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Sample records for adhd method participants

  1. Sport Participation and Anxiety in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Weden, Sarah; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined the psychological benefits of physical activity in children with ADHD who may be at higher risk for mood and anxiety problems. This study explores the relationship between participation in physical activity and emotional functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Scores on parent-reported measures of mood and…

  2. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  3. Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vansickel, Andrea R.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Poole, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) is commonly prescribed for behavioral problems associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results of previous studies suggest that methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants without psychiatric diagnoses. Whether methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants diagnosed with ADHD is unknown. Objective In this within-subjects, repeated measures experiment, the acute effects of a range of doses of methylphenidate (10, 20, and 40 mg) and placebo were assessed in nine cigarette smokers who were not attempting to quit and met diagnostic criteria for ADHD but no other Axis I psychiatric disorders other than nicotine dependence. Methods Each dose of methylphenidate was tested once while placebo was tested twice. One hour after ingesting drug, participants were allowed to smoke ad libitum for 4 h. Measures of smoking included total cigarettes smoked, total puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Snacks and decaffeinated drinks were available ad libitum; caloric intake during the 4-h smoking session was calculated. Results Methylphenidate increased the total number of cigarettes smoked, total number of puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Methylphenidate decreased the number of food items consumed and caloric intake. Conclusions The results of this experiment suggest that acutely administered methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD, which is concordant with findings from previous studies that tested healthy young adults. These data indicate that clinicians may need to consider non-stimulant options or counsel their patients before starting methylphenidate when managing ADHD-diagnosed individuals who smoke. PMID:21590284

  4. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  5. Voxel-based morphometry analysis reveals frontal brain differences in participants with ADHD and their unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bralten, Janita; Greven, Corina U.; Franke, Barbara; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Hartman, Catharina; van der Meer, Dennis; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on structural brain alterations in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconsistent. Both ADHD and brain volumes have a strong genetic loading, but whether brain alterations in patients with ADHD are familial has been underexplored. We aimed to detect structural brain alterations in adolescents and young adults with ADHD compared with healthy controls. We examined whether these alterations were also found in their unaffected siblings, using a uniquely large sample. Methods We performed voxel-based morphometry analyses on MRI scans of patients with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and typically developing controls. We identified brain areas that differed between participants with ADHD and controls and investigated whether these areas were different in unaffected siblings. Influences of medication use, age, sex and IQ were considered. Results Our sample included 307 patients with ADHD, 169 unaffected siblings and 196 typically developing controls (mean age 17.2 [range 8–30] yr). Compared with controls, participants with ADHD had significantly smaller grey matter volume in 5 clusters located in the precentral gyrus, medial and orbitofrontal cortex, and (para)cingulate cortices. Unaffected siblings showed intermediate volumes significantly different from controls in 4 of these clusters (all except the precentral gyrus). Medication use, age, sex and IQ did not have an undue influence on the results. Limitations Our sample was heterogeneous, most participants with ADHD were taking medication, and the comparison was cross-sectional. Conclusion Brain areas involved in decision making, motivation, cognitive control and motor functioning were smaller in participants with ADHD than in controls. Investigation of unaffected siblings indicated familiality of 4 of the structural brain differences, supporting their potential in molecular genetic analyses in ADHD research. PMID:26679925

  6. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  7. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  8. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  9. Quantifying patterns of brain activity: Distinguishing unaffected siblings from participants with ADHD and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wolfers, Thomas; van Rooij, Daan; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Beckmann, Christian F; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Marquand, Andre F

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and heritable psychiatric disorders. While previous studies have focussed on mapping focal or connectivity differences at the group level, the present study employed pattern recognition to quantify group separation between unaffected siblings, participants with ADHD, and healthy controls on the basis of spatially distributed brain activations. This was achieved using an fMRI-adapted version of the Stop-Signal Task in a sample of 103 unaffected siblings, 184 participants with ADHD, and 128 healthy controls. We used activation maps derived from three task regressors as features in our analyses employing a Gaussian process classifier. We showed that unaffected siblings could be distinguished from participants with ADHD (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.65, p = 0.002, 95% Modified Wald CI: 0.59-0.71 AUC) and healthy controls (AUC = 0.59, p = 0.030, 95% Modified Wald CI: 0.52-0.66 AUC), although the latter did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Further, participants with ADHD could be distinguished from healthy controls (AUC = 0.64, p = 0.001, 95% Modified Wald CI: 0.58-0.70 AUC). Altogether the present results characterise a pattern of frontolateral, superior temporal and inferior parietal expansion that is associated with risk for ADHD. Unaffected siblings show differences primarily in frontolateral regions. This provides evidence for a neural profile shared between participants with ADHD and their healthy siblings. PMID:27489770

  10. Maternal and Child Attributions in ADHD versus Non-ADHD Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study explores child and maternal attributions in ADHD and non-ADHD populations. Participants included children with ADHD (N = 26) and without ADHD (N = 24) and their mothers. Method: Children completed the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R; Kaslow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) and mothers completed the Written…

  11. Retrospective Ratings of ADHD Symptoms Made at Young Adulthood by Clinic-Referred Boys with ADHD-Related Problems, Their Brothers without ADHD, and Control Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Jan; Ledolter, Johannes; Kramer, John R.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are required to diagnosis adult ADHD, but the validity of self-rated symptoms across time is questionable. Here, boys with ADHD-related problems, their brothers without ADHD, and former schoolmates rated themselves during young adulthood for ages 9, 14, and 19.…

  12. An Asymmetric Stroop/Reverse-Stroop Interference Phenomenon in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yongning; Hakoda, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether participants with ADHD showed a deficit in Stroop/reverse-Stroop interference by comparing them to non-ADHD participants. Method: A group with ADHD, primarily inattentive type (n = 15), and a paired non-ADHD group (n = 15) completed the group version of the Stroop/reverse-Stroop test. Results: Asymmetric interference…

  13. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R; Koeter, Maarten W J; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner's Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. PMID:24022983

  14. Efficient Allocation of Attentional Resources in Patients with ADHD: Maturational Changes from Age 10 to 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that ADHD is an executive control disorder. Little is known however about the maturation of executive control in ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients compared to normal controls tested on a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants: 175 patients with ADHD, age 10 to 29, compared to…

  15. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  16. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  17. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  18. The Moderating Role of Sensory Overresponsivity in HPA Activity: A Pilot Study with Children Diagnosed with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J.; Gennings, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if sensory overresponsivity (SOR) is a moderating condition impacting the activity of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis in children with ADHD. Method: Participants were children with (n = 24) and without ADHD (n = 24). Children in the ADHD group were divided into SOR (ADHDs) and non-SOR (ADHDt) groups using the…

  19. Cognitive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pairs with ADHD: Familial Clustering and Dopamine Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Rich, Erika Carpenter; Ishii, Janeen; McGough, James; McCracken, James; Nelson, Stanley; Smalley, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper examines familiality and candidate gene associations of cognitive measures as potential endophenotypes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The sample consists of 540 participants, aged 6 to 18, who were diagnosed with ADHD from 251 families recruited for a larger genetic study of ADHD. All members of…

  20. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  1. Behavior and Peer Status in Children with ADHD: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD experience peer problems that may place them at risk for adverse outcomes. Using a short-term longitudinal design, this study links specific behaviors to peer functioning in groups of previously unfamiliar children with ADHD. Method: The participants were 268 children with ADHD who took part in an intensive summer…

  2. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  3. Effects of Coexisting Disorders on Cognition and Behavior in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Dewey, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of coexisting disorders affects memory, visual-motor skills, and daily functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Eighty-four boys and 18 girls (8 to 16 years old) participate in this study. Twenty children meet criteria for ADHD alone, 42 children for ADHD plus one other disorder, and 40 children for…

  4. Not Always Hyperactive? Elevated Apathy Scores in Adolescents and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torralva, Teresa; Lopez, Pablo; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of apathy symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD as a behavioral manifestation of underlying motivational deficits and to determine whether apathy symptoms were associated with a specific neuropsychological profile. Method: A total of 38 ADHD participants (28 of the combined subtype [ADHD/C] and 10 of…

  5. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; O'Dell, Sean M.; Carson, Kristen M.; Verdi, Genevieve; Swentosky, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate stimulant medication on symptoms and functioning for college students with ADHD using double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Method: Participants included 24 college students with ADHD and 26 college students without psychopathology. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was examined for ADHD participants over five…

  6. Rationale, Design, and Methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Cunningham, Charles; Bauzo, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the rationale and design of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: PATS was a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded, multicenter, randomized, efficacy trial designed to evaluate the short-term (5 weeks) efficacy and long-term (40 weeks) safety of methylphenidate (MPH) in preschoolers with…

  7. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  8. Anxiety, Methylphenidate Response, and Working Memory in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Tannock, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on components of working memory (WM) in children with ADHD and determine whether MPH produces differential effects on WM in children with comorbid anxiety (ANX). Method: Participants were a clinical sample of 130 children with ADHD, aged 6 to 12 years old (32% comorbid ANX). Each child…

  9. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  10. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  11. Predictors of Nonmedical ADHD Medication Use by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students. Participants: A total of 843 undergraduates attending one public or one private university in southeastern United States. Method: Students completed a Web-based survey inquiring about ADHD medication use during the first semester freshman of their year and…

  12. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  13. Autistic Traits in Children With and Without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kotte, Amelia; Joshi, Gagan; Fried, Ronna; Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Andrea; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Kenworthy, Tara; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the implications of autistic traits (ATs) in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without a diagnosis of autism. METHODS: Participants were youth with (n = 242) and without (n = 227) ADHD and controls without ADHD in whom a diagnosis of autism was exclusionary. Assessment included measures of psychiatric, psychosocial, educational, and cognitive functioning. ATs were operationalized by using the withdrawn + social + thought problems T scores from the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: A positive AT profile was significantly overrepresented among ADHD children versus controls (18% vs 0.87%; P < .001). ADHD children with the AT profile were significantly more impaired than control subjects in psychopathology, interpersonal, school, family, and cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial minority of ADHD children manifests ATs, and those exhibiting ATs have greater severity of illness and dysfunction. PMID:23979086

  14. What Is the Social Impact of ADHD in Girls? A Multi-Method Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the social impact of ADHD, with and without opposition-defiant behaviour [ADHD+ODD (n= 22) and ADHD-only (n= 18)], in 9- to 12- year old girls compared to girls without ADHD (n= 40). Girls played a computer game involving simulated players, and mothers and teachers completed rating scales. In general, mothers and teachers saw…

  15. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  16. Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity among Children with AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Smith, Taylor F.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Morrissey-Kane, Erin; Schatz, Nicole K.; Sommer, Jennifer L.; Kollins, Scott H.; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of self-regulation of emotion in relation to functional impairment and comorbidity among children with and without AD/HD. Method: A total of 358 probands and their siblings participated in the study, with 74% of the sample participants affected by AD/HD. Parent-rated levels of emotional lability served…

  17. Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Asherson, Philip; Belsky, Daniel W; Corcoran, David L; Hammerle, Maggie; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Meier, Madeline; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Poulton, Richie; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Caspi, Avshalom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective-longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult-ADHD population. We report follow-back analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in adulthood, alongside follow-forward analyses of ADHD cases diagnosed in childhood, in one cohort. Method Participants belonged to a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972-73 and followed to age 38, with 95% retention. Symptoms of ADHD, associated clinical features, comorbid disorders, neuropsychological deficits, GWAS-derived polygenic risk, and life impairment indicators were assessed. Data sources were participants, parents, teachers, informants, neuropsychological testing, and administrative records. Adult ADHD diagnoses used DSM5 criteria, apart from onset-age and cross-setting corroboration, which were study outcomes. Results As expected, the childhood-ADHD group showed 6% prevalence, male excess, childhood comorbid disorders, neurocognitive deficits, polygenic risk, and, despite having outgrown their ADHD diagnosis, residual adult life impairment. As expected, the adult-ADHD group showed 3% prevalence, gender balance, adult substance dependence, adult life impairment, and treatment contact. Unexpectedly, the childhood-ADHD and adult-ADHD groups comprised virtually non-overlapping sets; 90% of adult-ADHD cases lacked a history of childhood ADHD. Also unexpectedly, the adult-ADHD group did not show tested neuropsychological deficits in childhood or adulthood, nor did they show polygenic risk for childhood ADHD. Conclusion Findings raise the possibility that adults presenting with the ADHD symptom picture may not have a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. If this finding is replicated, then the disorder's place in the classification system must be reconsidered, and research must investigate the etiology of adult ADHD. PMID:25998281

  18. Symptoms of ADHD and Academic Concerns in College Students with and without ADHD Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Codding, Robin S.; Gordon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has found ADHD symptoms to be common in the general population but has not compared endorsement of symptoms between ADHD and non-ADHD groups. This study examines self-reported ADHD symptoms and academic complaints in college students. Method: Students without (n = 496) and with ADHD (n = 38) completed a questionnaire…

  19. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  20. Clinically Relevant Changes in Emotional Expression in Children with ADHD Treated with Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katic, Alain; Ginsberg, Lawrence; Jain, Rakesh; Adeyi, Ben; Dirks, Bryan; Babcock, Thomas; Scheckner, Brian; Richards, Cynthia; Lasser, Robert; Turgay, Atilla; Findling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinically relevant effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on emotional expression (EE) in children with ADHD. Method: Children with ADHD participated in a 7-week, open-label, LDX dose-optimization study. Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) change scores were analyzed post hoc using two methods to…

  1. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  2. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anne E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Method Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; grades 2–6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; aged 26–59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Results Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at post-assessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically-supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at-risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child’s homework performance. Conclusions Parents at-risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention, but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  3. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Health-Related Quality of Life and Family Impact between Children with ADHD Treated in a General Pediatric Clinic and a Psychiatric Clinic Utilizing the PedsQL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbers, Christine A.; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Boutton, Kelly; Ransom, Daniel; Varni, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the perspective of children with ADHD and their parents being seen in a Pediatric Clinic in comparison to healthy children and children with ADHD being seen in a Psychiatric Clinic. Method: Participants were children with a physician diagnosis of ADHD ages 5-18 years and their…

  5. Getting Clued In: Inferential Processing and Comprehension Monitoring in Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study examines the ability of children with ADHD to make inferences and monitor ongoing understanding of texts, to shed light on their academic difficulties. Method: A total of 29 boys with ADHD and 41 comparison boys between the ages of 7 and 12 participated. Three tasks measure how boys create and evaluate inferences,…

  6. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  7. A One Year Trial of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Paul H.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Sanford, Mary Eve; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Tomb, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on symptom severity and social adjustment in adult ADHD. Method: Adults (n = 116) meeting operational diagnostic criteria for ADHD (the "Utah Criteria") entered a randomized double-blind crossover trial of methylphenidate and placebo. Participants who improved on…

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of ADHD Symptoms in Persons with Celiac Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut; Pittschieler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Several studies report a possible association of celiac disease (CD) with psychiatric and psychological disturbances, such as ADHD. Method: The authors assess 132 participants from 3 to 57 years of age (M = 19.3 years) affected by CD for the possibility of an associated ADHD-like symptomatology, using the Conner Scale Hypescheme, a…

  9. Influence of Anxiety on the Social Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Ransone, Megan L.; Calhoun, Casey D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined the contribution of anxiety to the social functioning of children with and without ADHD. Method: Participants were 62 children with ADHD (ages 6-10 years and 68% boys) and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison children. Children's social functioning was measured through parent and teacher reports, observations…

  10. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  11. How Do Children with ADHD (Mis)Manage Their Real-Life Dyadic Friendships? A Multi-Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Schneider, Barry H.; Lee, Matthew D.; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Kuehn, Sally M.; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This multimethod study provides detailed information about the friendships of 87 children (76% boys) with ADHD and 46 comparison children aged 7-13 years. The methods included parent and teacher ratings, self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. Results indicated that, in contrast…

  12. Diagnostic Instability of "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes: Effects of Informant Source, Instrumentation, and Methods for Combining Symptom Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valo, Shana; Tannock, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 123 children (aged 6-12 years) referred consecutively to a pediatric neuropsychiatry clinic by community physicians for assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and related problems, we investigated the effects of informant (parent, teacher), tool (interview, rating scale), and method for combining symptom…

  13. Sensitivity of Scales to Evaluate Change in Symptomatology with Psychostimulants in Different ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Rodrigues Pereira, Ricardo M.; Joober, Ridha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity of scales (Conners’ Global Index Parent and Teacher form [CGI-P, CGI-T], Clinical Global Impression Scale [CGI], Continuous Performance Test [CPT], and Restricted Academic Situation Scale [RASS]) in evaluating improvement in symptomatology with methylphenidate in different Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Four hundred and ninety children (309 with ADHD Combined/Hyperactive [ADHD-CH] and 181 with ADHD Inattentive subtype [ADHD-I]) participated in a two week double-blind placebo-controlled crossover methylphenidate trial. Results: CGI-P showed small effect size for ADHD-I and medium effect size for the ADHD-CH subtype. CGI-T showed medium effect size for ADHD-I and large effect size for ADHD-CH subtype. CGI and RASS showed large effect size while CPT showed medium effect size for both subtypes. Conclusion: Acute behavioural assessments by clinicians (CGI, RASS) are better at detecting improvement with medication in all subtypes than parent or teacher reports (CGI-P, CGI-T). CGI-T is better than CGI-P for ADHD-I in detecting change in symptomatology as there is a greater demand for attention at school. PMID:23667362

  14. Executive Functions in Girls with ADHD Followed Prospectively into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Ho, Jennifer; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison group (n = 88) into young adulthood (Mage = 19.6), 10 years after childhood initial assessments, to evaluate neuropsychological functioning. We hypothesized that neuropsychological deficits would persist through young adulthood for those with ADHD, and that those with continuing ADHD symptomatology in young adulthood would show the largest impairments. Method Neuropsychological measures at follow-up emphasized executive functions (EF) including planning, organization, inhibitory control, sustained attention, working memory, and set shifting. Results Parallel to findings from childhood and adolescence, the girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD displayed medium to large deficits in EF relative to comparisons at follow-up, even with statistical control of baseline demographic and comorbidity variables. The addition of IQ as a covariate attenuated differences but several remained significant. Comparisons between the inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD yielded nonsignificant results with small effect sizes. EF impairments were evident in both participants whose ADHD diagnoses persisted and in those whose ADHD symptoms had remitted to a non-diagnosable level; both subgroups had more EF deficits than those who did not meet criteria for ADHD in either childhood or young adulthood. Conclusions Those in both the persistent and remitted ADHD groups showed impairments in EF relative to comparisons and generally did not differ from each other. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological/EF deficits that persist for at least 10 years. PMID:22468822

  15. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  16. Childhood ADHD and Risk for Substance Dependence in Adulthood: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Killian, Jill M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. Objective This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Method Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years, respectively). ADHD cases were more likely than controls to have a SUD diagnosed in adolescence and were more likely to have alcohol (adjusted OR 14.38, 95% CI 1.49–138.88) and drug (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.38–8.79) dependence in adulthood. The subgroup of participating ADHD cases who did not have SUD during adolescence were no more likely than controls to develop new onset alcohol dependence as adults, although they were significantly more likely to develop new onset drug dependence. Conclusions Our study found preliminary evidence that adults with childhood ADHD are more susceptible than peers to developing drug dependence, a disorder associated with neurological changes in the brain. The relationship between ADHD and

  17. The prevalence of ADHD in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty J.; Umbach, David M.; Rabiner, David L.; Campbell, Richard A.; Naftel, A. Jack; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies of ADHD prevalence have used population-based samples, multiple informants, and DSM-IV criteria. In addition, children who are asymptomatic while receiving ADHD mediction often have been misclassified. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in elementary school children using DSM-IV critera. Methods We screened 7587 children for ADHD. Teachers of 81% of the children completed a DSM-IV checklist. We then interviewed parents using a structured interview (DISC). Of these, 72% participated. Parent and teacher ratings were combined to determine ADHD status. We also estimated the proportion of cases attributable to other conditions. Results Overall, 15.5% of our sample (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 14.6%-16.4%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Over 40% of cases reported no previous diagnosis. With additional information, other conditions explained about 9% of cases. Conclusions The prevalence of ADHD in this population-based sample was higher than the 3-7% commonly reported. To compare study results, the methods used to implement the DSM criteria need to be standardized. PMID:24336124

  18. The challenges of implementing ADHD clinical guidelines and research best evidence in routine clinical care settings: Delphi survey and mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John A.; Newell, Karen; Baldwin, Laurence; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background The landmark US Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study established the benefits of individualised medication titration and optimisation strategies to improve short- to medium-term outcomes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This individualised medication management approach was subsequently incorporated into the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ADHD Clinical Guidelines (NICE CG78). However, little is known about clinicians’ attitudes towards implementing these medication management strategies for ADHD in routine care. Aims To examine National Health Service (NHS) healthcare professionals’ consensus on ADHD medication management strategies. Method Using the Delphi method, we examined perceptions on the importance and feasibility of implementing 103 ADHD treatment statements from sources including the UK NICE ADHD guidelines and US medication management algorithms. Results Certain recommendations for ADHD medication management were judged as important and feasible to implement, including a stepwise titration of stimulant medication. Other recommendations were perceived as important but not feasible to implement in routine practice, such as weekly clinic follow-up with the family during titration and collection of follow-up symptom questionnaires. Conclusions Many of the key guideline recommendations for ADHD medication management are viewed by clinicians as important and feasible to implement. However, some recommendations present significant implementation challenges within the context of routine NHS clinical care in England. Declaration of interest C.H. and K.S. were members of the Guideline Development Group for the NICE ADHD Clinical Guideline (NICE CG78). Copyright and usage © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703750

  19. Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hamoda, Hesham M; Luna, Laura; Rao, Sneha; McClendon, James; Rotella, Peter; Waber, Deborah; Boyer, Katherine; Faraone, Steven V; Whitney, Jane; Guild, Danielle; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy. Patients & methods Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample. Results A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted. PMID:23397446

  20. Substance Use Disorder and ADHD: Is ADHD a Particularly "Specific" Risk Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousha, Maryam; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-rad, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pattern of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents with and without history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using an Iranian sample in the context of a cultural background and drug availability is differing from Western countries. Method: In this case-control study, the participants were interviewed…

  1. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  2. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  3. Reaching All Learners: A Study of Teacher's Perspectives about Cooperative Learning and Students Diagnosed with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Maria M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on describing teachers' perspectives in reference to cooperative learning, students diagnosed with ADHD, and teacher participation in professional learning communities (PLCs). A quantitative methodology, survey study method was used to collect information. The literature review on ADHD and Cooperative Learning helped…

  4. Task Demands Interact with the Single and Combined Effects of Medication and Contingencies on Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamm, Leanne; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate single and combined effects of stimulant medication and contingencies on the performance of ADHD children with tasks involving different cognitive demands. Method: Children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a within-subjects design. At two separate sessions, children on either medication or placebo (administered in a…

  5. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…

  6. The Acute Effect of Methylphenidate in Brazilian Male Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…

  7. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  8. Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults: What Is the Appropriate "DSM-5" Symptom Threshold for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To empirically identify the appropriate symptom threshold for hyperactivity-impulsivity for diagnosis of ADHD in adults. Method: Participants were 88 adults (M [SD] age = 41.69 [11.78] years, 66% female, 16% minority) meeting formal "DSM-IV" criteria for ADHD combined or predominantly inattentive subtypes based on a structured…

  9. Stop Signal and Conners' Continuous Performance Tasks: Test-Retest Reliability of Two Inhibition Measures in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreni, Noam; Crosbie, Jennifer; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure test-retest reliability of the Stop-Signal Task (SST) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in children with ADHD. Methods: 12 children with ADHD (age 11.46 plus or minus 1.66) participated in the study. Primary outcome measures were stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) for the SST and CPT's commission errors (%FP).…

  10. Social Information Processing of Positive and Negative Hypothetical Events in Children with ADHD and Conduct Problems and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…

  11. Feasibility of School-Based ADHD Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Study of Perceptions of Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin; Mason, Dana M.; Ellison, Anne; Noguchi, Kenji; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about perceptions surrounding academic interventions for ADHD that determine intervention feasibility. Method As part of a longitudinal mixed-methods research project, representative school district samples of 148 adolescents (54.8%), 161 parents (59.4%), 122 teachers (50.0%), 46 health care providers (53.5%), and 92 school health professionals (65.7%) completed a cross-sectional survey. They also answered open-ended questions addressing undesirable intervention effects, which were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results Adolescents expressed significantly lower receptivity toward academic interventions than adult respondents. Stigma emerged as a significant threat to ADHD intervention feasibility, as did perceptions that individualized interventions foster inequality. Conclusion Findings suggest that adolescents’ viewpoints must be included in intervention development to enhance feasibility and avoid interventions acceptable to adults, but resisted by adolescents. PMID:24448222

  12. Parental ADHD Predicts Child and Parent Outcomes Parental Friendship Coaching Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the impact of parental ADHD symptoms on the peer relationships and parent-child interaction outcomes of children with ADHD among families completing a randomized-controlled trial of Parental Friendship Coaching (PFC) relative to control families. Method Participants were 62 children with ADHD (42 boys; ages 6–10) and their parents. Approximately half of the families received PFC (a 3-month parent training intervention targeting the peer relationships of children with ADHD) and the remainder represented a no-treatment control group. Results Parental inattention predicted equivalent declines in children’s peer acceptance in both treatment and control families. However, treatment amplified differences between parents with high versus low ADHD symptoms for some outcomes: Control families declined in functioning regardless of parents’ symptom levels. However, high parental inattention predicted increased child peer rejection and high parental inattention and impulsivity predicted decreased parental facilitation among treated families (indicating reduced treatment response). Low parental symptoms among treated families were associated with improved functioning in these areas. For other outcomes, treatment attenuated differences between parents with high versus low ADHD symptoms: Among control parents, high parental impulsivity was associated with increasing criticism over time whereas all treated parents evidenced reduced criticism regardless of symptom levels. Follow-up analyses indicated that the parents experiencing poor treatment response are likely those with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms. Conclusions Results underscore the need to consider parental ADHD in parent training treatments for children with ADHD. PMID:22115144

  13. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  14. Cognitive Processes in ADHD and Asperger's Disorder: Overlaps and Differences in PASS Profiles.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Many studies report on the usefulness of the evaluation of Executive Functions (EF) in the assessment of participants with ADHD, while others underline how deficits of EF in these participants are not consistent and that the same executive deficits are present in many other disorders, particularly in Asperger's disorder. Using the Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive (PASS) theory, the present study explores the cognitive profiles of participants with ADHD or Asperger's disorder and compares the cognitive functioning of these two diagnostic groups. Method: Forty-four children, 24 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 20 with a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder, participated and their cognitive processes were evaluated with the Cognitive Assessment System. Results: Results underline specific cognitive profiles in ADHD and Asperger's disorder characterized by weaknesses in planning and attention, but with a diverse level of severity. Conclusion: Implications of the different cognitive profiles of these diagnostic groups are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  15. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  16. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  17. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  18. Participant recruitment methods and statistical reasoning performance.

    PubMed

    Brase, Gary L; Fiddick, Laurence; Harries, Clare

    2006-05-01

    Optimal Bayesian reasoning performance has reportedly been elusive, and a variety of explanations have been suggested for this situation. In a series of experiments, it is demonstrated that these difficulties with replication can be accounted for by differences in participant-sampling methodologies. Specifically, the best performances are obtained with students from top-tier, national universities who were paid for their participation. Performance drops significantly as these conditions are altered regarding inducements (e.g., using unpaid participants) or participant source (e.g., using participants from a second-tier, regional university). Honours-programme undergraduates do better than regular undergraduates within the same university, paid participation creates superior performance, and top-tier university students do better than students from lower ranked universities. Pictorial representations (supplementing problem text) usually have a slight facilitative effect across these participant manipulations. These results indicate that studies should take account of these methodological details and focus more on relative levels of performance rather than absolute performance. PMID:16608757

  19. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  20. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of assessment tools, including behavioral rating scales and objective tests such as the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), can be used to measure inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, research with school-age children has shown that the correlations between parent ratings, teacher ratings, and scores on objective measures of ADHD-characteristic behaviors are modest at best. In this study, we examined the relations between parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and CPT scores in a sample of 65 preschoolers ranging from 50 to 72 months of age. No significant associations between teacher and parent ratings of ADHD were found. Parent-ratings of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity accounted for variance in CPT omission errors but not CPT commission errors. Teacher ratings showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity when entered simultaneously in a hierarchical regression. These tools may be measuring different aspects of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. PMID:22518069

  1. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Several forms of assessment tools, including behavioral rating scales and objective tests such as the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), can be used to measure inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, research with school-age children has shown that the correlations…

  2. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  3. The Experience of Receiving a Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adulthood: A Qualitative Study of Clinically Referred Patients Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Bramham, Jessica; Gray, Katie; Rose, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychological impact of receiving a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and treatment with medication and to examine how diagnosis and treatment with medication changes an individual's self-perception and view of the future. Method: Participants were eight individuals diagnosed with ADHD at a tertiary service. Semistructured…

  4. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael C; Reimer, Bryan; Coughlin, Joseph F; Surman, Craig B; Aleardi, Megan; Dougherty, Meghan; Schoenfeld, Steven; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-01-01

    Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population. PMID:17263888

  5. Kernel Principal Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction in fMRI-based diagnosis of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gagan S; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Greiner, Russell; Brown, Matthew R G

    2012-01-01

    This study explored various feature extraction methods for use in automated diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) data. Each participant's data consisted of a resting state fMRI scan as well as phenotypic data (age, gender, handedness, IQ, and site of scanning) from the ADHD-200 dataset. We used machine learning techniques to produce support vector machine (SVM) classifiers that attempted to differentiate between (1) all ADHD patients vs. healthy controls and (2) ADHD combined (ADHD-c) type vs. ADHD inattentive (ADHD-i) type vs. controls. In different tests, we used only the phenotypic data, only the imaging data, or else both the phenotypic and imaging data. For feature extraction on fMRI data, we tested the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), different variants of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and combinations of FFT and PCA. PCA variants included PCA over time (PCA-t), PCA over space and time (PCA-st), and kernelized PCA (kPCA-st). Baseline chance accuracy was 64.2% produced by guessing healthy control (the majority class) for all participants. Using only phenotypic data produced 72.9% accuracy on two class diagnosis and 66.8% on three class diagnosis. Diagnosis using only imaging data did not perform as well as phenotypic-only approaches. Using both phenotypic and imaging data with combined FFT and kPCA-st feature extraction yielded accuracies of 76.0% on two class diagnosis and 68.6% on three class diagnosis-better than phenotypic-only approaches. Our results demonstrate the potential of using FFT and kPCA-st with resting-state fMRI data as well as phenotypic data for automated diagnosis of ADHD. These results are encouraging given known challenges of learning ADHD diagnostic classifiers using the ADHD-200 dataset (see Brown et al., 2012).

  6. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  7. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  8. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  9. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  10. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  11. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  12. Symptoms of ADHD and Close Friendships in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship of ADHD symptoms to different aspects of close friendship quality as rated by both adolescents (target adolescent and a close friend) within a friendship dyad. Method: Participants were 41 same-sex friendship dyads who completed questionnaires about their friendship. Separate symptom dimensions of…

  13. Putting Families in the Center: Family Perspectives on Decision Making and ADHD and Implications for ADHD Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine C.; Claudius, Milena; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wong, John B.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine components of family-centered care in families' stories about treatment decision making for their child with ADHD. Method: Twenty-eight families participated in qualitative interviews that addressed families' perspectives on (a) the treatment decision-making process, (b) the cause and impact of their child's symptoms, and (c)…

  14. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    PubMed

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research.

  15. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  16. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  17. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  18. Personality Characteristics Associated with Persistent ADHD in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the personality characteristics associated with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a longitudinal sample of youth, with a particular focus on differences between those with and without persisting ADHD symptoms. Participants with ADHD (n = 90) were initially evaluated when they were 7-11 years old, and…

  19. Self-Reported ADHD and Adjustment in College: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Stacey L.; Gilbert, Adrianne N.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Rabiner, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between self-reported ADHD and college adjustment. Participants: Study 1 included nearly 3400 undergraduates attending a public and private university. Study 2 included 846 students who participated during freshman and sophomore year. Method: Students completed a web-based survey that assessed diagnostic…

  20. Is the Recall of Verbal-Spatial Information from Working Memory Affected by Symptoms of ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caterino, Linda C.; Verdi, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Kulhavy model for text learning using organized spatial displays proposes that learning will be increased when participants view visual images prior to related text. In contrast to previous studies, this study also included students who exhibited symptoms of ADHD. Method: Participants were presented with either a map-text or…

  1. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  2. The Marital and Family Functioning of Adults with ADHD and Their Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, L.; Minde, K.; Hechtman, L.; Ochs, E.; Krane, E.; Bouffard, R.; Greenfield, B.; Looper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the family relationships of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the marital adjustment and family functioning of 33 married adults with ADHD and their spouses was compared to 26 non-ADHD control participants and their spouses. Results revealed that married adults with ADHD reported poorer…

  3. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  4. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  5. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD.

  6. Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence of the unmet needs and experiences of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the published scientific literature. This study aimed to explore the experiences of adults in England with ADHD regarding access to diagnostic and treatment services, ADHD-related impairment and to compare experiences between patients diagnosed during adulthood and childhood. Methods In this qualitative study, 30 adults with ADHD were recruited through an ADHD charity (n = 17) and two hospital outpatient clinics for adults with ADHD in England (n = 13). Half of the participants were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood or adolescence and the remainder during adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data was analysed using a thematic approach based on Grounded Theory principles. Results Analysis revealed five core themes: ‘An uphill struggle’: the challenge of accessing services, ‘Accumulated Psychosocial Burden and the Impact of ADHD’, ‘Weighing up Costs vs. Benefits of ADHD Pharmacological Treatment’, ‘Value of Non-pharmacological Treatment’ and ‘Barriers to Treatment Adherence’. Accessing services and the challenges associated with securing a definitive diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood was an ‘uphill struggle’, often due to sceptical and negative attitudes towards ADHD by healthcare professionals. ADHD-related impairment had an overwhelmingly chaotic impact on every aspect of patients’ lives and many felt ill equipped to cope. A persistent sense of failure and missed potential from living with the impact of ADHD impairment had led to an accumulated psychosocial burden, especially among those diagnosed from late adolescence onwards. In contrast, positive adjustment was facilitated by a younger age at diagnosis. Although medication was perceived as necessary in alleviating impairment, many felt strongly that by itself, it was inadequate. Additional support in the form of

  7. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘New Forest Parenting Package’ (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with ADHD, fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control.Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior (‘Helping the Noncompliant Child’ [HNC]) in young children with ADHD. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). Results In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP

  8. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  9. Adolescents With ADHD: Experiences of Having an ADHD Diagnosis and Negotiations of Self-Image and Identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sheila; Hesse, Morten

    2014-02-18

    Objective: To develop an understanding of the meanings and consequences of a diagnosis of ADHD for young people during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Method: Nine youth with an ADHD diagnosis were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide on topics of management of identity and their own experiences of their difficulties relating to ADHD. Results: The meanings and consequences of the ADHD diagnosis is best understood in terms of overall identity development and social connectedness. In addition, cultural understandings of what ADHD is play a major role in negotiating the role of ADHD in identity. Conclusion: Youth with ADHD moving from childhood to adulthood need support for identity development. Health care professionals should be aware of young people's experiences of ADHD symptoms in the context of their life situations and the cultural understanding of ADHD during treatment and psychoeducation. (J. of Att. Dis. 2014; XX(X) 1-XX).

  10. [Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław

    2010-01-01

    the HPA axis in ADHD can result from an excessive exposure to glucocorticoids in the fetal and early postnatal periods. Glucocorticoid administration in this period of life can provoke permanent changes in the level of brain glucocorticoid receptors and, in consequence, dysregulation of HPA axis activity, disturbances in biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters and their receptors and changes in the intracellular pathways. Glucocorticoids are known to intensify the dopaminergic system activity, so the decrease in their expression in ADHD can cause the hypofunction of this system. Since the attention and motor activity disorders often occur in children with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones, their role in ADHD pathogenesis was evaluated. However, most of the studies indicated that the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), the free thyroxine, and the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) did not change in ADHD. Preclinical data concerning the role of androgens in the ADHD pathogenesis suggest that the elevated testosterone level can diminish the brain blood flow in the frontal cortex, via lowering of the level of estrogen receptor-alpha and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and in consequence disturb processes of the memory. The association between ADHD and the polymorphism of the gene coding for androgen receptor, which leads to its higher expression has been found, however, the issue of the androgen participation in the ADHD pathogenesis is still poorly recognized. Frequent co-occurrence of ADHD and allergic diseases and correlation between ADHD and streptococcus-mediated neuropsychiatric disorders suggest the participation of the immune system in the ADHD pathogenesis. Also experimental data from an animal model of ADHD showed changes in the expression in at least several essential genes for the immune system function. However, on the other hand, the lack of the association between asthma and immunoglobulin E- dependent athopic reaction and

  11. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  12. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  13. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8–12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8–12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Results Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. Conclusions These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD. PMID:25610784

  14. Sensory processing abilities of children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Vitoria T.; Bueno, Orlando F. A.; Miranda, Mônica C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the sensory processing abilities of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children without disabilities, and to analyze the relationship between sensory processing difficulties and behavioural symptoms presented by children with ADHD. METHOD : Thirty-seven children with ADHD were compared with thirty-seven controls using a translated and adapted version of the "Sensory Profile" answered by the parents/caregivers. For the ADHD group, Sensory Profile scores were correlated to behavioural symptoms assessed using the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the Behavioural Teacher Rating Scale (EACI-P). The statistical analyses were conducted using the Mann Whitney test and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS : Children with ADHD showed significant impairments compared to the control group in sensory processing and modulation, as well as in behavioural and emotional responses as observed in 11 out of 14 sections and 6 out of 9 factors. Differences in all Sensory Profile response patterns were also observed between the two groups of children. Sensory Profile scores showed a moderately negative correlation with CBCL and EACI-P scores in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that children with ADHD may present sensory processing impairments, which may contribute to the inappropriate behavioural and learning responses displayed by children with ADHD. It also suggests the importance of understanding the sensory processing difficulties and its possible contribution to the ADHD symptomatology. PMID:25076000

  15. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  16. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  17. Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Children with Comorbid Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Sallee, F. Randy; Gilbert, Donald L.; Dunn, David W.; McCracken, James T.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Budman, Cathy L.; Ricardi, Randall K.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Allen, Albert J.; Milton, Denai R.; Feldman, Peter D.; Kelsey, Douglas K.; Geller, Daniel A.; Linder, Steven L.; Lewis, Donald W.; Winner, Paul K.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Mintz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: Subjects (7-17 years old) with ADHD ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV") and TS were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 56) or atomoxetine…

  18. Cultural Structures of the Persian Parents' Ratings of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the cultural structure of Farsi-speaking parents' ratings with diagnostic definitions of ADHD. Method: The children with ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The parents rated their children on the Farsi-speaking parents' ADHD rating questionnaire. Results: The principal components analysis extracted the…

  19. Time out of Mind: Temporal Perspective in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, Maria G.; Wiberg, Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation. Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of…

  20. Assessing the Concordance of Measures Used to Diagnose Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Raggi, Veronica L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Recent evidence suggests that ADHD persists into adulthood, but the best means of diagnosis and the concordance of measures used to diagnose adult ADHD are unknown. Method: The current study explores the relationships of these measures in a sample of 69 mothers of children with ADHD. Results: This study determines the concordance of (a)…

  1. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  2. Family Characteristics of Anxious ADHD Children: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Hayden O.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Method: Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. Results: ADHD families are uniformly less…

  3. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Laboratory Classroom Assessment of Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Abikoff, Howard; Turnbow, John M.; Posner, Kelly; Moon, Eliot

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the efficacy, duration of action, and tolerability of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in children with ADHD. Method: Participants were dose optimized over 5 weeks utilizing patch doses of 10, 16, 20, and 27 mg applied in the morning and worn for 9 hours. Following optimization, 80 participants were…

  4. Preliminary Efficacy of a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Children With ADHD in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Tamkeen Ashraf; Rooney, Mary; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Tariq, Naeem

    2014-03-12

    Objective: In an effort to address the lack of evidence-based interventions for ADHD in developing South Asian countries, we examined the preliminary efficacy of a behavioral parent training program in Pakistan. Method: A quasi-experimental design was utilized. Eighty-five 4- to 12-year-old children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms participated: 55 were recruited from hospital clinics (active treatment group) and 30 were recruited from schools (waitlist control group). Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and impairment were collected. Results: Using intent-to-treat analyses, the treatment group showed significant pre-post improvement on parent-reported ODD symptoms and ADHD-related impairment. Teacher ratings showed no improvement. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of behavioral parenting training for children with ADHD in Pakistan and represents a critical first step in identifying evidence-based treatments for Pakistani children with ADHD. PMID:24621459

  5. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  6. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  7. The storybook method: research feedback with young participants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kate; Balandin, Susan

    2011-12-01

    Children are valuable informants for social research; however, their participation presents additional ethical and practical challenges. Of these challenges, feedback to verify the researchers' interpretations drawn from children's data, and the dissemination of project findings to young participants, have proven difficult to overcome. In this paper, we outline the Storybook method, an approach to feedback in research with young children. In the example study, illustrations, interactive pop-ups, and third-person disclosure were used to aid children aged 7-9 years to overcome the power imbalance in interviews with adults. The Storybook method facilitated active participation in the validation process. Potential modifications of the method for use with older populations, including adults with intellectual disabilities, complex communication needs, and those requiring alternate access to written texts, are also explored.

  8. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  9. Heart Rate and Reinforcement Sensitivity in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…

  10. Trends in Medication Treatment for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Lon; Aubert, Ronald E.; Verbrugge, Robert R.; Khalid, Mona; Epstein, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines demographic trends in the use of medications to treat ADHD in adult and pediatric populations. Method: Using pharmacy claims data for a large population of commercially insured Americans, the study measures ADHD treatment prevalence and drug use from 2000 to 2005. Results: In 2005, 4.4% of children (ages 0 to 19) and…

  11. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  12. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  13. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  14. ADHD as a Serious Risk Factor for Early Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthies, Swantje; Holzner, Sebastian; Feige, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco smoking and ADHD frequently co-occur. So far, the bulk of research on the ADHD-smoking comorbidity has been done in children with ADHD and nonclinical adult samples. To assess smoking habits in adults with ADHD, the authors used the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Method: In 60 adult outpatients, with an ADHD…

  15. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  16. A Verbal Planning Impairment in Adult ADHD Indexed by Script Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Catherine; Scherzer, Peter; Braun, Claude M. J.; Godbout, Lucie; Poissant, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Though juvenile and adult ADHD cases are well known to have a nonverbal planning impairment, a verbal-planning impairment has been demonstrated only in juvenile ADHD. The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a verbal planning impairment also characterizes adult ADHD. Methods: A cohort of 30 adult ADHD clients of a…

  17. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  18. Summer treatment programs for youth with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Pelham, William E

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require intensive treatments to remediate functional impairments and promote the development of adaptive skills. The summer treatment program (STP) is an exemplar of intensive treatment of ADHD. STP intervention components include a reward and response-cost point system, time-out, use of antecedent control (clear commands, establishment of rules and routines), and liberal praise and rewards for appropriate behavior. Parents also participate in parent management training programming to learn how to implement similar procedures within the home setting. There is strong evidence supporting the efficacy of the STP as an intervention for ADHD. PMID:25220085

  19. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  20. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  1. Characterization of the Theta to Beta Ratio in ADHD: Identifying Potential Sources of Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Cho, Alexander; Hale, T. Sigi; McGough, James; McCracken, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study is to characterize the theta to beta ratio (THBR) obtained from electroencephalogram (EEG) measures, in a large sample of community and clinical participants with regard to (a) ADHD diagnosis and subtypes, (b) common psychiatric comorbidities, and (c) cognitive correlates. Method: The sample includes 871…

  2. Heterogeneity in the Pharmacological Treatment of Children with ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Social Functioning Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lall, Ayesha S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which children with ADHD in various medication statuses (i.e., medication naive, pure stimulant, stimulant plus another medication, nonstimulants) varied on cognitive or academic, behavioral, and social functioning during a psychoeducational assessment battery. Method: Participants for this study consisted…

  3. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  4. Relationship between Response to Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD and Psychopathology in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Kovacina, Bojan; Amor, Leila Ben; Schwartz, George; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of familial aggregation of psychopathology in children who are good responders (GR) to methylphenidate (MPH) versus those who are poor responders (PR). Method: A total of 118 clinically referred children ages 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 2-week…

  5. Subclinical ADHD, Stress, and Coping in Romantic Relationships of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbey, Gail A.; Snell, William E., Jr.; Callis, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how the subclinical symptoms of adult ADHD and those of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) affect relationship satisfaction and stress and to determine whether different patterns of coping strategies emerge when undergraduates have symptoms of one or both disorders. Method: Participants (N = 497) complete self-report surveys…

  6. External Validation of Bifactor Model of ADHD: Explaining Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Comorbidity, Cognitive Control, and Personality Trait Profiles within DSM-IV ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child…

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP ADHD - A Guide for Families Skip breadcrumb navigation Getting Treatment Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ...

  8. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem . About 15% to 20% of kids with ADHD ... art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous continue Alternative Treatments The only ADHD therapies ...

  9. Public participation GIS: a method for identifying ecosystems services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Greg; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of an Internet-based public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) to identify ecosystem services in Grand County, Colorado. Specific research objectives were to examine the distribution of ecosystem services, identify the characteristics of participants in the study, explore potential relationships between ecosystem services and land use and land cover (LULC) classifications, and assess the methodological strengths and weakness of the PPGIS approach for identifying ecosystem services. Key findings include: (1) Cultural ecosystem service opportunities were easiest to identify while supporting and regulatory services most challenging, (2) participants were highly educated, knowledgeable about nature and science, and have a strong connection to the outdoors, (3) some LULC classifications were logically and spatially associated with ecosystem services, and (4) despite limitations, the PPGIS method demonstrates potential for identifying ecosystem services to augment expert judgment and to inform public or environmental policy decisions regarding land use trade-offs.

  10. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  11. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  12. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  13. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  14. Using Stimulant Medication for Children with ADHD: What Do Parents Say? A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Charach, Alice; Skyba, Anna; Cook, Lisa; Antle, Beverley J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Long-term adherence to stimulant treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequently poor. Since parents are the key decision makers regarding their child’s health care, their thoughts regarding medication use are crucial to whether children take prescribed stimulants. To develop an understanding of what parents think about using stimulants to treat their children’s ADHD symptoms we consulted groups of parents about their experiences. Methods Using qualitative methods informed by phenomenology, three focus groups of parents were asked to describe their experiences parenting a child with ADHD and using stimulant medications for treatment. Participants were 17 mothers and fathers of 14 children with ADHD, ages 7–14 years, who had received detailed diagnostic assessments and had used stimulants. Focus group dialogue was recorded and transcribed. Using established methods of data analysis, themes were identified and explored. Results Accepting that one’s child has ADHD and needs treatment is a difficult and lengthy process, often accompanied by confusion and self-doubt. Parents find the choice to use stimulant treatment particularly challenging given the conflicting opinions they hear from family, friends and professionals. Conclusions Universally, parents want to do what is best for their child. Adverse effects, concerns about stigmatization, and the child’s dislike of taking pills, all contribute to parents’ decisions to discontinue medication even when the child shows symptomatic benefit. PMID:18392197

  15. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  16. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  17. Social Networking Site Use While Driving: ADHD and the Mediating Roles of Stress, Self-Esteem and Craving

    PubMed Central

    Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adults who present ADHD symptoms have an increased risk for vehicle accidents. One conceivable overlooked account for this association is the possibility that people with ADHD symptoms use rewarding technologies such as social networking sites (SNS) while driving, more than others. The objective of this study was to understand if and how ADHD symptoms can promote SNS use while driving and specifically to conceptualize and examine mechanisms which may underlie this association. To do so, ADHD is viewed in this study as an underlying syndrome that promotes SNS use while driving in a manner similar to how addictive syndromes promote compulsive seeking of drug rewards. Methods: Time-lagged survey data regarding ADHD, stress, self-esteem, SNS craving experience, SNS use while driving, and control variables were collected from a sample of 457 participants who use a popular SNS (Facebook) and drive, after face-validity examination with a panel of five users and pretest with a sample of 47. These data were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses using the frequency of ADHD symptoms measured with ASRS v1.1 Part A as a continuous variable, as well as multivariate analysis of variance using ADHD classification based on ASRS v1.1 scoring guidelines. Results: ADHD symptoms promoted increased stress and reduced self-esteem, which in turn, together with ADHD symptoms, increased one's cravings to use the SNS. These cravings ultimately translated into increased SNS use while driving. Using the ASRS v1.1 classification, people having symptoms highly consistent with ADHD presented elevated levels of stress, cravings to use the SNS, and SNS use while driving, as well as decreased levels of self-esteem. Cravings to use the SNS among men were more potent than among women. Conclusion: SNS use while driving may be more prevalent than previously assumed and may be indirectly associated with ADHD symptoms. It is a new form of impulsive and risky behavior which

  18. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  19. Reliability, Validity, and Utility of Instruments for Self-Report and Informant Report Concerning Symptoms of ADHD in Adult Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swinkels, S. H. N.; Bekker, Evelijne M.; de Noord, Ineke; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between symptoms of ADHD in adults, obtained with different methods and from different sources. Method: Information was obtained from 120 adults with ADHD, their partners, and their parents, using the ADHD Rating Scale, the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale…

  20. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning has been well-documented in individuals with ADHD. Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms of the disorder. Language problems are also common in ADHD, with accumulating evidence of pragmatic language difficulties. Pragmatic deficits are associated with social impairment in several neurodevelopmental disorders. This study systematically examined pragmatic language functioning in children with ADHD and whether social impairment in ADHD is mediated by pragmatic deficits. Method 63 children (28 ADHD; 35 typically-developing), ages 7-11 years, underwent a comprehensive assessment of pragmatic language, including parent ratings, standardized tests, and a narrative task. Parents also rated children's social skills on the Social Skills Improvement System. Results Children with ADHD had poorer pragmatic language skills relative to peers across all measures, even after controlling for general language abilities. Furthermore, pragmatic abilities as measured by parent ratings, mediated the relation between ADHD and social skills. Conclusions Pragmatic language skills are impaired in many children with ADHD and may partially account for high rates of social impairment. Implications for treatment and possible prevention of social problems in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:23682627

  1. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  2. In their own words: Adolescent views on ADHD and their evolving role managing medication

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, William B.; Sherman, Susan N.; Zmitrovich, April R.; Visscher, Marty O.; Crosby, Lori E.; Phelan, Kieran J.; Donovan, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Up to 90% of adolescents with ADHD remain functionally impaired, yet less than half continue to take medication. The objective of this study was to gain a detailed understanding of how adolescents with ADHD contribute to medication treatment decisions. Methods 44 adolescents with ADHD aged 13 to 18 years old participated in 1 of 7 focus groups. An experienced facilitator used a semi-structured focus group guide to prompt discussion which was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We coded transcripts using an inductive approach. Thematic saturation was reached after the seventh focus group. Results Adolescents assumed increased responsibility for managing medication as they matured and developed insight into the functional impact of ADHD and medication on their lives. Insights were often formed by contrasting time spent on and off medication. ADHD impacted functioning in the following domains: academics, social interactions and relationships, creativity, and driving skills. Select domains were relevant for some adolescents but not others. Adolescents described different roles that they played in managing medication as well as strategies they employed to exert autonomy over medication use. Side effects were common and contributed to negative feelings toward medication. Some adolescents had begun to use medication selectively. Many expressed uncertainty about future use of medication. Conclusions Adolescents assume an increasing role in managing medication for ADHD. Well-structured and coordinated trials stopping medication and measuring outcomes relevant to adolescents, parents, teachers, doctors, and/or other stakeholders may help ensure a developmentally appropriate transition from family to self-management of ADHD. PMID:22133501

  3. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  4. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  5. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  6. A Comparative Study of Sustained Attentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    PISHYAREH, Ebrahim; TEHRANI-DOOST, Mehdi; MAHMOODI-GHARAIE, Javad; KHORRAMI, Anahita; RAHMDAR, Saeid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective ADHD children have anomalous and negative behavior especially in emotionally related fields when compared to other. Evidence indicates that attention has an impact on emotional processing. The present study evaluates the effect of emotional processing on the sustained attention of children with ADHD type C. Materials & Methods Sixty participants form two equal groups (each with 30 children) of normal and ADHD children) and each subject met the required selected criterion as either a normal or an ADHD child. Both groups were aged from 6–11-years-old. All pictures were chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral–neutral. Sustained attention was evaluated based on the number and duration of total fixation and was compared between the groups with MANOVA analysis. Results The duration of sustained attention on pleasant in the pleasant-unpleasant pair was significant. Bias in duration of sustained attention on pleasant scenes in pleasant-neutral pairs is significantly different between the groups. Conclusion Such significant differences might be indicative of ADHD children deficiencies in emotional processing. It seems that the highly deep effect of emotionally unpleasant scenes to gain the focus of ADHD children’s attention is responsible for impulsiveness and abnormal processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:25767541

  7. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  8. 'ADHD Does Bad Stuff to You': Young People's and Parents' Experiences and Perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travell, Chris; Visser, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study of young people's and parents' experiences and perspectives of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from five positions: the 'symptoms' of ADHD and their consequences, the process of diagnosis and treatment, interventions, a personal diagnosis, and participation and voice. It questions the…

  9. Attenuated Readiness Potential in the Absence of Executive Dysfunction in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bo-Kyung; Sartory, Gudrun; Kis, Bernhard; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W

    2013-10-25

    Objective: Patients with ADHD display a decreased contingent negative variation in Go/NoGo tasks. It is unclear whether the attenuation is due to deficits of executive function or to disorder of motor planning. The readiness potential (RP) recorded during self-initiated movements could cast light on this question. Method: RP was recorded in 25 stably medicated adult ADHD patients and 21 healthy controls matched for age, education, and verbal IQ. Participants also completed neuropsychological tests of executive function. Results: Compared with healthy controls, ADHD patients showed significantly diminished RP peaks and also decreased negativity in preparation of the movement at frontal locations. There were no significant group differences with regard to tests of executive function. Conclusion: In adults with ADHD, deficits of motor organization are also manifest in situations not involving external stimulus processing. The attenuated RP occurred in the absence of executive dysfunction. Results are consistent with partial independence between motor and executive dysfunction in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  10. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  11. Utility of an abbreviated questionnaire to identify individuals with ADHD at risk for functional impairments

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Fried, Ronna; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Aleardi, Megan; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Seidman, Larry J.; Spencer, Thomas; Faneuil, Alicia R.; Holmes, Lauren; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discern whether a subset of items from the 99-item Current Behavior Scale (CBS) of behaviorally defined executive function deficits (EFDs) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can identify a group at risk for poor outcome. Methods Subjects were 200 adults with ADHD participating in a family study of ADHD in adults. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of items in the 99-item CBS. Results The one factor solution provided 8 items with factor loadings above 0.70. This abbreviated set of items was highly correlated with the 99-item CBS (0.91) and was similarly related to functional outcomes compared to the 99-item CBS (average correlation of 0.30 versus 0.32). Conclusion For adults with ADHD, a set of 8 empirically derived from the CBS similarly correlated with negative outcomes compared to the 99-item CBS, raising the possibility of utilization as a mechanism for identification of EFDs in adults with ADHD. PMID:17335849

  12. Adult ADHD and comorbid depression: A consensus-derived diagnostic algorithm for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Diane; Kutcher, Stan; Binder, Carin; Levitt, Anthony; Fallu, Angelo; Rosenbluth, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many patients present to their physician with depression as their primary symptom. However, depression may mask other comorbid disorders. This article presents diagnostic criteria and treatment recommendations (and monitoring) pertaining to the diagnosis of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may be missed in patients who present with depressive symptoms, or major depressive disorder (MDD). Other co-occurring conditions such as anxiety, substance use, and bipolar disorder are briefly discussed. Methods: A panel of psychiatrist-clinicians with expertise in the area of child and adolescent ADHD and mood disorders, adult mood disorders, and adult ADHD was convened. A literature search for recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring conditions (MDD, anxiety symptoms, and substance use) with adult ADHD was performed. Based on this, and the panel’s clinical expertise, the authors developed a diagnostic algorithm and recommendations for the treatment of adult ADHD with co-occurring MDD. Results: Little information exists to assist clinicians in diagnosing ADHD co-occurring with other disorders such as MDD. A three-step process was developed by the panel to aid in the screening and diagnosis of adult ADHD. In addition, comorbid MDD, bipolar disorder, anxiety symptoms, substance use and cardiovascular concerns regarding stimulant use are discussed. Conclusion: This article provides clinicians with a clinically relevant overview of the literature on comorbid ADHD and depression and offers a clinically useful diagnostic algorithm and treatment suggestions. PMID:19557108

  13. College Students with and without ADHD: Comparison of Self-Report of Medication Usage, Study Habits, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…

  14. Attribution and Self-Evaluation of Continuous Performance Test Task Performance in Medicated and Unmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrilleaux, Katie; Advokat, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if adults with ADHD differed from children with ADHD, in assessing their performance on the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: ADHD-diagnosed adults (n = 13) and adults without ADHD (n = 17) were tested twice on the CPT and then completed self-evaluation and attribution surveys. Results: Nonmedicated…

  15. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  16. Differentiating Co-Occurring Behavior Problems in Children with ADHD: Patterns of Emotional Reactivity and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This study examined whether "top-down" and "bottom-up" control processes can differentiate children with ADHD who exhibit co-occurring aggression and/or internalizing symptoms. Method: Participants included 74 children ("M" age = 10.7 years) with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  17. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  18. ADHD Preschoolers with and without ODD: Do They Act Differently Depending on Degree of Task Engagement/Reward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopin, Chaya B.; Berwid, Olga; Marks, David J.; Mlodnicka, Agnieska; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of reinforcement on reaction time (RT) and RT variability (RT standard deviation [RTSD]) in preschoolers with ADHD with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and a typically developing (TD) comparison group. Method: Participants were administered a computerized task consisting of two conditions: simple…

  19. The C8 Health Project: Design, Methods, and Participants

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Brooks, A. Paul; Maher, Arthur; Flensborg, Patsy; Arnold, Susan; Fletcher, Tony; Steenland, Kyle; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Pollard, Cecil; Halverson, Joel A.; Vieira, Verónica M.; Jin, Chuanfang; Leyden, Kevin M.; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The C8 Health Project was created, authorized, and funded as part of the settlement agreement reached in the case of Jack W. Leach, et al. v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (no. 01-C-608 W.Va., Wood County Circuit Court, filed 10 April 2002). The settlement stemmed from the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8) contamination of drinking water in six water districts in two states near the DuPont Washington Works facility near Parkersburg, West Virginia. Objectives This study reports on the methods and results from the C8 Health Project, a population study created to gather data that would allow class members to know their own PFOA levels and permit subsequent epidemiologic investigations. Methods Final study participation was 69,030, enrolled over a 13-month period in 2005–2006. Extensive data were collected, including demographic data, medical diagnoses (both self-report and medical records review), clinical laboratory testing, and determination of serum concentrations of 10 perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Here we describe the processes used to collect, validate, and store these health data. We also describe survey participants and their serum PFC levels. Results The population geometric mean for serum PFOA was 32.91 ng/mL, 500% higher than previously reported for a representative American population. Serum concentrations for perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorononanoic acid were elevated 39% and 73% respectively, whereas perfluorooctanesulfonate was present at levels similar to those in the U.S. population. Conclusions This largest known population study of community PFC exposure permits new evaluations of associations between PFOA, in particular, and a range of health parameters. These will contribute to understanding of the biology of PFC exposure. The C8 Health Project also represents an unprecedented effort to gather basic data on an exposed population; its achievements and limitations can inform future legal settlements for populations exposed to

  20. Meta-analysis of the DRD5 VNTR in persistent ADHD.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marieke; Berger, Stefanie; Hoogman, Martine; Dammers, Janneke; Makkinje, Remco; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Galesloot, Tessel E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Weber, Heike; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Cormand, Bru; Zayats, Tetyana; Hegvik, Tor-Arne; Jacobsen, Kaya K; Johansson, Stefan; Haavik, Jan; Mota, Nina R; Bau, Claiton H D; Grevet, Eugenio H; Doyle, Alysa; Faraone, Stephen V; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic background. DRD5, the gene encoding the dopamine receptor D5, was recently confirmed as a candidate gene for ADHD in children through meta-analysis. In this study, we aimed at studying the association of the ADHD-associated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism upstream of DRD5 with adult ADHD. We compiled data from six sites of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT) and reached N=6979 (3344 cases and 3635 healthy participants), the largest sample investigated so far. We tested the association of the common DRD5 alleles with categorically defined ADHD and with inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom counts. Our findings provide evidence that none of the common DRD5 alleles are associated with ADHD risk or ADHD symptom counts in adults. PMID:27480019

  1. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  2. Impact of the Impairment Criterion in the Diagnosis of Adult ADHD: 33-Year Follow-Up Study of Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannuzza, Salvatore; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Roizen, Erica R.; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua, Erin C.; Klein, Rachel G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and impairment among adults diagnosed as having ADHD in childhood (ages 6-12). Method: Clinicians blindly interviewed 121 White males; the mean age was 41 years across the sample. "DSM-IV" adult ADHD behaviors were systematically rated, and impairment resulting from symptoms was…

  3. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  4. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  5. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms.

  6. The Delinquency Outcomes of Boys with ADHD with and without Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Biswas, Aparajita; MacLean, Michael G.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5–12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M= 17.26, SD=3.17). Participants were 288 males with childhood ADHD and 209 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited into the follow-up study. Delinquency information gathered yearly during the second through eighth follow-up provided a comprehensive history of juvenile delinquency for all participants. Four childhood diagnostic groups [ADHD-only (N=47), ADHD+ODD (N=135), ADHD+CD (N=106), and comparison (N=209)] were used to examine group differences on delinquency outcomes. Analyses were conducted across three dimensions of delinquency (i.e., severity, age of initiation, and variety). Individuals with childhood ADHD+CD displayed significantly worse delinquency outcomes than the other three groups, across almost all indices of offending. When compared to comparison participants, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD in childhood displayed earlier ages of delinquency initiation, a greater variety of offending, and higher prevalence of severe delinquency. These findings suggest that although childhood ADHD+CD creates the greatest risk for delinquency, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD also appear at a higher risk for later offending. The patterns of offending that emerged from the PALS are discussed in the context of the relationship between ADHD, comorbidity, and delinquency. PMID:20697799

  7. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  8. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  9. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  10. Decreased Serum Cu/Zn SOD Associated with High Copper in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Russo, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) concentration in children with ADHD and evaluate its possible relationship to Cu and Zn levels. Subjects and methods Serum from 22 children with ADHD and 20 healthy control children without ADHD and 19 autistic children without ADHD were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs and levels of serum Cu and Zn using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of ADHD children were significantly lower than age and gender matched healthy non-ADHD controls (P < 0.001). Serum Cu/Zn SOD of ADHD children was significantly lower in individuals with high serum copper (P = 0.024). There was no significant correlation between Cu/Zn SOD levels and Zinc or Cu/Zn in ADHD individuals. Discussion These results suggest an association between Cu/Zn SOD serum levels and ADHD, particularly ADHD children with high serum copper. PMID:23861627

  11. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  12. Mixed-Method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Consuelo M; Bendixen, Roxanna M; Mann, William C; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network (SN), which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of SNs to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, aged 11 to 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism, and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least I measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within SNs. Findings contribute to understanding the ways SNs are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of SN factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ADHD: a review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinqiang; Zhang-James, Yanli; Han, Xinmin; Lei, Shuang; Sun, Jichao; Zhou, Rongyi

    2014-10-01

    This review covers an introduction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on the traditional theoretic basis from the perspective of TCM regarding ADHD's cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The authors present commonly accepted and successfully practiced clinical procedures used in China for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidence. The authors hope to inspire more research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote appropriate incorporation of TCM therapies with Western pharmacologic treatment to better help patients with ADHD.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ADHD: a review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinqiang; Zhang-James, Yanli; Han, Xinmin; Lei, Shuang; Sun, Jichao; Zhou, Rongyi

    2014-10-01

    This review covers an introduction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on the traditional theoretic basis from the perspective of TCM regarding ADHD's cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The authors present commonly accepted and successfully practiced clinical procedures used in China for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidence. The authors hope to inspire more research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote appropriate incorporation of TCM therapies with Western pharmacologic treatment to better help patients with ADHD. PMID:25220091

  15. Stimulant Treatment of ADHD and Cigarette Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly higher risk of cigarette smoking. The nature of the relationship between smoking and psychostimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD is controversial. Our objective was to examine the relationship between stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking by using meta-analysis, and to identify study and sample characteristics that moderate this relationship. METHODS: Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo databases identified published studies for inclusion. Included studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD individuals. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, and 14 (total n = 2360) contained sufficient statistical information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two authors extracted odds ratios or frequencies of smokers in the treatment or nontreatment groups, and coded study characteristics including sample source, percentage of male participants, follow-up length, treatment consistency, type of smoking measure, prospective study, and controlling for comorbidities. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates. Meta-regression indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that used clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, conceptualized stimulant treatment as consistent over time, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all studies were naturalistic, precluding causal inferences. Available data were insufficient to examine additional influences of patient demographics, treatment effectiveness, or other comorbidities. Consistent stimulant treatment of ADHD may reduce smoking risk; the effect was larger in samples with more severe psychopathology. Implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention are discussed. PMID:24819571

  16. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica Leigh; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project. ADHD was assessed in two stages using the parent and teacher Conners' 3 ADHD index and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV). ASD symptoms were identified using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression examined continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Children with ADHD had more ASD symptoms than non-ADHD controls (adjusted mean difference=4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8; 5.3, p<0.001, effect size=0.7). Boys with ADHD had greater ASD symptom severity than girls with ADHD (adjusted mean difference=2.9, 95% CI 0.8; 5.2, p=0.01, effect size=0.4). Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity (regression co-efficient=1.6, 95% CI 1.2; 2.0, p<0.001). No differences were observed by ADHD subtype. Greater hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with greater ASD symptoms (regression coefficient=1.0; 95% CI 0.0; 2.0, p=0.04) however, this finding attenuated in adjusted analyses (p=0.45). ASD symptoms are common in children with ADHD. It is important for clinicians to assess for ASD symptoms to ensure appropriate intervention. PMID:26433184

  17. Doctors Diagnose, Teachers Label: The Unexpected in Pre-Service Teachers' Talk about Labelling Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Samantha Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A study in an Australian university investigated 150 pre-service teachers' responses to and participation in discourses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Interesting data surfaced around the notion of "labelling" children with ADHD. It seemed that the pre-service teachers did not believe "ADHD" to be a label. Whilst the…

  18. Private Speech in Children with ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers during Problem-Solving and Inhibition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkum, Penny; Humphries, Kelly; Mullane, Jennifer C.; Theriault, France

    2008-01-01

    This study compared private speech of children with ADHD and normal controls during problem solving and inhibition tasks. Thirty-two children (16 children with ADHD and 16 matched controls) aged 6-11 years participated. Consistent with previous studies, children with ADHD produced more task-irrelevant and task-relevant external private speech than…

  19. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  20. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D’Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born 1960–1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also the longer duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. Conclusions We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. PMID:25158998

  1. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  2. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory–Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD. PMID:22815658

  3. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  4. Effects of smoking abstinence on impulsive behavior among smokers high and low in ADHD-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity, a multifaceted construct that includes inhibitory control and heightened preference for immediate reward, is central to models of drug use and abuse. Within a self-medication framework, abstinence from smoking may lead to an increase in impulsive behavior and the likelihood of relapse, particularly among persons with disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity) linked to impulsive behavior. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of smoking abstinence on multiple measures of impulsivity among a non-clinical sample of adult smokers selected for high and low levels of ADHD symptoms. Methods In a within-subjects design, participants selected for high or low levels of self-reported ADHD symptoms (N=56) completed sessions following overnight abstinence and when smoking as usual (order counterbalanced). Measures of impulsive behavior included response inhibition (i.e., stop signal task), interference control (i.e., attentional modification of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle), and impulsive choice (i.e., hypothetical delay discounting). Results As hypothesized, abstinence decreased response inhibition and PPI. Although ADHD symptoms moderated abstinence effects on impulsive choice and response inhibition, the pattern was opposite to our predictions: the low-ADHD group responded more impulsively when abstinent, whereas the high-ADHD group was relatively unaffected by abstinence. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of utilizing multiple laboratory measures to examine a multifactorial construct such as impulsive behavior and raise questions about how best to assess symptoms of ADHD and impulsivity among non-abstinent smokers. PMID:21559802

  5. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD: associations with behavioural variability and post-error adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Allen, Elena A.; Eichele, Heike; van Wageningen, Heidi; Høvik, Marie Farstad; Sørensen, Lin; Worren, Marius Kalsås; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Eichele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We acquired functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8–12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. Results We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions and higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly reduced in children with ADHD. This adaptation was inversely related to activation of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) on error trials and to task-driven connectivity between the cingulo-opercular system and the VAN. Limitations Our study was limited by the modest sample size and imperfect matching across groups. Conclusion Our findings show a deficit in cingulo-opercular activation in children with ADHD that could relate to reduced signalling for errors. Moreover, the reduced orienting of the VAN signal may mediate deficient post-error motor adaptions. Pinpointing general performance monitoring problems to specific brain regions and operations in error processing may help to guide the targets of future treatments for ADHD. PMID:26441332

  6. An Electronic Diary Study of Contextual Triggers and ADHD: Get Ready, Get Set, Get Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Carol K.; Henker, Barbara; Ishikawa, Sharon S.; Jamner, Larry D.; Floro, Joshua N.; Johnston, Joseph A.; Swindle, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine context effects or provocation ecologies in the daily lives of children with ADHD. Method: Across 7 days, mothers and children (27 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] taking stimulant medication; 25 children without ADHD; ages 7-12 years) provided electronic diary reports…

  7. A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arns, Martijn; Conners, C. Keith; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a…

  8. Hyperactive-Impulsive Symptoms Associated with Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Nonmedicated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahajan, Neha; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L.; Gehricke, Jean-G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems. Method: A total of 22…

  9. Persistent Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants among College Students: Possible Association with ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between untreated ADHD symptoms (as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale) and persistent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Method: Multinomial regression modeling was used to compare ADHD symptoms among three groups of college students enrolled in a longitudinal study over 4…

  10. Self-Concept of College Students with ADHD: Discordance between Self- and Parent-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the self-concept of college students with ADHD. Method: College students with ADHD and their parents completed self-report and observer-report measures of self-concept, respectively. Results: Results indicated that college students with ADHD did not report problems with self-concept but their parents did for them. This…

  11. The Positive Illusory Bias: Does It Explain Self-Evaluations in College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Best, Lori; Baker, Leigh; Van Walker, Jerry; Taylor, Nicki Wright

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the positive illusory bias explains the self-evaluations of driving and work behaviors in college students with ADHD. Method: A total of 103 students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 94 students without ADHD. Both groups completed self-reports of their specific driving and work behaviors and then rated their…

  12. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  13. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  14. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of ADHD Symptoms in the National Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; Moore, Charity G.; McKeown, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Study the prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: NHIS includes 10,367 children ages 4 to 17. Parents report lifetime diagnosis of ADHD and complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Prevalences of clinically significant ADHD and comorbid symptoms by race and…

  16. When Diagnosing ADHD in Young Adults Emphasize Informant Reports, "DSM" Items, and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Garefino, Allison C.; Babinski, Dara E.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined several questions about the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adults using data from a childhood-diagnosed sample of 200 individuals with ADHD (age M = 20.20 years) and 121 demographically similar non-ADHD controls (total N = 321). Method: We examined the use of self- versus…

  17. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  18. Short-Term Persistence of "DSM-IV" ADHD Diagnoses: Influence of Context, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Chavez, Ligia; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the effect of social context and gender on persistence of "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD) in children of early and middle school years. The study compared persistence of "DSM-IV" ADHD and ADHD not otherwise specified (NOS) over 2 years in two groups of Puerto Rican children. Method: A three-wave…

  19. Gender Differences among Children with ADHD on Continuous Performance Tests: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…

  20. The Identification and Assessment of Late-Life ADHD in Memory Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Barbara L.; Gunter-Hunt, Gail; Steinhafel, Courtney Holm; Howell, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little data exist about ADHD in late life. While evaluating patients' memory problems, the memory clinic staff has periodically identified ADHD in previously undiagnosed older adults. The authors conducted a survey to assess the extent to which other memory clinics view ADHD as a relevant clinical issue. Method: The authors developed…

  1. Informativeness of Maternal Reports on the Diagnosis of ADHD: An Analysis of Mother and Youth Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Mick, Eric; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Bristol, Elyssa; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated correlates of the diagnosis of ADHD in youth by informant source. Method: Ninety-four pairs of mother reports and youth self-reports on ADHD were independently assessed, using diagnostic interviews from a large study of youth of both genders with and without ADHD. Comparisons were made on measures of interpersonal, school,…

  2. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  3. Children with ADHD and Depression: A Multisource, Multimethod Assessment of Clinical, Social, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Gabrielle L.; Ostrander, Rick; Herman, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    Although ADHD and depression are common comorbidities in youth, few studies have examined this particular clinical presentation. To address method bias limitations of previous research, this study uses multiple informants to compare the academic, social, and clinical functioning of children with ADHD, children with ADHD and depression, and…

  4. The Misuse and Diversion of Prescribed ADHD Medications by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the misuse and diversion of prescribed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications. Method: One hundred fifteen students, attending two universities, with prescriptions for ADHD medications completed a Web survey in spring 2007. Results: Eighty-nine of 115 students (69%) used their ADHD medications as…

  5. Potential Impact of ADHD with Stimulant Medication Label on Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batzle, Christina S.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.; DeVietti, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated how teachers rated children's Behavior, IQ, and Personality contingent on the presence or absence of an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) label. Method: Teachers from K-12 read a hypothetical description of either a male or female child with no label, an ADHD label, or an ADHD with stimulant…

  6. A Systematic Evaluation of ADHD and Comorbid Psychopathology in a Population-Based Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Heather E.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Todd, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Clinical and population samples demonstrate that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs with other disorders. Comorbid disorder clustering within ADHD subtypes is not well studied. Method: Latent class analysis (LCA) examined the co-occurrence of DSM-IV ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD),…

  7. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part I: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Michael J.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Findling, Robert L.; Lopez, Frank A.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. Method: English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through…

  8. Methylphenidate Improves Aspects of Executive Function in African American Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel-Fernandez, Leslie Ann; Klorman, Rafael; Wallace, James M.; Cook, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The undertreatment of ethnic minority children with ADHD prompted a study on the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the executive functions of African American children with ADHD. Method: Nineteen African American children with ADHD are tested on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and the Paired Associates Learning Task (PAL) in a double-blind…

  9. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  10. Lack of Association of Handedness with Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Findings about the association of left-handedness and ADHD are inconsistent. While abnormal brain laterality is reported in children with ADHD, it is unclear if hand preference is associated with ADHD, severity symptoms, age, gender, comorbid psychiatric problems, or parental characteristics. Method: Subjects were 520 boys and girls…

  11. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  12. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  13. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  14. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  15. ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

  16. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  17. A Cluster Analysis of Personality Style in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Arthur L.; Tzelepis, Angela; Bedway, Marquita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use hierarchical linear cluster analysis to examine the normative personality styles of adults with ADHD. Method: A total of 311 adults with ADHD completed the Millon Index of Personality Styles, which consists of 24 scales assessing motivating aims, cognitive modes, and interpersonal behaviors. Results:…

  18. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  19. Growing out of ADHD: The Relationship between Functioning and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to ascertain whether people in partial remission (IPR) or in full remission (IR) of their ADHD symptoms continue to have neuropsychological deficits and clinical and psychosocial problems. Method: IPR and IR groups are compared with fully symptomatic ADHD patients and normal controls. Results: The results show a decline…

  20. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  1. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  2. Injury among Stimulant-Treated Youth with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Steven C.; Wan, George J.; Zhang, Huabin F.; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk factors for injury among children and adolescents treated with stimulants for ADHD. Method: An analysis was performed of pharmacy and service claims data from 2000-2003 California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) focusing on children and adolescents ages 6 to 17 years who initiated stimulant therapy for ADHD. Bivariate and…

  3. Identifying, Evaluating, Diagnosing, and Treating ADHD in Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey-Jumper, Heather; Douyon, Karl; Falcone, Tatiana; Franco, Kathleen N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This literature review describes evaluation and treatment of minority youth with ADHD. Method: A search of databases for reports of ADHD in minority children was conducted. Results: Interpretation of behavior varies among parents, as does their trust in health care providers and school personnel. Parents desire to avoid stigmatization…

  4. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  5. Evaluating the Evidence for and against the Overdiagnosis of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciutto, Mark J.; Eisenberg, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Objective: According to the DSM-IV TR, approximately 3 to 7% of school-age children meet the criteria for ADHD. However, there is a common conception that ADHD is overdiagnosed. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the evidence for and against overdiagnosis. Method: Recent prevalence studies and research on factors affecting diagnostic…

  6. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  7. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  8. Development of a New Psychosocial Treatment for Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. Method: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week…

  9. Work Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…

  10. Neuropsychological Correlates of Written Expression in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Harder, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine written expression and the executive function skills (working memory, verbal fluency, and planning and organization) involved in written expression in college-aged students with ADHD. Method: Two groups of undergraduate students, aged 19 to 28 years, (ADHD, n = 31; control, n = 27) are evaluated on selected measures of…

  11. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  12. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  13. Visual Search by Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Klein, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature that has employed visual search tasks to assess automatic and effortful selective visual attention in children with and without ADHD. Method: Seven studies with a combined sample of 180 children with ADHD (M age = 10.9) and 193 normally developing children (M age = 10.8) are located. Results: Using a…

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids, Methylphenidate, and a Combined Treatment in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Barragán, Eduardo; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-24

    Objective: To compare efficacy of Omega-3/6 fatty acids (Equazen eye q™) with methylphenidate (MPH) and combined MPH + Omega-3/6 in children with ADHD. Method: Participants (N = 90) were randomized to Omega-3/6, long-acting MPH, or combination for 12 months. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results: ADHD symptoms decreased in all treatment arms. Although significant differences favoring Omega + MPH over Omega-3/6 alone were found for ADHD Total and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscales, results on the Inattention subscale were similar. CGI-S scores decreased slowly and consistently with Omega-3/6, compared with a rapid decrease and subsequent slight increase in the MPH-containing arms. Adverse events were numerically less frequent with Omega-3/6 or MPH + Omega-3/6 than MPH alone. Conclusion: The tested combination of Omega-3/6 fatty acids had similar effects to MPH, whereas the MPH + Omega combination appeared to have some tolerability benefits over MPH.

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... the family develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn to use point ... also help parents find opportunities to praise their child for appropriate behavior. Talk therapy can help children with ADHD feel ...

  16. ADHD: 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of children struggling with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary, but the Centers for Disease Control puts the number at a stunningly high 25 percent. Whatever the number, ADHD affects too many children at school, at home, and with their peers, and often persists into adulthood. The cause is as yet unknown, although genetic factors and their interaction with the environment are known to be pivotal. Ten years ago a landmark study showed that the structure of the brains of children with ADHD differs from that of unaffected children. Since that study, enhancements in imaging have given researchers a better look at key hubs in the brain and how they network-advances that could prove useful in the control and treatment of ADHD in both children and adults.

  17. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  18. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  19. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  20. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  1. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (p<.050). Linear regression analyses showed predictive ability of more beneficial OROS-mph effects in ADHD patients with higher EF severity (RTV: β=.670, t=2.097, p=.042; omission errors (OE): β=-.098, t=-4.759, p<.001), and with more severe ADHD symptoms (RTV: F=6.363, p=.019; HRT: F=3.914, p=.061). Side effects rates were substantially but non-significantly greater for OROS-mph compared to placebo (77% vs. 46%, p=.063). OROS-mph effects indicated RTV as the most sensitive parameter for measuring both neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in adults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration. PMID:24508533

  2. Electrophysiological Correlates of Semantic Processing during Encoding of Neutral and Emotional Pictures in Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Lenz, Daniel; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Santel, Stephanie; Rellum, Thomas; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the relevance of semantic processing and stimulus salience for memory performance in young ADHD patients and healthy control participants. 18 male ADHD patients and 15 healthy control children and adolescents participated in an ERP study during a visual memory paradigm with two different encoding tasks requiring…

  3. Experiences of Three Students with ADHD in the Middle School Band Ensemble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Bethanie Loraine

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation was a qualitative examination of the band participation of three adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This investigation of individual experiences and perceptions could help readers understand what adolescents with ADHD value about their band participation and what academic, interpersonal, and…

  4. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

  5. Is Reading Tests Aloud an Accommodation for Youth with or at Risk for ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…

  6. The Effect of Strategy Instruction on the Reading Comprehension of High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of strategy instruction on the reading comprehension of high school students with ADHD. The research design was a multiple baseline across participants design with multiple probes during baseline (Kazdin, 1982). The participants were three female high school students with ADHD who were also…

  7. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Y.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing and both relational and physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11–18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt physical aggression, and relational aggression were assessed via multiple informants and methods. Approximately 4.5 years later, these girls participated in follow-up assessments during which they completed a commonly-used vignette procedure to assess social information processing; overt and relational aggression were again assessed through multiple informants. Correlations between (a) overt and relational aggression and (b) maladaptive social information processing were modest in this female adolescent sample. However, relationships between aggression and social information processing were stronger for the comparison girls than for the girls with ADHD. The relevance of social information processing models for adolescent girls and clinical implications of findings are discussed. PMID:21399756

  8. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  9. Stability of Motor Problems in Young Children with or at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders, ADHD, and or Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Waelvelde, Hilde; Oostra, Ann; DeWitte, Griet; van den Broeck, Christine; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of motor problems in a clinically referred sample of children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and/or developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Method: Participants were 49 children (39 males, 10 females; mean age 5y…

  10. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  11. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication and Pregnancy ADHD and Driving Organization and Time Management Managing Money Relationships & Social Skills Marriage and Partnerships ... For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...

  12. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  13. Studying Participation Networks in Collaboration Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alejandra; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan; Marcos, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a mixed-evaluation method, published elsewhere, to three different learning scenarios. The method defines how to combine social network analysis with qualitative and quantitative analysis in order to study participatory aspects of learning in CSCL contexts. The three case studies include a course-long,…

  14. Atypical EEG Beta Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is well established in ADHD. However, its clinical specificity and association to cognitive and clinical symptoms is not yet understood. Previous studies indicate increased right hemisphere (RH) contribution in both ADHD and reading impaired samples. The current study investigates whether this ABL characteristic occurs in adults with ADHD absent comorbid language impairment. Methods EEG beta asymmetry was compared in 35 adult ADHD subjects and 104 controls during rest and active cognition. Group differences in beta asymmetry were then further evaluated for association to linguistic and attentional abilities, as well as association to beta asymmetry measures across different brain regions. Results Adults with ADHD showed pronounced rightward beta asymmetry (p = .00001) in inferior parietal regions (P8-P7) during a continuous performance task (CPT) that could not be attributed to linguistic ability. Among ADHD subjects only, greater rightward beta asymmetry at this measure was correlated with better CPT performance. Furthermore, this measure showed a lack of normal association (i.e., observed in controls) to left-biased processing in temporal-parietal (TP8-TP7) brain regions important for higher order language functions. Conclusion Adult ADHD involves abnormally increased right-biased contribution to CPT processing that could not be attributed to poor language ability. This appears to also involve abnormal recruitment of LH linguistic processing regions and represents an alternative, albeit less effective, CPT processing strategy. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic mechanisms likely underlie RH biased processing in ADHD and reading impaired samples. PMID:20705076

  15. ADHD treatment and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that ADHD is a common condition, not only in children and teenagers but also in adults. This has led to a rapid rise in the number of women of childbearing age who are being treated for this condition. Against the background of concerns about the use of medication of any kind during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it is remarkable that there is so little information available on the effects of ADHD medication on the fetus and newborn. The impulsivity associated with ADHD might lead to an increased rate of unplanned pregnancy. Although treating ADHD during pregnancy and lactation might have negative effects on the baby, suspension of treatment or inadequate treatment could also place both mother and baby at risk. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy could affect both the efficacy and the concentration of medication. Again, there is almost no guidance available. The US Food and Drug Administration has classified ADHD medications as being "pregnancy category C", implying that there is insufficient information to confirm either harm or lack of harm. From the limited information that has been published, it would appear that the risk of fetal malformation, at least with methylphenidate, is very low and that the amounts of medication excreted in breast milk and consumed by the infant are very small. Three questions that both clinicians and patients are likely to ask are the following. Should ADHD medication be stopped before, during or after pregnancy, or should it be continued throughout? Should ADHD medication doses be adjusted during the course of the pregnancy or after delivery? Should breastfeeding be encouraged or discouraged? Discontinuing ADHD treatment could put both mother and baby at risk. This has to be balanced against the possible risks to the baby of continuing treatment. Although the data remain inadequate, the risk of the latter appears to be quite small, at least for methylphenidate. However, there is

  16. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  17. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood.

  18. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood. PMID:27299978

  19. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring.

  20. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  1. The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24884622

  2. Occupational issues of adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general. Results The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem. Conclusions Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems. PMID:23414364

  3. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in 2 CFR part 180, as supplemented by this subpart. ... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  4. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in 2 CFR part 180, as supplemented by this subpart. ... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  5. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in 2 CFR part 180, as supplemented by this subpart. ... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  6. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 2 CFR part 180, as supplemented by this subpart. ... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  7. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 2 CFR part 180, as supplemented by this subpart. ... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  8. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  9. Facts, values, and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies

    PubMed Central

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute, is holding a series of 5 workshops to examine the controversies surrounding the use of medication to treat emotional and behavioral disturbances in children. These workshops bring together clinicians, researchers, scholars, and advocates with diverse perspectives and from diverse fields. Our first commentary in CAPMH, which grew out of our first workshop, explained our method and explored the controversies in general. This commentary, which grows out of our second workshop, explains why informed people can disagree about ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Based on what workshop participants said and our understanding of the literature, we make 8 points. (1) The ADHD label is based on the interpretation of a heterogeneous set of symptoms that cause impairment. (2) Because symptoms and impairments are dimensional, there is an inevitable "zone of ambiguity," which reasonable people will interpret differently. (3) Many other variables, from different systems and tools of diagnosis to different parenting styles and expectations, also help explain why behaviors associated with ADHD can be interpreted differently. (4) Because people hold competing views about the proper goals of psychiatry and parenting, some people will be more, and others less, concerned about treating children in the zone of ambiguity. (5) To recognize that nature has written no bright line between impaired and unimpaired children, and that it is the responsibility of humans to choose who should receive a diagnosis, does not diminish the significance of ADHD. (6) Once ADHD is diagnosed, the facts surrounding the most effective treatment are complicated and incomplete; contrary to some popular wisdom, behavioral treatments, alone or in combination with low doses of medication, can be effective in the long-term reduction of core ADHD symptoms and at improving many aspects of overall functioning. (7) Especially when a child occupies the zone of ambiguity

  10. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  11. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  12. Interactions among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem gambling in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    PubMed

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew

    2015-09-15

    Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling.

  13. Event-related fMRI of inhibitory control in the Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of AD/HD

    PubMed Central

    Solanto, Mary V.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose To examine the neurophysiological basis for the pronounced differences in hyperactivity and impulsiveness that distinguish the Predominantly Inattentive type of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-PI) from the combined type of the disorder (ADHD-C). Methods Event-related brain responses to a go/no-go test of inhibitory control were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 11 children with ADHD-C and nine children with ADHD-PI, aged 7 to 13 years, who were matched for age, sex, and intelligence. Results There were no significant group differences in task performance. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI activated overlapping regions of right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal lobe, and left inferior parietal lobe during inhibitory control. However, the magnitude of the activation in the temporal and parietal regions, as well as in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, was greater in children with ADHD-PI than those with ADHD-C. Conversely, children with ADHD-C activated bilateral medial occipital lobe to a greater extent than children with ADHD-PI. Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that phenotypic differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-PI subtypes are associated with differential activation of regions that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD and are thought to mediate executive and attentional processes. PMID:19594667

  14. Enhanced Physical Activity Improves Selected Outcomes in Children With ADHD: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Song, MinKyoung; Lauseng, Deborah; Lee, Soohee; Nordstrom, Megan; Katch, Victor

    2016-09-01

    This review examines associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive, behavioral, and physiological outcomes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We reviewed studies on participants ≤18 years old, published in English between January 1998 and December 2014, in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Reviews. Twenty-six studies were grouped into two categories: those that did and did not account for effects of ADHD medications. The first category showed lower levels of PA and improved cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was treated with medications. The second category showed a positive association between PA levels and cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was not treated with medications. For both categories of studies, results were inconclusive regarding physiological outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the relationship between PA and outcomes in youth with ADHD, and particularly to understand the impact of ADHD medications on that relationship. PMID:27226208

  15. Case Series: Evaluation of Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Medicated Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya

    2013-03-25

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Method: Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. Results: For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Conclusion: Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  16. Efficacy of Methylphenidate in ADHD Children across the Normal and the Gifted Intellectual Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Qi Zhang, David Dong; Polotskaia, Anna; Joober, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with a borderline intelligence quotient (IQ) (70≤FSIQ<80), normal IQ (80≤FSIQ<120) and high IQ (FSIQ≥120) respond differently to psychostimulant treatment. Method: 502 children, aged 6 to 12 years, with an IQ range from 70 to 150 participated in a two-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover methylphenidate (MPH) trial. Results: In addition to differences in socioeconomic background and parental education, higher IQ children were found to present with less severe symptoms. No significant differences were found with regards to treatment response. Conclusion: ADHD children within the normal and high levels of intellectual functioning all respond equally to psychostimulant treatment, and that proper medication management is necessary for all children with the disorder. PMID:23133462

  17. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  18. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  19. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  20. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  1. Questioning the Specificity of ASRS-v1.1 to Accurately Detect ADHD in Substance Abusing Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Jean-Pierre; Stavro, Katherine; Rizkallah, Elie; Lapierre, Luc; Dussault, Maxime; Legault, Louis; Potvin, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the specificity of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in detecting ADHD among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: A chart review of 183 SUD patients was conducted. Patients were screened for ADHD with the ASRS-v1.1 and were later assessed by a psychiatrist specialized in ADHD. Results: Among SUD…

  2. Cognitive Load Differentially Impacts Response Control in Girls and Boys with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Rosch, Keri S

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) consistently show impaired response control, including deficits in response inhibition and increased intrasubject variability (ISV) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. However, significantly less research has examined factors that may influence response control in individuals with ADHD, such as task or participant characteristics. The current study extends the literature by examining the impact of increasing cognitive demands on response control in a large sample of 81children with ADHD (40 girls) and 100 TD children (47 girls), ages 8-12 years. Participants completed a simple Go/No-Go (GNG) task with minimal cognitive demands, and a complex GNG task with increased cognitive load. Results showed that increasing cognitive load differentially impacted response control (commission error rate and tau, an ex-Gaussian measure of ISV) for girls, but not boys, with ADHD compared to same-sex TD children. Specifically, a sexually dimorphic pattern emerged such that boys with ADHD demonstrated higher commission error rate and tau on both the simple and complex GNG tasks as compared to TD boys, whereas girls with ADHD did not differ from TD girls on the simple GNG task, but showed higher commission error rate and tau on the complex GNG task. These findings suggest that task complexity influences response control in children with ADHD in a sexually dimorphic manner. The findings have substantive implications for the pathophysiology of ADHD in boys versus girls with ADHD.

  3. The role of maternal and child ADHD symptoms in shaping interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the children had ADHD, and the remainder were comparison youth. After statistical control of children's ADHD diagnostic status and mothers' educational attainment, mothers' own inattentive ADHD symptoms predicted poorer self-reported social skills. Children with ADHD were reported to have more social problems by parents and teachers, as well as received fewer positive sociometric nominations from playgroup peers relative to children without ADHD. After control of child ADHD status, higher maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity each predicted children having more parent-reported social problems; maternal inattention predicted children receiving more negative sociometric nominations from playgroup peers. There were interactions between maternal ADHD symptoms and children's ADHD diagnostic status in predicting some child behaviors and parent-child relationship measures. Specifically, maternal inattention was associated with decreased prosocial behavior for children without ADHD, but did not influence the prosocial behavior of children with ADHD. Maternal inattention was associated with mothers' decreased corrective feedback and, at a trend level, decreased irritability toward their children with ADHD, but there was no relationship between maternal inattention and maternal behaviors for children without ADHD. A similar pattern was observed for maternal hyperactivity/impulsivity and mothers' observed irritability towards their children. Treatment implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20931275

  4. Children's Perceptions of Their ADHD Symptoms: Positive Illusions, Attributions, and Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Malone, Molly; Varma, Angela; Markel, Clarisa; Biondic, Daniella; Tannock, Rosemary; Humphries, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of their ADHD symptoms in terms of the positive illusory bias (PIB), their attributions for their problem behaviors, and their beliefs about whether their problem behaviors and disorder are stigmatizing. Participants were 152 9- to 14-year-old…

  5. Severity of Children's ADHD Symptoms and Parenting Stress: A Multiple Mediation Model of Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months)…

  6. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  7. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  8. Morpho-Syntactic Load in Judging Adjective Plural Agreement: Comparing Adults with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit; Gur, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of two grammatical factors on marking Hebrew adjectives in agreement with plural nouns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with peers without ADHD. Participants were 36 adult speakers of Hebrew, who were administered a judgment test of 144 sentences, each containing an adjective in…

  9. Examining the Language Skills of Children with ADHD Following a Play-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Ellis, Prudence

    2013-01-01

    Communication and play skills are important aspects of development yet are largely uncharted in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This exploratory study examined whether changes in pragmatic skills and problem-solving skills were observed in children with ADHD pre- and post-participation in a play-based intervention…

  10. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  11. Road-Crossing Safety in Virtual Reality: A Comparison of Adolescents With and Without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancy, Tamera A.; Rucklidge, Julia J.; Owen, Dean

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the potential accident-proneness of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a hazardous road-crossing environment. An immersive virtual reality traffic gap-choice task was used to determine whether ADHD adolescents show more unsafe road-crossing behavior than controls. Participants (ages 13 to…

  12. Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtens, Sara; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Tillman, Carin M.; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social…

  13. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  14. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  15. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  16. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  17. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  18. ADHD Medication Trends in Turkey: 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Oner, Ozgür; Yilmaz, Esra Safak; Karada X011f, Hasan; Vural, Mert; Vural, Elif Hilal; Akbulat, Akif; Gürsöz, Hakk X0131; Türkçapar, Hakan; Kerman, Saim

    2014-02-19

    Objective: To investigate the change of ADHD medication prescriptions in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. Method: Consumption data of ADHD medications, immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), OROS MPH (Concerta), and atomoxetine (Strattera) were obtained from IMS Health database for the November 2008 to October 2013 period. Defined daily dose (DDD) of each drug was calculated according to WHO definitions and time-series analysis was conducted. Results: There was a significant seasonal effect for prescription of all drugs. Annual use of ADHD medications increased 2.18 times for all ADHD medications combined. DDDs per 1,000 population per day for all ADHD medications were 0.28 in 2009, 0.41 in 2010, 0.52 in 2011, and 0.59 in 2012. OROS MPH represented almost 75% of all ADHD medication utilization. Conclusion: As reported from several other countries, ADHD medication use increased in Turkey. Results suggested that over- and underdiagnosis might be seen at the same time. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24554298

  19. ADHD Medication Trends in Turkey: 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Oner, Ozgür; Yilmaz, Esra Safak; Karada X011f, Hasan; Vural, Mert; Vural, Elif Hilal; Akbulat, Akif; Gürsöz, Hakk X0131; Türkçapar, Hakan; Kerman, Saim

    2014-02-19

    Objective: To investigate the change of ADHD medication prescriptions in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. Method: Consumption data of ADHD medications, immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), OROS MPH (Concerta), and atomoxetine (Strattera) were obtained from IMS Health database for the November 2008 to October 2013 period. Defined daily dose (DDD) of each drug was calculated according to WHO definitions and time-series analysis was conducted. Results: There was a significant seasonal effect for prescription of all drugs. Annual use of ADHD medications increased 2.18 times for all ADHD medications combined. DDDs per 1,000 population per day for all ADHD medications were 0.28 in 2009, 0.41 in 2010, 0.52 in 2011, and 0.59 in 2012. OROS MPH represented almost 75% of all ADHD medication utilization. Conclusion: As reported from several other countries, ADHD medication use increased in Turkey. Results suggested that over- and underdiagnosis might be seen at the same time. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  20. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  1. Predictors of Social Skills for Preschool Children at Risk for ADHD: The Relationship between Direct and Indirect Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Shapiro, Edward S.; DuPaul, George J.; Lutz, J. Gary; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between direct and indirect measurements of social skills and social problem behaviors for preschool children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was examined. Participants included 137 preschool children, aged 3 to 5 years, at risk for ADHD, who were participating in a larger study examining the effects of…

  2. EEG correlates of visual short-term memory as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease.

  3. EEG correlates of visual short-term memory as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease. PMID:26972967

  4. Non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) delivered in school settings: systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michelle; Moore, Darren A; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Whear, Rebecca; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher; Taylor, Eric; Cooper, Paul; Stein, Ken; Garside, Ruth; Ford, Tamsin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. School can be particularly challenging for children with ADHD. Few reviews have considered non-pharmacological interventions in school settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions delivered in school settings for pupils with, or at risk of, ADHD and to explore the factors that may enhance, or limit, their delivery. DATA SOURCES Twenty electronic databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Centre, The Cochrane Library and Education Research Complete) were searched from 1980 to February-August 2013. Three separate searches were conducted for four systematic reviews; they were supplemented with forward and backwards citation chasing, website searching, author recommendations and hand-searches of key journals. REVIEW METHODS The systematic reviews focused on (1) the effectiveness of school-based interventions for children with or at risk of ADHD; (2) quantitative research that explores attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for pupils with ADHD; (3) qualitative research investigating the attitudes and experiences of children, teachers, parents and others using ADHD interventions in school settings; and (4) qualitative research exploring the experience of ADHD in school among pupils, their parents and teachers more generally. Methods of synthesis included a random-effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and narrative synthesis for review 1, narrative synthesis for review 2 and meta-ethnography and thematic analysis for reviews 3 and 4. RESULTS For review 1, 54 controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. For the 36 meta-analysed randomised controlled trials, beneficial effects (p < 0.05) were observed for several symptom and scholastic outcomes. Mean weighted effect sizes ranged from

  5. Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Luiz Rogério Jorgensen

    2015-01-01

    ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6–14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant’s performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music. Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD. PMID:26441688

  6. Canine-Assisted Therapy for Children With ADHD: Preliminary Findings From The Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids Study

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Sabrina E. B.; Emmerson, Natasha A.; Fine, Aubrey H.; Lakes, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to provide preliminary findings from an ongoing randomized clinical trial using a canine-assisted intervention (CAI) for 24 children with ADHD. Method Project Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids (P.A.C.K.) was designed to study a 12-week cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered with or without CAI. Children were randomly assigned to group therapy with or without CAI. Parents of children in both groups simultaneously participated in weekly parent group therapy sessions. Results Across both treatment groups, parents reported improvements in children’s social skills, prosocial behaviors, and problematic behaviors. In both groups, the severity of ADHD symptoms declined during the course of treatment; however, children who received the CAI model exhibited greater reductions in the severity of ADHD symptoms than did children who received cognitive-behavioral therapy without CAI. Conclusion Results suggest that CAI offers a novel therapeutic strategy that may enhance cognitive-behavioral interventions for children with ADHD. PMID:24062278

  7. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  8. Evaluation of two methods of deliberative participation of older people in food-policy development.

    PubMed

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique Maria

    2007-08-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation study of two deliberative methods of public participation of the "hard-to-reach" in food-policy development--the citizens' workshop and the citizens' jury. The participation was conducted on a live food-policy topic (food retailing) and the specific hard-to-reach group of older people was recruited. The evaluation of the two methods was based on an assessment of the participants' and observers' perceptions of the processes and outcomes of the methods, against a set of evaluation criteria, spanning both the individual and group level of analysis. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental, between groups, pre- and post-participation design. The study showed that the properties of the methods alone, such as availability of extra information, had little impact on both satisfaction with the process and the actual task outcomes. It further emphasised the importance of group debate for the perceived satisfaction with the process and the subjective outcomes of the event. The study illustrated that the high level of process satisfaction was not contemporaneous with the perceived impact of participation, such as its perceived influence of policy decision-making, suggesting that the relationship between participation outcomes (i.e. impact of participation) and processes was a complex one. It is argued here that this relationship should be considered in the light of identity processes and the context of public participation. PMID:17067716

  9. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  10. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use.

  11. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  12. Student-Perceived School Climate is Associated with ADHD Medication Treatment among Adolescents in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Susanna N.; Kramer, Dennis; Snyder, Angela B.; Sebian, Joyce; McGiboney, Garry; Handler, Arden

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the relationship between school climate and ADHD medication treatment among adolescents in Medicaid in Georgia (GA). Methods School climate and Medicaid claims data were aggregated for 159 GA counties. County-level school climate percentile and medicated ADHD prevalence were calculated. T-tests and regression evaluated the relationship between school climate, medicated ADHD, and demographics, weighted by county population. Poorer 2008 school climate (<25th percentile) was regressed on 2011 medicated ADHD prevalence, controlling for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of medicated ADHD was 7.8% among Medicaid-enrolled GA adolescents. The average county-level prevalence of medicated ADHD was 10.0% (SD=2.9%). Poorer school climate was associated with lower rates of medicated ADHD (p<0.0001) and with demographics accounted for 50% of the county variation in medicated ADHD. Conclusions School climate is associated with medicated ADHD among adolescents in Medicaid. Additional research may reveal whether high medicated ADHD may reflect a lack of access to non-pharmacological therapies. PMID:25710947

  13. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  14. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common and disabling disorder, with an increased risk for coexisting disorders, substance abuse and delinquency. In the present study, we aimed at exploring ADHD and criminality. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD among longer-term prison inmates, described symptoms and cognitive functioning, and compared findings with ADHD among psychiatric outpatients and healthy controls. Methods At Norrtälje Prison, we approached 315 male inmates for screening of childhood ADHD by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and for present ADHD by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Screener (ASRS-Screener). The response rate was 62%. Further, we assessed 34 inmates for ADHD and coexisting disorders. Finally, we compared findings with 20 adult males with ADHD, assessed at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and 18 healthy controls. Results The estimated prevalence of adult ADHD among longer-term inmates was 40%. Only 2 out of 30 prison inmates confirmed with ADHD had received a diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, despite most needed health services and educational support. All subjects reported lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) where amphetamine was the most common drug. Mood and anxiety disorders were present among half of subjects; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among one fourth and psychopathy among one tenth. Personality disorders were common; almost all inmates presented conduct disorder (CD) before antisocial personality disorder (APD). Prison inmates reported more ADHD symptoms during both childhood and adulthood, compared with ADHD psychiatric outpatients. Further, analysis of executive functions after controlling for IQ showed both ADHD groups performed poorer than controls on working memory tests. Besides, on a continuous performance test, the ADHD prison group displayed poorer results compared with both other groups. Conclusions This study suggested ADHD to be present among 40% of adult male longer-term prison inmates. Further, ADHD and coexisting disorders

  16. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  17. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  18. Understanding ADHD: Our Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahy, Tammy Lynn

    2004-01-01

    No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…

  19. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  20. Effects of hippotherapy on brain function, BDNF level, and physical fitness in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on brain function and levels of blood-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). [Methods] The hippotherapy group (HRG) included twenty children with ADHD and the control group (CG) included 19 children. All participants’ physical fitness, fMRI brain scans, and blood BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy. [Results] After 32 weeks of participating in hippotherapy, the body fat of the HRG was significantly decreased (-1.12 ± 4.20%) and the body fat of the CG was increased (2.38 ± 6.35%) (p=0.049). There was no significant difference of physical fitness in both groups (p>0.05). Although there was a higher decrease in the activated insular area in the HRG (-1.59 ± 0.99) than in the CG (-1.14 ± 1.41), there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05) Also, there was a higher increase in the activated cerebellum area in the HRG (1.97 ± 1.45) than in the CG (1.92 ± 1.81). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). BDNF levels showed an increased tendency in the HRG (166.29 ± 277.52pg) compared to the CG (21.13 ± 686.33pg); otherwise, there was not any significant difference in these blood levels between the two groups (p>0.05). It can be assumed that big individual differences in the level of ADHD in the study participants might not cause any significant results, although there might be positive changes in the brain function of children with ADHD. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that hippotherapy training would need to be modified and developed to increase the efficacy of hippotherapy in children with ADHD. PMID:26244130

  1. Behavioral Correlates of Reaction Time Variability in Children With and Without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Tanya N.; Narad, Megan E.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective RT variability is often purported to indicate behavioral attention. This study seeks to examine whether RT variability in children with ADHD is associated with observed behavioral indicators of attention. Methods One-hundred forty-seven participants with and without ADHD completed five computerized neuropsychological tasks and an analogue math task. Linear mixed models were utilized to examine the relationship between observations of behavioral inattention during the analogue task and measures of RT variability from the neuropsychological tasks. Results Significant associations were observed between RT variability and mean duration of on-task behavior on the analogue math task. Secondary analyses indicated that on-task behavior during the math task was also related to accuracy on the neuropsychological tasks. Conclusions RT variability, especially the portion of RT variability characterized by long RTs, appears to measure a cognitive phenomenon that relates to successful on-task academic behavior across children with and without ADHD. The relationship between RT variability and on-task behavior is present across multiple neuropsychological tasks and does not appear to be moderated by age, sex, or the presence of anxiety or depression. PMID:23527648

  2. Effortful and automatic information processing in boys with ADHD and specific learning disorders.

    PubMed

    Hazell, P L; Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Dewis, S A; Heathcote, D M; Brucki, B M

    1999-02-01

    Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, N = 50), Specific Learning Disorder (LD, N = 45), combined Specific Learning Disorder and ADHD (LD/ADHD, N = 25), and controls (N = 51) completed effortful and automatic information processing tasks based on Treisman and Gelade's (1980) "information integration theory". ADHD and LD/ADHD subjects did not differ from controls at baseline or under feedback and reward conditions, suggesting that they were investing similar levels of mental effort in the tasks. The LD group had a superior performance in the effortful task and an inferior performance in the automatic task compared with the other groups at baseline. The data suggest a potential method of distinguishing primary LD from learning difficulties that occur secondary to ADHD.

  3. Impact of executive functions on school and peer functions in youths with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2014-05-01

    Youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to have social dysfunction at school. The authors explored the role of key executive functions (EF, i.e., spatial working memory and spatial planning) on school and peer functions in 511 youths with persistent ADHD according to the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and 124 non-ADHD controls without any EF deficits. All the participants were assessed by a semi-structured psychiatric interview to confirm their previous and current diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders and by the Spatial Working Memory (SWM) and Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) tasks. The participants and their parents reported the participants' school functions and peer relationships. There were three ADHD subgroups: (1) ADHD with deficits in both SWM and SOC tasks (n=121); (2) ADHD with deficit in either SWM or SOC task (n=185); (3) ADHD without deficits in SWM or SOC task (n=205). All the three ADHD groups, regardless of EF deficits, had lower school grade, poorer attitude toward school work, poorer school interactions, more behavioral problems at school, and more severe problems in peer relationships than non-ADHD controls. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between deficit in the SWM task and school and peer dysfunctions, and between deficits in the SOC task and impaired peer interactions. Older age and psychiatric comorbidity also contributed to increased risk of school and peer dysfunctions. Our findings suggest that deficits in EF, such as spatial working memory and planning, might be associated with school and peer dysfunctions.

  4. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Newcorn, J H; Kollins, S H; Wigal, T L; Telang, F; Fowler, J S; Goldstein, R Z; Klein, N; Logan, J; Wong, C; Swanson, J M

    2011-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [(11)C]raclopride and [(11)C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11±5 vs 14±3, P<0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r=0.39, P<0.008; midbrain: r=0.41, P<0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r=0.35, P<0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor-and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD.

  5. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Newcorn, J.H.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Telang, F.; Folwer, J.S.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Klein, N.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-08-17

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and [{sup 11}C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11 {+-} 5 vs 14 {+-} 3, P < 0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r = 0.39, P < 0.008; midbrain: r = 0.41, P < 0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r = 0.35, P < 0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor - and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD.

  6. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Newcorn, J H; Kollins, S H; Wigal, T L; Telang, F; Fowler, J S; Goldstein, R Z; Klein, N; Logan, J; Wong, C; Swanson, J M

    2011-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [(11)C]raclopride and [(11)C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11±5 vs 14±3, P<0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r=0.39, P<0.008; midbrain: r=0.41, P<0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r=0.35, P<0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor-and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD. PMID:20856250

  7. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by this very early time period. Methods Secondary analysis of data from children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a large, nationally representative cohort of U.S. children born in 2001. Data include information from birth certificates, parent and teacher questionnaires, and in-person developmental assessments conducted with children at intervals from birth through kindergarten entry. The analytic sample included children enrolled in the ECLS-B at the 60-month assessment (N=6,550). Results Black children in the U.S. were 70% (1 - OR of .30) less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than otherwise similar White children. Hispanic children initially appeared to be under-diagnosed for ADHD. However, their disparity with Whites became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for whether a language other than English was primarily spoken in the home. Analyses of kindergarten teacher-reported classroom behavior indicated that neither Black nor Hispanic children displayed less frequent ADHD-related behaviors than Whites. Conclusions Although they are not less likely to display ADHD-related behaviors, children who are Black or being raised in households where non-English is primarily spoken are less likely than otherwise similar White children to be diagnosed with ADHD in the U.S. PMID:24456307

  8. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is often described as highly variable, in addition to being hyperactive, impulsive and inattentive. One reason might be that they do not acquire complete and functional sequences of behaviour. The dynamic developmental theory of ADHD proposes that reinforcement and extinction processes are inefficient because of hypofunctioning dopamine systems, resulting in a narrower time window for associating antecedent stimuli and behaviour with its consequences. One effect of this may be that the learning of behavioural sequences is delayed, and that only short behavioural sequences are acquired in ADHD. The present study investigated acquisition of response sequences in the behaviour of children with ADHD. Methods Fifteen boys with ADHD and thirteen boys without, all aged between 6–9 yr, completed a computerized task presented as a game with two squares on the screen. One square was associated with reinforcement. The task required responses by the computer mouse under reinforcement contingencies of variable interval schedules. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures and small trinkets. Measures related to response location (spatial dimension) and to response timing (temporal dimension) were analyzed by autocorrelations of consecutive responses across five lags. Acquired response sequences were defined as predictable responding shown by high explained variance. Results Children with ADHD acquired shorter response sequences than comparison children on the measures related to response location. None of the groups showed any predictability in response timing. Response sequencing on the measure related to the discriminative stimulus was highly related to parent scores on a rating scale for ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The findings suggest that children with ADHD have problems with learning long sequences of behaviour, particularly related to response location. Problems with learning long behavioural

  9. EEG Power Spectrum Analysis in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kamida, Akira; Shimabayashi, Kenta; Oguri, Masayoshi; Takamori, Toshihiro; Ueda, Naoyuki; Koyanagi, Yuki; Sannomiya, Naoko; Nagira, Haruki; Ikunishi, Saeko; Hattori, Yuiko; Sato, Kengo; Fukuda, Chisako; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathological condition that is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) power differences between children with ADHD and healthy control children. Methods EEGs were recorded as part of routine medical care received by 80 children with ADHD aged 4–15 years at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in Tottori University Hospital. Additionally, we recorded in 59 control children aged 4–15 years after obtaining informed consent. Specifically, awake EEG signals were recorded from each child using the international 10–20 system, and we used ten 3-s epochs on the EEG power spectrum to calculate the powers of individual EEG frequency bands. Results The powers of different EEG bands were significantly higher in the frontal brain region of those in the ADHD group compared with the control group. In addition, the power of the beta band in the ADHD group was significantly higher in all brain regions, except for the occipital region, compared with control children. With regard to developmental changes, the power of the alpha band in the occipital region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups, with slightly lower power in the ADHD group. Additionally, the intergroup difference decreased in children aged 11 years or older. As with the alpha band in the occipital region, the beta band in the frontal region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups. Unlike the alpha band, the power of the beta band was higher in the ADHD group than in the control group for children of all ages. Conclusion The observed intergroup differences in EEG power may provide insight into the brain function of children with ADHD. PMID:27493489

  10. Socioeconomic Associations with ADHD: Findings from a Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Russell, Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Background Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear. Aims The current study investigates the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and investigates putative mediators of this association in a longitudinal population-based birth cohort in the UK. Methods Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used (n = 8,132) to explore the relationship between different measures of socioeconomic status at birth-3 years and their association with a diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. A multiple mediation model was utilised to examine factors occurring between these ages that may mediate the association. Results Financial difficulties, housing tenure, maternal age at birth of child and marital status were significantly associated with an outcome of ADHD, such that families either living in financial difficulty, living in council housing, with younger or single mothers’ were more likely to have a child with a research diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. Financial difficulties was the strongest predictor of ADHD (OR 2.23 95% CI 1.57-3.16). In the multiple mediation model, involvement in parenting at age 6 and presence of adversity at age 2-4 mediated 27.8% of the association. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but

  11. Improving the Reading Recall of High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph W.; Reid, Robert; Mason, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have difficulty with reading comprehension. This multiple baseline across participants design with multiple probes study examined the effectiveness of a multicomponent reading comprehension strategy (TWA: Think Before Reading, Think While Reading, Think After Reading) taught…

  12. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Behaviors Characteristic of ADHD and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Nelson, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn's (2004) study using a sample of preservice teachers in order to examine the potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. Participants included 132 preservice teachers enrolled in a comprehensive university in the South. A chi-square analysis indicated the…

  13. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  14. Strategy Selection in ADHD Characteristics Children: A Study in Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Re, Anna Maria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-03-26

    Objective: It has been argued that ADHD characteristics children have difficulties in selecting the best strategy when they accomplish cognitive tasks. The detrimental influence of these poor strategy skills may be crucial for several aspects of academic achievement such as mathematical learning. Method: Fourth- and fifth-grade children with ADHD symptoms and matched controls were asked to select the better of two rounding strategies in a computational estimation task (i.e., finding the best estimate of two-digit addition problems). Results: (a) Both control and ADHD children correctly executed a selected strategy, (b) ADHD children selected the best strategy less often than controls, (c) ADHD took more time to estimate sums of two-digit addition problems and provided poorer estimates, and (d) different factors predicted best strategy selections in each group. Conclusion: These findings have important implications for further understanding the sources of differences in cognitive performance between ADHD and control children. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22451509

  15. Osmotic Release Oral System Methylphenidate Prevents Weight Gain during a Smoking-Cessation Attempt in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Jaimee L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for both cigarette smoking and being overweight or obese. Although smoking cessation tends to result in weight increase, potentially initiating or exacerbating weight problems, adults with ADHD who are treated with osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) tend to lose weight. It is unclear how the use of OROS-MPH during a smoking-cessation attempt might affect the typical weight gain that accompanies cessation. Method: We examined changes in weight and hunger during a smoking-cessation attempt in 215 adults with ADHD who completed a multisite, randomized, controlled trial and were randomized to either OROS-MPH (n = 107) or placebo (n = 108) (NCT #00253747). Both groups also received open-label transdermal nicotine replacement and counseling. Results: Participants who received OROS-MPH lost an average of 1.6% of their body weight during the 11-week study, whereas those who received placebo gained an average of 1.3% of their weight (p < .001). Hunger ratings were lower in the OROS-MPH group (M = 1.1, SD = 0.8) than in the placebo group (M = 1.6, SD = 0.9; p < .001). Conclusions: The use of OROS-MPH during a smoking-cessation attempt prevents weight gain in adults with ADHD who substantially reduce or quit smoking. The potential utility of OROS-MPH in individuals with ADHD who are attempting to quit smoking and for whom weight gain would be problematic warrants further research. PMID:22955246

  16. Working memory influences processing speed and reading fluency in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2011-01-01

    Processing-speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This "slowing" in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the "processing" speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14 years, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency and reduced processing speed-driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed "processing" speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intrasubject variability. Further, "processing" speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus.

  17. Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory, but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intra-subject variability. Further, “processing” speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally-mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally-mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus. PMID:21287422

  18. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sharon R.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6%) and 57 boys (70.4%) between the ages of 6–12 year old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021

  19. Creating Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly; Research Methods, Participation, and Development. Working Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd L.

    Combining community participation in decision making with methods of social investigation, participatory research focuses on involvement of the subjects of the research in the research process. Adult educators are exploring this research method which, unlike quantitative research, serves the needs of individuals and not those of policy makers who…

  20. Folate metabolism gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with ADHD in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Spellicy, Catherine J; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C; Martinez, Carla A; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3'-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype. PMID:23227261

  1. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  2. Pediatric bipolar disorder and ADHD: Family history comparison in the LAMS clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Mount, Katherine; Frazier, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Fristad, Mary A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert; Axelson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenerational association of bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported, but inconclusively. Method Children ages 6–12 were systematically recruited at first outpatient visit at 9 clinics at four universities and reliably diagnosed; 621 had elevated symptoms of mania (>12 on the Parent General Behavior Inventory 10-Item Mania Scale); 86 had scores below 12. We analyzed baseline data to test a familial association hypothesis: compared to children with neither BPSD nor ADHD, those with either BPSD or ADHD would have parents with higher rates of both bipolar and ADHD symptoms, and parents of comorbid children would have even higher rates of both. Results Of 707 children, 421 had ADHD without BPSD, 45 BPSD without ADHD, 117 comorbid ADHD+BPSD, and 124 neither. The rate of parental manic symptoms was similar for the comorbid and BPSD-alone groups, significantly greater than for ADHD alone and “neither” groups, which had similar rates. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with BPSD alone were significantly less frequent than in parents of children with ADHD (alone or comorbid), and no greater than for children with neither diagnosis. Family history of manic symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms, was associated with parent-rated child manic-symptom severity over and above child diagnosis. Limitations The sample was not epidemiologic, parent symptoms were based on family history questions, and alpha was 0.05 despite multiple tests. Conclusions These results do not support familial linkage of BPSD and ADHD; they are compatible with heritability of each disorder separately with coincidental overlap. PMID:22464937

  3. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  4. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Schubiner, Howard; Saules, Karen K; Arfken, Cynthia L; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Schuster, Charles R; Lockhart, Nancy; Edwards, Ann; Donlin, Judy; Pihlgren, Eric

    2002-08-01

    In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate (MTP) versus placebo in 48 cocaine-dependent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adults, the authors sought to determine whether MTP would be safe, control ADHD symptoms, and affect cocaine use. Efficacy indexes revealed significantly greater ADHD symptom relief in the MTP group. There were no group differences in self-reported cocaine use, urinalysis results, or cocaine craving. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results are preliminary. However, we found that MTP improved subjective reports of ADHD symptoms and did not worsen cocaine use while participants were in treatment.

  5. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties.

  6. Writing abilities longitudinally predict academic outcomes of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W

    2016-09-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Comorbid Externalising Behaviour in AD/HD: Evidence for a Distinct Pathological Entity in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Sharnel; Crewther, David; Croft, Rodney; Keage, Hannah; Hermens, Daniel; Clark, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    While the profiling of subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) have been the subject of considerable scrutiny, both psychometrically and psychophysiologically, little attention has been paid to the effect of diagnoses comorbid with AD/HD on such profiles. This is despite the greater than 80% prevalence of comorbidity under the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic definitions. Here we investigate the event related potential (ERP) and psychometric profiles of Controls, AD/HD, and comorbid AD/HD (particularly AD/HD+ODD/CD) groups on six neurocognitive tasks thought to probe the constructs of selective and sustained attention, response inhibition and executive function. Data from 29 parameters extracted from a child group (age range 6 to 12; 52 Controls and 64 AD/HD) and from an adolescent group (age range 13 to 17; 79 Controls and 88 AD/HD) were reduced via a Principal Components Analysis, the 6 significant eigenvectors then used as determinants of cluster membership via a Two-Step Cluster Analysis. Two clusters were found in the analysis of the adolescent age group - a cluster dominated by Control and AD/HD participants without comorbidity, while the second cluster was dominated by AD/HD participants with externalising comorbidity (largely oppositional defiant/conduct disorder ODD/CD). A similar segregation within the child age group was not found. Further analysis of these objectively determined clusters in terms of their clinical diagnoses indicates a significant effect of ODD/CD comorbidity on a concurrent AD/HD diagnosis. We conclude that comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD constitutes a distinct pathological entity in adolescence. PMID:22984398

  8. Evaluation of participant recruitment methods to a rare disease online registry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Mueller, Nancy L; Williams, Katherine; Gutmann, David H

    2014-07-01

    Internet communication advances provide new opportunities to assemble individuals with rare diseases to online patient registries from wide geographic areas for research. However, there is little published information on the efficacy of different recruitment methods. Here we describe recruitment patterns and the characteristics of individuals with the self-identified autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who participated in an online patient registry during the 1-year period from 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012. We employed four main mechanisms to alert potential participants to the registry: (1) Facebook and Google advertising, (2) government and academic websites, (3) patient advocacy groups, and (4) healthcare providers. Participants reported how they first heard about the registry through an online questionnaire. During the 1-year period, 880 individuals participated in the registry from all 50 U.S. States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 39 countries. Facebook and Google were reported as referral sources by the highest number of participants (n=550, 72% Facebook), followed by healthcare providers (n=74), and government and academic websites (n=71). The mean participant age was 29±18 years and most participants reported White race (73%) and female sex (62%) irrespective of reported referral source. Internet advertising, especially through Facebook, resulted in efficient enrollment of large numbers of individuals with NF1. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of this approach to assemble individuals with a rare disease from across the world for research studies. PMID:24700441

  9. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  10. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  11. Fluid reasoning deficits in children with ADHD: evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Juranek, Jenifer

    2012-07-17

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in fluid reasoning, which may be related to self-regulation of cognition and behavior, and requires intact attention, working memory, and inhibition skills. No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have directly examined fluid reasoning in ADHD which is surprising given that studies demonstrate a consistent network of brain regions involved in fluid reasoning that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Twenty-two right-handed, non-medicated children (12 ADHD, 10 controls) ages 8-12 years completed a fluid reasoning task during which fMRI data were collected. The primary comparison of interest was activation during the fluid reasoning compared to the control condition. Behavioral data showed that children with ADHD tended to be less accurate with faster reaction times in the fluid reasoning condition compared to controls, and were significantly less accurate in the control condition. Controls activated more than participants with ADHD in the right intraparietal sulcus and the left lateral cerebellum in the fluid reasoning condition. Results showed hypoactivation in ADHD in regions critical for fluid reasoning. These results add to the literature suggesting a role for parietal and cerebellar regions in cognition and ADHD.

  12. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity.

    PubMed

    Costa Dias, Taciana G; Iyer, Swathi P; Carpenter, Samuel D; Cary, Robert P; Wilson, Vanessa B; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2015-02-01

    One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7-12 years), in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in "functional" subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology.

  13. Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Babinski, Dara E; Walther, Christine; Cheong, Jeewon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.

  14. The reinforcing effects of nicotine and stimulant medication in the everyday lives of adult smokers with ADHD: A preliminary examination.

    PubMed

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Whalen, Carol K; Jamner, Larry D; Wigal, Tim L; Steinhoff, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    Whereas the smoking prevalence rates in the general population are declining, rates among people diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to be elevated. Previous research has shown that nicotine may improve attention and mood, suggesting that nicotine may help ameliorate the attentional and emotional problems associated with ADHD. The present study examined the effects of nicotine with and without stimulant medication on ADHD symptoms, moods, and arousal in the everyday lives of smokers with ADHD. A total of 10 smokers with ADHD who were being treated with stimulant medication were asked to abstain from smoking while participating in the study. Participants underwent four conditions in randomized order: (a) Nicotine patch+stimulant medication, (b) nicotine patch only, (c) placebo patch+stimulant medication, and (d) placebo patch only. Each condition continued for 2 days, during which self-reports of ADHD symptoms and moods were obtained using electronic diaries. Lightweight ambulatory monitors recorded cardiovascular activity at each diary entry. Smoking abstinence was verified by expired carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine analysis. Results showed that nicotine patches and stimulant medication alone and in combination reduced difficulty concentrating and core ADHD symptoms compared with placebo patch only. Borderline improvement in impatience and self-control was seen with nicotine patch administration primarily on day 1. Nicotine patches also tended to elevate systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo patch during day 2. The findings suggest that smokers with ADHD experience nicotine-related reductions in ADHD symptoms during their everyday lives.

  15. Motor Control and Sequencing of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) During Computer Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Milner, Nikki; West, John; Douglas, Graham; Lawrence, Vivienne; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The motor control of 49 unmedicated boys clinically diagnosed with ADHD, case-matched with 49 non-ADHD boys, was assessed while playing Crash Bandicoot I, a SonyTM Playstation platform computer video game. In Crash Bandicoot participants control the movements of a small-animated figure through a hazardous jungle environment. Operationally defined…

  16. The relationship between sensory processing difficulties and leisure activity preference of children with different types of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Ziv-On, Daniella

    2011-01-01

    Sensory processing difficulties (SPD) are prevalent among children with ADHD. Yet, the question whether different SPD characterize children with different types of ADHD has not received enough attention in the literature. The current study characterized sensory processing difficulties (SPD) of children with different types of ADHD and explored the relationship between SPD and leisure activity preference. Participants were 58 boys aged 6-10 years: 29 boys with ADHD: 15 with hyperactive-impulsive type and 14 characterized as inattentive. The controls were 29 typical peers. SPD were evaluated by The Short Sensory Profile (SSP) completed by the parents. Participants answered the preference for activities of children (PAC). According the results, SPD were manifested among children with both ADHD types. Children with both ADHD types showed significantly lower preference to participate in leisure activities than the controls. Their lower preference correlated with SPD. The findings suggest that children with different ADHD types may share common SPD, which may negatively impact their activity preference. In this study it seemed that children with ADD were more vulnerable to these impacts. SPD and participation should be considered in evaluation and intervention programs for children with ADHD in order to focus on child's abilities, needs and preferences, and enhance intervention success, child's relationships with peers and child's well-being.

  17. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  18. The relationship between sensory processing difficulties and leisure activity preference of children with different types of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Ziv-On, Daniella

    2011-01-01

    Sensory processing difficulties (SPD) are prevalent among children with ADHD. Yet, the question whether different SPD characterize children with different types of ADHD has not received enough attention in the literature. The current study characterized sensory processing difficulties (SPD) of children with different types of ADHD and explored the relationship between SPD and leisure activity preference. Participants were 58 boys aged 6-10 years: 29 boys with ADHD: 15 with hyperactive-impulsive type and 14 characterized as inattentive. The controls were 29 typical peers. SPD were evaluated by The Short Sensory Profile (SSP) completed by the parents. Participants answered the preference for activities of children (PAC). According the results, SPD were manifested among children with both ADHD types. Children with both ADHD types showed significantly lower preference to participate in leisure activities than the controls. Their lower preference correlated with SPD. The findings suggest that children with different ADHD types may share common SPD, which may negatively impact their activity preference. In this study it seemed that children with ADD were more vulnerable to these impacts. SPD and participation should be considered in evaluation and intervention programs for children with ADHD in order to focus on child's abilities, needs and preferences, and enhance intervention success, child's relationships with peers and child's well-being. PMID:21324640

  19. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  20. Parental Efficacy and Child Behavior in a Community Sample of Children with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Hendricks, Kristy M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Weiss, Julia E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of ADHD youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. Methods We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Results Sufficient data were achieved for 2509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n=240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9% vs. 48.0%, P<.001) and age 12 or over (16.3% vs. 10.3%). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR= 0.68, 95% CI=0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR= 2.00, 95% CI=1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Conclusions Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756

  1. Core ADHD Symptom Improvement with Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…

  2. Intra-Individual Variability in ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25…

  3. Parental Self-Confidence, Parenting Styles, and Corporal Punishment in Families of ADHD Children in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria…

  4. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  5. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  6. ADHD and Health Services Utilization in the National Health Interview Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; Moore, Charity G.; McKeown, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Describe the general health, comorbidities and health service use among U.S. children with ADHD. Method: The 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) contained the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; used to determine probable ADHD), data on medical problems, overall health, and health care utilization. Results: Asthma…

  7. Online Narratives by Adults with ADHD Who Were Diagnosed in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Amos; Miller, Erez C.

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically analyzed life stories of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were diagnosed in adulthood, using an adapted version of Labov's textual-analysis method. These life stories provided an opportunity to examine the processes experienced by these individuals before and after the diagnosis of ADHD,…

  8. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  9. The Use of between Session Assignments in ADHD Coaching with College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Bowles, Vernessa; Garrett, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide an analysis of the use of between session assignments (BSA) in ADHD coaching with college students. The article provides a description of the structure and process of using BSA in an academic setting. Method: A brief survey of ADHD coaches is used to evaluate 13 coaching clients engaged in an 8-week structured program. A case…

  10. Children's Self-Reports on Perceived Effects on Taking Stimulant Medication for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Dahlstrom, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates children's views on positive and negative effects of stimulant medication for ADHD and the children's willingness to stop taking medication. Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 79 children with ADHD and one of each child's parents. Results/Conclusion: Swedish children treated with stimulants generally…

  11. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD and ODD in a Pediatric Population in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michanie, Claudio; Kunst, Gabriel; Margulies, Daniel S.; Yakhkind, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of DSM III-R symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in an outpatient pediatric population; to compare oppositional behavior and grade retention rates; and to establish local means and standard deviations (SD) for the ADHD rating scale. Method: 300…

  12. ADHD, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychostimulant Treatment: Current Literature and Treatment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This review explores the relationship between ADHD and substance use disorder (SUD), factors that determine the abuse potential of psychostimulants, and strategies for identifying and treating at-risk ADHD patients. Method: This study uses a Medline review of literature. Results: Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and…

  13. Literature Review: ADHD in Adults--A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Megan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD presents significant challenges to adults. The current review's goals are (a) to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding ADHD in adults and (b) to provide clinicians with practice-friendly information regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Method: Searches of PsycINFO and Medline were conducted, and…

  14. Efficacy and Safety of Immediate-Release Methylphenidate Treatment for Preschoolers with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence; Kollins, Scott; Abikoff, Howard; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; Swanson, James; McGough, James; Wigal, Sharon; Wigal, Tim; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Cooper, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) was a NIMH-funded, six-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR), given t.i.d. to children ages 3 to 5.5 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The 8-phase, 70-week PATS protocol included…

  15. Time Perception, Phonological Skills and Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia and/or ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method: Children…

  16. Characteristics of Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD Who Divert or Misuse Their Prescribed Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Gignac, Martin; Swezey, Allison; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Biederman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the risks and characteristics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients who misuse or divert their stimulant medications. As part of a 10-year longitudinal study of youths with ADHD, the authors evaluated medication diversion or misuse at the last follow-up period. Method: Structured psychiatric…

  17. Parental and Professional Beliefs on the Treatment and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Rachel; Kiernan, Michael J.; Tyson, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined parental and professional beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment strategies for ADHD. Method: Parents of children with and without ADHD and seven medical and nonmedical professional groups (N = 673) completed a questionnaire examining their beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment regimes. Results:…

  18. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  19. Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Effects on Parent-Child Interaction for Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic differences in observed parenting and child behavior and the moderating effects of ethnicity on the relationship between treatment and parent and child behavior. Method: Observations of 508 children with ADHD (ages 7-9) and their caregivers, collected during the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD, were analyzed using…

  20. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  1. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  2. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  3. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  4. Educational Practitioners' Beliefs and Conceptualisation about the Cause of ADHD: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Moore, Darren A.; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Educational practitioners play an important role in the referral and treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to explore how educational practitioners conceptualise their beliefs about the causes of symptoms of ADHD. Method: Forty-one educational practitioners from schools in the…

  5. A Novel Group Therapy for Children with ADHD and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Wymbs, Fran A.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Belin, Peter J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Babocsai, Lysett; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Akinnusi, Opeolowa O.; Haak, Jenifer L.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: No psychosocial treatments have been developed for children with ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) despite the significant prevalence and morbidity of this combination. Therefore, the authors developed a novel treatment program for children with ADHD and SMD. Method: The novel therapy program integrates components of…

  6. ADHD and Infant Disorganized Attachment: A Prospective Study of Children Next-Born after Stillbirth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Carmen; Turton, Penelope; Hughes, Patricia; White, Sarah; Gillberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether infant disorganized attachment predicts ADHD at school age. Method: A cohort of 53 children who had been identified as having significant levels of disorganized attachment in infancy is compared to a control group. Symptoms and signs of ADHD at age 7 are evaluated together with a range of relevant maternal variables.…

  7. Social Appraisal of Adult ADHD: Stigma and Influences of the Beholder's Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Newman, Matthew L.; Morrow, Tara L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates social stigma associated with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and whether Big Five personality traits predict appraisals of affected individuals. Method: A sample of 257 undergraduates rate the desirability of targets with ADHD, minor medical problems, and with no appreciable weakness, across several social…

  8. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between ADHD Symptoms and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability commonly co-occur because of shared genetic risk factors. However, the stability and change of these genetic influences and the predictive relationships underlying this association longitudinally remain unclear. Methods: ADHD symptoms and reading were assessed as…

  9. Vestibular Stimulation for ADHD: Randomized Controlled Trial of Comprehensive Motion Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Crowl, Lindsay; Bozzolo, Hernan; Peruggia, Mario; Ramadan, Yaser; Bornstein, Robert; Hollway, Jill A.; Thompson, Susan; Malone, Krista; Hall, Kristy L.; Shelton, Sara B.; Bozzolo, Dawn R.; Cook, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research evaluates effects of vestibular stimulation by Comprehensive Motion Apparatus (CMA) in ADHD. Method: Children ages 6 to 12 (48 boys, 5 girls) with ADHD were randomized to thrice-weekly 30-min treatments for 12 weeks with CMA, stimulating otoliths and semicircular canals, or a single-blind control of equal duration and…

  10. Treatment Response to an Intensive Summer Treatment Program for Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Smith, Bradley H.; Evans, Steven W.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are presently almost no empirically validated treatments for adolescents with ADHD. However, in childhood, behavioral treatments for ADHD typically include behavioral parent training, classroom interventions, and intensive child-directed interventions. Method: The present investigation examines treatment gains following an 8-week…

  11. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  12. Brain Activation Gradients in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Related to Persistence of ADHD in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible role that functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia play in the persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Method: Ten male adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were grouped into those who continued to meet full…

  13. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  14. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  15. Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…

  16. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Integrated Home-School Behavioral Treatment for ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; Easterlin, Barbara; Zalecki, Christine; McBurnett, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school (Child Life and Attention Skills Program) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I). Method: Sixty-nine children ages 7 to 11 years were randomized to the Child Life and Attention Skills…

  17. Literature Review: Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A review of amphetamine treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was conducted, to obtain information on the long-term neurological consequences of this therapy. Method: Several databases were accessed for research articles on the effects of amphetamine in the brain of laboratory animals and ADHD diagnosed…

  18. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  19. Associations between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlenga, Denise; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Breuk, Minda; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Lie, Maria E. H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; Swaab, Hanna J. T.; Kooij, J. J. Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients ("n" = 202) and controls ("n" = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and validated measures on ADHD…

  20. Drug and Alcohol Use in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines differences in reported levels of drug and alcohol use between college students with and without ADHD. Method: The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and several self-report and interview questions, developed by Barkley, were used to examine the drug and alcohol use of college students with and without ADHD.…

  1. Self-Reported Symptoms of ADHD among College Students in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Ingersoll, Travis; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined ADHD symptoms among college students in China and the United States. Method: A total of 283 (45%) American and 343 (55%) Chinese students completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS), in addition to other measures. Results: Both of the ADHD measures appear to be reliable…

  2. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  3. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  4. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms and Competence as Reported by Both Self and Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Johnston, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relative relationships of self- and other-reports of adult ADHD symptoms to important life competencies, and also investigates whether self- and other-reports of ADHD symptoms are differentially associated with interrater differences in reports of competence. Method: A total of 91 women completed a…

  5. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  6. ADHD Symptomatology and its Relationship to Factors Associated with College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwalk, Kate; Norvilitis, Jill M.; MacLean, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study assessed the relationship between self-reported ADHD symptomatology in college students and various factors that are associated with persistence in college. Method: A total of 321 students completed questionnaires examining ADHD symptoms, academic and social adjustment to college, career decision-making self-efficacy,…

  7. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  8. Contrasting Deficits on Executive Functions between ADHD and Reading Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzocchi, Gian Marco; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cavolina, Pina; Geurts, Hilde; Redigolo, Debora; Vio, Claudio; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The object of this study was to analyze the executive functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disability (RD) independent of their non-executive deficits. Methods: Three carefully diagnosed groups of children, aged between 7 and 12 years (35 ADHD, 22 RD and 30 typically developing…

  9. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  10. Exercise: applications to childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wigal, Sharon B; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy research indicates that psychostimulants, which are catecholamine agonists, show the greatest efficacy for treating the core symptoms of ADHD. Exercise affects the same dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems that stimulant medications target and is a stressor, which elicits measurable physiological changes. The magnitude of these peripheral alterations is posited as a potential biomarker of ADHD. The hypothesis that exercise training alters the underlying physiology present in ADHD and other medical conditions as well as conceptual issues behind its potential clinical utility is reviewed.

  11. ADHD, Methylphenidate, and Childhood Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Plioplys, Sigita

    2016-06-01

    Investigators from the Department of Functional Neurology, Epileptology and Epilepsy Institute (IDEE), and the Lyon's University Hospital examined the clinical determinants of ADHD severity in children with epilepsy (CWE) along with the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). PMID:27617408

  12. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation.

  13. ADHD: Is Objective Diagnosis Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynda G.

    2005-01-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common cognitive disorders, the usual diagnostic procedures pursued by psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, and family practitioners are based largely, if not exclusively, on subjective assessments of perceived behavior. The recommended approaches to ADHD diagnosis are reviewed, first from the perspective of the various expert panels, and then from the research literature upon which those recommendations are based. The authors agree that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis, and that the assessment of subjective reports can be systematic. But they propose that objective data should also contribute to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and that new computerized assessment technology can generate objective cognitive data in an efficient and cost-effective way. Computerized tests can also improve the assessment of treatment response over time. PMID:21120096

  14. Problematising Short-Term Participant Observation and Multi-Method Ethnographic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of apprentices in England and Germany designed to explore young people's learner identities over time and in relation to particular learning environments. The research adopts a multi-method ethnographic approach, combining biographical interviews with multi-site participant observation. The article problematises the…

  15. Methods for characterizing participants' nonmainstream dialect use in child language research.

    PubMed

    Oetting, Janna B; McDonald, Janet L

    2002-06-01

    Three different approaches to the characterization of research participants' nonmainstream dialect use can be found in the literature. They include listener judgment ratings, type-based counts of nonmainstream pattern use, and token-based counts. In this paper, we examined these three approaches, as well as shortcuts to these methods, using language samples from 93 children previously described in J. Oetting and J. McDonald (2001). Nonmainstream dialects represented in the samples included rural Louisiana versions of Southern White English (SWE) and Southern African American English (SAAE). Depending on the method and shortcut used, correct dialect classifications (SWE or SAAE) were made for 88% to 97% of the participants; however, regression algorithms had to be applied to the type- and token-based results to achieve these outcomes. For characterizing the rate at which the participants produced the nonmainstream patterns, the token-based methods were found to be superior to the others, but estimates from all approaches were moderately to highly correlated with each other. When type- and/or token-based methods were used to characterize participants' dialect type and rate, the number of patterns included in the analyses could be substantially reduced without significantly affecting the validity of the outcomes. These findings have important implications for future child language studies that are done within the context of dialect diversity.

  16. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  17. Encouraging Participation in Case Discussions: A Comparison of the MICA and the Harvard Case Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desiraju, Ramarao; Gopinath, C.

    2001-01-01

    Management students used either the Harvard Case Method (n=33) or McAleer Interactive Case Analysis (n=31) to analyze case studies. The McAleer group was better prepared and participated more in discussions; they performed consistently better than the Harvard group on case analyses and recall of content. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  18. Substance Use and Delinquency among Adolescents with Childhood ADHD: The Protective Role of Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Belendiuk, Katharine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen’s activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. A sample of 242 adolescents, 142 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and prospectively followed into adolescence, and 100 without ADHD in childhood, were the focus of study. The relations between adolescent-reported outcomes (i.e. substance use and delinquency) and parenting behaviors were tested using latent variable modeling to determine both the effects of general (common) and specific (unique) parenting behaviors for participants with and without a history of ADHD. Adolescents’ report of parental knowledge was a significant correlate of delinquency and substance use above and beyond other parenting variables and the variance in common across the parenting variables. More knowledge was associated with less delinquency and substance use for all participants, but parental knowledge was more strongly associated with alcohol use for adolescents with versus without childhood ADHD. These correlational findings suggest that, despite the increased difficulty of parenting youths with ADHD histories, actions taken by parents and youth to increase parental awareness may provide some protection against behavioral transgressions known to be elevated in this population. PMID:22329747

  19. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD+BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter n-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD+BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD+BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. PMID:22272986

  20. Cognitive-motivational deficits in ADHD: development of a classification system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The classification systems developed so far to detect attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not have high sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a classification system based on several neuropsychological tests that measure cognitive-motivational functions that are specifically impaired in ADHD children. A total of 240 (120 ADHD children and 120 healthy controls) children in the age range of 6-9 years and 32 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) children (aged 9 years) participated in the study. Stop-Signal, Task-Switching, Attentional Network, and Choice Delay tests were administered to all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that percentage choice of long-delay reward best classified the ADHD children from healthy controls. Single parameters were not helpful in making a differential classification of ADHD with ODD. Multinominal logistic regression (MLR) was performed with multiple parameters (data fusion) that produced improved overall classification accuracy. A combination of stop-signal reaction time, posterror-slowing, mean delay, switch cost, and percentage choice of long-delay reward produced an overall classification accuracy of 97.8%; with internal validation, the overall accuracy was 92.2%. Combining parameters from different tests of control functions not only enabled us to accurately classify ADHD children from healthy controls but also in making a differential classification with ODD. These results have implications for the theories of ADHD.

  1. The Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad on the Identity Development of College Students with Learning Disabilities and/or AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shames, Wendy; Alden, Peg

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the identity changes that college students with learning disability (LD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) report after participating in a short-term study abroad program. The reflections of thirteen short-term study abroad participants, all of whom have been diagnosed with LD and/or AD/HD are presented.…

  2. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  3. Flanker performance in female college students with ADHD: a diffusion model analysis.

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Singmann, Henrik; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Kappes, Andreas; Wendt, Mike; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2013-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor adaptation to environmental demands, which leads to various everyday life problems. The present study had four aims: (1) to compare performance in a flanker task in female college students with and without ADHD (N = 39) in a classical analyses of reaction time and error rate and studying the underlying processes using a diffusion model, (2) to compare the amount of focused attention, (3) to explore the adaptation of focused attention, and (4) to relate adaptation to psychological functioning. The study followed a 2-between (group: ADHD vs. control) × 2-within (flanker conflict: incongruent vs. congruent) × 2-within (conflict frequency: 20 vs. 80 %) design. Compared to a control group, the ADHD group displayed prolonged response times accompanied by fewer errors in a flanker task. Results from the diffusion model analyses revealed that the members of the ADHD group showed deficits in non-decisional processes (i.e., higher non-decision time) and leaned more toward accuracy than participants without ADHD (i.e., setting higher boundaries). The ADHD group showed a more focused attention and less adaptation to the task conditions which is related to psychological functioning. Deficient non-decisional processes and poor adaptation are in line with theories of ADHD and presumably typical for the ADHD population, although this has not been shown using a diffusion model. However, we assume that the cautious strategy of trading speed of for accuracy is specific to the subgroup of female college students with ADHD and might be interpreted as a compensation mechanism.

  4. Patterns of parenting in Korean mothers of children with ADHD: A Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Oak; Kendall, Judy

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of parenting in Korean mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and identify major threads that structured various patterns of parenting. Q-methodology, a technique for extracting subjective attitudes, was used for data collection and analysis. Participants were asked to sort statements on issues associated with parenting. Factor analysis was applied to identify patterns in the ranking of statements. Participants were 45 Korean mothers of children with ADHD. As a result, three patterns of parenting emerged: Praise-Fairness, Strict-Control, and Sensitive Response-Balanced. These patterns differed on two axes: external and internal control and positive and negative reinforcement. This study provides an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the parenting patterns of mothers of children with ADHD in Korea. The findings can function as a cornerstone for developing future models of parenting children with ADHD and parent-child interactions.

  5. Patterns of parenting in Korean mothers of children with ADHD: A Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Oak; Kendall, Judy

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of parenting in Korean mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and identify major threads that structured various patterns of parenting. Q-methodology, a technique for extracting subjective attitudes, was used for data collection and analysis. Participants were asked to sort statements on issues associated with parenting. Factor analysis was applied to identify patterns in the ranking of statements. Participants were 45 Korean mothers of children with ADHD. As a result, three patterns of parenting emerged: Praise-Fairness, Strict-Control, and Sensitive Response-Balanced. These patterns differed on two axes: external and internal control and positive and negative reinforcement. This study provides an opportunity to enhance our understanding of the parenting patterns of mothers of children with ADHD in Korea. The findings can function as a cornerstone for developing future models of parenting children with ADHD and parent-child interactions. PMID:19531629

  6. Detection of simulated ADHD and reading disorder using symptom validity measures.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Frazier, Allison R; Busch, Robyn M; Kerwood, Melissa A; Demaree, Heath A

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have typically focused on the ability of cognitive symptom validity tests to identify cognitive symptom exaggeration in the context of head injury or memory loss. Few published studies have examined the detection of simulated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disorder (RD). The present study examined the accuracy of symptom validity measures in the detection of simulated ADHD and RD. Results indicated that several commonly used symptom validity measures show good validity for detecting simulated ADHD and RD. Total Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) scores and hard item accuracy score from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) were the most accurate at distinguishing simulation of ADHD and RD from adequate effort. Percentages of control participants and participants in simulation conditions scoring below a specified cut score are provided to give clinicians an estimate of the simulator (true) positive and control (false) positive rates.

  7. A diffusion modelling approach to understanding contextual cueing effects in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Weigard, Alexander; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong theoretical models suggest implicit learning deficits may exist among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method We examine implicit contextual cueing (CC) effects among children with ADHD (n=72) and non-ADHD Controls (n=36). Results Using Ratcliff’s drift diffusion model, we found that among Controls, the CC effect is due to improvements in attentional guidance and to reductions in response threshold. Children with ADHD did not show a CC effect; although they were able to use implicitly acquired information to deploy attentional focus, they had more difficulty adjusting their response thresholds. Conclusions Improvements in attentional guidance and reductions in response threshold together underlie the CC effect. Results are consistent with neurocognitive models of ADHD that posit sub-cortical dysfunction but intact spatial attention, and encourage the use of alternative data analytic methods when dealing with reaction time data. PMID:24798140

  8. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  9. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  10. Sport-Based Group Therapy Program for Boys with ADHD or with Other Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; Parish-Plass, Jim

    2011-01-01

    A group of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was compared to children with other behavior and emotional problems. All the participants participated together in 20 weekly sessions for 1 academic year. The participants were assessed with three questionnaires on three different occasions: before the beginning of the group,…

  11. Case Report: "ADHD Trainer": the mobile application that enhances cognitive skills in ADHD patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Manrique, Gonzalo; Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montañes-Rada, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 10 year old patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid video game addiction, who was treated with medication combined with a novel cognitive training method based on video games called TCT method. A great risk of developing video game or internet addiction has been reported in children, especially in children with ADHD. Despite this risk, we hypothesize that the good use of these new technologies might be useful to develop new methods of cognitive training. The cognitive areas in which a greater improvement was observed through the use of video games were visuospatial working memory and fine motor skills. TCT method is a cognitive training method that enhances cognitive skills such as attention, working memory, processing speed, calculation ability, reasoning, and visuomotor coordination. The purpose of reviewing this case is to highlight that regular cognitive computerized training in ADHD patients may improve some of their cognitive symptoms and might be helpful for treating video game addiction.

  12. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R; Shanahan, Jacqueline M; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O'Connell, Redmond G; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  13. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R.; Shanahan, Jacqueline M.; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O’Connell, Redmond G.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  14. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  15. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  16. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  17. Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): medication effects and comparisons with controls.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure.

  18. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Cubero-Millán, Isabel; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; Machado-Casas, Irene; Fernández-López, Luisa; Martínez-Serrano, Sylvia; Tortosa-Pinto, Pilar; Ruiz-López, Aida; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan-de-Dios; Uberos, José; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1) the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2) the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria) were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI). Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD) of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit. PMID:25257531

  19. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.

  20. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n = 38) along with a matched control group (n = 40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  1. Specialist adult ADHD clinics in East Anglia: service evaluation and audit of NICE guideline compliance†

    PubMed Central

    Magon, Rakesh Kumar; Latheesh, Beena; Müller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To measure compliance with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommendations in two adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinics and to guide further service development. We audited the case notes of 150 patients referred to adult ADHD clinics in East Anglia in 2010-2011 against NICE standards using an adapted version of the ADHD audit support tool. Results We found good compliance with NICE standards for diagnosis, assessment and pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD. There was a failure in smooth transitional arrangements from child and adolescent mental health to adult ADHD services. Comprehensive treatment programmes addressing psychological, behavioural, educational and occupational needs were not well developed. Deficiencies were observed in conducting recommended physical examinations. Substance use was prevalent in almost half of ADHD patients. Clinical implications Greater attention is needed in delivering better transitional arrangements and comprehensive treatment programmes for adult ADHD. More structured training with emphasis on ADHD-specific psychological interventions, physical examination and treatment of complex cases, especially with comorbid substance misuse, should be offered to clinicians. PMID:26191453

  2. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  3. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  4. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  5. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  6. ADHD--Building Academic Success. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief discusses students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their school performance. Reasons are presented to explain why children with ADHD fail. The three main characteristics of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) and their interference with academic performance are discussed. The brief…

  7. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments.

  8. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. PMID:25349092

  9. Non-Pharmacological Treatments for ADHD in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Gerbarg, Patricia L.; Brown, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in psychiatry or integrative psychiatry covers a wide range of biological, psychological and mind-body treatments that enhance standard medical practices and patient outcomes. While CAM approaches are popular amongst patients in their practice as well as in self-report because of their ease of use, health professionals have received limited education in these interventions and often are unaware of their patients’ use of CAM treatments. Method This overview highlights evidence-based CAM treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including dietary interventions, phytomedicines, mind-body practices and neurofeedback. Results While conventional treatments are the mainstays for ADHD, there are a large number of available treatments that can be used to enhance treatment response. Conclusion With improved education and further scientific and clinical research, validated integrative treatments will provide more effective, lower risk and lower cost care for patients with ADHD. PMID:27489754

  10. Participant use and communication of findings from exome sequencing: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Katie L.; Hooker, Gillian W.; Connors, Philip D.; Hyams, Travis C.; Wright, Martha F.; Caldwell, Samantha; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated how genome sequencing results affect health behaviors, affect, and communication. Methods We report on 29 participants who received a sequence result in the ClinSeq® study, a cohort of well-educated, post-reproductive volunteers. A mixed methods design was used to explore respondents’ use, communication, and perceived utility of results. Results Most participants (72%) shared their result with at least one health care provider, and 31% reported changes to their health care. Participants scored high on the Positive Experiences subscale and low on the Distress subscale of a modified version of the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA). The majority (93%) shared their result with at least one family member. Participant’s described deriving personal utility from their results. Conclusions This paper is the first to describe research participants’ reactions to actionable sequencing results. Our findings suggest clinical and personal benefit from receiving sequencing results, both of which may contribute to improved health for the recipients. Given the participants’ largely positive or neutral affective responses and disclosure of their results to physicians and relatives, health care providers should redirect concern from the potential for distress and attend to motivating patients to follow their medical recommendations. PMID:26540156

  11. Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals

  12. Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: A Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Benjamin; Holmström, Édua; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Kovarskis, Levas; Krause, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We report a randomized controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow. Methods: Trial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved ~40 h-long sessions 2–5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel “inverse-training” condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing) will consist of self-report and executive function tests. Setting: Intake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki. Randomization: We randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimize baseline differences in prognostic variables. Blinding: Waiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded. Participants: Fifty-four adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females) were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. Forty-four had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD. Measurements: Symptoms were assessed by computerized attention test (T.O.V.A.) and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded. Results: Participants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April-August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis. Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T

  13. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  14. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  15. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  16. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan J; Adamou, Marios; Bolea, Blanca; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Müller, Ulrich; Pitts, Mark; Thome, Johannes; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD.This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  17. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  18. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  19. Impairment in Children with and without ADHD: Contributions from Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Whitney A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the association of childhood ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on functional impairment and to test the moderating influence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Method: Ethnically diverse 6- to 9-year-old children with (n = 59) and without (n = 47) ADHD were ascertained using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales…

  20. Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns.

  1. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  2. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD; clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Kollins, S.H., Wigal, t.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Zhu, W.; Logan, J.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2009-09-09

    .10-0.56; P = .005) and differences in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} in the hypothalamic region, with controls having a mean of 0.12 vs 0.05 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.12; P = .004). Ratings of attention correlated with D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} in the accumbens (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P = .001), midbrain (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.52; P = .001), caudate (r = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.50; P = .003), and hypothalamic (r = 0.31; CI, 0.10-0.49; P = .003) regions and with DAT in the midbrain (r = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.53; P {le} .001). A reduction in dopamine synaptic markers associated with symptoms of inattention was shown in the dopamine reward pathway of participants with ADHD.

  3. The effects of performance-based rewards on neurophysiological correlates of stimulus, error, and feedback processing in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Keri Shiels; Hawk, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Rewards have been shown to improve behavior and cognitive processes implicated in ADHD, but the information processing mechanisms by which these improvements occur remain unclear. We examined the effect of performance-based rewards on ERPs related to processing of the primary task stimuli, errors, and feedback in children with ADHD and typically developing controls. Participants completed a flanker task containing blocks with and without performance-based rewards. Children with ADHD showed reduced amplitude of ERPs associated with processing of the flanker stimuli (P3) and errors (ERN, Pe), but did not differ in feedback-processing (FRN). Rewards enhanced flanker-related P3 amplitude similarly across groups and error-related Pe amplitude differentially for children with ADHD. These findings suggest that rewards may improve cognitive deficits in children with ADHD through enhanced processing of relevant stimuli and increased error evaluation. PMID:24033316

  4. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  5. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a specialist and a generic parenting programme for the treatment of preschool ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with ‘hard-to-reach’ or ‘difficult-to-treat’ children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. Methods/design This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child’s solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health

  6. Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Chronically Treated and Stimulant Naive ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoebelen, Sarah; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of chronic stimulant treatment on corpus callosum (CC) size in children with ADHD using volumetric and area measurements. Previously published research indicated possible medication effects on specific areas of the CC. Method: Measurements of the CC from anatomical MRIs were obtained from children aged 9-16 in…

  7. Effect of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate on Sleep in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giblin, John M.; Strobel, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential effects of short-term treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on both subjective and objective sleep characteristics in children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 24) with ADHD. Method: Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraph measures as well as assessments of subjective sleep parameters were examined in…

  8. Sleep and COMT Polymorphism in ADHD Children: Preliminary Actigraphic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Reut; Grizenko, Natalie; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Gauthier, Julie; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) polymorphism modulates aspects of sleep in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Nightly sleep actigraphic recordings during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical study (1 week of 0.5 mg/kg MPH; 1 week of placebo) were…

  9. ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

  10. Do Children and Adolescents with ADHD Respond Differently to Atomoxetine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Kratochvil, Christopher; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Controversy exists over changes in tolerability and response to medications across the life span. Here the authors report data contrasting the efficacy and tolerability of atomoxetine between children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Data were analyzed for children ages 6-11 (510 atomoxetine,…

  11. Pharmacogenetics of Methylphenidate Response in Preschoolers with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James; McCracken, James; Swanson, James; Riddle, Mark; Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Wigal, Tim; Wigal, Sharon; Posner, Kelly; Skrobala, Anne; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Shigawa, Sharon; Moyzis, Robert; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored genetic moderators of symptom reduction and side effects in methylphenidate-treated preschool-age children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: DNA was isolated from 81 subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover methylphenidate titration. Parents and teachers…

  12. Lower Extremity Response Time Performance in Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Scott J.; Heath, Matthew; Surburg, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have been labeled as "uncoordinated" and "inefficient movers"; however, a paucity of research has systematically examined "stimulant-free" motor processing in this population. Method: In the present investigation, the authors employ a cross-lateral integration task to assess the attainment of a motor milestone in a…

  13. Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment for ADHD on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To complete an exploratory uncontrolled study of the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on growth of children treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) from 281 children ages 6 to 13 years from longitudinal assessments up to 15 months were compared to norms…

  14. A Review of Neurofeedback Treatment for Pediatric ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Nicholas; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hersch, Sarah; Hurt, Elizabeth; DeBeus, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to review all randomized published trials and unpublished conference presentations on the neurofeedback (NF) treatment of pediatric ADHD, and their relevance, strengths, and limitations. Method: Via PsychInfo and Medline searches and contacts with NF researchers 14 studies were identified and reviewed. Results:…

  15. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  16. Perinatal Pitocin as an Early ADHD Biomarker: Neurodevelopmental Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Lisa; Haussmann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a potential relationship between coincidental increases in perinatal Pitocin usage and subsequent childhood ADHD onset in an attempt to isolate a specific risk factor as an early biomarker of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Method: Maternal labor/delivery and corresponding childbirth records of 172 regionally diverse,…

  17. ADHD Is Associated with a "Western" Dietary Pattern in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Amber L.; Robinson, Monique; Smith, Grant J.; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Piek, Jan P.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and ADHD in a population-based cohort of adolescents. Method: The Raine Study is a prospective study following 2,868 live births. At the 14-year follow-up, the authors collected detailed adolescent dietary data, allowing for the determination of major dietary patterns using factor…

  18. The Validity of the ADHD Section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Ann M.; Handwerk, Michael L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Lucas, Cristopher P.; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent criterion validity of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) portion of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (NIMHDISC-IV). Fifty-seven adolescent participants were divided into three groups on the basis of whether participants met…

  19. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance.

  20. Intra-individual variability in ADHD, autism spectrum disorders and Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Verté, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2008-11-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25 children with high functioning autism (HFA), 32 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who also were comorbid for ADHD (ASD+ADHD), 21 children with Tourette's syndrome (TS), and 85 typically developing controls (TD). In order to decompose the variability of the reaction times, we applied three distinct techniques: ex-Gaussian modeling, intra-individual variability analysis, and spectral analysis. Our data revealed that children with HFA and children with ASD+ADHD exhibited substantial IIV compared with ADHD and TD children. We argue that: (1) all three methods lead to a single consistent conclusion; (2) careful documentation of the analytic steps used in spectral analysis is mandatory for comparison between studies; (3) the presence of comorbidities may constitute an important factor in the observed response variability in previous studies of ADHD.