3) continuously high symptoms that featured hyperactivity in childhood and early adolescence and inattention in adolescence (high). Multinomial logistic regressions examined child characteristics and family risk factors as predictors of ADHD trajectories. Relative to the low class, children in the high and declining classes displayed similar elevations of inattention and hyperactivity in early childhood. The high class was distinguished from the declining class by higher rates of aggression and hyperactivity at school and emotion dysregulation at home. In contrast, the declining class displayed more social isolation at home and school, relative to the low class. Families of children in both high and declining trajectory classes experienced elevated life stressors, and parents of children in the high class were also more inconsistent in their discipline practices relative to the low class. By late adolescence, children in the high class were significantly more antisocial than those in the low class, with higher rates of arrests, school dropout, and unemployment, whereas children in the declining class did not differ from those in the low trajectory class. The developmental and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26854506

  10. Familial Clustering of Latent Class and DSM-IV Defined Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Erik R.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Heath, Andrew C.; Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Findings from family and twin-based studies of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have indicated that inattentive and combined subtypes cluster together among sibling pairs who both express ADHD symptoms. The current report examines the familial clustering of ADHD subtypes, defined according to latent class and DSM-IV…

  11. Language Problems and ADHD Symptoms: How Specific Are the Links?

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Erin; Gathercole, Susan; Astle, Duncan; The Calm Team; Holmes, Joni

    2016-10-21

    Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. A single dimension of behavioural difficulties including both hyperactivity and inattention captured behaviour problems. This was strongly and negatively associated with pragmatic communication skills. There was less evidence for a relationship between behaviour and language structure: behaviour ratings were more weakly associated with the use of structural language in communication, and there were no links with direct measures of literacy. These behaviour problems and pragmatic communication difficulties co-occur in this sample, but impairments in the more formal use of language that impact on literacy and structural communication skills are tied less strongly to behavioural difficulties. One interpretation is that impairments in executive function give rise to both behavioural and social communication problems, and additional or alternative deficits in other cognitive abilities impact on the development of structural language skills.

  12. Language Problems and ADHD Symptoms: How Specific Are the Links?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Erin; Gathercole, Susan; Astle, Duncan; Holmes, Joni

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. A single dimension of behavioural difficulties including both hyperactivity and inattention captured behaviour problems. This was strongly and negatively associated with pragmatic communication skills. There was less evidence for a relationship between behaviour and language structure: behaviour ratings were more weakly associated with the use of structural language in communication, and there were no links with direct measures of literacy. These behaviour problems and pragmatic communication difficulties co-occur in this sample, but impairments in the more formal use of language that impact on literacy and structural communication skills are tied less strongly to behavioural difficulties. One interpretation is that impairments in executive function give rise to both behavioural and social communication problems, and additional or alternative deficits in other cognitive abilities impact on the development of structural language skills. PMID:27775648

  13. Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Oppositional-Defiant Symptoms in Brazilian Adolescents: Gender Prevalence and Agreement between Teachers and Parents in a Non-English Speaking Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Mattos, Paulo; Regalla, Maria Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess hyperactivity (H/I), inattention (IN), and oppositional-defiant (OP) symptoms in a nonclinical Brazilian sample of adolescents, and to investigate the association between scoring profiles of teachers and parents, symptom levels, and gender. Method: Symptoms were assessed through the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelhman (SNAP-IV)…

  14. ADHD Symptomatology and Adjustment to College in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Sun, Ling; Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined ADHD symptomatology and college adjustment in 420 participants--147 from the United States and 273 from China. It was hypothesized that higher levels of ADHD symptoms in general and the inattentive symptom group in particular would be related to decreased academic and social adjustment, career decision-making self-efficacy, and…

  15. The Reciprocal Relationship of ASD, ADHD, Depressive Symptoms and Stress in Parents of Children with ASD and/or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parental Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depressive symptoms on parenting stress in 174 families with children with ASD and/or ADHD, using generalized linear models and structural equation models. Fathers and mothers reported more stress when parenting with…

  16. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  17. Reliability and Validity of Self- and Other-Ratings of Symptoms of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined concordance between raters of ADHD symptoms in adults; there is less information on how well rating scales function in distinguishing adult ADHD from other disorders. This study examined these variables using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Method: The sample included 349 adults evaluated for…

  18. Transgenic mice expressing a human mutant beta1 thyroid receptor are hyperactive, impulsive, and inattentive.

    PubMed

    Siesser, W B; Zhao, J; Miller, L R; Cheng, S-Y; McDonald, M P

    2006-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. We have found that a transgenic mouse bearing a human mutant thyroid receptor (TRbeta1) expresses all of the defining symptoms of ADHD--inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity--as well as a 'paradoxical' response to methylphenidate (MPH). As with ADHD, the behavioral phenotypes expressed by the TRbeta transgenic mice are dynamic and sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, stress, and reinforcement. TRbeta transgenic mice are euthyroid except for a brief period during postnatal development, but the behavioral phenotypes, elevated dopamine turnover, and paradoxical response to MPH persist into adulthood. Thus, like the vast majority of children with ADHD, the TRbeta transgenic mice exhibit the symptoms of ADHD in the complete absence of thyroid abnormalities. This suggests that even transient perturbations in developmental thyroid homeostasis can have long-lasting behavioral and cognitive consequences, including producing the full spectrum of symptoms of ADHD.

  19. Review of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-like symptoms in children and adolescents with developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Brieana M; Findling, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that contribute to difficulties in psychosocial functioning are frequently able to be addressed by pharmacotherapy. This article reviews what is known about the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from developmental disorders and comorbid ADHD/ADHD-like symptoms.

  20. DSM-5 changes enhance parent identification of symptoms in adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B

    2016-08-30

    This study evaluates the impact of the DSM-5 ADHD symptom wording changes on symptom endorsement among adolescents with ADHD. Parents of adolescents with systematically diagnosed DSM-IV-TR ADHD (N=78) completed counterbalanced DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 ADHD symptom checklists in a single sitting. General linear models were conducted to evaluate whether the new DSM-5 symptom descriptors influenced the total number of ADHD symptoms and overall ADHD symptom severity endorsed by parents, how demographic factors were associated with noted changes in symptom endorsement when moving to the DSM-5, and which DSM ADHD items displayed notable changes in endorsement rates under the new wording. On average, parents identified 1.15 additional symptoms of ADHD in adolescents when moving from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-5. Increased symptom identification was not specific to age, sex, ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status. Over half of the sample experienced increased symptom endorsement when changing texts (59.0%). Under the new DSM-5 wording, four symptoms had statistically significant endorsement increases (range: 11.2-16.7%): difficulty sustaining attention, easily distracted, difficulty organizing tasks and activities, and does not seem to listen.

  1. Relations among Academic Enablers and Academic Achievement in Children with and without High Levels of Parent-Rated Symptoms of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…

  2. Emotional symptoms and their contribution to functional impairment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder beginning in childhood and consisting of the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The disorder is often accompanied by functional impairment in daily life. Research showed that severe impairment cannot be fully explained by the core symptoms of ADHD. Accordingly, emotional symptoms in ADHD and their influence on functional impairment have increasingly become the focus of research in recent years. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ADHD core symptoms, emotional symptoms, and functional impairment. We assumed that emotional symptoms might form part of adult ADHD and that the connection between ADHD core symptoms and functional impairment may be partly mediated by emotional symptoms. Data of 176 participants from an ADHD Special Consultations Unit were included. Of these participants, 146 were diagnosed with ADHD, while 30 received no such diagnosis. We developed a structural equation model which included core symptoms, emotional symptoms, and four domains of daily impairment (family life, social life, work, and organization). As predicted, results indicate that emotional symptoms are directly linked to adult ADHD and bear a strong negative influence on different domains of daily life. The results of different analyses showed a mediation of the relationship between ADHD core symptoms and impairment through emotional symptoms: While the connection between inattention and work and organization was partly mediated, the connections between impulsivity and family life and between inattention and social life were shown to be fully mediated through emotional symptoms.

  3. Item Response Theory Analyses of Adult Self-Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in the Current Symptoms Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2011-01-01

    The graded response model, which is based on item response theory, was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of adult self-ratings (N = 852) of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms presented in the Current Symptoms Scale. This scale has four ordered response categories. The…

  4. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  5. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  6. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Has ADHD en español El ADHD ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a medical condition that affects ... them through first. ADHD used to be called attention deficit disorder , or ADD for short. In 1994, it ...

  7. Decreased Regional Cortical Thickness and Thinning Rate Are Associated with Inattention Symptoms in Healthy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Karama, Sherif; Evans, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of…

  8. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  9. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  10. Evaluation of the CAARS Infrequency Index for the Detection of Noncredible ADHD Symptom Report in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on self-reports in detecting noncredible symptom report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (aADHD) has been questioned due to findings showing that symptoms can easily be feigned on self-report scales. In response, Suhr and colleagues developed an infrequency index for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CII)…

  11. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  12. Self-Reported Symptoms of ADHD among College Students in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Ingersoll, Travis; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined ADHD symptoms among college students in China and the United States. Method: A total of 283 (45%) American and 343 (55%) Chinese students completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS), in addition to other measures. Results: Both of the ADHD measures appear to be reliable…

  13. Atomoxetine Alone or Combined with Fluoxetine for Treating ADHD with Comorbid Depressive or Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Duesenberg, David; Emslie, Graham J.; Quintana, Humberto; Sarkis, Elias H.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Gao, Haitao; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors assessed the safety and effectiveness of atomoxetine monotherapy compared with combined atomoxetine/fluoxetine therapy in a population of children and adolescents with ADHD and concurrent symptoms of depression or…

  14. A Contemporary Review of the Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Craig; Shelton, Doug; Wright, Michalle

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioural disorder that presents frequently in paediatric and mental health settings. Children with ADHD present with symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, distractibility and impulsivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide clinicians with a summary of contemporary issues relevant…

  15. Improving recognition and management of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Fiona

    2010-04-01

    ADHD covers a group of common, chronic neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by developmentally abnormal and disabling levels of restlessness and overactivity (usually combined with impulsiveness) and/or inattention. There are three subtypes of ADHD: predominantly inattentive; predominantly hyperactive-impulsive; and combined type. For a diagnosis of ADHD to be made: onset of symptoms has to occur before the age of seven, symptoms should have been present longer than 6 months and they must be causing significant impairment. The prevalence of ADHD is at least 5%. Two-thirds of children with ADHD continue to have symptoms in adolescence. At the age of 25, half will still have symptoms which continue to cause significant impairment. ADHD is associated with an increased rate of other disorders: mood disorders; anxiety; other behavioural disorders; autism spectrum disorders; tic disorders; specific learning difficulties; developmental co-ordination disorder and sleep disorders. The GP has an important role in identification of possible ADHD, and onward referral, and also in the management of ADHD post-diagnosis, particularly with respect to prescribing medication usually on a shared care basis with specialist services.

  16. The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24884622

  17. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  18. Dealing with ADHD in a Greek Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleon, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic developmental disorder with symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The developmental course of the disorder shows that symptoms may be present even from infancy. The aetiology of the disorder may result from many factors, genetic and neurological playing the leading…

  19. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  20. Correspondence and Disparity in the Self- and Other Ratings of Current and Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Impairment in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Knouse, Laura E.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Experts recommend that clinicians evaluating adults for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) obtain information from others who know the patient well. The authors examined correspondence between the self- and other-ratings of ADHD symptoms and impairment using 3 groups of adults recruited on the basis of their severity of ADHD: ADHD…

  1. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  2. Cross-Age Peer Coaching: Enhancing the Peer Interactions of Children Exhibiting Symptoms of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardo, Brigid A.; DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Hojnoski, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can experience social difficulties. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of cross-age peer coaching on social behaviors of first graders with significant symptoms of ADHD using a multiple baseline design. Four students who met criteria…

  3. Aggression among Children with ADHD, Anxiety, or Co-Occurring Symptoms: Competing Exacerbation and Attenuation Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…

  4. Time Perception, Phonological Skills and Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia and/or ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method: Children…

  5. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  6. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  7. Severity of Children's ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress: A Multiple Mediation Model of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months)…

  8. Gender Differences in Consequences of ADHD Symptoms in a Community-Based Organization for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitulano, Michael L.; Fite, Paula J.; Wimsatt, Amber R.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Hatmaker, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked to disruptive behavior and disciplinary consequences; however, the variables involved in this process are largely unknown. The current study examined rule-breaking behavior as a mediator of the relation between ADHD symptoms and disciplinary actions 1 year later during after-school…

  9. Children's Perceptions of Their ADHD Symptoms: Positive Illusions, Attributions, and Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Malone, Molly; Varma, Angela; Markel, Clarisa; Biondic, Daniella; Tannock, Rosemary; Humphries, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of their ADHD symptoms in terms of the positive illusory bias (PIB), their attributions for their problem behaviors, and their beliefs about whether their problem behaviors and disorder are stigmatizing. Participants were 152 9- to 14-year-old…

  10. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  11. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between ADHD Symptoms and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability commonly co-occur because of shared genetic risk factors. However, the stability and change of these genetic influences and the predictive relationships underlying this association longitudinally remain unclear. Methods: ADHD symptoms and reading were assessed as…

  12. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  13. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  14. Lifespan attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms in female patients: a latent class approach.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Fiona; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-12-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently comorbid. To contribute to a better understanding of the associations regularly found between ADHD and BPD, on the one hand, and the developmental pathways for these disorders, on the other hand, latent class analyses (LCA) were undertaken to identify classes differing in profiles of childhood symptoms of ADHD and adult symptoms of ADHD and BPD. Diagnostic interviews with 103 female outpatients meeting the criteria for ADHD and/or BPD were used to assess current DSM-IV symptoms; childhood symptoms of ADHD were assessed in parent interviews. The latent classes were examined in relation to the DSM-IV conceptualizations of ADHD and BPD. And relations between childhood and adult classes were examined to hypothesize about developmental trajectories. LCA revealed an optimal solution with four distinct symptom profiles: only ADHD symptoms; BPD symptoms and only ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. All patients with BPD had some ADHD symptoms in both adulthood and childhood. Hyperactivity was least discriminative of adult classes. Adult hyperactivity was not always preceded by childhood hyperactivity; some cases of comorbid ADHD and BPD symptoms were not preceded by significant childhood ADHD symptoms; and some cases of predominantly BPD symptoms could be traced back to combined symptoms of ADHD in childhood. The results underline the importance of taking ADHD diagnoses into account with BPD. ADHD classification subtypes may not be permanent over time, and different developmental pathways to adult ADHD and BPD should therefore be investigated.

  15. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

  16. Relationship between white matter microstructure abnormalities and ADHD symptomatology in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Witt, Suzanne T; Stevens, Michael C

    2015-05-30

    The present study sought to evaluate whether white matter microstructure abnormalities observed in a cohort of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have specific relationships with either or both Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattentive ADHD symptom domains that would support a dimensional view of ADHD as adopted in the DSM-V. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on 22 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine whether scalar DTI measures in 13 tracts-of-interest demonstrated meaningful associations with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity or Inattentive symptom severity. Fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity measures of white matter integrity exhibited significant linear relationships with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattentive symptom severity. However, only radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus was specifically linked to Inattentive symptom severity and not Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptom severity. Our results provide preliminary evidence that symptom domains in ADHD are linked to neuroanatomical substrates and confirm the value in examining ADHD from a dimensional perspective.

  17. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  18. What Educators and Parents Need To Know about...ADHD, Creativity, and Gifted Students. Practitioners' Guide A9814.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Alex

    This brochure for educators and parents discusses gifted children, creativity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The overlapping symptoms of ADHD and creativity are identified, which include: inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, difficult temperament, deficient social skills, and academic underachievement. The possibility of…

  19. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  20. Shared genetic influences on ADHD symptoms and very low-frequency EEG activity: a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways. Very low-frequency (VLF; <0.5Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) activity represents a promising indicator of risk for ADHD, but it is currently unclear whether it is heritable or genetically linked to the disorder. Methods Direct-current (DC)-EEG was recorded during a cognitive activation condition in 30 monozygotic and dizygotic adolescent twin pairs concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, and 37 monozygotic and dizygotic matched-control twin pairs with low ADHD symptom scores. Structural equation modelling was used to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to the phenotypic covariance between ADHD and VLF activity. Results ADHD was significantly associated with reduced VLF power during cognitive activation, which suggests reduced synchronisation of widespread neuronal activity. VLF power demonstrated modest heritability (0.31) and the genetic correlation (−0.80) indicated a substantial degree of overlap in genetic influences on ADHD and VLF activity. Conclusions Altered VLF activity is a potential candidate intermediate phenotype of ADHD, which warrants further investigation of underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms. PMID:22118296

  1. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  2. DRD4 VNTRs, observed stranger fear in preschoolers and later ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Irene; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Szekely, Eszter; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-12-30

    Fear of strangers is a developmental milestone in childhood that encompasses behavioral inhibition and decreased novelty seeking. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit fearless and impulsive behaviors, similar to those observed in children with atypically low levels of stranger fear. It is currently unknown whether these behaviors share common underlying biological mechanisms. Polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) have been implicated in the risk for developing ADHD symptoms in childhood. Here we investigate whether (1) DRD4 variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) are associated with both stranger fear and ADHD symptoms, and (2) stranger fear in preschoolers mediates the link between DRD4 VNTRs and ADHD in later childhood. Stranger fear was observed in a large sample (N=589) of 3-year-old Caucasian children and ADHD symptoms were assessed by a validated, mother-rated questionnaire at 6 years. We found evidence that longer DRD4 variants were associated with increased ADHD symptoms at 6 years, and that this relationship was partially mediated by lower levels of observed stranger fear at 3 years. Our results suggest a common underlying neurobiological mechanism in the association between low stranger fear and ADHD symptoms; variation in DRD4 may be an important contributor to this mechanism.

  3. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions.

  4. A Randomized Trial of Comparing the Efficacy of Two Neurofeedback Protocols for Treatment of Clinical and Cognitive Symptoms of ADHD: Theta Suppression/Beta Enhancement and Theta Suppression/Alpha Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Moghaddasi Bonab, Nafiseh; Chalabianloo, Gholamreza; Noorazar, Seyed Gholamreza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Farhang, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Neurofeedback (NF) is an adjuvant or alternative therapy for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study intended to compare the efficacy of two different NF protocols on clinical and cognitive symptoms of ADHD. Materials and Methods. In this clinical trial, sixty children with ADHD aged 7 to 10 years old were randomly grouped to receive two different NF treatments (theta suppression/beta enhancement protocol and theta suppression/alpha enhancement protocol). Clinical and cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and following the treatment and also after an eight-week follow-up. Results. Both protocols alleviated the symptoms of ADHD in general (p < 0.001), hyperactivity (p < 0.001), inattention (p < 0.001), and omission errors (p < 0.001); however, they did not affect the oppositional and impulsive scales nor commission errors. These effects were maintained after an eight-week intervention-free period. The only significant difference between the two NF protocols was that high-frequency alpha enhancement protocol performed better in suppressing omission errors (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The two NF protocols with theta suppression/beta enhancement and theta suppression/alpha enhancement have considerable and comparable effect on clinical symptoms of ADHD. Alpha enhancement protocol was more effective in suppressing omission errors. PMID:28321406

  5. Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity--epidemiology and correlations: a nationwide greek study from birth to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Palili, Alexandra; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Vassi, Ippolyti; Veltsista, Alexandra; Bakoula, Chryssa; Gika, Artemis

    2011-02-01

    We examined the prevalence of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]-like symptoms) at 7 and 18 years in a Greek birth cohort, and associated factors. Information was derived from a representative sample of 2695 Greek individuals followed-up from birth to18 years through 3 questionnaire surveys (1983, 1990, 2001). At 7 years, the prevalence of hyperactivity was 7%, inattention 9.5%, and impulsivity 7% for all children, while a significant decrease was observed at 18 years. Adverse perinatal factors, poor academic performance, fights or quarrels with peers, comorbidity, and a higher frequency of physical punishment and accidents during childhood were found to be associated with ADHD-like symptoms at 7 years. Factors identified to be related with these symptoms at 18 years included male gender, maternal stress, smoking during pregnancy, physical punishment, and psychological problems in childhood. These longitudinal findings provide significant information for health and educational planning in Greece and other countries.

  6. Developmental Trajectories of DSM-IV Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Genetic Effects, Family Risk and Associated Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Henrik; Dilshad, Rezin; Lichtenstein, Paul; Barker, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: DSM-IV specifies three ADHD subtypes; the combined, the hyperactive-impulsive and the inattentive. Little is known about the developmental relationships underlying these subtypes. The objective of this study was to describe the development of parent-reported hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms from childhood to…

  7. Modafinil treatment of amphetamine abuse in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mann, N; Bitsios, P

    2009-06-01

    Substance abuse is a frequent co-morbid condition of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment with conventional psychostimulants in adult ADHD with co-morbid stimulant abuse may be problematic. In this study, we report the case of a patient with adult ADHD with co-morbid amphetamine abuse who was treated successfully with the non-stimulant alertness-promoting drug modafinil. The drug resolved both the inattention/hyperactivity symptoms as well as the amphetamine abuse. Modafinil may be a suitable candidate treatment for adults with ADHD and stimulant abuse.

  8. Assessment of daily profiles of ADHD and ODD symptoms, and symptomatology related to ADHD medication, by parent and teacher ratings.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Dieter; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred

    2011-10-01

    DAYAS is a new two-part rating scale that assesses: (1) ADHD and ODD symptoms (externalising symptom ratings) and (2) symptomatology potentially related to ADHD medication (potentially medication-related symptoms) in real-world settings at different time periods throughout a normal school day. Data from a proof-of-concept study and two observational trials (Medikinet(®) retard [methylphenidate] and the Equasym XL(®) [methylphenidate] OBSEER study) evaluated: (1) validity of weekly externalising symptom ratings using DAYAS, in place of daily ratings; (2) reliability and internal consistency of DAYAS ratings for externalising symptoms and potentially medication-related symptoms; and (3) convergent and divergent validity of the externalising symptom ratings with existing validated scales. From the proof-of-concept study, daily scores by period of day and during the whole day correlated strongly with equivalent weekly scores (r = 0.83-0.92). Internal consistency of externalising symptom rating scales calculated from pooled data were acceptable or good by period of day (Cronbach's alpha = 0.68-0.90) and very high for whole day scores (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88-0.95). Internal consistency of the rating scale for potentially medication-related symptoms was also good for both teacher and parent ratings. From OBSEER data, correlations between FBB-ADHD total symptom scores and ratings on both parent and teacher versions of DAYAS were high (r = 0.73 and r = 0.84, respectively). Correlations between DAYAS and SDQ were highest for the SDQ subscales hyperactivity and conduct problems and substantially lower for pro-social behaviour, peers and emotional problems. The DAYAS rating scale had good internal consistency, and DAYAS scores correlated well with existing validated scales and the SDQ subscales hyperactivity and conduct problems. Weekly DAYAS scores (whole day and by period of day) could be considered a suitable replacement for daily assessment scores.

  9. [Relationship between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance].

    PubMed

    Theiling, J; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2013-11-01

    This study has examined the relationship between cognitive functions and self-reported symptoms in ADHD adults. Cognitive functions were investigated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) in N=113 ADHD adults. The severity of self-reported symptoms was based on a screening questionnaire (ADHS-E). Results indicated only weak correlations between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance. The ADHS-E scale "Emotion & Affect" accounted for a small but significant variance on most WAIS-IV indices and turned out to be the most important variable to explain performance. The findings suggest that concurrent and discrepant information contribute to a differentiated examination on adult ADHD and that both objective performance diagnostics and self-reports complement each other within the diagnostic process.

  10. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

    PubMed Central

    Konicarova, Jana; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years) and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age. Results ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease. PMID:24476629

  11. Justice and rejection sensitivity in children and adolescents with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bondü, Rebecca; Esser, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Justice sensitivity captures individual differences in the frequency with which injustice is perceived and the intensity of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral reactions to it. Persons with ADHD have been reported to show high justice sensitivity, and a recent study provided evidence for this notion in an adult sample. In 1,235 German 10-to 19-year olds, we measured ADHD symptoms, justice sensitivity from the victim, observer, and perpetrator perspective, the frequency of perceptions of injustice, anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and self-esteem. Participants with ADHD symptoms reported significantly higher victim justice sensitivity, more perceptions of injustice, and higher anxious and angry rejection sensitivity, but significantly lower perpetrator justice sensitivity than controls. In latent path analyses, justice sensitivity as well as rejection sensitivity partially mediated the link between ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems when considered simultaneously. Thus, both justice sensitivity and rejection sensitivity may contribute to explaining the emergence and maintenance of problems typically associated with ADHD symptoms, and should therefore be considered in ADHD therapy.

  12. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  13. Are cognitive control and stimulus-driven processes differentially linked to inattention and hyperactivity in preschoolers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Carlin J; Miller, Scott R; Healey, Dione M; Marshall, Katie; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both typically viewed as biologically based behavioural constructs. There is substantial overlap between ADHD symptoms and specific temperamental traits, such as effortful control, especially in young children. Recent work by Martel and colleagues ( 2009 , 2011 ) suggests that cognitive control temperamental processes are more closely related to inattention symptoms, whereas stimulus-driven temperamental processes are linked to hyperactivity-impulsivity. The present study tested a model of temperament and ADHD symptoms in typically developing preschoolers and those at risk for ADHD using structural equation modelling. Data were from larger study on ADHD in a short-term longitudinal sample with parent/teacher reports and neurocognitive testing. Participants included 214 preschool children (72.9% male) from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds and a wide range of socioeconomic status from a large metropolitan center. Cognitive control processes, such as effortful control, but not stimulus-driven processes, are related to inattention and hyperactivity. In contrast, stimulus-driven processes, such as emotional reactivity, were related only to hyperactivity symptoms longitudinally. These results suggest that early temperament behaviours and cognitive processes may be indicators of later childhood behavioural difficulties with lasting consequences.

  14. ADHD symptoms in non-treatment seeking young adults: relationship with other forms of impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Leppink, Eric W.; Niaz, Faiza; Redden, Sarah A.; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with various manifestations of impulsivity in adults, including elevated rates of other impulsive disorders, substance use, questionnaire-based impulsivity scores, and inhibitory dysregulation on neurocognitive tests. The relationship between ADHD and all these other forms of impulsivity have yet to be explored within the context of a single comprehensive study. Methods 423 young adults, who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year, were recruited using media advertisements and undertook detailed assessment including structured psychiatric interview, questionnaires, and neurocognitive tests. Participants with ADHD symptoms were identified using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and were compared to controls using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results ADHD symptoms were found in 20.3% of the sample, but only 7.3% of these subjects had ever received a formal diagnosis. ADHD symptoms were associated with significantly lower quality of life, lower self-esteem, higher emotional dysregulation, higher impulsivity-compulsivity questionnaire scores, more problematic internet use, greater occurrence of psychiatric disorders, and impaired stop-signal reaction times. Of these variables, stop-signal reaction times and Barratt attentional impulsiveness were the strongest predictors of group classification. Conclusions ADHD symptoms are common and under-diagnosed in young adults who gamble, and are most strongly linked with certain other types of impulsivity (questionnaire- and cognitive-based measures) and with emotional dysregulation, suggesting that these are each important considerations in understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also potential treatment targets. It is necessary to question whether treatment for adult ADHD could be enhanced by considering self-esteem, emotional reactivity, and impaired inhibitory control as specific treatment targets

  15. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties.

  16. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children's ADHD symptoms, and the role of children's ADHD…

  17. Evidence for a General Factor Model of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbins, Christopher; Toplak, Maggie E.; Flora, David B.; Weiss, Margaret D.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine factor structures of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) symptoms of ADHD in adults. Method: Two sets of models were tested: (a) models with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as separate but correlated latent constructs and (b) hierarchical general factor models with a general factor for…

  18. Increasing On-Task Performance for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the day-to-day grind of teaching, when problems emerge, the teachers' best intentions and sensitivities are tested. Fidgety, loud, disorganized, disruptive, hurried, careless, and off-task behavior coupled with messy,…

  19. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... skills. Sometimes groups of people who have ADHD work together in group therapy. Group therapy can help people with ADHD ... Medicines Is My ADHD Medication Affecting My Sleep? Learning Disabilities How to Make Homework Less Work Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  20. Association between dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype, left-sided inattention, and an enhanced response to methylphenidate in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bellgrove, Mark A; Hawi, Ziarih; Kirley, Aiveen; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gill, Michael; Robertson, Ian H

    2005-12-01

    A polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, 10-repeat) is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been linked to an enhanced response to methylphenidate (MPH). One aspect of the attention deficit in ADHD includes a subtle inattention to left space, resembling that seen after right cerebral hemisphere damage. Since left-sided inattention in ADHD may resolve when treated with MPH, we asked whether left-sided inattention in ADHD was related to DAT1 genotype and the therapeutic efficacy of MPH. A total of 43 ADHD children and their parents were genotyped for the DAT1 3' variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism. The children performed the Landmark Test, a well-validated measure yielding a spatial attentional asymmetry index (leftward to rightward attentional bias). Parents rated their child's response to MPH retrospectively using a three-point scale (no, mediocre or very good response). Additionally, parents used a symptom checklist to rate behavior while on and off medication. A within-family control design determined whether asymmetry indices predicted biased transmission of 10-repeat parental DAT1 alleles and/or response to MPH. It was found that left-sided inattention predicted transmission of the 10-repeat allele from parents to probands and was associated with the severity of ADHD symptomatology. Children rated as achieving a very good response to MPH displayed left-sided inattention, while those rated as achieving a poorer response did not. Our results suggest a subgroup of children with ADHD for whom the 10-repeat DAT1 allele is associated with left-sided inattention. MPH may be most efficacious in this group because it ameliorates a DAT1-mediated hypodopaminergic state.

  1. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.

  2. ADHD symptomatology and adjustment to college in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Norvilitis, Jill M; Sun, Ling; Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined ADHD symptomatology and college adjustment in 420 participants--147 from the United States and 273 from China. It was hypothesized that higher levels of ADHD symptoms in general and the inattentive symptom group in particular would be related to decreased academic and social adjustment, career decision-making self-efficacy, and poorer study skills in both countries. Results generally supported the hypotheses, indicating that the difficulties associated with inattention are cross-cultural and not specific to the United States.

  3. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  4. Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Nigg, Joel T; Pennington, Bruce F; Solanto, Mary V; Rohde, Luis A; Tannock, Rosemary; Loo, Sandra K; Carlson, Caryn L; McBurnett, Keith; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2012-11-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and combined type (ADHD-C). To aid decision making for DSM-5 and other future diagnostic systems, a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of 546 studies was completed to evaluate the validity of the DSM-IV model of ADHD. Results indicated that DSM-IV criteria identify individuals with significant and persistent impairment in social, academic, occupational, and adaptive functioning when intelligence, demographic factors, and concurrent psychopathology are controlled. Available data overwhelmingly support the concurrent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the distinction between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, and indicate that nearly all differences among the nominal subtypes are consistent with the relative levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that define the subtypes. In contrast, the DSM-IV subtype model is compromised by weak evidence for the validity of ADHD-H after first grade, minimal support for the distinction between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in studies of etiological influences, academic and cognitive functioning, and treatment response, and the marked longitudinal instability of all three subtypes. Overall, we conclude that the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder. Empirical support is stronger for an alternative model that would replace the subtypes with dimensional

  5. Correcting delayed circadian phase with bright light therapy predicts improvement in ADHD symptoms: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fargason, Rachel E; Fobian, Aaron D; Hablitz, Lauren M; Paul, Jodi R; White, Brittny A; Cropsey, Karen L; Gamble, Karen L

    2017-03-06

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments. In addition to standard of care, participants with ADHD diagnosis underwent 1 week of baseline assessment followed by 2-weeks of 30-min morning 10,000-lux BLT beginning 3 h after mid-sleep time. Participants minimized overhead light after 4 p.m., wore an actigraphy watch, and recorded BLT time on daily sleep logs. Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) was assessed at baseline and after 2-week treatment. ADHD symptoms were measured by the ADHD-Rating Scales (ADHD-RS). BLT significantly advanced the phase of DLMO by 31 min [mean time (SEM), 20:36 (0:21) advanced to 20:05 (0:20)] and mid-sleep time by 57 min [4:37 (0:22) advanced to 3:40 (0:16); paired t-tests, p = 0.002 and 0.004, respectively). Phase advances (in DLMO or mid-sleep time) were significantly correlated with decreased ADHD-RS total scores (p = 0.027 and 0.044) and Hyperactive-Impulsive sub-scores (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively). Actigraphy analysis for a subset of 8 participants with significant DLMO phase advance revealed no significant changes in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, or percent wake during sleep interval. This is the first successful use of BLT for advancing melatonin phase and improving ADHD symptoms in adults. BLT may be a complementary treatment for both delayed sleep timing and ADHD symptoms in adults.

  6. Parent-Child Relationships and ADHD Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Evidence both from psychological research and clinical intervention studies suggests that there are bidirectional influences between overt child behavior problems and parent-child relations. Very little research however, has considered the pattern of relations that exists between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the parent-child…

  7. The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms and self-employment.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Ingrid; Rietdijk, Wim; Block, Joern; Franken, Ingmar; Larsson, Henrik; Thurik, Roy

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms have been associated with the decision to become self-employed. Although these symptoms are generally regarded as disadvantageous, there may also be a bright side. To our knowledge, however, there has been no systematic, epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This paper examines the association between ADHD symptoms and self-employment in a population-based sample from the STAGE cohort of the Swedish Twin Registry (N = 7208). For replication, we used a sample of Dutch students who participated in the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (N = 13,112). In the Swedish sample, we found a positive association with self-employment for both general ADHD symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 1.13; 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.04-1.23] and hyperactivity symptoms [OR 1.19; 95 % CI 1.08-1.32], whereas no association was found for attention-deficit symptoms [OR 0.99; 95 % CI 0.89-1.10]. The positive association between hyperactivity and self-employment was replicated in the Dutch student sample [OR 1.09; 95 % CI 1.03-1.15]. Our results show that certain aspects of ADHD, in particular hyperactivity, can have a bright side, as they are positively associated with self-employment.

  8. Links Between Co-occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored the interrelationship between trajectories of co-occurring symptoms, and sought evidence for shared prenatal/perinatal risk factors. Method Study participants were 5,383 singletons of white ethnicity from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Multiple measurements of hyperactive-inattentive traits (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and autistic social-communication impairment (Social Communication Disorder Checklist) were obtained between 4 and 17 years. Both traits and their trajectories were modeled in parallel using latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Trajectory membership was subsequently investigated with respect to prenatal/perinatal risk factors. Results LCGA analysis revealed two distinct social-communication trajectories (persistently impaired versus low-risk) and four hyperactive-inattentive trait trajectories (persistently impaired, intermediate, childhood-limited and low-risk). Autistic symptoms were more stable than those of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behaviors, which showed greater variability. Trajectories for both traits were strongly but not reciprocally interlinked, such that the majority of children with a persistent hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology also showed persistent social-communication deficits but not vice versa. Shared predictors, especially for trajectories of persistent impairment, were maternal smoking during the first trimester, which included familial effects, and a teenage pregnancy. Conclusions Our longitudinal study reveals that a complex relationship exists between social-communication and hyperactive-inattentive traits. Patterns

  9. A Clinical Study of ADHD Symptoms with Relation to Symptoms of Learning Disorders in Schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia; Van Meerbeke, Alberto Velez; Reyes, Rodrigo Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible relationships between symptoms of ADHD and of learning disorder (LD) in a population geographically, culturally, and linguistically distinct from previous studies. Method: The authors evaluated a cross section of 834 Colombian schoolchildren for childhood neurological pathologies on the basis of a medical…

  10. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  11. Double dissociation between lab measures of inattention and impulsivity and the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4).

    PubMed

    Gizer, Ian R; Waldman, Irwin D

    2012-11-01

    Studies examining the biological and neuropsychological processes underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that error indices from the A-X Continuous Performance Test (A-X CPT) might represent useful endophenotypes for ADHD. The current study extended such findings by evaluating the utility of these putative endophenotypes in the context of a molecular genetic study. One hundred and forty-eight clinic-referred ADHD probands and 56 siblings were recruited as part of an ongoing study. Between- and within-family tests of association were conducted to test for relations between polymorphisms in two candidate genes, the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), and indices of inattention and impulsivity derived from the A-X CPT. Association analyses of these polymorphisms with the A-X CPT indices suggested a double dissociation such that an index of inattention was associated with DRD4 but not DAT1, and an index of impulsivity was associated with DAT1 but not DRD4. Further analyses suggested that an A-X CPT index of impulsivity partially mediated previously observed associations between hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms and DAT1. Additionally, an A-X CPT index of inattention moderated the relation between inattentive ADHD symptoms and DRD4 such that children with high levels of the endophenotype showed a stronger association between inattentive symptoms and DRD4. The potential utility of endophenotypes derived from the A-X CPT in molecular genetic studies of ADHD is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The specificity of inhibitory impairments in autism and their relation to ADHD-type symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Charlotte; Allen, Melissa L

    2013-05-01

    Findings on inhibitory control in autism have been inconsistent. This is perhaps a reflection of the different tasks that have been used. Children with autism (CWA) and typically developing controls, matched for verbal and non-verbal mental age, completed three tasks of inhibition, each representing different inhibitory subcomponents: Go/No-Go (delay inhibition), Dog-Pig Stroop (conflict inhibition), and a Flanker task (resistance to distractor inhibition). Behavioural ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also obtained, as a possible source of heterogeneity in inhibitory ability. CWA were only impaired on the conflict inhibition task, suggesting that inhibitory difficulty is not a core executive deficit in autism. Symptoms of inattention were related to conflict task performance, and thus may be an important predictor of inhibitory heterogeneity.

  13. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  14. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  15. Psychometrically Informed Approach to Integration of Multiple Informant Ratings in Adult ADHD in a Community-Recruited Sample.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Although Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition requires that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are apparent across settings, assessed by multiple informants, there remains no standardized approach to integration of multiple sources in adult ADHD diagnosis. The goal of the study was to evaluate informant effects on adult ADHD symptom ratings. Participants were 406 adults, ages 18 to 37, and identified second reporters, recruited from the community, and completing a comprehensive diagnostic and cognitive assessment, including a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and self- and other-report questionnaires of ADHD symptoms. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a trifactor model of ADHD, including general ADHD, specific inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, and self- and other-perspective factors. Yet there were a number of symptoms on the specific hyperactive-impulsive and self-factors that exhibited nonsignificant loadings. Significant differential item functioning across self-ratings and informant ratings was also noted. The external validation indices of laboratory executive function and diagnostic team-rated impairment was significantly correlated with the specific inattentive factor. While executive function was marginally significantly correlated with the other perspective factor, impairment was associated with the self-perspective factor. Overall, inattentive symptoms may be more sensitive measures of adult ADHD, and other and self-ratings may provide different information in relation to external criteria.

  16. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance.

  17. REM theta activity enhances inhibitory control in typically developing children but not children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cremone, Amanda; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Harvey, Elizabeth A; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-02-28

    Sleep disturbances impair cognitive functioning in typically developing populations. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder characterized by impaired inhibitory control and attention, commonly experience sleep disturbances. Whether inhibitory impairments are related to sleep deficits in children with ADHD is unknown. Children with ADHD (n = 18; M age = 6.70 years) and typically developing controls (n = 15; M age = 6.73 years) completed a Go/No-Go task to measure inhibitory control and sustained attention before and after polysomnography-monitored overnight sleep. Inhibitory control and sustained attention were improved following overnight sleep in typically developing children. Moreover, morning inhibitory control was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (REM) theta activity in this group. Although REM theta activity was greater in children with ADHD compared to typically developing children, it was functionally insignificant. Neither inhibitory control nor sustained attention was improved following overnight sleep in children with ADHD symptoms, and neither of these behaviors was associated with REM theta activity in this group. Taken together, these results indicate that elevated REM theta activity may be functionally related to ADHD symptomology, possibly reflecting delayed cortical maturation.

  18. Effects of Child Gender and Symptom Type on Referrals for ADHD by Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciutto, Mark J.; Nolfi, Cara J.; Bluhm, Carla

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effects of child gender and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom type on elementary school teachers' referral decisions. Participants (N =199) read a profile of a fictional child's academic record and rated the likelihood of referring the child for an evaluation. The profiles varied by…

  19. Variability of ADHD Symptoms across Primary School Contexts: An In-Depth Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Linda; Pumfrey, Peter; Wakefield, Peter

    2009-01-01

    By focusing on the findings from one case study, this article demonstrates a replicable individualised approach to identifying variability of ADHD symptoms across contexts at given times in a main phase and follow-up phase (situational variability) and across both phases (temporal variability) in a primary school setting. Currently we have found…

  20. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD.

  1. Reactive vs. Proactive Antisocial Behavior: Differential Correlates of Child ADHD Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David S.; Pitale, Maria; Vora, Vaishali; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between proactive and reactive antisocial behavior with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Caregivers of children aged 8 to 15 (n = 84) being evaluated at a child psychiatry outpatient clinic served as participants. Given the conceptual similarity between reactive antisocial behavior (ASB)…

  2. The Latent Classes of Subclinical ADHD Symptoms: Convergences of Multiple Informant Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobor, Andrea; Takacs, Adam; Urban, Robert; Csepe, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to conduct latent class analysis on the Hyperactivity scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to identify distinct subgroups of subclinical ADHD in a multi-informant framework. We hypothesized a similar structure between teachers and parents, and differences in symptom severity across…

  3. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  4. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  5. Examining Alternative Explanations of the Covariation of ADHD and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…

  6. Evidence for Shared Genetic Risk between ADHD Symptoms and Reduced Mathematics Ability: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Methods: Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents…

  7. Reliability of DSM-IV Symptom Ratings of ADHD: Implications for DSM-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the intrarater reliability of "DSM-IV" ADHD symptoms. Method: Two-hundred-two children referred for attention problems and 49 comparison children (all 7-12 years) were rated by parents and teachers on the identical "DSM-IV" items presented in two different formats, the…

  8. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  9. A Review of the Validity of Laboratory Cognitive Tasks Used to Assess Symptoms of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Shana L.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors of this article reviewed the validity of frequently used laboratory assessment measures of ADHD symptoms using research published since 1991. During this review, there was a strong emphasis on examining the validity of the tasks as they are commonly used by clinicians and researchers. Tasks evaluated included: the Continuous…

  10. Measuring ADHD and ODD Symptoms and Impairment Using High School Teachers' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven W.; Brady, Christine E.; Harrison, Judith R.; Bunford, Nora; Kern, Lee; State, Talida; Andrews, Christiana

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the results of high school teachers' ratings of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder, as well as school-related impairment of 875 adolescents. One hundred forty-three teachers at 19 high schools across 4 states each rated 6 students from their first-period classes according to…

  11. The Role of Maternal and Child ADHD Symptoms in Shaping Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the…

  12. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD. Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were…

  13. Delay and Inhibition as Early Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; von Stauffenberg, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    We used data from a large, longitudinal study of children in the community, the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, to examine how well earlier measures of delay capacity, inhibitory control, planning, and attention predicted symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in third grade. Children with…

  14. Spelling errors among children with ADHD symptoms: the role of working memory.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Mirandola, Chiara; Esposito, Stefania Sara; Capodieci, Agnese

    2014-09-01

    Research has shown that children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may present a series of academic difficulties, including spelling errors. Given that correct spelling is supported by the phonological component of working memory (PWM), the present study examined whether or not the spelling difficulties of children with ADHD are emphasized when children's PWM is overloaded. A group of 19 children with ADHD symptoms (between 8 and 11 years of age), and a group of typically developing children matched for age, schooling, gender, rated intellectual abilities, and socioeconomic status, were administered two dictation texts: one under typical conditions and one under a pre-load condition that required the participants to remember a series of digits while writing. The results confirmed that children with ADHD symptoms have spelling difficulties, produce a higher percentages of errors compared to the control group children, and that these difficulties are enhanced under a higher load of PWM. An analysis of errors showed that this holds true, especially for phonological errors. The increased errors in the PWM condition was not due to a tradeoff between working memory and writing, as children with ADHD also performed more poorly in the PWM task. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Predictors of Boys' ADHD Symptoms from Early to Middle Childhood: The Role of Father-Child and Mother-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Louise J.

    2012-01-01

    This prospective 3-year longitudinal study investigated preschool paternal and maternal parenting predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) in a community sample of 93 school-age boys. Participants were recruited on the basis of inattention-hyperactivity at age 4 and fathers and mothers were observed interacting with their sons.…

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Sleepiness and Accidental Risk in 36140 Regularly Registered Highway Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Taillard, Jacques; Canel, Annick; Sagaspe, Patricia; Bioulac, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequent neurodevelopmental disorder that increases accidental risk. Recent studies show that some patients with ADHD can also suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness but there are no data assessing the role of sleepiness in road safety in patients with ADHD. We conducted an epidemiological study to explore sleep complaints, inattention and driving risks among automobile drivers. Methods and Findings From August to September 2014, 491186 regular highway users were invited to participate in an Internet survey on driving habits. 36140 drivers answered a questionnaire exploring driving risks, sleep complaints, sleepiness at the wheel, ADHD symptoms (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and distraction at the wheel. 1.7% of all drivers reported inattention-related driving accidents and 0.3% sleep-related driving accidents in the previous year. 1543 drivers (4.3%) reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to report accidents than drivers without ADHD symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.24, [1.03–1.51], p < .021). 14.2% of drivers with ADHD symptoms reported severe excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale >15) versus 3.2% of drivers without ADHD symptoms and 20.5% reported severe sleepiness at the wheel versus 7.3%. Drivers with ADHD symptoms reported significantly more sleep-related (adjusted OR = 1.4, [1.21–1.60], p < .0001) and inattention-related (adjusted OR = 1.9, [1.71–2.14], p<0001) near misses than drivers without ADHD symptoms. The fraction of near-misses attributable to severe sleepiness at the wheel was 4.24% for drivers without ADHD symptoms versus 10,35% for drivers with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Our study shows that drivers with ADHD symptoms have more accidents and a higher level of sleepiness at the wheel than drivers without ADHD symptoms. Drivers with ADHD symptoms report more sleep-related and inattention-related near misses, thus confirming the clinical importance of exploring both

  17. Serotonin transporter polymorphism moderates the effects of caregiver intrusiveness on ADHD symptoms among institutionalized preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Joana; Belsky, Jay; Mesquita, Ana; Soares, Isabel

    2017-03-01

    Research consistently chronicles a variety of mental health difficulties that plague institutionally reared children, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), even if not all institutionalized children evince such problems. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene × environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the effect of the quality of institutional care-most notably, caregiver intrusiveness-on ADHD symptoms is moderated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. One hundred and twenty-seven institutionalized preschoolers were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist. Caregiver-rated attention problems and hyperactivity were unrelated to both 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and caregiver intrusiveness. A significant GXE effect, independent of age at placement or duration of institutionalization, emerged, however, consistent with the differential-susceptibility hypothesis: s/s homozygotes manifest the most and least ADHD symptoms when they experienced, respectively, more and less intrusive caregiving. These results provide new insight into the reasons why some institutionalized children, but not others, exhibit ADHD symptoms.

  18. Game-based combined cognitive and neurofeedback training using Focus Pocus reduces symptom severity in children with diagnosed AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stuart J; Roodenrys, Steven J; Johnson, Kirsten; Bonfield, Rebecca; Bennett, Susan J

    2017-02-28

    Previous studies report reductions in symptom severity after combined working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) training in children with AD/HD. Based on theoretical accounts of the role of arousal/attention modulation problems in AD/HD, the current study examined the efficacy of combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training in children with AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD. Using a randomized waitlist control design, 85 children were randomly allocated to a training or waitlist condition and completed pre- and post-training assessments of overt behavior, trained and untrained cognitive task performance, and resting and task-related EEG activity. The training group completed twenty-five sessions of training using Focus Pocus software at home over a 7 to 8-week period. Trainees improved at the trained tasks, while enjoyment and engagement declined across sessions. After training, AD/HD symptom severity was reduced in the AD/HD and subclinical groups according to parents, and in the former group only according to blinded teachers and significant-others. There were minor improvements in two of six near-transfer tasks, and evidence of far-transfer of training effects in four of five far-transfer tasks. Frontal region changes indicated normalization of atypical EEG features with reduced delta and increased alpha activity. It is concluded that technology developments provide an interesting a vehicle for delivering interventions and that, while further research is needed, combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training can reduce AD/HD symptom severity in children with AD/HD and may also be beneficial to children with subclinical AD/HD.

  19. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Mothers and Fathers: Family Level Interactions in Relation to Parenting.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David; Johnston, Charlotte; Noyes, Amira; Stewart, Kurtis; Weiss, Margaret D

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies linking parent ADHD symptoms to parenting have typically focused on each parent individually. To provide a broader understanding of family context, in this study, levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in mothers and fathers were examined, both individually and in combination, in relation to negative parenting and child-rearing disagreements. Two-parent families of 5 to 13 year old boys (126 with ADHD and 53 typically developing) participated. Parents reported their own ADHD symptoms and their perceptions of child-rearing disagreements. Parenting was measured using self-, partner-, and child-reports as well as observations. Controlling for child ADHD symptoms, inattention symptoms in fathers predicted parenting difficulties. For mothers, inattention symptoms were linked to parenting problems only when fathers also had high levels of inattention. In contrast, parenting was most problematic for both mothers and fathers in families in which fathers had higher and mothers had lower levels hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. These results remained essentially unchanged when child externalizing behavior and mother depression and hostility were controlled, but father depression reduced the significance of some interactions. The results highlight the importance of the match between father and mother levels of symptoms, and point to differential relations of parenting to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms in parents.

  1. A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Treatments of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mucci, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disability characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness, which may cause impairment in a variety of cognitive, social, behavioral, and emotional domains. Extensive research has been conducted to determine the best course of treatment for…

  2. Evaluation of underlying mechanisms in the link between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use.

    PubMed

    Vitulano, Michael L; Fite, Paula J; Hopko, Derek R; Lochman, John; Wells, Karen; Asif, Irfan

    2014-09-01

    Although there has been support for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk for early substance use, this link is not fully established or understood. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms explaining these associations are unclear. The current study examined peer rejection, school bonding, and internalizing problems as potential mediators of the association between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk for early initiation of substance use. The sample included a control group of 126 students with problematic aggression (79% African American, 66% male) from an intervention study following children from fourth to ninth grade. Results suggested that ADHD symptoms follow a path to early initiation of tobacco use through the combined effects of peer rejection and internalizing problems as well as through internalizing problems alone. ADHD symptoms were also associated with the cubic slope of marijuana use initiation, such that increased ADHD symptoms were associated with a strong cubic trend (e.g., a more rapid acceleration of risk for initiation). ADHD symptoms were not associated with risk for early initiation of alcohol use. Identification of important vulnerability factors in children with ADHD symptoms highlight the need for primary prevention and psychological interventions that target these factors and decrease the likelihood of early tobacco and marijuana use initiation.

  3. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  4. Match or Mismatch? Influence of Parental and Offspring ASD and ADHD Symptoms on the Parent-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of parental ASD and ADHD symptoms in combination with child pathology on the parent- child relationship as perceived by the child. A sample of 132 families was recruited with one child with ASD (with/without ADHD), and one unaffected sibling. Affected children (regardless of diagnosis) reported lower…

  5. Interrelations between Executive Function and Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattention in Preschoolers: A Two Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocki, Karin C.; Eninger, Lilianne; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components--simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and…

  6. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  7. Item Response Theory Analyses of Parent and Teacher Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms for Recoded Dichotomous Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Gomez, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The two-parameter logistic model (2PLM) was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms. Method: To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale (DBRS) for a group of 934 primary school-aged children. Results: The results for the…

  8. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-06-01

    Altered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n=18), TS+ADHD (N=17), ADHD (n=13) and typically developing controls (n=20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no)×2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed.

  10. The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Rózańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    In most children with ADHD the cause of the disease is not exactly known, and its etiology is multifactorial. The conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioral and psychological therapy and the pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, but it is often associated with undesirable side effects, such as: loss of appetite and weight, growth inhibition, abdominal pain, headaches, sleeping problems and increased blood pressure. In the recent years, much attention was devoted to the issue of an appropriate diet in this disease, especially when the standard pharmacotherapy is not effective. The diet of pregnant and lactating woman, and child may have an impact on the development and deepening of the hyperkinetic syndrome. There is much evidence to indicate that it is linked to nutritional factors. Chronic deficiencies of certain minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium and iodine and insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a significant impact on the development and deepening of the symptoms of ADHD in children. A crucial role in the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and child plays also polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, mainly DHA, which are necessary for proper development and function of brain. Their chronic deficiency may contribute to increase risk of ADHD in children. The authors of several studies also demonstrated the positive impact of the elimination food products containing synthetic food additives, like artificial food dyes and preservatives on the behavior of children with ADHD. The beneficial effects brought also the elimination of food products, that are rich in salicylates. It was found that the intake of food products with a low glycemic index helps to reduce symptoms in some hyperactive children. Providing an appropriate supply of nutrients and minerals and elimination of certain food products from diet is especially important during intensive growth and

  11. Effect of training focused on executive functions (attention, inhibition, and working memory) in preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Re, Anna M.; Capodieci, Agnese; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving 5-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. Thirteen children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity). Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior, and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26300836

  12. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB.

  13. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  14. Age-dependent role of pre- and perinatal factors in interaction with genes on ADHD symptoms across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea

    2017-02-21

    Little is known about the effects of risk factors on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom over time. Here, we longitudinally studied the role of candidate genes, pre- and perinatal factors, and their interactions on ADHD symptoms between ages 10 and 18 years. Subjects were part of the general population or clinic-referred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1667). At mean ages of 11.1 (T1), 13.4 (T2), and 16.2 years (T3), ADHD symptoms were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear Mixed Models were used to examine the association of candidate genes (i.e., DRD4, DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, and MAOA), pre- and perinatal factors (i.e., index measure of various pregnancy and delivery complications, maternal smoking, maternal drinking, and low birth weight), and their interactions with ADHD symptoms across adolescence. Pregnancy and delivery complications were associated with a higher level of ADHD symptoms across all time points, but with a significantly declining influence over time (p = 0.006). We found no main effects of the candidate genes on ADHD symptoms throughout adolescence. The simultaneous presence of the low activity MAOA genotype and low birth weight (p < 0.001) and of the 5-HTTLPR LL-allele and respectively pregnancy and delivery complications (p = 0.04) and maternal smoking (p = 0.04) were associated with more ADHD symptoms particularly during early adolescence, and these influences significantly decreased over time. Findings suggest an age-dependent role of gene-environment interactions on ADHD symptoms across adolescence.

  15. Predictive validity of parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms in adolescence on adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Du Rietz, Ebba; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Brikell, Isabell; Jangmo, Andreas; Sariaslan, Amir; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-02-10

    There is scarcity of research investigating the validity of self-report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms compared to other informants, such as parents. This study aimed to compare the predictive associations of ADHD symptoms rated by parents and their children across adolescence on a range of adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood. Parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms were assessed in 2960 individuals in early (13-14 years) and late adolescence (16-17 years). Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the associations between parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms at both time points and adverse life outcomes in young adulthood obtained from Swedish national registries. Both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, although associations of parent-ratings were more often statistically significant and were generally stronger (OR = 1.12-1.49, p < 0.05) than self-ratings (OR = 1.07-1.17, p < 0.05). After controlling for the other informant, parent-ratings of ADHD symptoms in both early and late adolescence significantly predicted academic and occupational failure, criminal convictions and traffic-related injuries, while self-ratings of ADHD symptoms only in late adolescence predicted substance use disorder and academic failure. Our findings suggest that both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adolescence provides valuable information on risk of future adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes, however, self-ratings are not valuable once parent-ratings have been taken into account in predicting most outcomes. Thus, clinicians and researchers should prioritize parent-ratings over self-ratings.

  16. Children with ADHD Symptoms Show Decreased Activity in Ventral Striatum during the Anticipation of Reward, Irrespective of ADHD Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hulst, Branko M.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Bos, Dienke J.; Rijks, Yvonne; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Durston, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to…

  17. Predictors of adolescent functioning in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the role of childhood ADHD, conduct problems, and peer status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve S; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2006-09-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a 5-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3-18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions and expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, NC, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference.

  18. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  19. The efficacy of atomoxetine in treating adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analysis of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Vinutha; Chowdappa, Suresh Vedaveni; Benegal, Vivek; Muralidharan, Kesavan

    2016-12-01

    Atomoxetine, a non-stimulant, is FDA approved drug used in the management of adult ADHD. Since the presentation of adult ADHD is different from the childhood onset condition, there is an urgent need to study the efficacy of atomoxetine on the different symptom domains of adult ADHD. To study the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating adult ADHD compared to placebo, we performed a Medline search for English language publications of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing atomoxetine to placebo for adult ADHD using the keywords "adult ADHD", "atomoxetine" and "placebo". A total of 41 RCTs were returned of which we included 13 relevant RCTs reporting data on 1824 patients with adult ADHD in the analysis. Standardized mean difference between atomoxetine and placebo for the mean baseline-to-endpoint change in total ADHD scores, impulsivity/hyperactivity and inattention scores was calculated, with a 95% confidence limit. Atomoxetine had superior efficacy than placebo on overall adult ADHD scores [-0.45; 95% CI -0.54, -0.35; overall effect p<0.00001]. Atomoxetine was superior to placebo on the domains of both inattention [-0.42; 95% CI -0.49, -0.35; overall effect p<0.00001] and impulsivity/hyperactivity [-0.36; 95% CI -0.44, -0.29; overall effect p<0.00001]. Atomoxetine was significantly more efficacious (p<0.00001) in treating inattention than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Atomoxetine is efficacious in treating adult ADHD compared to placebo, though the efficacy is significantly superior for inattention than hyperactivity/impulsivity.

  20. ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. One aim of the present study was to assess in a clinical sample of medication naïve boys and girls with ADHD, whether there were significant gender x diagnosis interactions in co-existing symptom severity and executive function (EF) impairment. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls (HC) of the same gender. Methods Thirty-seven females with ADHD, 43 males with ADHD, 18 HC females and 32 HC males between 8 and 17 years were included. Co-existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings. EF was assessed with parent ratings of executive skills in everyday situations (BRIEF), and neuropsychological tests. The three measurement domains (co-existing symptoms, BRIEF, neuropsychological EF tests) were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and random forest classification. Results ANOVAs revealed only one significant diagnosis x gender interaction, with higher rates of self-reported anxiety symptoms in females with ADHD. Random forest classification indicated that co-existing symptom ratings was substantially better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in females (93% accuracy) than in males (86% accuracy). The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males. Parent ratings of EF skills were better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in males (96% accuracy) than in females (92% accuracy). Neuropsychological EF tests had only a modest ability to categorize subjects as ADHD or HC in males (73% accuracy) and females (79% accuracy). Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of

  1. Perinatal Risk Factors Interacting with Catechol O-Methyltransferase and the Serotonin Transporter Gene Predict ASD Symptoms in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Ormel, Johan; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Given the previously found familiality of ASD symptoms in children with ADHD, addressing these symptoms may be useful for genetic association studies, especially for candidate gene findings that have not been consistently…

  2. Spelling errors in text copying by children with dyslexia and ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Spelling errors are usually studied in dictations, but teachers report that children with school difficulties often make spelling mistakes when they copy a text too. The present study examines the performance on a text copying task and a text dictation task of two groups of children known for their difficulties in spelling, that is, 22 with symptoms of ADHD and 13 with dyslexia, comparing them with matched controls to see whether children with spelling difficulties make more copying task errors than do controls, whether they make fewer mistakes when copying than when writing under dictation, and whether the pattern of errors remains the same or differs in copy and dictation tasks. Our results show that although children with spelling difficulties made fewer errors in the copying task than under dictation, they still made phonological errors and mistakes relating to accents and duplicates. The pattern of errors differed slightly between the children with dyslexia and those with ADHD, presumably as a consequence of their different underlying weaknesses-related mainly to phonology and orthographic representation in the case of dyslexia and to attentional control in the case of ADHD.

  3. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  4. Hierarchy and Psychometric Properties of ADHD Symptoms in Spanish Children: An Application of the Graded Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Victor B.; Nuñez, Daniel E.; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P.; Arias, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria assume that the 18 symptoms carry the same weight in an Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and bear the same discriminatory capacity. However, it is reasonable to think that symptoms may differ in terms of severity and even in the reliability with they represent the disorder. To test this hypothesis, the aim of this study was to calibrate in a sample of Spanish children (age 4–7; n = 784) a scale for assessing the symptoms of ADHD proposed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR within the framework of Item Response Theory. Samejima’s Graded Response Model was used as a method for estimating the item difficulty and discrimination parameters. The results showed that ADHD subscales (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Impulsivity) had good psychometric properties and had also a good fit to the model. However, relevant differences between symptoms were observed at the level of severity, informativeness and reliability for the assessment of ADHD. This finding suggests that it would be useful to identify the symptoms that are more important than the others with regard to diagnosing ADHD. PMID:27736911

  5. French Version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN-F) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Robaey, Philippe; Amre, Devendra; Schachar, Russell; Simard, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate internal and external consistency of a French adaptation of the SWAN (a 7-point rating strength-based scale, from far below to far above average) and its accuracy as a diagnostic test among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method Parents of 88 children referred for ADHD were interviewed using the SWAN-F, a structured interview (DISC-4.0) and the Conners’ Rating Scale. Internal consistency and divergent and convergent validity of the SWAN-F were examined using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scales as reference standards for four dimensions: Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Results The internal consistency of SWAN-F was within acceptable ranges for all dimensions (Cronbach’s alpha greater than 0.80). Scores of the SWAN-F subscales were strongly associated with the DISC-4.0 diagnostic assignments and Conners’ Rating Scales, following logical patterns of correspondence between diagnoses. Its accuracy as a diagnostic test was comparable to Conners’ Rating Scale, with a lower rate of false positives. Conclusions The information gathered with the SWAN-F is compatible with that obtained using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scale. Strength-based rating scales have the potential to evaluate the normal distribution of behaviors and to provide reliable cut-off defining abnormal behavior. PMID:18392156

  6. Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood.

  7. Pre- and Peri-Natal Environmental Risks for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Potential Role of Epigenetic Processes in Mediating Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Jonathan; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder defined by symptoms of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As is the norm for most psychiatric phenotypes, traditional aetiological studies have focused primarily on the interplay between genetic and environmental…

  8. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls.

  9. Attentional WM is not necessarily specifically related with fluid intelligence: the case of smart children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Calgaro, Giovanni; Stupiggia, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and, in particular, Attentional (active) Working Memory (WM) have been associated with fluid intelligence. The association contrasts with the hypothesis that children with ADHD exhibit problems with WM tasks requiring controlled attention and may have a good fluid intelligence. This paper examines whether children who are intelligent but present ADHD symptoms fail in attentional WM tasks. The latter result would be problematic for theories assuming the generality of a strict relationship between intelligence and WM. To study these issues, a battery of tests was administered to a group of 58 children who all displayed symptoms of ADHD. All children were between the age of 8 and 11 years, and were described by their teachers as smart. Children were compared to a control group matched for age, schooling, and gender. The battery included a test of fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Matrices), and a series of visuospatial WM tasks. Results showed that children with ADHD were high in intelligence but significantly lower than the controls in WM tasks requiring high attentional control, whereas there was no difference in WM tasks requiring low attentional control. Furthermore, only high attentional control WM tasks were significantly related to Raven's performance in the control group, whereas all WM tasks were similarly related in the ADHD group. It is concluded that performance in high attentional control WM tasks may be related to fluid intelligence, but also to a specific control component that is independent of intelligence and is poor in children with ADHD.

  10. COMT and DAT1 genes are associated with hyperactivity and inattention traits in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort: evidence of sex-specific combined effect

    PubMed Central

    Akutagava-Martins, Glaucia C.; Salatino-Oliveira, Angelica; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Julia P.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Rohde, Luis A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are dimensionally distributed in the population. This study aimed to assess the role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes on ADHD symptoms in the general population. Methods We investigated 4101 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at ages 11 and 15 years. The SDQ hyperactivity/inattention scores were the main outcomes. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated that the increasing number of COMT158Val and DAT1 10R alleles significantly predicted increasing SDQ hyperactivity/inattention scores in boys at both 11 and 15 years of age (β coefficient = 0.049, t = 2.189, p = 0.029, R2 = 0.012, and β coefficient = 0.064, t = 2.832, p = 0.005, R2 = 0.008, respectively). The presence of both COMT158Val and DAT1 10R alleles was also associated with full categorical ADHD diagnosis at 18 years of age in boys (χ2 = 4.561, p = 0.033, odds ratio 2.473, 95% confidence interval 1.048–5.838) from this cohort. We did not observe these associations in girls. Limitations Our analyses of SDQ hyperactivity/inattention scores were not corrected for SDQ scores of conduct problems because these variables were highly correlated. Conclusion This study demonstrates a role for COMT and DAT1 genes on hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and provides further support for ADHD as the extreme of traits that vary in the population. It also confirms previous evidence for sexual dimorphism on COMT and DAT1 gene expression. PMID:27327562

  11. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs.

  12. External validation of bifactor model of ADHD: explaining heterogeneity in psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive control, and personality trait profiles within DSM-IV ADHD.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T

    2011-11-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, and California Q-Sort. Children completed the Stop and Trail-Making Task. Specific inattention was associated with depression/withdrawal, slower cognitive task performance, introversion, agreeableness, and high reactive control; specific hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with rule-breaking/aggressive behavior, social problems, errors during set-shifting, extraversion, disagreeableness, and low reactive control. It is concluded that the bifactor model provides better explanation of heterogeneity within ADHD than DSM-IV ADHD symptom counts or subtypes.

  13. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD.

  14. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonidou, Christina; Garagouni-Areou, Fotina; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) use on pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Nine Greek primary school pupils with ADHD symptoms and four others with no such deficit worked on a computer, either individually or collaboratively, once a week for a six-week period.…

  15. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  16. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guan-nan; Wang, Yu-feng; Yang, Li; Niu, Wen-yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44) or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45). Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual), attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively). Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after intervention (33.7±5.4 vs 45.1±7.9, P=0.008). Greater improvements in parents’ knowledge about ADHD and many components of the TPB model were observed in the intervention group, especially increased intention to adhere to medication, compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion This psychoeducation program had a positive impact on both medication adherence and clinical symptoms of ADHD children. It could be considered as a potential beneficial supplement to clinical practice. PMID

  17. Associations of symptoms and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with visuospatial planning ability in youth.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Huang, Lin-Wan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about which ADHD core symptom or subtype is most associated with visuospatial planning deficit. This issue was investigated in a sample of 408 youths with current DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, and 332 youths without lifetime ADHD, aged 8-17 years (mean age 12.02±2.24). All the participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and diagnosis and other psychiatric disorders. In addition to clinical assessments, the participants were assessed with the WISC-III and the Stocking of Cambridge task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. The results showed that univariate analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity were significantly associated with visuospatial planning, and the magnitude of such association was amplified with increased task difficulties. Only inattention independently predicted visuospatial planning in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, inattention was still independently associated with visuospatial planning indexed by mean moves needed to solve problems. In subtype comparison, participants with combined subtype and those with prominently inattentive subtype, rather than prominently hyperactivity/impulsivity subtype, had poorer visuospatial planning performance. Our findings indicate that inattention is independently associated with impaired visuospatial planning, and dimensional approach retains the important distinction among ADHD symptoms than subtype approach in understanding the neuropsychological functioning of ADHD.

  18. Antecedents of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in children born extremely preterm

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samantha; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter; Hollis, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate antecedents of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children born extremely preterm (EP; <26 weeks gestation). Method The EPICure Study recruited all babies born EP in the UK and Ireland in March-December 1995. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 2.5 (n=283; 90%), 6 (n=160; 78%) and 11 (n=219; 71%) years of age. Parents and teachers completed the Du Paul Rating Scale-IV to assess inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms at 11 years. Regression analyses were used to explore the association of neonatal, neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes to 6 years with ADHD symptoms at 11 years. Results EP children had significantly more inattention (mean difference 1.2 SD; 95% CI 0.9, 1.5) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (0.5 SD; 0.2, 0.7) than controls, with a significantly greater effect size for inattention than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Significant independent predictors of inattention at 11 years included smaller head circumference, lower IQ and pervasive peer relationship problems at 6 years, and motor development at 2.5 years. In contrast, significant independent predictors of hyperactivity/impulsivity included lower IQ, pervasive conduct problems and ADHD symptoms at 6 years, externalizing problems at 2.5 years and non-white maternal ethnicity. Conclusions EP children are at increased risk for ADHD symptoms, predominantly inattention, for which the antecedents differ by symptom domain. Attention deficits following EP birth were associated with poor brain growth and neurological function. Cognitive and behavioral assessments in early and middle childhood to identify neurodevelopmental and peer relationship problems may be beneficial for identifying EP children at risk for inattention. PMID:27096570

  19. Does the Presence of Anxiety and ADHD Symptoms Add to Social Impairment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    PubMed

    Factor, Reina S; Ryan, Sarah M; Farley, Julee P; Ollendick, Thomas H; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience internalizing and externalizing problems at higher rates than typically developing children, which could worsen social impairment. The present study compared impairment scores (social responsiveness scale, 2nd edition; SRS-2 scores) in 57 children (3-17 years, 82.5% male) with ASD, either with or without heightened levels of anxiety or ADHD symptoms, all per parent report. Children with heightened anxiety problems showed higher scores on four SRS-2 subscales (Social Cognition, Social Communication, Social Motivation, and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior). Children with heightened ADHD traits showed higher scores on two subscales (Social Communication and Social Awareness). These findings suggest similarities and differences in how social deficits in ASD may worsen with anxiety or ADHD symptoms.

  20. Study on the possible association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism with the developmental course of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Olle; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eriksson, Elias; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have, with conflicting results, investigated the relationship between the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed longitudinal, quantitative phenotypes of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in order to determine whether the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism is associated with age-specific and/or persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention in a community-based cohort of 1236 Swedish individuals for which ADHD symptom data were collected when the participants were aged 8-9, 13-14 and 16-17 yr. The Met allele was associated with symptoms of ADHD at ages 8-9 and 13-14 yr. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the observed effect of the Met allele on ADHD symptoms reflects an influence on persistent hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. The present findings support the hypothesis that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. The results highlight the importance of distinguishing between hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention, respectively, and demonstrate the value of using a longitudinal approach in genetic studies of ADHD symptoms.

  1. Associations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Dimensions with Smoking Deprivation Effects in Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying relations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions to individual facets of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome could elucidate the mechanisms linking ADHD and regular smoking. This study examined the unique relations of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptom dimensions of ADHD to a variety of tobacco withdrawal symptoms. 132 community-dwelling adult smokers recruited without regard to ADHD status completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms experienced over the past 6 months at a baseline visit. At two subsequent experimental sessions (one following overnight tobacco deprivation and one nondeprived; order counterbalanced), participants completed measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, mood, and desire to smoke. Preliminary analyses showed that higher levels of IN and HI symptoms were both associated with higher levels of negative affect and concentration difficulties during nondeprived (“baseline”) states (Ps < .01). Over and above nondeprived ratings, higher levels of HI symptoms were associated with larger deprivation-induced increases in negative affect, concentration problems, and desire to smoke, particularly for negative affect relief, during deprived states (Ps < .01). ADHD symptoms, particularly HI symptoms, are associated with more severe exacerbations in abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms, which could be an important mechanism of ADHD-smoking comorbidity. These findings suggest the need for clinical studies examining the role of these unique and potentially more severe withdrawal profiles experienced by smokers with high-levels of ADHD symptoms in smoking reinstatement and cessation outcomes. PMID:24731115

  2. Examining Parents' Preferences for Group and Individual Parent Training for Children with ADHD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Frances A; Cunningham, Charles E; Chen, Yvonne; Rimas, Heather M; Deal, Ken; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Pelham, William E

    2016-01-01

    Parent training (PT) programs have been found to reduce some behavioral impairment associated with children's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as improve parenting competence, but poor uptake and participation by parents are formidable barriers that affect service effectiveness. We used a discrete-choice experiment (DCE) to examine how parent preferences for treatment format (i.e., group vs. individual) might influence their participation in PT. Participants were 445 parents seeking mental health services for children with elevated symptoms of ADHD in Ontario, Canada. Parents completed a DCE composed of 30 choice tasks used to gauge PT format preference. Results showed that 58.7% of parents preferred individual PT; these parents were most interested in interventions that would make them feel more informed about their child's problems and in understanding-as opposed to solving-their child's problems. A minority of parents (19.4%) preferred group PT; these parents were most interested in active, skill-building services that would help them solve their child's problems. About one fifth of parents (21.9%) preferred the Minimal Information alternative (i.e., receiving neither individual or group PT); these parents reported the highest levels of depression and the most severe mental health problems in their child. Results highlight the importance of considering parent preferences for format and suggest that alternative formats to standard PT should be considered for multiply stressed families.

  3. Comparison of Risperidone and Methylphenidate for Reducing ADHD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Moderate Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Alceu Gomes Correia; Bodanese, Rafael; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Alvares, Julia Paglioza; Aman, Michael; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and methylphenidate for reducing symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with moderate mental retardation. Method: In a 4-week, single-blind, parallel-group trial, 45 subjects with moderate mental retardation and…

  4. Moderator Effects of Working Memory on the Stability of ADHD Symptoms by Dopamine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms during Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampush, Joey W.; Jacobs, Michelle M.; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene (DRD1 and DRD2, respectively) polymorphisms and the development of working memory skills can interact to influence symptom change over 10 years in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we examined whether improvements in working memory maintenance…

  5. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  6. FTO at rs9939609, Food Responsiveness, Emotional Control and Symptoms of ADHD in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Velders, Fleur P.; De Wit, Jolanda E.; Jansen, Pauline W.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The FTO minor allele at rs9939609 has been associated with body mass index (BMI: weight (kg)/height (m)2) in children from 5 years onwards, food intake, and eating behaviour. The high expression of FTO in the brain suggests that this gene may also be associated with behavioural phenotypes, such as impulsivity and control. We examined the effect of the FTO minor allele (A) at rs9939609 on eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in young children, thus before the BMI effect becomes apparent. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards. 1,718 children of European descent were genotyped for FTO at rs9939609. With logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model, we examined the association between the FTO minor allele and eating behaviour, impulsivity and control in preschool children. There was no relation between FTO at rs9939609 and child BMI at this age. The A allele at rs9939609 was associated with increased food responsiveness (OR 1.21, p = 0.03). Also, children with the A allele were less likely to have symptoms of ADHD (OR 0.74, p = 0.01) and showed more emotional control (OR 0.64, p = 0.01) compared to children without the A allele. Our findings suggest that before the association between FTO and BMI becomes apparent, the FTO minor allele at rs9939609 leads to increased food responsiveness, a decreased risk for symptoms of ADHD and better emotional control. Future studies are needed to investigate whether these findings represent one single mechanism or reflect pleiotropic effects of FTO. PMID:23155456

  7. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  8. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD in a Community Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAweeney, Mary; Rogers, Nikki L.; Huddleston, Carole; Moore, Dennis; Gentile, Julie P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a common comorbid condition with substance use disorder. This study seeks to examine the discrepancy in the prevalence rate between those previously diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed while in treatment. It is hypothesized that clients with ADHD would have earlier unsuccessful terminations from treatment than non-ADHD…

  9. Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-01-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including…

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo Churl; Ha, Jihyun; Yune, Sook Kyung; Kim, Seog Ju; Hwang, Jaeuk; Chung, Ain; Sung, Young Hoon; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between attention deficit-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and Internet addiction. In total, 535 elementary school students (264 boys, 271 girls; mean age, 11.0 +/- 1.0 years) were recruited. The presence or severity of Internet addiction was assessed by the Young's Internet Addiction test. Parents and teachers of the children completed the DuPaul's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (ARS; Korean version, K-ARS) and Child Behavior Checklists. Children with the highest and lowest quartiles in K-ARS scores were defined to be in ADHD and non-ADHD groups, respectively. Five children (0.9%) met criteria for a definite Internet addiction and 75 children (14.0%) met criteria for a probable Internet addiction. K-ARS scores had significant positive correlations with Young's Internet Addiction test scores. The Internet addiction group had higher total scores of K-ARS and ADHD-related subcategories in the Child Behavior Checklists than the non-addiction group. The ADHD group had higher Internet addiction scores compared with the non-ADHD group. Therefore, significant associations have been found between the level of ADHD symptoms and the severity of Internet addiction in children. In addition, current findings suggest that the presence of ADHD symptoms, both in inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity domains, may be one of the important risk factors for Internet addiction.

  11. ADHD--Building Academic Success. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief discusses students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their school performance. Reasons are presented to explain why children with ADHD fail. The three main characteristics of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) and their interference with academic performance are discussed. The brief…

  12. Executive Functions in Girls with ADHD Followed Prospectively into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Ho, Jennifer; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison group (n = 88) into young adulthood (Mage = 19.6), 10 years after childhood initial assessments, to evaluate neuropsychological functioning. We hypothesized that neuropsychological deficits would persist through young adulthood for those with ADHD, and that those with continuing ADHD symptomatology in young adulthood would show the largest impairments. Method Neuropsychological measures at follow-up emphasized executive functions (EF) including planning, organization, inhibitory control, sustained attention, working memory, and set shifting. Results Parallel to findings from childhood and adolescence, the girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD displayed medium to large deficits in EF relative to comparisons at follow-up, even with statistical control of baseline demographic and comorbidity variables. The addition of IQ as a covariate attenuated differences but several remained significant. Comparisons between the inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD yielded nonsignificant results with small effect sizes. EF impairments were evident in both participants whose ADHD diagnoses persisted and in those whose ADHD symptoms had remitted to a non-diagnosable level; both subgroups had more EF deficits than those who did not meet criteria for ADHD in either childhood or young adulthood. Conclusions Those in both the persistent and remitted ADHD groups showed impairments in EF relative to comparisons and generally did not differ from each other. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological/EF deficits that persist for at least 10 years. PMID:22468822

  13. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  14. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting.

    PubMed

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.

  15. Parents’ Goals for ADHD Care in a Clinical Pediatric Sample

    PubMed Central

    McGoron, Lucy; Sturner, Raymond; Howard, Barbara; Barry, Tammy D.; Seymour, Karen; Tomeny, Theodore S.; Morrel, Tanya; Ellis, Brandi M.; Marks, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective This report describes goals parents have for their children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder when coming for a pediatric visit. Method Data was collected from 441 parents of children presenting to either a primary care pediatric practice or a developmental behavioral pediatric practice. Parents were asked to report their top one or two goals for improvement for their children, and responses were coded into 17 categories. These categories were further grouped into seven goal composites and examined in relation to demographic characteristics of the families, office type, and symptomology. Results Goals related to reducing symptoms of inattention were most common, but goals were heterogeneous in nature. Goals were meaningfully, but modestly, related to symptomology. In several instances, symptoms of comorbid conditions interacted with symptoms of ADHD in relation to specific goals being reported. Conclusions Parents’ goals extended beyond ADHD symptoms. Pediatricians need an array of resources to address parents’ goals. PMID:25082952

  16. Rearing in an enriched environment attenuated hyperactivity and inattention in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, an animal model of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Lee, Hyelim; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly treated with psychostimulants that typically begins during childhood and lasts for an extended period of time. However, there are concerns regarding the consequences of chronic psychostimulant treatment; thus, there is a growing search for an alternative management for ADHD. One non-pharmacological management that is gaining much interest is environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the effects of rearing in an enriched environment (EE) on the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. SHRs were reared in EE or standard environment (SE) from post-natal day (PND) 21 until PND 49. Thereafter, behavioral tests that measure hyperactivity (open field test [OFT]), inattention (Y-maze task), and impulsivity (delay discounting task) were conducted. Additionally, electroencephalography (EEG) was employed to assess the effects of EE on rat's brain activity. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the normotensive counterpart of the SHRs, were used to determine whether the effects of EE were specific to a particular genetic background. EE improved the performance of the SHRs and WKY rats in the OFT and Y-maze task, but not the delay discounting task. Interestingly, EE induced significant EEG changes in WKY rats, but not in the SHRs. These findings show that rearing environment may play a role in the expression of ADHD-like symptoms in the SHRs and that EE may be considered as a putative complementary approach in managing ADHD symptoms.

  17. Inattentional deafness in music.

    PubMed

    Koreimann, Sabrina; Gula, Bartosz; Vitouch, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    While inattentional blindness is a modern classic in attention and perception research, analogous phenomena of inattentional deafness have been widely neglected. We here present the first investigation of inattentional deafness in and with music under controlled experimental conditions. Inattentional deafness in music is defined as the inability to consciously perceive an unexpected musical stimulus when attention is focused on a certain facet of the piece. Participants listened to a modification of the first 1'50″ of Richard Strauss' Thus Spake Zarathustra; while the control group just listened, the experimental group had to count the number of timpani beats. An e-guitar solo served as the unexpected event. In Study 1, experimental data from n = 115 participants were analyzed. Non-musicians were compared with musicians to investigate the impact of expertise. In Study 2 (n = 47), the scope of the inattentional deafness effect was investigated with a more salient unexpected stimulus. Results demonstrate an inattentional deafness effect under dynamic musical conditions. Quite unexpectedly, the effect was structurally equivalent even for musicians. Our findings clearly show that sustained inattentional deafness exists in the musical realm, in close correspondence to inattentional blindness with dynamic visual stimuli.

  18. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits.

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  20. Use of the Transcendental Meditation Technique to Reduce Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by Reducing Stress and Anxiety: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Sarina J.; Stixrud, William R.; Travis, Fred; Bateh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study tested the feasibility of using the Transcendental Meditation[R] technique to reduce stress and anxiety as a means of reducing symptoms of ADHD. Students ages 11-14 were taught the technique, and practiced it twice daily in school. Common ADHD inventories and performance measures of executive function were administered at…

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  2. Are Oppositional-Defiant and Hyperactive-Inattentive Symptoms Developmental Precursors to Conduct Problems in Late Childhood?: Genetic and Environmental Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2009-01-01

    Inattentive-hyperactive and oppositional behavior have been hypothesized to be developmental precursors to conduct problems. We tested these hypotheses using a longitudinal sample of 6,466 offspring of women selected from nationally representative US households. Conduct problems across 8-13 years were robustly predicted by conduct problems at 4-7…

  3. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities.

  4. Genetic Support for the Dual Nature of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Substantial Genetic Overlap between the Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Ronald, Angelica; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, complex and highly heritable disorder, characterised by inattentive, impulsive and overactive behaviour. Evidence for the heritability of ADHD measures in twin population samples has come from the analysis of total scores that combine inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive…

  5. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the early years: diagnostic issues and educational relevance.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for.

  6. A Causal and Mediation Analysis of the Comorbidity Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Elena; Oerlemans, Anoek M; Rommelse, Nanda N; Groot, Perry; Hartman, Catharina A; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Claassen, Tom; Heskes, Tom; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-03-02

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between ASD and ADHD symptoms by applying causal modeling. We used a large phenotypic data set of 417 children with ASD and/or ADHD, 562 affected and unaffected siblings, and 414 controls, to infer a structural equation model using a causal discovery algorithm. Three distinct pathways between ASD and ADHD were identified: (1) from impulsivity to difficulties with understanding social information, (2) from hyperactivity to stereotypic, repetitive behavior, (3) a pairwise pathway between inattention, difficulties with understanding social information, and verbal IQ. These findings may inform future studies on understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the overlap between ASD and ADHD.

  7. Cognitive and Academic Abilities Associated with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparison between Subtypes in a Greek Non-Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Sophia; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Foteini; Padeliadu, Suzanna; Simos, Panagiotis G.

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed cognitive and academic performance of children demonstrating teacher-rated ADHD-related symptoms (Inattention [IA] and/or Hyperactivity/Impulsivity [H/I]) in a representative sample of, largely untreated, Greek elementary school students (N?=?923). A battery of tests assessing short-term memory (STM), sustained attention,…

  8. Sex-specific and time-dependent effects of prenatal stress on the early behavioral symptoms of ADHD: a longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Tao, Rui-Xue; Huang, Kun; Jiang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Yuan-Duo; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that prenatal stressful life events (SLEs) may be a potential risk factor for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the sex-specific and time-dependent effects of prenatal stress on ADHD are less clear. In this prospective longitudinal study, data on prenatal SLEs during different stages of gestation and indicators of buffers against stress, including maternal social support and avoidance coping, were obtained from 1765 pregnant women at 32 weeks of gestation. The behavioral symptoms of ADHD in children aged 48-54 months were evaluated by reports from the parents. There were 226 children (12.8%) above the clinically significant cutoff for ADHD. After adjusting for potential confounders, boys whose mother experienced severe SLEs in the second trimester had a significantly increased risk (OR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.03-5.66) of developing ADHD symptoms compared with boys whose mothers did not experience severe SLEs at this time. However, no significantly increased risk of ADHD symptoms was observed in girls born to mothers experienced prenatal severe SLEs. Additionally, significant interaction effects of prenatal SLEs, social support and coping style on ADHD symptoms were found in males. Boys whose mothers experienced severe SLEs during the second trimester accompanied by a higher score for avoidance coping (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 1.13-9.70) or a lower score for social support (OR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.05-18.31) were likely to be at a higher risk for ADHD symptoms. The epidemiological evidence in this prospective follow-up study suggests that the effect of prenatal SLEs on ADHD symptoms in offspring may depend on the timing of prenatal stress and may vary according to the sex of the offspring.

  9. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  10. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. Methods A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student’s ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. Results The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26562777

  11. A Preliminary Investigation of ADHD Symptoms in Persons with Celiac Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut; Pittschieler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Several studies report a possible association of celiac disease (CD) with psychiatric and psychological disturbances, such as ADHD. Method: The authors assess 132 participants from 3 to 57 years of age (M = 19.3 years) affected by CD for the possibility of an associated ADHD-like symptomatology, using the Conner Scale Hypescheme, a…

  12. Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD Symptoms and Very Low-Frequency EEG Activity: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways.…

  13. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  14. Relation between Outcomes on a Continuous Performance Test and ADHD Symptoms over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Rausch, Joseph; Altaye, Mekibib; Langberg, Joshua; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the developmental trajectories of neuropsychological functioning and ADHD symptomatology in a longitudinal sample of children ages 9 to 14. Participants and measures were derived from the Multimodal Treatment Study for ADHD including 534MTA participants and 254 normal controls. Despite improvement over…

  15. Are Externalizing and Internalizing Difficulties of Young Children with Spelling Impairment Related to Their ADHD Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-01-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we…

  16. Semantic Language as a Mechanism Explaining the Association between ADHD Symptoms and Reading and Mathematics Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD is associated with academic underachievement, but it remains unclear what mechanism accounts for this association. Semantic language is an underexplored mechanism that provides a developmental explanation for this association. The present study will examine whether semantic language deficits explain the association between ADHD and reading…

  17. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  18. Childhood Symptoms of ADHD Overrule Comorbidity in Relation to Psychosocial Outcome at Age 15: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Norén Selinus, Eva; Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larson, Tomas; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) may influence the transition from childhood to adolescence. Our aim was to study long-term psychosocial outcomes of NDPs, focusing on ADHD. Method Data was collected through a telephone interview with parents of twins at ages 9 or 12 years. NDP screen-positive children were clinically assessed at age 15; N = 450. Psychosocial outcome concerning peers, school, internalizing problems, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and impaired daily functioning was examined. Results Even after controlling for other NDP comorbidity, screen-positivity for ADHD doubled or tripled the odds of later psychosocial problems. When controlling for parental education level, the significant effect of ADHD remained only for antisocial behavior and impaired daily functioning. Conclusions Signs of NDPs as well as other psychiatric diagnoses at ages 9 or 12 years are associated with a more problematic adolescence. However, despite the presence of comorbidity, early ADHD symptoms stand out as the most important risk factor for later antisocial development and impaired daily functioning. PMID:26360378

  19. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  20. The Genetic Overlap of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic-like Traits: an Investigation of Individual Symptom Scales and Cognitive markers.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ronald, Angelica; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) frequently co-occur. However, due to previous exclusionary diagnostic criteria, little is known about the underlying causes of this covariation. Twin studies assessing ADHD symptoms and autistic-like traits (ALTs) suggest substantial genetic overlap, but have largely failed to take into account the genetic heterogeneity of symptom subscales. This study aimed to clarify the phenotypic and genetic relations between ADHD and ASD by distinguishing between symptom subscales that characterise the two disorders. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether ADHD-related cognitive impairments show a relationship with ALT symptom subscales; and whether potential shared cognitive impairments underlie the genetic risk shared between the ADHD and ALT symptoms. Multivariate structural equation modelling was conducted on a population-based sample of 1312 twins aged 7-10. Social-communication ALTs correlated moderately with both ADHD symptom domains (phenotypic correlations around 0.30) and showed substantial genetic overlap with both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (genetic correlation = 0.52 and 0.44, respectively). In addition to previously reported associations with ADHD traits, reaction time variability (RTV) showed significant phenotypic (0.18) and genetic (0.32) association with social-communication ALTs. RTV captured a significant proportion (24 %) of the genetic influences shared between inattention and social-communication ALTs. Our findings suggest that social-communication ALTs underlie the previously observed phenotypic and genetic covariation between ALTs and ADHD symptoms. RTV is not specific to ADHD symptoms, but is also associated with social-communication ALTs and can, in part, contribute to an explanation of the co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD.

  1. A small-scale randomized controlled trial of the self-help version of the New Forest Parent Training Programme for children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Daley, David; O'Brien, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    The efficacy of a self-help parent training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was evaluated. The New Forest Parenting Programme Self-help (NFPP-SH) is a 6-week written self-help psychological intervention designed to treat childhood ADHD. Forty-three children were randomised to either NFPP-SH intervention or a waiting list control group. Outcomes were child ADHD symptoms measured using questionnaires and direct observation, self-reported parental mental health, parenting competence, and the quality of parent-child interaction. Measures of child symptoms and parental outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention. ADHD symptoms were reduced, and parental competence was increased by self-help intervention. Forty-five percent of intervention children showed clinically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms. Self-help intervention did not lead to improvements in parental mental health or parent-child interaction. Findings provide support for the efficacy of self-help intervention for a clinical sample of children with ADHD symptoms. Self-help may provide a potentially cost-effective method of increasing access to evidence-based interventions for clinical populations.

  2. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  3. Decreased Left Caudate Volume Is Associated with Increased Severity of Autistic-Like Symptoms in a Cohort of ADHD Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Groen, Wouter; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of ASD ratings were analysed by studying the relationship between ASD ratings and grey matter volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom count and total brain volume. ASD ratings were significantly elevated in participants with ADHD relative to controls and unaffected siblings. For the entire group (participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and TD controls), mixed effect models revealed that the left caudate nucleus volume was negatively correlated with ASD ratings (t = 2.83; P = 0.005). The current findings are consistent with the role of the caudate nucleus in executive function, including the selection of goals based on the evaluation of action outcomes and the use of social reward to update reward representations. There is a specific volumetric profile associated with subclinical ASD-like symptoms in participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus being of critical importance in predicting the level of ASD-like symptoms in all three groups. PMID:27806078

  4. Motivation Deficit in ADHD is Associated with Dysfunction of the Dopamine Reward Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Kollins, Scott H.; Wigal, Tim L.; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Klein, Nelly; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher; Swanson, James M.

    2010-01-01

    ADHD is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using PET we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which we hypothesized could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [11C]raclopride and [11C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens), and a surrogate measures of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11±5 vs 14±3, p<0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r=0.39, p<0.008; midbrain: r=0.41, p<0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r=0.35, p < 0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor - and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN-I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD. PMID:20856250

  5. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Newcorn, J H; Kollins, S H; Wigal, T L; Telang, F; Fowler, J S; Goldstein, R Z; Klein, N; Logan, J; Wong, C; Swanson, J M

    2011-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [(11)C]raclopride and [(11)C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11±5 vs 14±3, P<0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r=0.39, P<0.008; midbrain: r=0.41, P<0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r=0.35, P<0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor-and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD.

  6. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Newcorn, J.H.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Telang, F.; Folwer, J.S.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Klein, N.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-08-17

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and [{sup 11}C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11 {+-} 5 vs 14 {+-} 3, P < 0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r = 0.39, P < 0.008; midbrain: r = 0.41, P < 0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r = 0.35, P < 0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor - and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD.

  7. Categorical and Dimensional Definitions and Evaluations of Symptoms of ADHD: History of the SNAP and the SWAN Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Swanson, James M; Schuck, Sabrina; Porter, Miranda Mann; Carlson, Caryn; Hartman, Catharina A; Sergeant, Joseph A; Clevenger, Walter; Wasdell, Michael; McCleary, Richard; Lakes, Kimberley; Wigal, Timothy

    2012-04-01

    An earlier version of this article was originally submitted for publication in early 2000 to introduce a new dimensional of concept of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. The SWAN was developed to correct some obvious deficiencies of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP) rating scale that was based on the categorical concept of ADHD. The first submission was not accepted for publication, so a draft of the article was posted on a website (www.ADHD.net). The SWAN scale was published as a table in a review article (Swanson et al, 2001) to make it available to those interested in this dimensional approach to assessment of ADHD. Despite its relative inaccessibility, the SWAN has been used in several genetic studies of ADHD (e.g., Hay, Bennett, Levy, Sergeant, & Swanson, 2005; Cornish et al, 2005) and has been translated into several languages for European studies of ADHD (e.g., Lubke et al, 2006; Polderman et al, 2010) and into Spanish for studies in the United States (e.g., Lakes, Swanson, & Riggs, 2011; Kudo et al., this issue). Recently, invitations to include the SWAN in the PhenX Toolkit (www.phenx.org) for genomic studies (Hamilton et al, 2011) and to describe thedimensional approach of the SWAN for discussion of diagnostic (Swanson, Wigal, & Lakes, 2009) and ethical (Swanson, Wigal, Lakes, &Volkow, 2011) issues has convinced us that the unpublished article is still relevant after more than a decade, so it is presented here with some minor updates. We use examples (a) to document some consequences (e.g., over-identification of extreme cases) of using statistical cutoffs based on the assumption for a distribution of SNAP ratings that is highly skewed and (b) to show how the SWAN corrects the skewness of the SNAP by rewording the items on the scale and using a wider range of rating alternatives, which corrects the tendency to over-identify extreme cases.

  8. ADHD Symptoms in Post-Institutionalized Children Are Partially Mediated by Altered Frontal EEG Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Tahl I; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Frenn, Kristin A; Lamm, Connie; Fox, Nathan A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-09-29

    Individual differences in the propensity for left versus right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry may underlie differences in approach/withdrawal tendencies and mental health deficits. Growing evidence suggests that early life adversity may shape brain development and contribute to the emergence of mental health problems. The present study examined frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) following the transition to family care in children adopted internationally from institutional care settings between 15 and 36 months of age (N = 82; 46 female, 36 male). Two comparison groups were included: an international adoption control consisting of children adopted from foster care with little to no institutional deprivation (N = 45; 17 female, 28 male) and a post-adoption condition control consisting of children reared in birth families of the same education and income as the adoptive families (N = 48; 23 female, 25 male). Consistent with evidence of greater approach and impulsivity-related behavior problems in post-institutionalized (PI) children, PI status was associated with greater left FEA than found in the other two groups. In addition, left FEA served as a mediator between institutionalization and age 5 ADHD symptoms for girls. Age at adoption and other preadoption factors were examined with results suggesting that earlier adoption into a supportive family resulted in a more typical pattern of brain functioning. Findings support the idea that the capacity of brain activity to evidence typical functioning following perturbation may differ in relation to the timing of intervention and suggest that the earlier the intervention of adoption, the better.

  9. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions.

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions and sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms in relation to college students' sleep functioning.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined separate inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms, in relation to college students' sleep functioning. Participants were 288 college students (ages 17-24; 65 % female; 90 % non-Hispanic White; 12 % self-reported having an ADHD diagnoses) who completed measures of ADHD/SCT symptoms and sleep functioning. Participants reported obtaining an average of 6.8 h of sleep per night (only 26 % reported obtaining ≥8 h of sleep) and having a sleep onset latency of 25 min. 63 % were classified as "poor sleepers," and poor sleepers had higher rates of ADHD and SCT symptoms than "good sleepers". Path analysis controlling for ADHD status and psychiatric medication use was used to determine associations between psychopathology and sleep functioning domains. Above and beyond covariates and other psychopathologies, hyperactivity (but not impulsivity) was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and more use of sleep medications. SCT symptoms (but not inattention) were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality and increased nighttime sleep disturbance (e.g., having bad dreams, waking up in the middle of the night, feeling too cold or too hot). Both inattention and SCT were associated with greater daytime dysfunction. Regression analyses demonstrated that hyperactivity predicted sleep quality above and beyond the influence of daytime dysfunction, and inattention and SCT predicted daytime dysfunction above and beyond sleep quality. Further studies are needed to examine the interrelations of nighttime sleep functioning, ADHD/SCT, and daytime dysfunction, as well to elucidate mechanisms contributing to related functional impairments.

  11. Assessment and monitoring of treatment response in adult ADHD patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, J Russell

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to “get by” before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others. A lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is associated with a wide range of life impairments, which makes a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic assessment essential in order to obtain appropriate treatment. Moreover, while there are effective medical and psychosocial treatments for ADHD, it is important to be able to track treatment response in order to evaluate whether adjustments in specific interventions are needed or referrals for adjunctive treatments and supports are indicated to facilitate optimal therapeutic outcomes. The goal of this article is to provide a clinically useful review of the various measures that practicing clinicians can use to aid in the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of psychosocial and medical treatment of ADHD in adult patients. This review includes various structured interviews, screening scales, adult ADHD symptom inventories, measures of associated features of ADHD, as well as ratings of impairment and functioning which can be adapted to clinicians’ practice needs in order to track treatment progress and optimize treatments for adults with ADHD. PMID:28184164

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831)

    PubMed Central

    Kean, James D.; Kaufman, Jordy; Lomas, Justine; Goh, Antionette; White, David; Simpson, David; Scholey, Andrew; Singh, Hemant; Sarris, Jerome; Zangara, Andrea; Stough, Con

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention) have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000827831. PMID:26633481

  13. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  14. A Randomized Trial Examining the Effects of Aerobic Physical Activity on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Hoza, Betsy; Smith, Alan L.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Linnea, Kate S.; Dorsch, Travis E.; Blazo, Jordan A.; Alerding, Caitlin M.; McCabe, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of before school physical activity (PA) and sedentary classroom-based (SC) interventions on the symptoms, behavior, moodiness and peer functioning of young children (Mage = 6.83) at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-risk; n = 94) and typically developing children (TD; n = 108). Children were randomly assigned to either PA or SC and participated in the assigned intervention 31 minutes per day, each school day, over the course of 12 weeks. Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity), oppositional behavior, moodiness, behavior toward peers, and reputation with peers, were used as dependent variables. Primary analyses indicate that the PA intervention was more effective than the SC intervention at reducing inattention and moodiness in the home context. Less conservative follow-up analyses within ADHD status and intervention groups suggest that a PA intervention may reduce impairment associated with ADHD-risk in both home and school domains; interpretive caution is warranted, however, given the liberal approach to these analyses. Unexpectedly, these findings also indicate the potential utility of a before school SC intervention as a tool for managing ADHD symptoms. Inclusion of a no treatment control group in future studies will enable further understanding of PA as an alternative management strategy for ADHD symptoms. PMID:25201345

  15. The association between sluggish cognitive tempo and academic functioning in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Becker, Stephen P; Dvorsky, Melissa R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relation between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and academic functioning in a sample of 52 adolescents (40 males, 12 females) with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; M age = 13.75). This study builds on prior work by utilizing an empirically-based and psychometrically validated measure of SCT, collecting ratings of SCT from both parents and teachers, and examining associations with multiple domains of academic functioning from both the parent and teacher perspective as well as grade point average (GPA). Both SCT and DSM-IV symptoms of inattention were significantly correlated with domains of academic functioning. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the parent-rated SCT Slow subscale predicted overall academic functioning, organizational skills impairment, and homework problems above and beyond ADHD symptoms and child and demographic characteristics known to be associated with academics, including intelligence, academic achievement, and family income. The teacher-rated SCT Low Initiation/Persistence subscale also predicted homework problems and was the only SCT variable to predict school grades above and beyond ADHD symptoms and relevant covariates. Both the SCT Slow and Low Initiation/Persistence subscales include items related to youth seeming apathetic, unmotivated, and lacking initiative, behaviors that are strongly related to ADHD symptoms of inattention but not currently captured by the DSM-IV. Implications of these findings towards supporting the external validity of the SCT construct are discussed along with potential implications for intervention.

  16. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  17. Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Czamara, Darina; Tiesler, Carla M T; Kohlböck, Gabriele; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Schaaf, Beate; Lehmann, Irina; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Heinrich, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.80, p = 6.59×10⁻¹³) as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10⁻⁰⁴). Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based.

  18. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  19. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD symptoms may not be as clear as ADHD symptoms in children. In adults, hyperactivity may decrease, but struggles with ... similar to treatment for childhood ADHD, though some ADHD medications approved for children are not approved for adult use. Adult ADHD ...

  20. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  1. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Converse, Alexander K; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Travers, Brittany G; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n = 28) and control participants (n = 44) were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15-weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  2. Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…

  3. Children with ADHD Symptoms Are Less Susceptible to Gap-Filling Errors than Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirandola, C.; Paparella, G.; Re, A. M.; Ghetti, S.; Cornoldi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced semantic processing is associated with increased false recognition of items consistent with studied material, suggesting that children with poor semantic skills could produce fewer false memories. We examined whether memory errors differed in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and controls. Children viewed 18…

  4. Executive Functions in Girls with and without Childhood ADHD: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Symptom Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories…

  5. Effects of Preconceptional Ethanol Consumption on ADHD-Like Symptoms in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offsprings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inah; Kim, Pitna; Joo, So Hyun; Kim, Min Kyeong; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Hee Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during gestational period is related to growth retardation, morphological abnormality, and even in neurological abnormalities including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behaviors on offspring. However, relatively little is known about the effects of maternal ethanol consumption prior to conception on their offspring. In this study, we investi-gated whether maternal ethanol administration during preconceptional phase produces ADHD-like behaviors in the rat offspring. Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were administrated ethanol via intragastric intubation with dosing regimen of 6 g/kg daily for 10 consecutive days and treated female rats then mated with non-treated male SD rats after 8 weeks. Another group subjected to the same procedure as those conducted on ethanol treated group except the saline administration instead of ethanol. Offspring was tested for their ADHD-like behaviors using open field test, Y maze test and impulsivity test that is performed in the aversive electronic foot shock paradigm. Offspring of preconceptional ethanol treated (EtOH) group showed hyperlocomotive activity, attention deficit and impulsivity. And reduction of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) level was observed by Western blot in the EtOH group, compared to control (Con) group, while the immunohistochemical analysis exhibited increased expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the frontal cortex. These results suggest that maternal ethanol consumption in the preconceptional phase induces ADHD-like behaviors in offspring that might be related to the abnormal expression of DAT and NET in rat. PMID:24116300

  6. The Redundancy Effect on Retention and Transfer for Individuals with High Symptoms of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria; Lewis, David; Toussaint, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia elements of text and audio need to be carefully integrated together to maximize the impact of those elements for learning in a multimedia environment. Redundancy information presented through audio and visual channels can inhibit learning for individuals diagnosed with ADHD, who may experience challenges in the processing of…

  7. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  8. Is physical activity causally associated with symptoms of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; Lichtenstein, Paul; Rydell, Mina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) enhances cognition and may be a protective factor for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet, the impact of PA on ADHD symptoms has only been investigated in a few undersized, non-randomised and retrospective studies. We examined the effect of PA during late adolescence on ADHD symptoms in early adulthood while controlling for unmeasured genetic and shared environmental confounding. Methods The effect of PA at age 16-17 (baseline) on ADHD symptoms at age 19-20 (follow-up) was examined using a within-monozygotic twins fixed-effects model in 232 monozygotic twin pairs born in Sweden between May 1985 and December 1986. Parents rated their children’s DSM ADHD symptoms at baseline and follow-up. Participants’ weekly energy expenditure (in metabolic equivalent task minutes/ week) was based on self-reports at baseline of PA frequency, intensity and duration. Results Greater weekly energy expenditure in adolescence was significantly associated with reduced ADHD symptom levels in early adulthood, even when controlling for unmeasured confounding (all genetic and shared environmental factors shared within MZ twin pairs) and ADHD symptoms and BMI at baseline, β = - 0.21, p=0.013 (95% CI= -0.38 – -0.05). Similar results were observed for the two ADHD sub-components; hyperactivity/ impulsivity, β = -0.21, p=0.022 (95% CI= -0.39 – -0.03), and inattention, β = -0.19, p=0.049 (95% CI= -0.36 – -0.0005). Conclusion In line with a causal hypothesis, PA was inversely associated with ADHD symptoms, even after adjusting for unmeasured confounding. These findings suggest that PA in adolescence might decrease ADHD symptoms in early adulthood. However, given the size of the effect, the clinical value of this intervention needs to be explored further. PMID:26088661

  9. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    PubMed

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    severe early deprivon such as institution-rearing, inattention/hyperactivity symptoms were shown to be high, but these findings may not be valid in less severely deprived children. Third, another link could depend on a common vulnerability for ADHD and attachment disorder. Some perinatal factors, such as smoking during pregnancy or prematurity, have been shown to increase the risk of hyperactive symptoms in children. These variables may also be associated with a higher risk of impaired early interactions. Recent animal studies have raised interest in the role of prenatal stress in the emotional and behavioral development of the offspring, particularly as regards vulnerability to stress. Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in durable alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenergic axis. Preliminary findings in humans show that prenatal stress or maternal depression may also influence the development of the child. The understanding of the relationship between attachment and ADHD may help to better target prevention and intervention efforts. As the perinatal period seems to be particularly involved in both ADHD and attachment disorders, early guidance and possibly prenatal interventions should be developed and assessed for mothers and caregivers with risk-factors.

  10. Relationship between symptom impairment and treatment outcome in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a physician perspective.

    PubMed

    Setyawan, Juliana; Fridman, Moshe; Hodgkins, Paul; Quintero, Javier; Erder, M Haim; Katić, Božena J; Harpin, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the association between those symptoms/behaviours of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that were present at diagnosis and outcomes of treatment in children and adolescents in six European countries. Physicians abstracted clinical records from patients (6-17 years) diagnosed with ADHD between 2004 and 2007 and treated for ≥2 years. Physicians scored the severity of impairment for core ADHD symptoms and additional (non-core) ADHD symptoms/behaviours at diagnosis and estimated treatment adherence (defined as an estimated >80 % adherence on weekdays and >50 % adherence on weekends). Treatment modalities included pharmacological treatment, behavioural therapy, or both. Pharmacological treatment was further subclassified by medication class. The outcome, optimal treatment success (OTS), was defined as complete symptom control with high satisfaction with treatment. Multivariate logistic regression modelling examined the relationship between OTS and symptom impairment. Of 730 patients, 200 (27 %) achieved OTS. These patients were more likely to demonstrate lower impairment in non-core ADHD symptoms/behaviours and have fewer pre-existing comorbidities. They were also more likely to be adherent and engaged with treatment, with an explicit treatment goal to improve inattention/school performance. Neither core symptoms' severity nor treatment types were associated with OTS. OTS rates were low, with patients having less impairment of non-core ADHD symptoms/behaviours and fewer comorbidities more likely to achieve OTS. Potentially modifiable factors affecting OTS were as follows: treatment adherence, treatment engagement, and a treatment goal to improve inattention/school performance. These data suggest that there may be opportunities to optimize current treatment use, and develop new treatment strategies to improve core and non-core ADHD symptoms/behaviours.

  11. Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Luiz Rogério Jorgensen

    2015-01-01

    ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6–14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant’s performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music. Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD. PMID:26441688

  12. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  14. Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Musielak, Kayla A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated morphological differences in the corpus callosum in children ages 8 to 18 years old with nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n = 19), high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 23), predominantly inattentive ADHD (ADHD:PI; n = 23), and combined type ADHD (ADHD:C; n = 25), as well as those demonstrating typical development (n = 57). Midsagittal area of the corpus callosum and five midsagittal anterior-to-posterior corpus callosum segments were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Controlling for midsagittal brain area and age, no group differences were found for total corpus callosum area. This finding indicates that higher functioning children on the autistic spectrum do not have smaller corpus callosi as has been found in previous research with heterogeneous samples. Following segmentation of the corpus callosum, the NLD group was observed to have significantly smaller splenia compared to all other groups. Smaller splenia in the NLD group was associated with lower WASI PIQ scores but not WASI VIQ scores. Children with HFA were observed to have larger midbody areas than children with NLD and neurotypically developing children. Children with HFA and NLD demonstrated behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity similar to the ADHD groups indicating that corpus callosum differences seen in the NLD and HFA groups are not related to these behaviors.

  15. Smoking during Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Denardin, Daniel; Silva, Tatiana Laufer; Pianca, Thiago; Hutz, Mara Helena; Faraone, Stephen; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Few previous studies assessed specifically attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in nonreferred samples. This study investigated the association between ADHD-I and prenatal exposure to nicotine. Method: In a case-control study performed between September 2002 and April 2005, we assessed a…

  16. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents

  17. Detecting Symptom Exaggeration in College Students Seeking ADHD Treatment: Performance Validity Assessment Using the NV-MSVT and IVA-Plus.

    PubMed

    Leppma, Monica; Long, Daniel; Smith, Megan; Lassiter, Candace

    2017-01-27

    The symptoms of ADHD are highly subjective, and there is ample empirical evidence that demonstrates the ease with which impairments in attention can be feigned on many commonly used subjective and objective measures of attention. We examined the combination of two assessment measures, NV-MSVT and IVA+, to screen for performance validity and ADHD symptoms in college students. Results indicated that the NV-MSVT was effective in differentiating between students with potential high impairment, such as ADHD, and possible malingerers. In addition, in vivo clinical data (N = 350) resulted in lower validity cut-off scores on the IVA+ than had been previously suggested. Clinical implications and future research are also discussed.

  18. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature.

  19. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  20. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  1. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  2. A Common Genetic Factor Explains the Covariation among ADHD ODD and CD Symptoms in 9-10 Year Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Zheng, Mo; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common…

  3. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  4. Maternal Executive Functioning and Scaffolding in Families of Children with and without Parent-Reported ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Thomas, Sharon R; Woods, Kelsey E; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2017-03-30

    Parental scaffolding robustly predicts child developmental outcomes, including improved self-regulation and peer relationships and fewer externalizing behaviors. However, few studies have examined parental characteristics associated with a parent's ability to scaffold. Executive functioning (EF) may be an important individual difference factor associated with maternal scaffolding that has yet to be examined empirically. Scaffolding may be particularly important for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms due to their core difficulties with inattention, disorganization, EF, and self-regulation, their need for greater parental structure, and higher-than-average rates of parental EF deficits. Yet, little research has examined child ADHD in relation to parental scaffolding. This cross-sectional study examined: (1) the association between maternal EF (as measured by the Hotel Test, Barkley's Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale, and Digit Span) and observed scaffolding, (2) the association between parent-reported child ADHD/DBD symptoms and scaffolding, and (3) the interaction between child ADHD/DBD symptoms and maternal EF in predicting scaffolding. In a sample of 84 mothers and their 5-10 year-old biological children (62% male) with and without parent-reported ADHD, we found that maternal EF, as measured by Digit Span and the Hotel Test, predicted observed maternal scaffolding. However, child ADHD/DBD symptoms did not significantly predict maternal scaffolding controlling for child age, maternal education, and maternal EF, nor did the interaction of maternal EF and parent-reported child ADHD/DBD symptoms. Working memory and task shifting may be key components of parental EF that could be targeted in interventions to improve parental scaffolding.

  5. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY, XXX, XYY, and XXYY

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Nicole R.; Ayari, Natalie; Hutaff-Lee, Christa; Boada, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attentional problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity have been described as behavioral features associated with sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). In this study, the authors compare attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 167 participants aged 6 to 20 years with 4 types of SCA (XXY n = 56, XYY n = 33, XXX n = 25, and XXYY n = 53). They also evaluate factors associated with ADHD symptomatology (cognitive and adaptive scores, prenatal vs postnatal ascertainment) and describe the clinical response to psychopharmacologic medications in a subset of patients treated for ADHD. Methods Evaluation included medical and developmental history, cognitive and adaptive functioning assessment, and parent and teacher ADHD questionnaires containing DSM-IV criteria. Results In the total study group, 58% (96/167) met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD on parent-report questionnaires (36% in XXY, 52% in XXX, 76% in XYY, and 72% in XXYY). The Inattentive subtype was most common in XXY and XXX, whereas the XYY and XXYY groups were more likely to also have hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. There were no significant differences in Verbal, Performance, or Full Scale IQ between children with symptom scores in the ADHD range compared with those below the ADHD range. However, adaptive functioning scores were significantly lower in the group whose scores in the ADHD range were compared with those of the group who did not meet ADHD DSMIV criteria. Those with a prenatal diagnosis of XXY were less likely to meet criteria for ADHD compared with the postnatally diagnosed group. Psychopharmacologic treatment with stimulants was effective in 78.6% (66/84). Conclusions Children and adolescents with SCA are at increased risk for ADHD symptoms. Recommendations for ADHD evaluation and treatment in consideration of other aspects of the SCA medical and behavioral phenotype are provided. PMID:22333574

  6. Conceptual Structure of the Symptoms of Adult ADHD According to the "DSM-IV" and Retrospective Wender-Utah Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Pedersen, Anya; Rist, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Adult "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") and retrospective childhood Wender-Utah ADHD criteria are implemented in self-report measures to assess adult ADHD and its required onset in childhood. Yet their dimensional structure and relationship to adult ADHD depressivity is still…

  7. Current Self-Reported Symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Are Associated with Total Brain Volume in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoogman, Martine; Rijpkema, Mark; Janss, Luc; Brunner, Han; Fernandez, Guillen; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Background Reduced total brain volume is a consistent finding in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In order to get a better understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD, we take the first step in studying the dimensionality of current self-reported adult ADHD symptoms, by looking at its relation with total brain volume. Methodology/Principal Findings In a sample of 652 highly educated adults, the association between total brain volume, assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, and current number of self-reported ADHD symptoms was studied. The results showed an association between these self-reported ADHD symptoms and total brain volume. Post-hoc analysis revealed that the symptom domain of inattention had the strongest association with total brain volume. In addition, the threshold for impairment coincides with the threshold for brain volume reduction. Conclusions/Significance This finding improves our understanding of the biological substrates of self-reported ADHD symptoms, and suggests total brain volume as a target intermediate phenotype for future gene-finding in ADHD. PMID:22348063

  8. Mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and smoking/drinking.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu

    2016-02-29

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college students from Shanghai, China. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to identify the current and past ADHD. Structural Equation Modeling was carried out to clarify the mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between core ADHD symptoms and smoking/drinking behaviors. We found that inattention as one of the core symptoms of ADHD was associated with an increased risk of depression as a direct effect, as well as slightly increased risk of smoking/drinking behaviors by an indirect effect of depression. Hyperactivity-impulsivity, as another core symptom of ADHD had a robust impact on smoking and drinking behaviors, while being mediated by anxiety and depression. In conclusion, anxiety and depression was associated with further increased risk behaviors of smoking/drinking alcohol among those students with ADHD.

  9. Mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and smoking/drinking

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college students from Shanghai, China. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to identify the current and past ADHD. Structural Equation Modeling was carried out to clarify the mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between core ADHD symptoms and smoking/drinking behaviors. We found that inattention as one of the core symptoms of ADHD was associated with an increased risk of depression as a direct effect, as well as slightly increased risk of smoking/drinking behaviors by an indirect effect of depression. Hyperactivity-impulsivity, as another core symptom of ADHD had a robust impact on smoking and drinking behaviors, while being mediated by anxiety and depression. In conclusion, anxiety and depression was associated with further increased risk behaviors of smoking/drinking alcohol among those students with ADHD. PMID:26923609

  10. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder (ADHD) and Stress: A Mutual Relationship between Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mercedeh; Daneshmand, Reza; Keramatfar, Rasul; Khooshabi, Katayoon; Amiri, Nasrin; Farhadi, Yadollah; Farzadfard, Seyedeh Zeinab; Kachooi, Hamid; Samadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity which may result in mothers' stress. The current study aims to compare stress among 45 mothers of ADHD children who had referred to “Rofeydeh psychiatric center” with 45 mothers of normal children. Methods: Brief demographic researcher-made questionnaire, Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF) were completed for each mother and child. Results: The results showed that except the component of acceptance, ADHD children had more problems in the field of attention compared with normal children. Mothers of ADHD children had also more stress compared with mothers of normal children. Discussion: ADHD can impair mothers' mental health by inducing stress and this issue has important clinical and treatment implications. Specific treatment programs should be designed and implemented in Iran for the mothers of ADHD children to reduce stress among them and therefore, improve their mental health status. PMID:27307956

  11. The association between parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy, and the clinical significance of child ADHD symptom change following behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.

  12. Assessing Homework Problems in Children with ADHD: Validation of a Parent-Report Measure and Evaluation of Homework Performance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Arnold, L Eugene; Flowers, Amanda M; Altaye, Mekibib; Epstein, Jeff N; Molina, Brooke S G

    2010-03-01

    The factor structure of a parent-report measure of child homework problems, the Homework Problems Checklist, was examined in a geographically and ethnically diverse sample of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This measure was completed by the parents of 579 children ages 7.0-9.9 diagnosed with ADHD Combined Type as part of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Results replicated previous work showing two salient factors that measure homework completion behaviors (Factor I) and homework management behaviors (Factor II). This two-factor solution remained consistent when examined across child sex and ethnicity subgroups. Analysis of patterns revealed that homework problems are greater for children in higher grades and that children with ADHD and comorbid Learning Disabilities experience significantly more homework problems than children with ADHD alone. This study also replicated previous work showing that homework problems and ADHD inattentive symptoms are highly correlated whereas correlations between homework problems and hyperactivity and impulsivity are low to moderate. Implications of the findings for the assessment of homework problems in children with ADHD and for intervention are discussed.

  13. Symptoms of ADHD in children with high-functioning autism are related to impaired verbal working memory and verbal delayed recall.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; Oie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8-17) were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+) or without (HFA-) "attention problems" according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6-18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA- were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA- group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA-, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment.

  14. White matter tract integrity of frontostriatal circuit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association with attention performance and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Huan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The frontostriatal circuit has been postulated to account for the core symptoms such as inattention in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated the white matter integrity of frontostriatal fiber tracts using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography and its correlations with measures of multi-dimensional aspects of inattention based on psychiatric interview and attention tasks in 25 children with ADHD and 25 matched typically developing (TD) children. All the subjects were assessed with comprehensive psychiatric interviews and the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). DSI data were acquired on a 3-Tesla MRI system. The frontostriatal fiber pathways were reconstructed by deterministic tractography, and generalized fractional anisotropy values were measured along individual targeted tracts to investigate alterations in microstructure integrity. Children with ADHD performed worse than TD children in the dimensions of focused attention, sustained attention, impulsivity, and vigilance of the CCPT, and showed impaired integrity in four bilateral frontostriatal tracts, namely the dorsolateral-caudate, medial prefrontal-caudate, orbitofrontal-caudate, and ventrolateral-caudate tracts, and in global white matter as well. The integrity of the left orbitofronto-caudate tract was associated with the symptom of inattention in children with ADHD, compatible with the attention deficit and motivational dysfunction theories in ADHD. The integrity of the frontostriatal tracts was associated with the attention performance only in TD children, suggestive of possible recruitment of tracts other than the frontostriatal tracts implicated in attention deficits in children with ADHD. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the functional involvement of the frontostriatal circuit with respect to clinical symptoms and attention performance.

  15. Associations between the mismatch-negativity component and symptom severity in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Nakanishi, Yoko; Kishimoto, Naoko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Aim Cognitive impairment is an important predictor of functional outcome in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the neurophysiology of ADHD-related cognitive impairments remains unclear. Event-related potentials (ERPs) represent the noninvasive measurement of neural correlates of cognitive function. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an ERP component that is presumed to index the preattentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. Materials and methods Previous studies have shown altered MMN amplitude and latency in patients with ADHD. However, little is known about the relationship between MMN and ADHD-symptom severity. To address this, we measured the amplitude and latency of MMN in ERPs and assessed correlations with the clinical severity of ADHD, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale IV – Japanese version. Participants were 51 treatment-naïve children and adolescents with ADHD (mean age 10.42±3.35 years) and 15 normally developing age- and sex-matched children (mean age 11.8±3.36 years). Results In the ADHD group, MMN amplitudes were attenuated at the central electrode and MMN latencies prolonged at the parietal electrode (Pz) relative to those in the control group. Furthermore, MMN amplitudes at Pz were negatively correlated with ADHD full-scale and hyperactivity–impulsivity and inattention subscale scores, and MMN latency at Pz was positively correlated with ADHD hyperactivity–impulsivity subscale scores. Conclusion Our data suggest that MMN reflects the severity of ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents, and provides support for the use of ERPs in evaluating ADHD symptoms in patients. PMID:28003754

  16. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  17. DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor structure and uniform differential item functioning across gender and three racial/ethnic groups for ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Kanouse, David E; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM-IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 children from three geographical regions who took part in the Healthy Passages study (mean age = 12.60 years, SD = 0.66). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the expected 3-factor structure was tenable for the data. Multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling revealed uniform DIF for three ADHD and 9 ODD item scores, but not for any of the CD item scores. Uniform DIF was observed predominantly as a function of child race/ethnicity, but minimally as a function of child gender. On the positive side, uniform DIF had little impact on latent mean differences of ADHD, CD, and ODD symptomatology among gender and racial/ethnic groups. Implications of the findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

  18. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  19. The Impact of Screening and Advice on Inattentive, Hyperactive and Impulsive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Severely inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive children fall behind their peers and can be difficult for teachers. What impact do screening and/or advice have? Interventions were randomly assigned to 2040 schools and 24 local education authorities in England. School-level interventions involved naming pupils with ADHD-like behaviour, or providing…

  20. Reading and Listening Comprehension and Their Relation to Inattention and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension…

  1. Links between Co-Occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…

  2. Maternal Positive Parenting Style Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…

  3. Gender Differences among Children with ADHD on Continuous Performance Tests: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…

  4. Learning and Motivational Characteristics of Boys with AD/HD and/or Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Moon, Sidney M.; Hall, Arlene M.; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    A study compared the academic and learning characteristics of three students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), three gifted students, and three gifted students with AD/HD. Giftedness conferred benefits related to specific talents but did not offer protection from the negative outcomes of AD/HD, such as inattention and…

  5. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley 1997 "Psychol Bull" 121:65-94; Nigg 2001 "Psychol Bull" 127:571-598), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds…

  6. Understanding and Identifying Children with ADHD: First Steps to Effective Intervention. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief describes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as involving three characteristics: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The brief reviews the causes of ADHD, including the belief that it is primarily an inherited, neurobiological disorder. The effects of ADHD on children are discussed and may include: other…

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  8. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Impaired social functioning in individuals with ADHD has been well-documented as early as the preschool years and often persists into adulthood. Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for improving the inattention, impulsivity and overactivity characteristic of the disorder, but they have limited effectiveness at improving social skills. This…

  9. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  10. Changed Plasma Levels of Zinc and Copper to Zinc Ratio and Their Possible Associations with Parent- and Teacher-Rated Symptoms in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Viktorinova, Alena; Ursinyova, Monika; Trebaticka, Jana; Uhnakova, Iveta; Durackova, Zdenka; Masanova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in the metabolism of some trace elements which may participate in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The aims of the present study were to investigate the trace element status (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), copper to zinc ratio (Cu/Zn ratio), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb)) of ADHD children and compare them with the control group. Associations between examined elements and ratings of ADHD symptoms were also assessed. Fifty-eight ADHD children and 50 healthy children (aged 6-14 years) were included in the study. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Se in the plasma and Pb in the whole blood were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. We found lower Zn level (p = 0.0005) and higher Cu/Zn ratio (p = 0.015) in ADHD children when compared with the control group. Copper levels in ADHD children were higher than those in the control group, but not significantly (p > 0.05). No significant differences in levels of Se and Pb between both groups were found. Zinc levels correlated with parent-rated score for inattention (r = -0.231, p = 0.029) as well as with teacher-rated score for inattention (r = -0.328, p = 0.014). Cu/Zn ratio correlated with teacher-rated score for inattention (r = 0.298, p = 0.015). Significant associations of Se and Pb with parent- and teacher-rated symptoms were not observed. The results of this study indicate that there are alterations in plasma levels of Cu and Zn as well as significant relationships to symptoms of ADHD.

  11. Self-Report of ADHD Symptoms in College Students and Repetition Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczinski, Cecile A.

    2005-01-01

    The research in this article focuses on the relation between self-report of attention deficit disorder (ADD) symptoms and performance on a two-alternative forced-choice task that measures repetition effects. The ADD/Hyperactive Adolescent Self-Report Scale--Short Form is administered to college students after they completed the repetition effects…

  12. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  13. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  14. Pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Carolyn A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    This review outlines pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children, adolescents, and adults. Symptom domains include repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, irritability and aggression, hyperactivity and inattention, and social impairment. Medications covered include serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), mirtazapine, antipsychotics, psychostimulants, atomoxetine, α-2 agonists, D-cycloserine, and memantine. Overall, SRIs are less efficacious and more poorly tolerated in children with ASDs than in adults. Antipsychotics are the most efficacious drugs for the treatment of irritability in ASDs, and may be useful in the treatment of other symptoms. Psychostimulants demonstrate some benefit for the treatment of hyperactivity and inattention in individuals with ASDs, but are less efficacious and associated with more adverse effects compared with individuals with ADHD. D-cycloserine and memantine appear helpful in the treatment of social impairment, although further research is needed. PMID:23226952

  15. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD; clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Kollins, S.H., Wigal, t.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Zhu, W.; Logan, J.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2009-09-09

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity - is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward pathway (mesoaccumbens). We used positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synaptic markers (transporters and D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors) in 53 nonmedicated adults with ADHD and 44 healthy controls between 2001-2009 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We measured specific binding of positron emission tomographic radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [{sup 11}C]cocaine and for D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors using [{sup 11}C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio -1). For both ligands, statistical parametric mapping showed that specific binding was lower in ADHD than in controls (threshold for significance set at P < .005) in regions of the dopamine reward pathway in the left side of the brain. Region-of-interest analyses corroborated these findings. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference) for DAT in the nucleus accumbens for controls was 0.71 vs 0.63 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.13, P = .004) and in the midbrain for controls was 0.16 vs 0.09 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.12; P {le} .001); for D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors, the mean accumbens for controls was 2.85 vs 2.68 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.06-0.30, P = .004); and in the midbrain, it was for controls 0.28 vs 0.18 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.17, P = .01). The analysis also corroborated differences in the left caudate: the mean DAT for controls was 0.66 vs 0.53 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = .003) and the mean D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} for controls was 2.80 vs 2.47 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0

  16. Resting state brain oscillations and symptom profiles in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R

    2013-01-01

    Our perspective on resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is that it provides a window into the substrate of cognitive and perceptual processing, reflecting the dynamic potential of the brain's current functional state. In an extended research program into the electrophysiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), we have examined resting-state EEG power and coherence, and event-related potentials (ERPs), in children, adolescents, and adults with the disorder. We sought initially to identify consistent AD/HD anomalies in these measures, relative to normal control subjects, and then to understand how these differences related to existing models of AD/HD. An emergent strand in this program has been to clarify the EEG correlates of "arousal" and to understand the role of arousal dysfunction as a core anomaly in AD/HD. To date, findings in this strand serve to rule out a commonly held dictum in the AD/HD field: that elevated theta/beta ratio is an indicator of hypo-arousal. In turn, this requires further work to elucidate the ratio's functional significance in the disorder. Our brain dynamics studies relating prestimulus EEG amplitude and phase states to ERP outcomes are expected to help in this regard, but we are still at a relatively early stage, currently examining these relationships in control children, in order to better understand normal aspects of brain dynamics before turning to children with AD/HD. This range of studies provides a framework for our recent work relating resting-state EEG anomalies, in individuals with AD/HD, to their symptom profile. This has had promising results, indicating links between increased inattention scores and reduced resting EEG gamma power. With resting-state EEG coherence, reduced left lateralized coherences across several bands have correlated negatively with inattention scores, while reduced frontal interhemispheric coherence has been correlated negatively with hyperactivity/impulsivity scores. Such linkages

  17. Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rinsky, Jenna R; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Predictors were well-established measures of planning, response inhibition, and working memory, along with a control measure of fine motor control. Independent of ADHD versus comparison group status, (a) childhood planning and response inhibition predicted adolescent social functioning and (b) childhood planning predicted comorbid internalizing/externalizing disorders in adolescence. Subgroup status (ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, and comparison) moderated the relationship between childhood planning and adolescent internalizing/externalizing comorbidity, with the combined type revealing particularly strong associations between baseline planning and adolescent comorbidity. Mediation analyses indicated that adolescent social functioning mediated the prediction from childhood EF to comorbidity at follow-up; in turn, in the girls with ADHD, adolescent comorbidity mediated the prediction from childhood EF to social functioning at follow-up. We conclude that childhood interventions should target EF impairments in addition to behavioral symptoms.

  18. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p < 0.001 for all the correlations). Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  19. Children with ADHD and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder improved in behavior when treated with methylphenidate and adjuvant risperidone, though weight gain was also observed - Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jahangard, Leila; Akbarian, Shahrokh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarzi, Amir; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-05-01

    Children with ADHD often show symptoms of oppositional defiant disorders (ODD). We investigated the impact of adjuvant risperidone (RISP) to a standard treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD and symptoms of ODD. Eighty-four children with ADHD and ODD (age: M=8.55; range: 7.28-9.95 years; 73.8% males) took part in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial lasting eight weeks. Participants were randomly assigned either to the MPH+RISP (1mg/kg/d+0.5mg/d) or to the MPH+PLCO (1mg/kg/d+placebo) condition. Symptoms of ADHD, weight, height, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8. Symptoms of ADHD decreased over time, but more so in the MPH+RISP than in the MPH only condition. In the MPH+RISP condition weight, waist circumference and prolactine levels increased over time. Data suggest that adjuvant RISP improved symptoms in children with ADHD and ODD, but weight gain and higher prolactine levels were also observed, which are two alarming side effects. This may become an issue, once children become adolescents, a period of life in which body shape and body self-image are closely linked to self-confidence and peer acceptance. Health care professionals should carefully balance the short-term and long-term costs and benefits of administration of RISP.

  20. [Psychodynamic models about the origins, internal processing and treatment of ADHD].

    PubMed

    du Bois, Reinmar

    2007-01-01

    At first the symptoms of ADHD can be viewed as part of the natural expressive repertory of the infant. Later they merge with pathological relationship patterns. The pathology sets in--apart from genetic vulnerability--through flawed early interactions as well as early childhood trauma. In the attachment theory the results are termed as anxious ambivalent and disorganized attachments. The further course of ADHD remains dependent on the course of the child's relationships and forms itself in symbiotic and narcissistic reaction patterns. By means of impulsive-aggressive outbursts and restless inattentive behaviour the child tries to attract attention and evade attention, express hurt and take revenge in the same instant. Likewise the child may ward off traumatic memories or even protect himself from a depressive breakdown. During its prolonged use until adolescence medication can change from good to bad object and then at best serve to hide the existence of sadistic fantasies behind a well-mannered facade.

  1. Childhood trajectories of inattention-hyperactivity and academic achievement at 12 years.

    PubMed

    Salla, Julie; Michel, Grégory; Pingault, Jean Baptiste; Lacourse, Eric; Paquin, Stéphane; Galéra, Cédric; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-11-01

    Few prospective studies spanning early childhood to early adolescence have examined separately the contribution of inattention and hyperactivity to academic achievement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the developmental trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms during early and middle childhood are independently associated with academic achievement at age 12 years. The independent associations between inattention and hyperactivity trajectories during early and middle childhood and academic performance at age 12 years were examined in a population-based longitudinal birth cohort (n = 2120). In adjusted analyses, high early childhood inattention trajectories were associated with teacher-rated academic performance in reading, writing and mathematics and with government exam score in writing. High and moderate inattention trajectories during middle childhood predicted lower performance on both teacher-rated academic performance and government exam scores in reading, writing, and mathematics. Hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor of educational outcomes. Childhood inattention symptoms rather than hyperactivity carry risk of poor educational outcomes at age 12 years. Children with high levels of inattention can be identified during the preschool years. Prevention programs supporting the development of attentional capacities and executive functions could help reduce the negative consequences of inattention.

  2. ADHD: Behavioral, Educational, and Medication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disruptive behavior disorder which is characterized by levels of inattention (e.g., difficulty in concentrating on schoolwork), impulsivity (e.g., frequently interrupting conversations or activities), and/or overactivity (e.g., difficulty remaining seated when required to do so) that are well…

  3. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  4. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  5. General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: An exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality.

    PubMed

    Arias, Víctor B; Ponce, Fernando P; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Arias, Benito; Núñez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We tested first-order factor and bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to adequately summarize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms observed in a Spanish sample of preschoolers and kindergarteners. Six ESEM and CFA models were estimated based on teacher evaluations of the behavior of 638 children 4 to 6 years of age. An ESEM bifactor model with a central dimension plus 3 specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) showed the best fit and interpretability. Strict invariance between the sexes was observed. The bifactor model provided a solution to previously encountered inconsistencies in the factorial models of ADHD in young children. However, the low reliability of the specific factors casts doubt on the utility of the subscales for ADHD measurement. More research is necessary to clarify the nature of G and S factors of ADHD.

  6. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Processing Speed, and Internalizing Symptoms: the Moderating Effect of Age.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Geist, Megan; Mahone, E Mark

    2017-02-18

    Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) has been defined by a constellation of caregiver-reported symptoms that includes daydreaming, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, lethargy, and physical underactivity. These symptoms have been observed in both typically developing children and in some children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-especially those with the predominantly inattentive presentation. Symptoms of SCT (typically identified via rating scales) appear separable from DSM inattentive ADHD symptoms, but have also been associated with internalizing symptoms. To date, however, few studies have examined associations among ratings of SCT and speeded performance-based measures. The present study examined associations among SCT, processing speed, and internalizing symptoms in a sample of 566 clinically referred children (65% male), while also considering how these associations change with age. Findings revealed small but significant age-related differences in the strength of associations between the "Daydreamy" element of SCT and processing speed (as measured by the WISC-IV Processing Speed Index-PSI), with stronger associations observed in younger children. Importantly, this difference in strength of association was not accounted for by the change in WISC-IV test forms for PSI subtests between 6-7 year-olds and 8-16 year-olds. Conversely, the association between SCT and internalizing symptoms remained generally consistent across the age range. Findings contribute to further characterization of the "slowness" of responding seen in SCT and may have implications for behavioral intervention.

  7. [Relationship among inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression in Japanese elementary and junior high school students].

    PubMed

    Noda, Wataru; Okada, Ryo; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Naoto, Mochizuki; Nakajima, Syunji; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines the relationship among inattentive, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression in elementary school and junior high school students. The participants were 3,885 children and their teachers and caregivers. Children's inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior was rated by their teachers and caregivers (ADHD-RS). Children rated aggression (HAQ-C) and depression (DSRS-C) themselves. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior rated by teachers and caregivers were positively related to aggression and depression. Inattention predicted higher levels of aggression and depression. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior as rated by teachers was more highly related to depression than those behaviors as rated by caregivers. The relationships among inattentive, and hyperactive-impulsive behavior, aggression, and depression were almost the same for both elementary school and junior high school students. This study suggests the importance of assessing inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior from multiple views to examine the relationship between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive behavior and mental health problems.

  8. Examining the Dimensionality of ADHD Symptomatology in Young Adults Using Factor Analysis and Outcome Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Tara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current diagnostic criteria specify that ADHD involves difficulties with inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Researchers using factor analysis have consistently found support for an inattention factor in both children and adults. Findings have been mixed regarding whether hyperactivity and impulsivity reflect one or two…

  9. Sex differences between the combined and inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an EEG perspective.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Franca E; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex differences between the EEGs of Combined and Inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) within boys and girls aged 8-12 years. Subject groups included 80 AD/HD Combined type (40 boys and 40 girls), 80 AD/HD Inattentive type (40 boys and 40 girls) and 80 controls (40 boys and 40 girls). An eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands, as well as total power and the theta/beta ratio. The boy AD/HD groups, compared with boy controls, had greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, reduced absolute and relative alpha, and reduced absolute and relative beta. The girl AD/HD groups, compared with girl controls, had greater absolute delta, greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, greater total power, and reduced relative delta and relative beta. Between AD/HD types, Combined type boys had globally greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, and less relative alpha than Inattentive type boys. While topographical differences emerged, there were no significant global differences between AD/HD types in girls. That is, EEG differences between AD/HD types are dissimilar in boys and girls. Different EEG maturational patterns between boys and girls also obscure AD/HD-related EEG abnormalities. These results have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD in girls. Ignoring such sex differences may have compromised the value of previous AD/HD investigations, and these sex differences should be recognised in future research.

  10. Microstructural Abnormalities in the Combined and Inattentive Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Du; Ma, Jun; Du, Xiaoxia; Shen, Guohua; Jin, Xingming; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that there are specific white matter abnormalities in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the results of these studies are not consistent, and one of the most important factors that affects the inconsistency of previous studies maybe the ADHD subtype. Different ADHD subtypes may have some overlapping microstructural damage, but they may also have unique microstructural abnormalities. The objective of this study was to investigate the microstructural abnormalities associated with two subtypes of ADHD: combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive (ADHD-I). Twenty-eight children with ADHD-C, 28 children with ADHD-I and 28 healthy children participated in this study. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were used to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to provide specific information regarding abnormal brain areas. Our results demonstrated that ADHD-I is related to abnormalities in the temporo-occipital areas, while the combined subtype (ADHD-C) is related to abnormalities in the frontal-subcortical circuit, the fronto-limbic pathway, and the temporo-occipital areas. Moreover, an abnormality in the motor circuit may represent the main difference between the ADHD-I and ADHD-C subtypes. PMID:25363043

  11. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with lifetime and current illicit substance use disorders and in-site health risk behaviors in a representative sample of Latino prison inmates

    PubMed Central

    González, Rafael A.; Vélez-Pastrana, María C.; Ruiz Varcárcel, José J.; Levin, Frances R.; Albizu-García, Carmen E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore significant childhood ADHD symptomatology, psychiatric comorbidity, rates of Substance Use Disorders (SUD), as well as their association with high-risk health behaviors and adverse health outcomes in prison. Method A randomly selected representative sample of inmates in the Puerto Rico correctional system (n = 1,179) were assessed with the Spanish language Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), the CIDI modules for lifetime/current MDD, GAD and SUD, the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS, PTSD), and self-reports of in-site high risk behaviors. Results Wald χ2 tests revealed significant associations of ADHD with MDD, GAD and PTSD, as well as increased risk for overdosing and IV drug use in prison. A Logistic Regression model adjusted for mood and anxiety comorbidity predicted lifetime SUD diagnosis (OR 2.38; CI 1.15–4.94). Discussion Our results provide evidence on the extent of the association of drug dependence and ADHD symptoms, and their over-representation among prison inmates. PMID:23212598

  12. Sustained attention and heart rate variability in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kristi R; Quintana, Daniel S; Hermens, Daniel F; Spooner, Chris; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention. Four heart rate variability measures were extracted: Root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat-intervals (rMSSD), absolute high frequency (HFA) power, absolute low frequency (LFA) power and ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF). There were no group differences in HFA or rMSSD, even when assessing across child and adolescent groups separately, by gender or ADHD subtype. LF/HF however was higher in ADHD during both rest and sustained attention conditions, particularly in male children. Sustained attention was impaired in ADHD relative to controls, and a higher LF/HF ratio during sustained attention was associated with poorer performance in both groups. Lower rMSSD and HFA were associated with higher anxiety, oppositional behaviors and social problems, supporting prevailing theories that these measures index emotion regulation and adaptive social behavior. Different measures of heart rate variability provide important insights into the sustained attention and emotional and behavioral regulation impairments observed in ADHD and may aid in delineating ADHD pathophysiology.

  13. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... under a psychiatrist's or other doctor's care. ADHD medications have helped teens with ADHD in all sorts of areas, even helping reduce things like substance abuse, injuries, and automobile accidents. ADHD medicines also can ...

  14. Extended visual glances away from the roadway are associated with ADHD- and texting-related driving performance deficits in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kingery, Kathleen M.; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Antonini, Tanya N.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD = 28, non-ADHD = 33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16–17 with a valid driver’s license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 seconds) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  15. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway.

  16. Pragmatic Aspects of Communication and Language Comprehension in Groups of Children Differentiated by Teacher Ratings of Inattention and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignell, Simon; Cain, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience pragmatic language deficits, but it is not known whether these difficulties are primarily associated with high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or both. We investigated pragmatic aspects of communication and language comprehension in relation to poor attention and/or…

  17. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli—pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones—were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm’s standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that

  18. Planning deficit in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a neurocognitive trait independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Loredana; Pitzianti, Maria Bernarda; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is associated with executive dysfunctions and comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 30% to 50% of children. This study was designed to clarify the neurocognitive phenotype observed in neurofibromatosis type 1 by testing the hypothesis that children with neurofibromatosis type 1 have specific planning deficits independently from intellectual level and ADHD comorbidity. Eighteen children with neurofibromatosis type 1 were pair-matched to 18 children with ADHD and 18 healthy controls. All groups were assessed on the presence of ADHD symptoms (Conners Scales) and planning deficits (Tower of London). Compared with control group, groups with neurofibromatosis type 1 and ADHD demonstrated significant impairment of planning and problem solving. The lack of correlation between Tower of London results and Conners subscale scores in neurofibromatosis type 1 group confirmed that the planning and problem-solving deficit is not directly related to inattention level. These findings suggested that the executive impairment probably represents a peculiar trait of neurofibromatosis type 1 neurocognitive phenotype.

  19. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  20. Small Body Size at Birth and Behavioural Symptoms of ADHD in Children Aged Five to Six Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, J.; Raikkonen, K.; Kajantie, E.; Heinonen, K.; Pesonen, A.-K.; Jarvenpaa, A.-L.; Strandberg, T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Behavioural disorders with a neurodevelopmental background, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), have been associated with a non-optimal foetal environment, reflected in small body size at birth. However, the evidence stems from highly selected groups with birth outcomes biased towards the extreme low end of the…

  1. The alpha-2A adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine improves sustained attention and reduces overactivity and impulsiveness in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Background ADHD is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Overactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. There is no biological marker, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that ADHD behavior is associated with poor dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes. The best validated animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), shows pronounced overactivity, impulsiveness, and deficient sustained attention. While dopamine release is decreased in SHR prefrontal cortex, norepinephrine concentrations are elevated. The noradrenergic system appears to be hyperactive as a result of impaired alpha-2A adrenoceptor regulation. Thus, the present study tested behavioral effects of the centrally acting alpha-2A adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on SHR behavior. Methods The present study tested behavioral effects of guanfacine at doses of 0.075, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.60 mg base/kg i.p. in both male SHRs and their controls, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Results The striking impulsiveness, overactivity, and reduced sustained attention during baseline conditions in the SHR improved by treatment with guanfacine. The most pronounced improvement in SHR behavior was seen following the two highest doses (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) of guanfacine when SHR behaviors virtually normalized. The positive effects of the drug were most marked towards the end of the session. Conclusion The results indicate that guanfacine improved poor noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes in an animal model of ADHD. The present results support the beneficial effects of guanfacine on ADHD behavior reported clinically and experimentally in primate models of frontal function

  2. A COMPARISON OF THE ASSOCIATIONS OF CAFFEINE AND CIGARETTE USE WITH DEPRESSIVE AND ADHD SYMPTOMS IN A SAMPLE OF YOUNG ADULT SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Dosh, Tyanne; Helmbrecht, Tysa; Anestis, Joye; Guenthner, Greg; Kelly, Thomas H.; Martin, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, and marijuana use in young adult smokers Methods Young adult smokers completed self-report measures of nicotine, caffeine, alcohol and marijuana use, Conner's Adult ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) Rating Scale-Short Version (CAARS-SS), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI), and provided a breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample. Results Self-reported cigarette use was positively correlated with carbon monoxide, CAARS-SS and the BDI levels. Caffeine intake was correlated with CAARS-SS, BAI and BDI levels and emerged as the more significant predictor of BDI, BAI and CAARS-SS scores when regressed with cigarette use. Conclusions Caffeine use is associated with psychiatric symptoms in young adult cigarette smokers and should be considered in future research. PMID:21359163

  3. Low-dose venlafaxine in three adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder improves self-injurious behavior and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Giuliana Galli; Deriaz, Nicolas; Bertschy, Gilles

    2006-03-01

    In our clinical practice, we have had good experiences with venlafaxine in the treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD)-like symptoms in patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), and we report here three cases of possible therapeutic response: (A) a 17-year-old boy with autism and severe behavioral symptoms, including aggression toward self or property, SIB and hyperactivity, who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (B) a 23-year-old woman with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day); (C) a 17-year-old girl with autism hyperactivity who appeared to respond to low-dose venlafaxine (18.75 mg/day). Follow-ups occurred respectively 18, 36 and 6 months after treatment initiation, making it possible to observe the stability of the clinical improvement in these cases.

  4. Hair Zinc and Severity of Symptoms Are Increased in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder: a Hair Multi-Element Profile Study.

    PubMed

    Tippairote, Torsak; Temviriyanukul, Piya; Benjapong, Wenika; Trachootham, Dunyaporn

    2017-03-01

    Determination of bioelement levels in hair is an emerging non-invasive approach for screening bioelement deposition. However, the role of essential bioelement levels in hair and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk or severity is largely unknown. In this study, we have compared multi-element hair profiles between healthy and ADHD Thai children. In addition, the correlations between bioelements and ADHD symptoms according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, diagnostic criteria were identified. A case-control study was conducted in 111 Thai children (45 newly diagnosed ADHD and 66 matched healthy), aged 3-7 years, living in Bangkok and suburban areas. Levels of 39 bioelements in hair were measured by ICP-MS. Among the analyzed bioelements, Cu/Zn and P/Zn ratios in ADHD children were significantly lower than those in healthy children. Indeed, increased hair Zn level was correlated with more symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and total ADHD symptoms. Higher Zn content was also associated with being female and older age. Furthermore, Zn in hair was positively correlated with levels of Ca, Mg, and P; however, it showed a negative correlation with Al, As, Fe, and Mo. These findings warrant further confirmation in a large-scale study. Thai Clinical Trials Registry (TCTR) study ID: 20151113001.

  5. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  6. The Effect of Environmental Accommodations on Attending Behavior of an ADHD Chapter I Student: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenewald, M. Jane; Walsh, Cheryl

    An attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) student's impulsivity and inattentiveness were interfering with his learning and that of his classmates. Prior to experimental intervention, a simple event recording was conducted over nine class periods to determine the frequency of this subject's impulsivity and inattentiveness. For ease of…

  7. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  8. The Reality of Living with AD/HD: Children's Concern about Educational and Medical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    A diagnosis of AD/HD may tell us that the child has the core characteristics of inattentiveness, impulsivity and or hyperactivity, but it fails to convey the extent to which the social context of the child's environment manipulates these characteristics. This article reports on how children with a diagnosis of AD/HD view the impact their social…

  9. Self-Advocacy and Perceptions of College Readiness among Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Lucy; Banerjee, Manju; Brown, Franklin C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined issues related to college adjustment and self-advocacy from the perspective of students diagnosed with a primarily inattentive presentation of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) who were unable to meet minimum academic expectations in their first attempt at college. Data were gathered from 12 students with ADHD who,…

  10. Is emotion recognition the only problem in ADHD? effects of pharmacotherapy on face and emotion recognition in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Esra; Erdogan, Ayten

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. The reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET) and Benton face recognition test (BFRT) were applied to all participants before and after treatment. The patients with ADHD had a significantly lower number of correct answers in child and adolescent RMET and in BFRT than the healthy controls. Among the ADHD subtypes, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in the RMET than the inattentive subtypes, and the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in short and long form of BFRT than the combined and inattentive subtypes. Male and female patients with ADHD did not differ significantly with respect to the number of correct answers on the RMET and BFRT. The patients showed significant improvement in RMET and BFRT after treatment with OROS-MPH or atomoxetine. Patients with ADHD have difficulties in face recognition as well as emotion recognition. Both OROS-MPH and atomoxetine affect emotion recognition. However, further studies on the face and emotion recognition are needed in ADHD.

  11. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  12. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Low Blood Lead Levels in Association With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Symptom Domain in Children: A Community-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyunjoo; Lim, Myung-Ho; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Yoo, Seung Jin; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Paik, Ki-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major indoor pollutant. We examined the possible association between exposure to both SHS and low levels of lead and attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domain in children. Methods: This case–control study was based on the results of a community survey using the ADHD rating scale conducted in 49 elementary schools. Both cases and control subjects were confirmed by a child psychiatrist. Each case was matched with one control subject according to gender, school, and grade in school. Using a multivariate conditional logistic regression model, we analyzed 214 case–control pairs of children who ranged in age from 6 to 10 years. Urine and blood levels of cotinine and of lead were determined, and information pertaining to SHS exposure was obtained by means of a questionnaire. Results: Exposure to low levels of lead (geometric mean = 1.65 µg/dL) was related to ADHD, particularly inattention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07–2.59), whereas SHS exposure was associated mainly with hyperactivity/impulsivity (OR = 3.85, 95% CI = 1.55–9.56). In the pathway from blood lead to hyperactivity/impulsivity, children’s SHS exposure mediated and indirectly accounted for about 73% of this relationship. The combined exposure to lead and SHS synergistically increased the risk of ADHD, evident as both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusion: SHS, which is associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity in particular, combined with exposure to low blood levels of lead synergistically increased the risk of ADHD. Therefore, the exposure of children to both SHS and lead needs to be reduced. Implications: Although exposure to low levels of lead has been shown to be associated with ADHD, there is little evidence of symptom domain specificity. In our study, low blood lead levels were related to inattention. In addition, prenatal or postnatal exposure to SHS increased the risk of ADHD

  13. Inattention and hyperactivity in children at risk of obesity: a community cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Lorna; Sayal, Kapil; Glazebrook, Cris

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is a link between the symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and overweight in children. Less is known about the factors which might influence this relationship, such as physical and sedentary activity levels or exercise self-efficacy. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between the symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention and risk factors for adult obesity in a sample of children with barriers to exercise. Design Children aged 9–11 years were recruited from 24 primary schools that participated in the Steps to Active Kids (STAK) physical activity intervention study. Study inclusion criteria were low exercise self-efficacy, teacher-rated overweight or asthma. Children with high levels of physical activity were excluded. Measures included parent and teacher-rated behavioural and emotional well-being using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, physical and sedentary activity levels, BMI (body mass index) and exercise self-efficacy. Results Of 424 participating children, 62% were girls and 39% were classified as overweight or obese. As compared with population norms, boys in this at-risk sample were more likely to receive an abnormal teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention score (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.17). Children with teacher-rated abnormal hyperactivity/inattention scores reported higher levels of sedentary activity (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17), but not physically active activity. The pattern of findings was similar for children with hyperactivity/inattention problems as rated by both parent and teacher (pervasive hyperactivity and impairment). Conclusions Although BMI was not directly related to hyperactivity/inattention, children with risk factors for adult obesity have more hyperactivity/inattention problems. In particular, hyperactivity/inattention is associated with higher levels of sedentary activity. Higher rates of pervasive hyperactivity and impairment were apparent in this at-risk group. PMID:23793656

  14. The Influences of Environmental Enrichment, Cognitive Enhancement, and Physical Exercise on Brain Development: Can we Alter the Developmental Trajectory of ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Healey, Dione M.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors that typically begin during the preschool years and often persist into adulthood. The most effective and widely used treatments for ADHD are medication and behavior modification. These empirically-supported interventions are generally successful in reducing ADHD symptoms, but treatment effects are rarely maintained beyond the active intervention. Because ADHD is now generally thought of as a chronic disorder that is often present well into adolescence and early adulthood, the need for continued treatment throughout the lifetime is both costly and problematic for a number of logistical reasons. Therefore, it would be highly beneficial if treatments would have lasting effects that remain after the intervention is terminated. This review examines the burgeoning literature on the underlying neural determinants of ADHD along research demonstrating powerful influences of environmental factors on brain development and functioning. Based upon these largely distinct scientific literatures, we propose an approach that employs directed play and physical exercise to promote brain growth which, in turn, could lead to the development of potentially more enduring treatments for the disorder. PMID:20691725

  15. Assessing inattention and impulsivity in children during the Go/NoGo task

    PubMed Central

    Bezdjian, Serena; Baker, Laura A.; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural performance in the Go/NoGo task was compared with caregiver and teacher reports of inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivity in 1,151 children (N = 557 boys; N = 594 girls) age 9–10 years old. Errors of commission (NoGo errors) were significantly correlated with symptom counts of hyperactivity–impulsivity, while errors of omission (Go errors) were significantly correlated with symptom counts for inattention in both caregiver and teacher reports. Cross-correlations were also evident, however, such that errors of commission were related to inattention symptoms, and errors of omission were related to hyperactivity–impulsivity. Moreover, hyperactivity–impulsivity and inattention symptoms were highly intercorrelated in both caregiver (r = .52) and teacher reports (r = .70), while errors of commission and omission were virtually uncorrelated in the Go/NoGo task (r = .06). The results highlight the difficulty in disentangling hyperactivity–impulsivity and inattention in questionnaires, and suggest that these constructs may be more clearly distinguished in laboratory measures such as the Go/NoGo task. PMID:19812711

  16. ADHD and personality: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Corr, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    We report a meta-analysis of up to 40 data sets that examined the personality dimensions in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the integrated Five-Factor Model (IFFM) in relation to ADHD symptom domains of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI). The IFFM incorporated the dimensions of other personality models (in particular, those of Eysenck, Tellegen, and Cloninger, as well as the FFM). Major findings were: (1) IA and HI were both associated with low conscientious inhibition/conscientiousness, and low agreeable inhibition/agreeableness, and with high negative emotionality/neuroticism; (2) conscientious inhibition and conscientiousness were more strongly related to IA than HI; (3) agreeable inhibition and agreeableness were more strongly related to HI than IA; and (4) the association of conscientious inhibition and conscientiousness with HI was moderated by age group and source from where participants were recruited (associations were stronger in children than adults, and clinical samples than community samples). These findings are discussed in relation to single and multiple pathway theories, underlying factors and processes for the personality-ADHD link, and clinical implications.

  17. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  18. Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

  19. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  20. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  1. Direct and indirect measures of social perception, behavior, and emotional functioning in children with Asperger's disorder, nonverbal learning disability, or ADHD.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Minne, Elizabeth Portman

    2010-05-01

    Understanding social interactions is crucial for development of social competence. The present study was one of the first to utilize direct and indirect measures of social perception to explore possible differences among children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), Asperger's Syndrome (AS), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined (ADHD-C), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Predominately Inattentive (ADHD-PI), and controls (N = 342). Multiple informants provided ratings of the child's behavioral and social functioning. Results indicated that the NLD and AS groups experienced the most difficulty understanding emotional and nonverbal cues on the direct measure. In addition, children with AS or NLD showed significant signs of sadness and social withdrawal compared to the other groups. Attentional skills, while related to social perception, did not predict social perception difficulties to the same degree as number of AS symptoms.

  2. Standardized Observational Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Combined and Predominantly Inattentive Subtypes. I. Test Session Observations

    PubMed Central

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Antshel, Kevin; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.

    2010-01-01

    Test examiners used the Test Observation Form (McConaughy & Achenbach, 2004) to rate test session behavior of 177 6- to 11-year-old children during administration of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests—Second Edition (WIAT-II). Participants were assigned to four groups based on a parent diagnostic interview and parent and teacher rating scales: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—Combined type (n = 74); ADHD—Inattentive type (n = 25); clinically referred without ADHD (n = 52); and controls (n = 26). The ADHD—Combined type group scored significantly higher than the other three groups on six Test Observation Form scales: (1) Attention Problems; (2) Oppositional; (3) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale; (4) Inattention sub-scale; (5) Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscale; and (6) Externalizing. The two ADHD groups also scored significantly lower than controls on all WISC-IV and WIAT-II composites and lower than those clinically referred without ADHD on WISC-IV Working Memory Index and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient. Implications are discussed regarding the discriminative validity of standardized test session observations for identifying children with ADHD and differentiating between the two ADHD subtypes. PMID:20802814

  3. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD medications work by increasing the levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters help send messages between nerve cells in the brain. There are two main kinds of ADHD medications: ...

  4. The relationship between childhood history of ADHD symptoms and DSM-IV borderline personality disorder features among personality disordered outpatients: the moderating role of gender and the mediating roles of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Gratz, Kim L; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Somma, Antonella; Carlotta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have reported data suggestive of a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the nature of this relation is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate if the relation between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and adult BPD features is moderated by participants' gender and mediated by emotion dysregulation and impulsivity. Two hundred seventeen outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for at least one personality disorder (PD) consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of the Scientific Institute H San Raffaele of Milan, Italy, were administered Italian versions of the following instruments: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11). Moderation analyses revealed a significant association between ADHD and BPD symptoms among only female (vs. male) outpatients. Furthermore, in the female subsample, mediation analyses revealed that both impulsivity and emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationship between retrospectively assessed ADHD symptoms and current BPD features.

  5. How Greek Teachers Perceive School Functioning of Pupils with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Papaeliou, Christina

    2004-01-01

    In this study Greek teachers assessed school functioning in 26 pupils with the possibility of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, i.e. combined (C) type, inattentive (IA) type and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) type, and 26 controls. Results showed that C and IA pupils were evaluated as impaired in all areas of academic and…

  6. What Exactly Are the Benefits of Stimulants for ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stimulant drugs (methylphenidate and amphetamine) have been used successfully for decades to improve the behavioral impairments of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A voluminous literature supports the benefits of stimulants for improving classroom manageability…

  7. ADHD-Related School Compositional Effects: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provide a test case through which to investigate psychosocial school compositional effects. Characterized by developmentally atypical levels of inattention, activity, and impulsivity, the condition often manifests itself, and is identified, in school settings and is…

  8. Phenotypic and Genetic Associations between Reading Comprehension, Decoding Skills, and ADHD Dimensions: Evidence from Two Population-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plourde, Vickie; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Marino, Cecilia; Tremblay, Richard T.; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Background: The phenotypic and genetic associations between decoding skills and ADHD dimensions have been documented but less is known about the association with reading comprehension. The aim of the study is to document the phenotypic and genetic associations between reading comprehension and ADHD dimensions of inattention and…

  9. Grounding Turbulent Minds: The Challenges of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for College Students with ADHD and How to Overcome Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Amy R.; Lester, Ethan G.; Sandoz, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    College can be difficult for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Inattention and impulsivity are not conducive to academic success. Individuals with ADHD often experience difficulties with time management, organization, social adjustment, and psychological distress. One possible treatment approach for individuals with…

  10. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of PCSO-524®, a patented oil extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on the behaviour, mood, cognition and neurophysiology of children and adolescents (aged 6–14 years) experiencing clinical and sub-clinical levels of hyperactivity and inattention: study protocol ACTRN12610000978066

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within Western cultures is between 5% and 12%, and is the most common psychiatric illness among school-aged children, with an estimated 50% of these children retaining ADHD symptoms for the rest of their lives. Children with ADHD have lower blood levels of long-chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFAs) compared with children without ADHD, and following PUFA supplementation, have shown improvements in ADHD-related symptoms. One highly promising marine based LC PUFA preparation is the Omega-3-rich Lyprinol/Omega XL which is a natural formulation containing standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) known as PCSO-524® which contains a unique combination of free fatty acids, sterol esters, polar lipids and carotenoids. It is this unique combination of marine lipids that may assist in correcting the decreased levels of LC PUFA levels in children with symptoms of ADHD. The compound is a mixture belonging to a lipid group called sterol esters (SE). The fatty acids in the SE fraction are mainly myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Lyprinol/Omega XL has previously been shown to contain a potent group of Omega-3 lipids that block the 5 - lipoxygenase metabolic pathway responsible for inflammation in the body. Methods A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial will be utilized to assess the effects of 14 weeks administration of Lyprinol/Omega XL versus placebo in 150 children aged 6 to 14 years with high levels of hyperactivity and inattention. Additionally, a range of cognitive, mood and central electrophysiological measures will be undertaken during the 14 week supplementation trial. The primary outcome measure, the Conners’ Parent Rating Scales will be completed initially at baseline, then in weeks 4, 8, 10, 14 and then

  11. Short-Term Effectiveness of Medication and Psychosocial Intervention in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Patients with Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falissard, Bruno; Coghill, David; Rothenberger, Aribert; Lorenzo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The article discusses the ADHD Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study that examined the impact of early treatment choices on outcome within the first few months, in previously untreated children with impairing inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Methods: Data are collected from a longitudinal, observational study…

  12. Ability of College Students to Simulate ADHD on Objective Measures of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booksh, Randee Lee; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Gouvier, William Drew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ability of college students to simulate ADHD symptoms on objective and self-report measures and the relationship between knowledge of ADHD and ability to simulate ADHD. Method: Undergraduate students were assigned to a control or a simulated ADHD malingering condition and compared with a clinical AD/HD group.…

  13. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  14. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  15. Item response theory analyses of the parent and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD rating scale.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-08-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 265-274, 1999) for a group of 1,475 primary school-aged children. The results for the discrimination parameters showed that all symptoms for both groups of respondents were generally good for discriminating their respective latent traits. For virtually all symptoms, their threshold values showed moderate to large increases in the level of the latent trait at each subsequent response dichotomy, with the symptoms being especially good at representing the appropriate traits from mean to moderately high trait levels. The item information function values for most symptoms indicated reasonable reliability from, approximately, the mean trait levels to moderately high trait levels. These findings indicate good psychometric properties for the parent and teacher ratings of the DARS. The implications of the findings for the use of the DARS and other similar scales are discussed.

  16. Are Cognitive Control and Stimulus-Driven Processes Differentially Linked to Inattention and Hyperactivity in Preschoolers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Healey, Dione M.; Marshall, Katie; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both typically viewed as biologically based behavioural constructs. There is substantial overlap between ADHD symptoms and specific temperamental traits, such as effortful control, especially in young children. Recent work by Martel and colleagues (2009, 2011) suggests that…

  17. Brain activity in predominantly-inattentive subtype attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during an auditory oddball attention task.

    PubMed

    Orinstein, Alyssa J; Stevens, Michael C

    2014-08-30

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have found brain activity abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on numerous cognitive tasks. However, little is known about brain dysfunction unique to the predominantly-inattentive subtype of ADHD (ADHD-I), despite debate as to whether DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes differ in etiology. This study compared brain activity of 18 ADHD-I adolescents (ages 12-18) and 20 non-psychiatric age-matched control participants on a functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) auditory oddball attention task. ADHD-I participants had significant activation deficits to infrequent target stimuli in bilateral superior temporal gyri, bilateral insula, several midline cingulate/medial frontal gyrus regions, right posterior parietal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and brainstem. To novel stimuli, ADHD-I participants had reduced activation in bilateral lateral temporal lobe structures. There were no brain regions where ADHD-I participants had greater hemodynamic activity to targets or novels than controls. Brain activity deficits in ADHD-I participants were found in several regions important to attentional orienting and working memory-related cognitive processes involved in target identification. These results differ from those in previously studied adolescents with combined-subtype ADHD, who had a lesser magnitude of activation abnormalities in frontoparietal regions and relatively more discrete regional deficits to novel stimuli. The divergent findings suggest different etiological factors might underlie attention deficits in different DSM-IV-defined ADHD subtypes, and they have important implications for the DSM-V reconceptualization of subtypes as varying clinical presentations of the same core disorder.

  18. Assessing Inattention and Impulsivity in Children during the Go/NoGo Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdjian, Serena; Baker, Laura A.; Lozano, Dora Isabel; Raine, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural performance in the Go/NoGo task was compared with caregiver and teacher reports of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in 1,151 children (N = 557 boys; N = 594 girls) age 9-10 years old. Errors of commission (NoGo errors) were significantly correlated with symptom counts of hyperactivity-impulsivity, while errors of omission (Go…

  19. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  20. Externalizing Outcomes of Youth with and without ADHD: Time-Varying Prediction by Parental ADHD and Mediated Effects.

    PubMed

    Moroney, Elizabeth; Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Peris, Tara S; Lee, Steve S

    2017-04-01

    Although parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for multiple negative youth outcomes, it is unknown how change in parental ADHD symptoms over time affects change in child ADHD symptoms; moreover, mediators of these predictions are largely unknown. Parents of 230 5-10 year-old children (68 % male) with (n = 120) and without ADHD (n = 110) were followed prospectively for 6-7 years across three separate waves. Parents self-reported their ADHD and depression symptoms and similarly rated offspring ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms; youth self-reported their substance use. Temporally-ordered mediators consisted of parental expressed emotion (EE), derived from the Five Minute Speech Sample, and self-reported positive and negative parenting behavior. Controlling for key demographics and parental depression symptoms, increasing parental ADHD symptoms were a time-varying predictor of worsening youth ADHD and ODD, although it was unrelated to change in CD and alcohol/substance use. Next, although EE facets (i.e., criticism, emotional over-involvement) did not mediate these predictions, negative parenting behavior significantly mediated predictions of youth ADHD (and marginally in predictions of ODD) from parental ADHD symptoms. These quasi-experimental findings suggest that parental ADHD symptoms are a potential unique causal risk factor for offspring ADHD and ODD; also, preventing negative parenting behavior secondary to parental ADHD symptoms is critical to improve trajectories of youth ADHD and ODD. We consider parental ADHD symptoms and family factors underlying emergent externalizing problems utilizing a developmental psychopathology framework, including implications for intervention and prevention.

  1. ADHD Subtype Differences in Reinforcement Sensitivity and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-01-01

    Both cognitive and motivational deficits are thought to give rise to the problems in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both subtypes one of the most prominent cognitive weaknesses appears to be in visuospatial working memory (WM), which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive (CE). In children with ADHD-C, both STM and the CE seem impaired, and together with motivational impairments, give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM. In children with ADHD-I, no studies investigated these WM components and their interplay with motivational impairments. Effects of a standard (feedback only) and a high level of reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) on visuospatial WM-, STM-, and CE performance were examined in 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive-subtype), 70 children with ADHD-C, and 40 typically developing controls (aged 9-12). In both ADHD-subtypes CE and WM performance was worse than in controls. STM performance of children with ADHD-I was, in contrast to that of children with ADHD-C, not different from controls. STM and WM performance was worse in ADHD-C than in ADHD-I, whereas CE-related performance did not differ. High reinforcement improved STM and WM performance in both subtypes but not in controls. This improvement was equally pronounced in both subtypes. High reinforcement did not improve CE-related performance. Both subtypes have equally pronounced motivational deficits, which have detrimental effects on their visuospatial STM and WM performance. In contrast to children with ADHD-C, children with ADHD-I seem unimpaired on visuospatial STM; only an impaired CE and motivational impairments give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM.

  2. Behavioral and Emotional Symptoms of Post-Institutionalized Children in Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wiik, Kristen L.; Loman, Michelle M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Pollak, Seth D.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Experience in institutional/orphanage care has been linked to increased mental health problems. Research suggests children adopted from institutions experience specific difficulties related to inattention/overactivity. Evidence of internalizing and conduct problems relative to non-adopted peers has been found in early childhood and early adolescence, but problems may not differ from other adopted children. This study clarifies the understanding of behavioral and emotional symptoms of post-institutionalized (PI) children during middle childhood. Methods Eight to eleven-year-old PI children (n=68) and two comparison groups, children internationally adopted from foster care (n=74) and non-adopted children (n=76), and their parents completed the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire related to ADHD, externalizing, and internalizing symptoms. Group means for symptom level and number of children with symptoms above clinical cutoffs were compared. Results PI children displayed an increased level of ADHD symptoms per parent report. PI child and parent report indicated a higher number of PI children above clinical ADHD cutoff. Both groups of internationally adopted (IA) children had higher levels of externalizing symptoms relative to non-adopted children, with parent report indicating higher numbers of IA children above the externalizing clinical threshold. Informants differed in their report of internalizing symptoms. Parents indicated both IA groups displayed increased internalizing symptom levels and greater numbers above clinical threshold; however, children reported this to be true only for the PI group. Conclusions PI children differ from non-adopted peers across symptom domains in middle childhood. Whether these concerns were more broadly associated with international adoption rather than institutional care depended on symptom domain and informant. An understanding of this variability may be beneficial for treatment and intervention. PMID:20649913

  3. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children.

    PubMed

    Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were those on the Inattention, Hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subscales of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Efficacy and safety were measured bi-weekly. A total of 116 children with ADHD were enrolled. Among them, 48 (83%) of the 58 sarcosine recipients and 44 (76%) of the 58 placebo recipients returned for the first post-treatment visit. The missing data values were imputed by the last observation carry forward method. From a multiple linear regression analysis, using the generalized estimating equation approach, and an intention to treat analysis, the efficacy of sarcosine marginally surpassed that of placebo at weeks 2, 4, and 6, with p-values=0.01, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively, although only for ODD symptoms. Treatment of ADHD by sarcosine (0.03 g/kg/day) was well tolerated. Sarcosine could possibly be a novel agent for managing ODD symptoms in the context of ADHD. However, future larger-scale studies are warranted to optimize its dosage.

  4. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. Aims To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. Method Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Results Lower concentrations of vitamins B2, B6 and B9 were associated with the ADHD diagnosis, and B2 and B6 also with symptom severity. Smokers had lower levels of vitamins B2 and B9. Conclusions ADHD patients were overrepresented in the group with low levels of some vitamins, possibly indicative of inadequate dietary intake of these micronutrients in a subgroup of patients. It is important to identify these patients in dietary intervention trials of ADHD. Declaration of interest J.H. has received lecture honoraria as part of continuing medical education programmes sponsored by Novartis, Eli Lilly and Company, and Janssen-Cilag. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990293

  5. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we establish a new phenomenon of "inattentional deafness" and highlight the level of load on visual attention as a critical determinant of this phenomenon. In three experiments, we modified an inattentional blindness paradigm to assess inattentional deafness. Participants made either a low- or high-load visual discrimination concerning a cross shape (respectively, a discrimination of line color or of line length with a subtle length difference). A brief pure tone was presented simultaneously with the visual task display on a final trial. Failures to notice the presence of this tone (i.e., inattentional deafness) reached a rate of 79% in the high-visual-load condition, significantly more than in the low-load condition. These findings establish the phenomenon of inattentional deafness under visual load, thereby extending the load theory of attention (e.g., Lavie, Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 25, 596-616, 1995) to address the cross-modal effects of visual perceptual load.

  6. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  7. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III).

  8. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  9. Impulsivity in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity is the cardinal symptom of ADHD. It is estimated that ADHD is present in eighteen percent of children and in four percent of adults. The present study repeats and extends a previous study (Gray, Breier, Foorman, & Fletcher, 2002) that measured impulsivity in adolescents with and without ADHD, which found higher false alarm rates…

  10. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  11. Autistic Traits in a Population-Based ADHD Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Volk, Heather E.; Todd, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most diagnostic nomenclatures do not allow for the concurrent diagnosis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinic-based studies suggest autistic symptoms are common in children with ADHD, but such studies are prone to referral bias. This study assesses whether children with ADHD selected from the general…

  12. Personality Characteristics Associated with Persistent ADHD in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the personality characteristics associated with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a longitudinal sample of youth, with a particular focus on differences between those with and without persisting ADHD symptoms. Participants with ADHD (n = 90) were initially evaluated when they were 7-11 years old, and…

  13. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  14. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  15. Anxiety and inattention as predictors of achievement in early elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Fletcher, Jack M; Vaughn, Sharon R; Denton, Carolyn A; Taylor, Pat

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relations among anxiety, inattention, and math/reading achievement, as well as the mediating/moderating role of inattention in the anxiety-achievement association both concurrently and longitudinally. Participants included 161 ethnically diverse children (aged 6-8) and their teachers. At the middle and end of first grade (approximately 5 months apart), students completed measures of anxiety and achievement while their teachers completed a measure of inattention. For the concurrent analyses, greater harm avoidance anxiety was associated with better attention, which was in turn related to better achievement. For the longitudinal analyses, mid-year inattention interacted with harm avoidance and separation anxiety to predict end of year reading fluency. For those rated as more attentive, greater separation anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased fluency performance while greater harm avoidance symptoms were associated with increased performance. Findings were discussed in terms of the importance of considering socioemotional variables in the study of children's academic achievement and the potential utility of early anxiety prevention/intervention programs, especially for children experiencing academic difficulties who also show internalizing behaviors.

  16. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  17. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  18. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  19. Does semantic preactivation reduce inattentional blindness?

    PubMed

    Kreitz, Carina; Schnuerch, Robert; Furley, Philip A; Gibbons, Henning; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We are susceptible to failures of awareness if a stimulus occurs unexpectedly and our attention is focused elsewhere. Such inattentional blindness is modulated by various parameters, including stimulus attributes, the observer's cognitive resources, and the observer's attentional set regarding the primary task. In three behavioral experiments with a total of 360 participants, we investigated whether mere semantic preactivation of the color of an unexpected object can reduce inattentional blindness. Neither explicitly mentioning the color several times before the occurrence of the unexpected stimulus nor priming the color more implicitly via color-related concepts could significantly reduce the susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Even putting the specific color concept in the main focus of the primary task did not lead to reduced inattentional blindness. Thus, we have shown that the failure to consciously perceive unexpected objects was not moderated by semantic preactivation of the objects' most prominent feature: its color. We suggest that this finding reflects the rather general principle that preactivations that are not motivationally relevant for one's current selection goals do not suffice to make an unexpected object overcome the threshold of awareness.

  20. The effects of QEEG-informed neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Leon Kenemans, J

    2012-09-01

    In ADHD several EEG biomarkers have been described before, with relevance to treatment outcome to stimulant medication. This pilot-study aimed at personalizing neurofeedback treatment to these specific sub-groups to investigate if such an approach leads to improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, pre- and post-treatment EEG and ERP changes were investigated in a sub-group to study the neurophysiological effects of neurofeedback. Twenty-one patients with ADHD were treated with QEEG-informed neurofeedback and post-treatment effects on inattention (ATT), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and comorbid depressive symptoms were investigated. There was a significant improvement for both ATT, HI and comorbid depressive complaints after QEEG-informed neurofeedback. The effect size for ATT was 1.78 and for HI was 1.22. Furthermore, anterior individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF) demonstrated a strong relation to improvement on comorbid depressive complaints. Pre- and post-treatment effects for the SMR neurofeedback sub-group exhibited increased N200 and P300 amplitudes and decreased SMR EEG power post-treatment. This pilot study is the first study demonstrating that it is possible to select neurofeedback protocols based on individual EEG biomarkers and suggests this results in improved treatment outcome specifically for ATT, however these results should be replicated in further controlled studies. A slow anterior iAPF at baseline predicts poor treatment response on comorbid depressive complaints in line with studies in depression. The effects of SMR neurofeedback resulted in specific ERP and EEG changes.