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  1. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring. PMID:16981611

  2. Clock Face Drawing Test Performance in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Safavi, Salar; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls. Methods 95 school children with ADHD and 191 other children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the following four functions were assessed: Contour score, Numbers score, Hands setting score, and Center score. Results All the subscales scores of the three clock drawing tests of the ADHD group were lower than that of the control group. In ADHD children, inattention and hyperactivity/ impulsivity scores were not related to free drawn clock test scores. When pre-drawn contour test was performed, inattentiveness score was statistically associated with Number score while none of the other variables of age, gender, intellectual functioning, and hand use preference were associated with that kind of score. In pre-drawn clock, no association of ADHD symptoms with any CDT subscales found significant. In addition, more errors are observed with free drawn clock and Pre-drawn contour than pre-drawn clock. Discussion Putting Numbers and Hands setting are more sensitive measures to screen ADHD than Contour and Center drawing. Test performance, except Hands setting, may have already reached a developmental plateau. It is probable that Hand setting deficit in children with ADHD may not decrease from age 8 to 14 years. Performance of children with ADHD is associated with complexity of CDT. PMID:25337328

  3. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  4. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  5. ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance in an adult sample.

    PubMed

    Dobson-Patterson, Roberta; O'Gorman, John G; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2016-08-01

    The study investigated, with an adult sample, the hypothesis that differences between subtypes of ADHD on neuropsychological tests contribute to the poor separation of ADHD and healthy groups on tests of this kind. Groups of ADHD inattentive (n=16) and combined (n=16) subtypes were carefully identified using DSM-IV criteria, and their performance on 14 measures of attention, memory, and executive function (EF) was compared between subtypes and between the two subtypes combined and a group of healthy controls (n=30). Multivariate analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two subtypes, and between the two subtypes combined and the healthy controls. Importantly for the hypothesis, where differences for neuropsychological tests in terms of effect sizes between subtypes were largest, the differences in effect sizes between the two groups combined and controls were smallest (r=-0.64, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.87]). PMID:27043366

  6. Methylphenidate significantly reduces lapses of attention during on-road highway driving in patients with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Lapses of attention are characteristic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as such may impair performance of daily activities. Data from an on-road driving study were reanalyzed to determine lapses in patients with ADHD after treatment with methylphenidate and placebo.A total of 18 adult ADHD patients performed a 100-km on-road driving test and were instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. The SD of lateral position (SDLP), that is, the weaving of the car, lapses, and alertness, was assessed.Driving was significantly better (P = 0.006) with methylphenidate (SDLP, 18.8 cm) when compared with placebo (SDLP, 21.2 cm). Both the reduction in SDLP and the number of lapses (P = 0.003) confirm this significant improvement, which is further supported by subjective assessments of perceived driving performance. Although lapses were common in the placebo condition (11/18 patients), they were much less frequently observed (5/18 patients) after treatment with methylphenidate. Postdriving assessments suggest that lapses often go unnoticed by drivers.In conclusion, methylphenidate significantly improves driving of patients with ADHD by significantly reducing the number of lapses. PMID:24978156

  7. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  8. The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M E; Szeibel, P J; Koplewicz, H S

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of extra-task stimulation on the academic task performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 nondisabled boys worked on an arithmetic task during high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech), and no stimulation (silence). The music "distractors" were individualized for each child, and the arithmetic problems were at each child's ability level. A significant Group x Condition interaction was found for number of correct answers. Specifically, the nondisabled youngsters performed similarly under all three auditory conditions. In contrast, the children with ADHD did significantly better under the music condition than speech or silence conditions. However, a significant Group x Order interaction indicated that arithmetic performance was enhanced only for those children with ADHD who received music as the first condition. The facilitative effects of salient auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of the children with ADHD provide some support for the underarousal/optimal stimulation theory of ADHD. PMID:8732885

  9. EEG anomalies in adult ADHD subjects performing a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Missonnier, P; Hasler, R; Perroud, N; Herrmann, F R; Millet, P; Richiardi, J; Malafosse, A; Giannakopoulos, P; Baud, P

    2013-06-25

    Functional imaging studies have revealed differential brain activation patterns in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult patients performing working memory (WM) tasks. The existence of alterations in WM-related cortical circuits during childhood may precede executive dysfunctions in this disorder in adults. To date, there is no study exploring the electrophysiological activation of WM-related neural networks in ADHD. To address this issue, we carried out an electroencephalographic (EEG) activation study associated with time-frequency (TF) analysis in 15 adults with ADHD and 15 controls performing two visual N-back WM tasks, as well as oddball detection and passive fixation tasks. Frontal transient (phasic) theta event-related synchronization (ERS, 0-500 msec) was significantly reduced in ADHD as compared to control subjects. Such reduction was equally present in a task-independent manner. In contrast, the power of the later sustained (∼500-1200 msec) theta ERS for all tasks was comparable in ADHD and control groups. In active WM tasks, ADHD patients displayed lower alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD, ∼200-900 msec) and higher subsequent alpha ERS (∼900-2400 msec) compared to controls. The time course of alpha ERD/ERS cycle was modified in ADHD patients compared to controls, suggesting that they are able to use late compensatory mechanisms in order to perform this WM task. These findings support the idea of an ADHD-related dysfunction of neural generators sub-serving attention directed to the incoming visual information. ADHD cases may successfully face WM needs depending on the preservation of sustained theta ERS and prolonged increase of alpha ERS at later post-stimulus time points. PMID:23518223

  10. Brief report: The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on academic performance in an adolescent community sample.

    PubMed

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four participants, aged 15 and 16, in their final year of compulsory education, completed measures of ADHD, anxiety, depression, and motivation, and a test of general cognitive ability. Participants were also asked for permission for their academic grades to be viewed on a later occasion (approximately 6 months later). In regression analyses, ADHD symptoms were the most significant independent psychopathological predictor of academic performance, and were almost as significant as motivation and cognitive ability. The results suggest that adolescents with more ADHD symptoms are likely to encounter greater academic difficulties. PMID:20880572

  11. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  12. Long-Term Memory Performance in Adult ADHD: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya

    2013-11-14

    Objective: Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. Method: We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Results: Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Conclusion: Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24232170

  13. Gender Differences among Children with ADHD on Continuous Performance Tests: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…

  14. Language Deficits in ADHD Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agapitou, Paraskevi; Andreou, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of preschool ADHD on linguistic and metalinguistic awareness and mental ability. Eight subscales of the Athina Test were administered to ADHD preschoolers and a control group. Results showed that ADHD preschoolers performed significantly lower than the control group in all tasks. The greatest difficulty for…

  15. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation. PMID:27294799

  16. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  17. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Atomoxetine on Driving Performance in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Anderson, Deborah L.; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Objective: There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Method: Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with…

  18. Exploring the Performance Differences on the Flicker Task and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew L.; Shapiro, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the ability of the flicker task to demonstrate greater utility in discriminating performance in young adults with and without ADHD compared to the Conners' CPT (CCPT). Method: Flicker task and CCPT performance were compared between an ADHD (n = 28) and control (n = 30) group of college students. Results: This study replicated…

  19. Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence for separate norms.

    PubMed

    Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management. PMID:23608188

  20. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  1. Examination of the Role of Expectancies on Task Performance in College Students Concerned about ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wei, Christina; Suhr, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks can be influenced by expectations (Smith & Sullivan, 2003 ; Suhr & Gunstad, 2002 , 2005 ). The current study examined whether cuing a belief about the diagnostic saliency of a cognitive task among young adults who expressed concern about having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) influenced task performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either receive neutral directions or be cued to a belief that the task had diagnostic saliency prior to completing a working-memory task. Supporting our hypothesis, college students with higher prestudy report of ADHD symptoms who were cued with a belief about the diagnostic saliency of the task performed worse compared with students who received neutral instructions. As many researchers and clinicians currently rely exclusively on self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological tests to diagnose ADHD, our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive assessment for provision of appropriate clinical services to adults presenting with ADHD concerns. PMID:25255846

  2. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p < .01, deficits in fine motor regulation (Welch´s t-test = 44.768; p < .001) and sensory/motor activity (Welch'st-test = 95.683, p < .001; Welch's t-test = 79.537, p < .001). Both groups exhibited a similar performance in response control, F(3, 170) = .93, p = .43.Children with ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli. PMID:25734571

  3. Neurocognitive Performance in Children with ADHD and OCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berrak; Zepf, Florian D.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have both been linked to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry (CSTCC). However, the exact nature of neurocognitive deficits remains to be investigated in both disorders. We applied two neuropsychological tasks that tap into different…

  4. Increasing On-Task Performance for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the day-to-day grind of teaching, when problems emerge, the teachers' best intentions and sensitivities are tested. Fidgety, loud, disorganized, disruptive, hurried, careless, and off-task behavior coupled with messy,…

  5. Lower Extremity Response Time Performance in Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Scott J.; Heath, Matthew; Surburg, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have been labeled as "uncoordinated" and "inefficient movers"; however, a paucity of research has systematically examined "stimulant-free" motor processing in this population. Method: In the present investigation, the authors employ a cross-lateral integration task to assess the attainment of a motor milestone in a…

  6. Longitudinal evaluation of the importance of homework assignment completion for the academic performance of middle school students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe; Schultz, Brandon K; Evans, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and followed for 18 months. Multiple teachers for each student provided information about the percentage of homework assignments turned in at five separate time points and school grades were collected quarterly. Results showed that agreement between teachers with respect to students assignment completion was high, with an intraclass correlation of .879 at baseline. Students with ADHD were turning in an average of 12% fewer assignments each academic quarter in comparison to teacher-reported classroom averages. Regression analyses revealed a robust association between the percentage of assignments turned in at baseline and school grades 18 months later, even after controlling for baseline grades, achievement (reading and math), intelligence, family income, and race. Cross-lag analyses demonstrated that the association between assignment completion and grades was reciprocal, with assignment completion negatively impacting grades and low grades in turn being associated with decreased future homework completion. Parent ratings of homework materials management abilities at baseline significantly predicted the percentage of assignments turned in as reported by teachers 18 months later. These findings demonstrate that homework assignment completion problems are persistent across time and an important intervention target for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26931065

  7. Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  8. How can Continuous Performance Test help to assess inattention when mood and ADHD symptoms coexist?

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Cintia; Nazar, Bruno P; Pinna, Camilla M S; Rabelo, Beatriz; Serra-Pinheiro, Maria Antonia; Sergeant, Joseph; Mattos, Paulo

    2016-09-30

    Depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent, and often comorbid, disorders, with varying severity levels among patients. Inattention is a symptom present in both disorders, which often makes their differential diagnosis difficult in clinical practice (depression only versus comorbidity). This study aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on attention performance using one of the most common tasks in clinical practice, the continuous performance test (CPT). Ninety-three college students (60 men, 33 women) with a mean age of 24 years old were investigated with self-reports and semi-structured interviews for ADHD; the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used for depression ratings. Attention measures were derived from the CPT. There was no correlation between depression and ADHD symptoms; in addition, depression was not correlated with any of the CPT scores; ADHD symptomatology was the only predictor of changes in those CPT variables (commission and omission errors and d prime). ADHD-associated impairment on the CPT was not augmented by the presence of depressive symptoms, making neuropsychological results on this test helpful for the differential diagnosis. When attention deficits are observed in individuals with mild or moderate depression, they are most likely not attributed to depression. PMID:27434202

  9. Diagnosis of ADHD among Gifted Children in Relation to KEDI-WISC and T.O.V.A. Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Kim, Ji-Hye; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 106 gifted children and 71 typical children (ages 6-9) evaluated the correlation between intelligence and performance on the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A). Results found gifted children with ADHD performed better on tasks of omission error, commission error, and response sensitivity than typical children with ADHD.…

  10. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  11. Reading Performance as a Function of Treatment with Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Elementary School Children Diagnosed with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Maltas, Stephanie; Crinella, Francis; Stehli, Annamarie; Steinhoff, Kenneth; Lakes, Kimberley; Schuck, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medication treatment studies of ADHD have typically not assessed effects on reading performance, although reading difficulties frequently co-occur in children with ADHD. The current study characterizes the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse[R], Shire US Inc.), at peak efficacy, on reading performance in children with…

  12. Cognitive behavior therapy-based psychoeducational groups for adults with ADHD and their significant others (PEGASUS): an open clinical feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Hirvikoski, T; Waaler, E; Lindström, T; Bölte, S; Jokinen, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a new psychoeducative intervention program (PEGASUS) for adults with ADHD and their significant others in a psychiatric outpatient context. At three outpatient psychiatric clinics, adults with ADHD and their significant others took part in PEGASUS, a psychoeducational program based on theories from cognitive behavioral therapy, neuropsychology, and cross-disciplinary evidence regarding ADHD. In total, 108 adults were allocated to treatment (51 with ADHD and their 57 significant others). Feasibility was evaluated regarding suitability of the intervention at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and treatment completion. Preliminary efficacy was evaluated per protocol from baseline to post-intervention (n = 41 adults with ADHD and 40 significant others). In a feasibility analysis, the intervention was judged to be a suitable treatment option for 94.5 % of all individuals with a primary diagnosis of ADHD at an outpatient psychiatric clinic. In total, 43 out of 51 allocated individuals with ADHD (84.3 %) completed the intervention. The corresponding figures for their significant others were 42 out of 57 (73.7 %). Knowledge about ADHD increased, and both the quality of relationships and psychological well-being improved from baseline to post-intervention in all participants. The significant others reported a reduction in the subjective burden of care, such as worry and guilt. The objective burden of care (such as financial problems) did not change. The findings support the potential value of psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. An ongoing randomized controlled trial will generate further evidence concerning the PEGASUS program. PMID:24863143

  13. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  14. Extended visual glances away from the roadway are associated with ADHD- and texting-related driving performance deficits in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kingery, Kathleen M.; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Antonini, Tanya N.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD = 28, non-ADHD = 33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16–17 with a valid driver’s license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 seconds) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  15. Stop Signal and Conners' Continuous Performance Tasks: Test-Retest Reliability of Two Inhibition Measures in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreni, Noam; Crosbie, Jennifer; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure test-retest reliability of the Stop-Signal Task (SST) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in children with ADHD. Methods: 12 children with ADHD (age 11.46 plus or minus 1.66) participated in the study. Primary outcome measures were stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) for the SST and CPT's commission errors (%FP).…

  16. The Relationship between Working Memory, Inhibition, and Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.

    2007-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has frequently been used to assess executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We first compared the performance of 15 children with ADHD to 15 children of a control group (age range 6 to 11) on the WCST and then examined the relationship among working memory,…

  17. Executive dysfunctions among boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): performance-based test and parents report.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as reported by parents) and in a performance-based test. (b) To examine correlations between the two tests. Both the Behavior Assessment of Dysexecutive Functions for Children (BADS-C) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) were independently applied to 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. Results of the two assessments were compared between the two groups to indicate differences in EF. Correlations between the two assessments for all participants were evaluated. Overall, significant differences in EF were found between the two groups on both assessments. Significant correlations were found between BADS-C and BRIEF, specifically in metacognition but not in behavioral regulation. Findings indicate that poor EF manifests itself in everyday behavior. These difficulties are found in metacognitive and behavioral regulation components. Nevertheless, applying a valid ecological assessment of behavior regulation merits future research. PMID:22230238

  18. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years) execute a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%), an unrepeated novel sound (33%) or no auditory stimulation (33%). Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control. PMID:26779082

  19. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years) execute a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%), an unrepeated novel sound (33%) or no auditory stimulation (33%). Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control. PMID:26779082

  20. A controlled clinical comparison of attention performance in children with ADHD in a virtual reality classroom compared to standard neuropsychological methods.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D; Bowerly, Todd; Buckwalter, J Galen; Rizzo, Albert A

    2007-07-01

    In this initial pilot study, a controlled clinical comparison was made of attention perforance in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a virtual reality (VR) classroom. Ten boys diagnosed with ADHD and ten normal control boys participated in the study. Groups did not significantly differ in mean age, grade level, ethnicity, or handedness. No participants reported simulator sickness following VR exposure. Children with ADHD exhibited more omission errors, commission errors, and overall body movement than normal control children in the VR classroom. Children with ADHD were more impacted by distraction in the VR classroom. VR classroom measures were correlated with traditional ADHD assessment tools and the flatscreen CPT. Of note, the small sample size incorporated in each group and higher WISC-III scores of normal controls might have some bearing on the overall interpretation of results. These data suggested that the Virtual Classroom had good potential for controlled performance assessment within an ecologically valid environment and appeared to parse out significant effects due to the presence of distraction stimuli. PMID:17564852

  1. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups. PMID:26251965

  2. Adolescent ADHD and Adult Physical and Mental Health, Work Performance, and Financial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Seltzer, Nathan; Finch, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a scarcity of longitudinal studies of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed until adulthood. We studied the relationship between ADHD in adolescence and impaired general physical health, impaired general mental health, antisocial personality disorder, impaired work performance, and high financial stress in adulthood. METHODS: A prospective design incorporated 6 assessments of participants spanning mean ages from 14 to 37 years. Two baseline assessments were taken between ages 14 and 16 years, and 5 outcome assessments were taken at mean age 37 years. Participants were assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires. The participants were from a community sample of individuals initially drawn in 1975 and followed to a mean age of 37 years in 2009. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ADHD in adolescence as related to internal stress in adulthood were 1.82 (95% CI = 1.01–3.25; P < .05) for impaired general physical health, 2.36 (95% CI = 1.23–4.51; P < .01) for impaired general mental health, and 3.28 (95% CI = 1.51–7.13; P < .01) for antisocial personality disorder. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for ADHD in adolescence as related to external stress were 2.46 (95% CI = 1.37–4.43; P < .01) for impaired work performance and 3.33 (95% CI = 1.70–6.55; P < .001) for high financial stress. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should focus on early diagnosis and treatment of adolescent ADHD because it is a major predictor of an array of physical, mental, work, and financial problems in adulthood. PMID:23230074

  3. Environmental exposure to lead, but not other neurotoxic metals, relates to core elements of ADHD in Romanian children: performance and questionnaire data.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Rodica; Petcu, Cristian; Cordeanu, Aurelia; Fabritius, Klaus; Schlumpf, Margret; Krebs, Rolf; Krämer, Ursula; Winneke, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Neurobehavioral measures of attention, and clinical features of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been studied in pediatric environmental lead research. However rarely, if ever, have performance measures of attention or executive functions and questionnaire-based quantitative ADHD-observations been studied in the same subjects. We examined associations between pediatric blood lead concentrations (PbB), as well as those of mercury (Hg), and aluminum (Al), and performance in four different attention tasks, as well as behavioral ratings from an ICD-10 (hyperactivity) and DSM-IV-coded (attention deficit) German questionnaire (FBB-ADHS). Asymptomatic, 8-12 year old children from two Romanian cities were studied, namely Bucharest and Pantelimon, a city near a metal-processing plant. Blood was analyzed for Pb, Al, and Hg. Data from 83 children were available for final analysis. We assessed attention performance by means of four tasks of the computer-based ADHD-taylored German KITAP-battery. We also received questionnaire ratings from parents and teachers covering three ADHD-dimensions. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate associations between the three neurotoxic trace metals in blood and the different ADHD features. After adjusting for eleven potentially confounding variables we found consistent borderline to significant associations between Pb, but not other metals, in blood and various performance- and questionnaire data. False alarm responses (FAR) in the KITAP subtests rather than response latencies exhibited positive associations with PbB. Questionnaire ratings for ADHD dimensions also revealed PbB-related adversity. With any two-fold increase of PbB outcome changed markedly, namely up to 35%. Restriction to children with PbBs<10mug/dl had only a marginal influence on outcome.The converging evidence from performance- and questionnaire data confirms that core elements of ADHD are adversely affected by low environmental Pb

  4. ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; DuPaul, George

    2006-01-01

    Objective: According to the American Psychiatric Association, 3% to 7% of the school-age population has ADHD and many children continue to display significant symptoms throughout adolescences and adulthood. Relative to the childhood literature, less is known about ADHD in adults, especially college students with ADHD. The principle purpose of this…

  5. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD. PMID:25457429

  6. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  7. Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Rubi; Tennekoon, Michael; Cooke, Gillian E; Gayda, Jessica; Stein, Mark A; Booth, James R

    2015-08-01

    We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory. PMID:26142072

  8. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  9. Latent profile analysis of working memory performance in a sample of children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani; Winther, Jo; Vance, Alasdair

    2014-11-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to ascertain distinct groups of children with ADHD (N = 701) in terms of performance on working memory (WM) tasks that tapped visuospatial sketchpad, spatial central executive, and verbal central executive functions. It compared the WM performances of these classes with a clinical comparison group (N = 59). The participants' age ranged from 7 to 16 years (586 males, 71 females). The results of the LPA supported three classes. For all three WM tasks, class 1 (N = 196) had more difficulties than classes 2 (N = 394) and 3 (N = 111), and the clinical comparison group. Class 2 had more difficulties than class 3 and the clinical comparison group, and there was no difference between class 3 and the clinical comparison group. Class 1 had lower IQ and academic abilities, and relatively more individuals with depressive disorders. The implications of the findings for understanding ADHD and its treatment are discussed. PMID:24824189

  10. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on the Mathematics Performance and Classroom Behavior of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of three second-through fourth-grade students with ADHD. A controlled case study is used to evaluate the effects of the computer software on participants' mathematics performance and on-task behavior. Participants'…

  11. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  12. Executive Function and ADHD: A Comparison of Children's Performance during Neuropsychological Testing and Real-World Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vivienne; Houghton, Stephen; Douglas, Graham; Durkin, Kevin; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Current understanding of executive function deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is derived almost exclusively from neuropsychological testing conducted in laboratory settings. This study compared children's performance on both neuropsychological and real-life measures of executive function and processing speed.…

  13. Pattern classification of response inhibition in ADHD: Toward the development of neurobiological markers for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Heledd; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Cubillo, Ana I; Smith, Anna B; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J; Marquand, Andre F; Rubia, Katya

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on subjective measures despite evidence for multisystemic structural and functional deficits. ADHD patients have consistent neurofunctional deficits in motor response inhibition. The aim of this study was to apply pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibition, to accurately predict the diagnostic status of ADHD. Thirty adolescent ADHD and thirty age-matched healthy boys underwent fMRI while performing a Stop task. fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian process classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach, to predict individual ADHD diagnosis based on task-based activation patterns. Traditional univariate case-control analyses were also performed to replicate previous findings in a relatively large dataset. The pattern of brain activation correctly classified up to 90% of patients and 63% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 77%. The regions of the discriminative network most predictive of controls included later developing lateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal areas that mediate inhibition, while regions most predictive of ADHD were in earlier developing ventromedial fronto-limbic regions, which furthermore correlated with symptom severity. Univariate analysis showed reduced activation in ADHD in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal regions that overlapped with areas predictive of controls, suggesting the latter are dysfunctional areas in ADHD. We show that significant individual classification of ADHD patients of 77% can be achieved using whole brain pattern analysis of task-based fMRI inhibition data, suggesting that multivariate pattern recognition analyses of inhibition networks can provide objective diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083–3094, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24123508

  14. Pattern classification of response inhibition in ADHD: toward the development of neurobiological markers for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hart, Heledd; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Cubillo, Ana I; Smith, Anna B; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J; Marquand, Andre F; Rubia, Katya

    2014-07-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on subjective measures despite evidence for multisystemic structural and functional deficits. ADHD patients have consistent neurofunctional deficits in motor response inhibition. The aim of this study was to apply pattern classification to task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of inhibition, to accurately predict the diagnostic status of ADHD. Thirty adolescent ADHD and thirty age-matched healthy boys underwent fMRI while performing a Stop task. fMRI data were analyzed with Gaussian process classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach, to predict individual ADHD diagnosis based on task-based activation patterns. Traditional univariate case-control analyses were also performed to replicate previous findings in a relatively large dataset. The pattern of brain activation correctly classified up to 90% of patients and 63% of controls, achieving an overall classification accuracy of 77%. The regions of the discriminative network most predictive of controls included later developing lateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal areas that mediate inhibition, while regions most predictive of ADHD were in earlier developing ventromedial fronto-limbic regions, which furthermore correlated with symptom severity. Univariate analysis showed reduced activation in ADHD in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal, striatal, and temporo-parietal regions that overlapped with areas predictive of controls, suggesting the latter are dysfunctional areas in ADHD. We show that significant individual classification of ADHD patients of 77% can be achieved using whole brain pattern analysis of task-based fMRI inhibition data, suggesting that multivariate pattern recognition analyses of inhibition networks can provide objective diagnostic neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD. PMID:24123508

  15. Are There Executive Dysfunction Subtypes Within ADHD?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T

    2013-11-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have heterogeneous behavioral and neuropsychological profiles. The aim of this study was to examine the possible utility of executive function (EF) subtypes within ADHD. Method: Participants were 357 children aged 6 through 13 with a diagnosis of ADHD. Children completed a brief laboratory battery measuring EF, including response inhibition, response variability, speed, and set-shifting. Children also completed standardized intelligence and achievement testing. Results: Two-way cluster analysis of EF profiles of children with ADHD produced a three-cluster solution, labeled poor inhibitory control, poor set-shifting/speed, and intact task performance. Clusters significantly differed in measures of intelligence, academic achievement, and other disruptive behavior and anxiety/mood symptoms. Conclusion: These findings further support the idea that children with ADHD have heterogeneous EF profiles and suggest that the theory of ADHD should consider these individual differences in EF profiles within the ADHD diagnostic category. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24214969

  16. ADHD and Secondary ADHD Criteria Fail to Identify Many At-Risk Survivors of Pediatric ALL and Brain Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kahalley, Lisa S.; Conklin, Heather M.; Tyc, Vida L.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Post-treatment attention problems experienced by pediatric cancer survivors have been described as similar to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experienced in physically healthy children. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the rate of occurrence of ADHD and secondary ADHD (SADHD) in a sample of pediatric cancer survivors, (b) compare the rate of ADHD/SADHD among survivors to the prevalence of ADHD in the general population, and (c) examine clinical correlates of ADHD/SADHD in this sample. Procedure Survivors of pediatric ALL or brain tumor (n=100) participated in an assessment of attention including a computerized performance measure [Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II)], parent and self-report measures (Conners 3), and a structured diagnostic interview for ADHD and other psychological disorders [Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV (DICA-IV)]. Results Binomial tests revealed that the rate of ADHD/SADHD in our sample (9%) was significantly greater than the lower limits of ADHD prevalence among children in the US (3%; p<0.001), while no difference was identified compared to the upper limits of ADHD prevalence (7%; p>0.05). Many additional survivors (>25% of the sample) obtained clinical elevations on Conners 3 scales but did not meet ADHD/SADHD criteria. Conclusions Attentional deficits experienced by pediatric cancer survivors do not appear to resemble the clinical presentation of ADHD or SADHD. Many survivors with cognitive and behavioral difficulties related to attention were not identified using this diagnostic approach. Findings offer needed clarification to guide researchers and clinicians in conceptualizing, assessing, and intervening on attentional late effects. PMID:21337681

  17. Relation between Outcomes on a Continuous Performance Test and ADHD Symptoms over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Aaron J.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Rausch, Joseph; Altaye, Mekibib; Langberg, Joshua; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the developmental trajectories of neuropsychological functioning and ADHD symptomatology in a longitudinal sample of children ages 9 to 14. Participants and measures were derived from the Multimodal Treatment Study for ADHD including 534MTA participants and 254 normal controls. Despite improvement over…

  18. Performance Variability, Impulsivity Errors and the Impact of Incentives as Gender-Independent Endophenotypes for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebel, Henrik; Albrecht, Bjorn; Asherson, Philip; Borger, Norbert A.; Butler, Louise; Chen, Wai; Christiansen, Hanna; Heise, Alexander; Kuntsi, Jonna; Schafer, Ulrike; Andreou, Penny; Manor, Iris; Marco, Rafaela; Miranda, Ana; Mulligan, Aisling; Oades, Robert D.; van der Meere, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and highly heritable child psychiatric disorders. There is strong evidence that children with ADHD show slower and more variable responses in tasks such as Go/Nogo tapping aspects of executive functions like sustained attention and response control which may be…

  19. Gently restless: association of ADHD-like traits with response inhibition and interference control.

    PubMed

    Polner, Bertalan; Aichert, Désirée; Macare, Christine; Costa, Anna; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of inhibition-related functions is one of the most pronounced cognitive deficits found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compelling evidence from studies of unaffected relatives of patients with ADHD and of ADHD-like traits in healthy subjects suggest the continuous distribution of ADHD symptoms in the population. A more subtle inhibitory deficit can also be found in healthy relatives of patients and in subjects with high ADHD-like traits. Here, we examined the relationship between inhibitory performance and ADHD-like traits, for the first time, in a large sample of healthy adults by applying multiple, widely used tests of inhibition-related functions. ADHD-like traits, in general, were independently predicted by Stroop interference score and, at trend level, by go/no-go commission error rate while controlling for socio-demographic factors, verbal intelligence and neuroticism. Additionally, higher inattentive traits were related to worse Stroop performance at trend level, and higher hyperactive/impulsive traits were significantly associated with more go/no-go commission errors. ADHD-like traits were strongly related to neuroticism. The study shows that individual differences in ADHD-like traits are related to variance in fundamental inhibition-related functions over and above effects of negative affect regulation, but the relationships tend to be small. The results suggest the quasi-dimensionality of ADHD and raise further questions about the relationship between genetic factors and the deficit of inhibition-related functions in the ADHD spectrum. PMID:25209569

  20. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p < .01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  1. Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Function in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather E.; Lam, Janet C.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, ages 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance—including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness—(all p≤0.01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p<0.01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p≤0.01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p<0.01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD, rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  2. Dissociable Response Inhibition in Children With Tourette's Syndrome Compared With Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Oie, Merete

    2013-11-25

    Objective: This study investigates whether performance in a verbal response task (Color-Word Interference Test [CWIT]) and a motor response task (Conners' Continuous Performance Test [CCPT]) discriminates children with Tourette's Syndrome (TS), ADHD, and typically developing children (TDC). Method: Nineteen children with TS, 79 with ADHD, and 50 with TDC participated (8-17 years). Results: Children with TS committed significantly fewer errors in the verbal response task than those with ADHD. Moreover, children with TS but without ADHD performed better than TDC. Errors in motor task and speed of response did not distinguish between groups. A cautious tendency of response correlated positively with rates of tics in children with TS. Conclusion: Children with TS were superior in inhibiting a prepotent verbal response; however, comorbidity with ADHD in those children negatively influenced performance. Results support the hypothesis that levels of inhibitory control distinguish children with TS, ADHD, and TDC. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24276800

  3. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Bekker, Evelijne M; de Roos, Marlise; Minova, Anita; Eijken, Erik J E; Kooij, J J Sandra; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kenemans, J Leon; Verbaten, Marinus N; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

    2008-05-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial examining the effects of methylphenidate versus placebo on highway driving in 18 adults with ADHD was carried out. After three days of no treatment, patients received either their usual methylphenidate dose (mean: 14.7 mg; range: 10-30 mg) or placebo and then the opposite treatment after a six to seven days washout period. Patients performed a 100 km driving test during normal traffic, 1.5 h after treatment administration. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car, was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measurements included the standard deviation of speed and patient reports of driving performance. Driving performance was significantly better in the methylphenidate than in the placebo condition, as reflected by the SDLP difference (2.3 cm, 95% CI = 0.8-3.8, P = 0.004). Variation in speed was similar on treatment and on placebo (-0.05 km/h, 95% CI = -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.70). Among adults with ADHD, with a history of a positive clinical response to methylphenidate, methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance. PMID:18308788

  4. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mage=16.8 yr) who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD-Combined type in early childhood (Mage = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. Implications for understanding the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic functioning are discussed. PMID:21722025

  5. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  6. Event rate and reaction time performance in ADHD: Testing predictions from the state regulation deficit hypothesis using an ex-Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Wiersema, Jan R; Verguts, Tom; Gasthuys, Roos; van Der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    According to the state regulation deficit (SRD) account, ADHD is associated with a problem using effort to maintain an optimal activation state under demanding task settings such as very fast or very slow event rates. This leads to a prediction of disrupted performance at event rate extremes reflected in higher Gaussian response variability that is a putative marker of activation during motor preparation. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using ex-Gaussian modeling, which distinguishes Gaussian from non-Gaussian variability. Twenty-five children with ADHD and 29 typically developing controls performed a simple Go/No-Go task under four different event-rate conditions. There was an accentuated quadratic relationship between event rate and Gaussian variability in the ADHD group compared to the controls. The children with ADHD had greater Gaussian variability at very fast and very slow event rates but not at moderate event rates. The results provide evidence for the SRD account of ADHD. However, given that this effect did not explain all group differences (some of which were independent of event rate) other cognitive and/or motivational processes are also likely implicated in ADHD performance deficits. PMID:26835532

  7. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  8. Go/No Go task performance predicts cortical thickness in the caudal inferior frontal gyrus in young adults with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erik; Jernigan, Terry L; Lisdahl, Krista M; Tamm, Leanne; Tapert, Susan F; Potkin, Steven G; Mathalon, Daniel; Molina, Brooke; Bjork, James; Castellanos, F Xavier; Swanson, James; Kuperman, Joshua M; Bartsch, Hauke; Chen, Chi-Hua; Dale, Anders M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Group, Mta Neuroimaging

    2016-09-01

    Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally. PMID:26404018

  9. The clinical utility of the continuous performance test and objective measures of activity for diagnosing and monitoring ADHD in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Valentine, Althea Z; Groom, Madeleine J; Walker, Gemma M; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David; Hollis, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically diagnosed using clinical observation and subjective informant reports. Once children commence ADHD medication, robust monitoring is required to detect partial or non-responses. The extent to which neuropsychological continuous performance tests (CPTs) and objective measures of activity can clinically aid the assessment and titration process in ADHD is not fully understood. This review describes the current evidence base for the use of CPTs and objectively measured activity to support the diagnostic procedure and medication management for children with ADHD. Four databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), and PsycARTICLES) were systematically searched to understand the current evidence base for (1) the use of CPTs to aid clinical assessment of ADHD; (2) the use of CPTs to aid medication management; and (3) the clinical utility of objective measures of activity in ADHD. Sixty relevant articles were identified. The search revealed six commercially available CPTs that had been reported on for their clinical use. There were mixed findings with regard to the use of CPTs to assess and manage medication, with contrasting evidence on their ability to support clinical decision-making. There was a strong evidence base for the use of objective measures of activity to aid ADHD/non-ADHD group differentiation, which appears sensitive to medication effects and would also benefit from further research on their clinical utility. The findings suggest that combining CPTs and an objective measure of activity may be particularly useful as a clinical tool and worthy of further pursuit. PMID:26620873

  10. Increased prefrontal oxygenation related to distractor-resistant working memory in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Yasumura, Akira; Yamashita, Yushiro; Torii, Miyuki; Kaga, Makiko; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of distraction on working memory and its underlying neural mechanisms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To this end, we studied hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy while 16 children with ADHD and 10 typically developing (TD) children performed a working memory task. This task had two conditions: one involved a distraction during the memory delay interval, whereas the other had no systematic distraction. The ADHD patients showed significantly poorer behavioral performance compared with the TD group, particularly under the distraction. The ADHD group exhibited significantly higher level of prefrontal activation than did TD children. The activity level was positively correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms. These results suggest that the impairment in the inhibition of distraction is responsible for the working memory deficits observed in ADHD children. Inefficient processing in the prefrontal cortex appears to underlie such deficits. PMID:23385518

  11. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  12. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  13. Developmental trajectories of clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from grade 3 through 12 in a high-risk sample: Predictors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sasser, Tyler R; Kalvin, Carla B; Bierman, Karen L

    2016-02-01

    Developmental trajectories of clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms were explored in a sample of 413 children identified as high risk because of elevated kindergarten conduct problems. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were modeled simultaneously in a longitudinal latent class analyses, using parent reports collected in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. Three developmental trajectories emerged: (1) low levels of inattention and hyperactivity (low), (2) initially high but then declining symptoms (declining), and (3) continuously high symptoms that featured hyperactivity in childhood and early adolescence and inattention in adolescence (high). Multinomial logistic regressions examined child characteristics and family risk factors as predictors of ADHD trajectories. Relative to the low class, children in the high and declining classes displayed similar elevations of inattention and hyperactivity in early childhood. The high class was distinguished from the declining class by higher rates of aggression and hyperactivity at school and emotion dysregulation at home. In contrast, the declining class displayed more social isolation at home and school, relative to the low class. Families of children in both high and declining trajectory classes experienced elevated life stressors, and parents of children in the high class were also more inconsistent in their discipline practices relative to the low class. By late adolescence, children in the high class were significantly more antisocial than those in the low class, with higher rates of arrests, school dropout, and unemployment, whereas children in the declining class did not differ from those in the low trajectory class. The developmental and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26854506

  14. Proposing an adaptive mutation to improve XCSF performance to classify ADHD and BMD patients.

    PubMed

    Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh; Boostani, Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    There is extensive overlap of clinical symptoms observed among children with bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, diagnosis according to clinical symptoms cannot be very accurate. It is therefore desirable to develop quantitative criteria for automatic discrimination between these disorders. This study is aimed at designing an efficient decision maker to accurately classify ADHD and BMD patients by analyzing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 22 channels of EEGs have been recorded from 21 subjects with ADHD and 22 individuals with BMD. Several informative features, such as fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive coefficients, were extracted from the recorded signals. Considering the multimodal overlapping distribution of the obtained features, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to reduce the input dimension in a more separable space to make it more appropriate for the proposed classifier. A piecewise linear classifier based on the extended classifier system for function approximation (XCSF) was modified by developing an adaptive mutation rate, which was proportional to the genotypic content of best individuals and their fitness in each generation. The proposed operator controlled the trade-off between exploration and exploitation while maintaining the diversity in the classifier's population to avoid premature convergence. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the extracted features were applied to support vector machine, LDA, nearest neighbor and XCSF classifiers. To evaluate the method, a noisy environment was simulated with different noise amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the proposed technique are more robust as compared to conventional classifiers. Statistical tests demonstrate that the proposed classifier is a promising method for discriminating between ADHD and BMD patients. PMID:21048285

  15. Proposing an adaptive mutation to improve XCSF performance to classify ADHD and BMD patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh; Boostani, Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    There is extensive overlap of clinical symptoms observed among children with bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, diagnosis according to clinical symptoms cannot be very accurate. It is therefore desirable to develop quantitative criteria for automatic discrimination between these disorders. This study is aimed at designing an efficient decision maker to accurately classify ADHD and BMD patients by analyzing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 22 channels of EEGs have been recorded from 21 subjects with ADHD and 22 individuals with BMD. Several informative features, such as fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive coefficients, were extracted from the recorded signals. Considering the multimodal overlapping distribution of the obtained features, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to reduce the input dimension in a more separable space to make it more appropriate for the proposed classifier. A piecewise linear classifier based on the extended classifier system for function approximation (XCSF) was modified by developing an adaptive mutation rate, which was proportional to the genotypic content of best individuals and their fitness in each generation. The proposed operator controlled the trade-off between exploration and exploitation while maintaining the diversity in the classifier's population to avoid premature convergence. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the extracted features were applied to support vector machine, LDA, nearest neighbor and XCSF classifiers. To evaluate the method, a noisy environment was simulated with different noise amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the proposed technique are more robust as compared to conventional classifiers. Statistical tests demonstrate that the proposed classifier is a promising method for discriminating between ADHD and BMD patients.

  16. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  17. 1H MRSI of middle frontal gyrus in pediatric ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tafazoli, Sharwin; O'Neill, Joseph; Bejjani, Anthony; Ly, Ronald; Salamon, Noriko; McCracken, James T; Alger, Jeffry R; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies in multiple modalities have implicated the left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (here, middle frontal gyrus) in attentional functions, in ADHD, and in dopamine agonist treatment of ADHD. The far lateral location of this cortex in the brain, however, has made it difficult to study with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We used the smaller voxel sizes of the magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) variant of MRS, acquired at a steep coronal-oblique angle to sample bilateral middle frontal gyrus in 13 children and adolescents with ADHD and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Within a subsample of the ADHD patients, aspects of attention were also assessed with the Trail Making Task. In right middle frontal gyrus only, mean levels of N-acetyl-aspartate + N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (tNAA), creatine + phosphocreatine (Cr), choline-compounds (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) were significantly lower in the ADHD than in the control sample. In the ADHD patients, lower right middle frontal Cr was associated with worse performance on Trails A and B (focused attention, concentration, set-shifting), while the opposite relationship held true for the control group on Trails B. These findings add to evidence implicating right middle frontal cortex in ADHD. Lower levels of these multiple species may reflect osmotic adjustment to elevated prefrontal cortical perfusion in ADHD and/or a previously hypothesized defect in astrocytic production of lactate in ADHD resulting in decelerated energetic metabolism (Cr), membrane synthesis (Cho, mI), and acetyl-CoA substrate for NAA synthesis. Lower Cr levels may indicate attentional or executive impairments. PMID:23273650

  18. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ. PMID:25875897

  19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  20. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between ADHD Symptoms and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven’s Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven’s scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven’s scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ. PMID:25875897

  1. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only. PMID:25374034

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Jackson, Georgina M; Groom, Madeleine J

    2016-06-01

    Altered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n=18), TS+ADHD (N=17), ADHD (n=13) and typically developing controls (n=20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no)×2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed. PMID:27103231

  3. Associations of Age, Gender, and Subtypes With ADHD Symptoms and Related Comorbidity in a Danish Sample of Clinically Referred Adults.

    PubMed

    Soendergaard, Helle Moeller; Thomsen, Per Hove; Pedersen, Erik; Pedersen, Pernille; Poulsen, Agnethe Elkjaer; Winther, Lars; Nielsen, Jette Moeskjaer; Henriksen, Anne; Rungoe, Berit; Soegaard, Hans Joergen

    2014-01-10

    Objective: The aim was to examine associations of age and gender with ADHD subtypes and subsequently to examine associations of age, gender, and subtypes with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Method: Odds ratios were calculated and logistic regression performed using information from a clinical sample of 155 ADHD adults referred to a Danish specialized ADHD unit from 2010 to 2011. Results: A majority of men (65%) was found in the sample. Most patients were subtyped ADHD combined (78%), followed by ADHD inattentive (18%), and ADHD hyperactive-impulsive (4%). No significant differences were found in gender and age across subtypes. Current comorbid disorders were found in 57% of the ADHD patients. Significantly more comorbidity was found in the ADHD combined type and in patients ≥25 years. Significantly more men had substance use disorders and significantly more women had personality disorders. Conclusion: When assessing adult ADHD patients' age, gender, subtype, and related comorbid symptom profiles should be taken into account. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24412968

  4. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance. PMID:18211139

  5. Response inhibition and ADHD traits: correlates and heritability in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, J; Arnold, P; Paterson, A; Swanson, J; Dupuis, A; Li, X; Shan, J; Goodale, T; Tam, C; Strug, L J; Schachar, R J

    2013-04-01

    Endophenotypes or intermediate phenotypes are of great interest in neuropsychiatric genetics because of their potential for facilitating gene discovery. We evaluated response inhibition, latency and variability measures derived from the stop task as endophenotypes of ADHD by testing whether they were related to ADHD traits in the general population, heritable and shared genetic risk with ADHD traits. Participants were 16,099 children and adolescents, ages 6 to 18 years who visited a local science center. We measured ADHD traits using the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-Behavior (SWAN) rating scale and performance on the stop signal task (SST)-response inhibition (SSRT), response latency (GoRT), and response variability (GoRTSD). Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship of cognitive measures and ADHD traits while controlling for family, age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and treatment status. Heritability of ADHD and cognitive traits was estimated using SOLAR in 7,483 siblings from 3,507 families that included multiple siblings. Bivariate relationships between pairs of variables were examined. Individuals with greater ADHD trait scores had worse response inhibition, slower response latency, and greater variability. Younger participants and girls had inferior performance although the gender effects were minimal and evident in youngest participants. Inhibition, latency, variability, total ADHD traits, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity scores were significantly heritable. ADHD traits and inhibition, but not latency or variability were coheritable. In the largest study in the general population, we found support for the validity of response inhibition as an endophenotype of ADHD. PMID:23315233

  6. Self-Monitoring of Attention versus Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance: Effects among Students with ADHD in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.; Friedlander, Barbara Danoff; Saddler, Bruce; Frizzelle, Remedios; Graham, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A counterbalanced, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used to determine if attention and performance monitoring had differential effects on the on-task and spelling study behavior of 6 elementary students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general education classroom. Both self-monitoring of attention and…

  7. Behavior ratings of executive function among preschoolers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Hoffman, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003) was developed to assess executive function (EF) behaviors in children aged 2 to 5 years. We compared parent ratings of 25 preschool children with ADHD to 25 age-, sex-, and SES-matched controls from the BRIEF-P standardization sample. Children with ADHD were rated significantly higher than controls (p < .01) on all five primary scales (Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Working Memory, Plan/Organize), and on all four indices (Inhibitory Self Control, Flexibility, Emerging Metacognition, General Executive Composite). The largest effect size was on the Working Memory scale. All five BRIEF-P clinical scales were significantly intercorrelated in the control group, and seven of ten scale intercorrelations were significant in the ADHD group. Within the ADHD group, the BRIEF-P Index scores were significantly correlated with ratings on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, but only moderately correlated with an estimate of Verbal IQ. The BRIEF-P had low, non-significant correlations with performance-based measures of EF, and patterns of correlations were not significantly different than those between the BRIEF-P and non-EF measures (sensorimotor, receptive vocabulary). Similar to its predecessor, the BRIEF-P is sensitive to symptoms of ADHD, but appears to measure different elements of EF than those tapped by performance-based measures. PMID:17613979

  8. Significant differences in pediatric psychotropic side effects: Implications for school performance.

    PubMed

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-03-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication monitoring, data-based decision-making, and inform mitigation efforts. SE data from Full Prescribing Information (PI) on the FDA website for ADHD drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants with pediatric indications were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) are reported for each drug within a category compared with placebo. RR tables and graphs inform the reader about SE incidence differences for each drug and provide clear evidence of the wide variability in SE incidence in the FDA data. Breslow-Day and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to test for drug-placebo SE differences and to test for significance across drugs within each category based on odds ratios (ORs). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for each drug compared with placebo, when odds were pooled across all drugs in a category compared with placebo, and between some drugs within categories. Unexpectedly, many large RR differences did not reach significance. Potential explanations are offered, including limitations of the FDA data sets and statistical and methodological issues. Future research directions are offered. The potential impact of certain SEs on school performance, mitigation strategies, and the potential role of the school psychologist is discussed, with consideration for ethical and legal limitations. PMID:22582933

  9. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura B F; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD. PMID:25567090

  10. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD. PMID:25567090

  11. Executive Dysfunctions among Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Performance-Based Test and Parents Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as…

  12. Proportional Slowing or Disinhibition in ADHD?: A Brinley Plot Meta-Analysis of Stroop Color and Word Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocklington, Barbara; Maybery, Murray

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis in the form of Brinley plots was conducted on the mean reaction times of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Control groups of children and adolescents on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT). ADHD reaction times were regressed on Control group reaction times for 17 data sets (accessed from 13 published studies).…

  13. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with Comorbid DCD and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Podoly, Tamar; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two developmental disorders with considerable comorbidity. The impact of Methylphenidate (MPH) on ADHD symptoms is well documented. However, the effects of MPH on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of MPH on motor performance…

  14. What can ADHD without comorbidity teach us about comorbidity?

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age, gender, IQ, SES and ADHD symptoms were compared among ADHD comorbid free subjects and ADHD with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Logistic regression analyses were also carried out to investigate the relationship between comorbidity and parental psychiatric status. Age range was younger in the ADHD without comorbidity and older in ADHD+internalizing disorders. No significant difference in IQ or SES was found among ADHD comorbid and comorbid-free groups. ADHD with internalizing disorder has a significantly greater association with paternal psychiatric conditions. After matching by age, gender, IQ and SES, ADHD with externalizing disorders had significantly higher total ADHD, hyperactivity/impulsivity score and single item score of difficulty awaiting turn than ADHD without comorbidity and ADHD with internalizing disorders. Older age ranges, ADHD symptom severity and parental psychopathology may be risk factors for comorbidity. PMID:22119689

  15. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III). PMID:25225947

  16. Sensitivity of Four Subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention For Children (TEA-Ch) to Stimulant Medication in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutcliffe, Paul A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined on four subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) when on and off stimulant medication. Performance was assessed relative to 18 individually age-matched controls. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse on TEA-Ch measures when off compared…

  17. Comprehension of televised stories by preschool children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R P; Lorch, E P; Milich, R; Welsh, R

    1999-09-01

    Investigated visual attention to and story comprehension of televised stories in 4- to 6-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison children. Half of the children in each group watched the program with toys in the room, and the other half watched without toys. Visual attention to the television was recorded, and story comprehension was assessed by performance on cued recall questions. All children attended significantly less when toys were present, but the difference when toys were present was greater for children with ADHD. The groups did not differ on recall of factual information when toys were absent. When toys were present, the comparison children showed no decrement in performance on factual questions, whereas the performance of children with ADHD was significantly worse. On questions testing causal connections, the children with ADHD performed more poorly than comparison children regardless of whether toys were present. Implications of these results for understanding and treating the academic and social difficulties of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:10446687

  18. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. PMID:26416589

  19. Impact of ADHD and Cannabis Use on Executive Functioning in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither. Methods Young adults (24.2±1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) report past year ≥ monthly cannabis use were compared on neuropsychological measures to a local normative comparison group (LNCG) who did (n=20) and did not (n=21) report past year regular cannabis use. Age, gender, IQ, socioeconomic status, and past year alcohol and smoking were statistical covariates. Results The ADHD group performed worse than LNCG on verbal memory, processing speed, cognitive interference, decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition. No significant effects for cannabis use emerged. Interactions between ADHD and cannabis were non-significant. Exploratory analyses revealed that individuals who began using cannabis regularly before age 16 (n=27) may have poorer executive functioning (i.e., decision-making, working memory, and response inhibition), than users who began later (n=32); replication is warranted with a larger sample. Conclusions A childhood diagnosis of ADHD, but not cannabis use in adulthood, was associated with executive dysfunction. Earlier initiation of cannabis use may be linked to poor cognitive outcomes and a significantly greater proportion of the ADHD group began using cannabis before age 16. Regular cannabis use starting after age 16 may not be sufficient to aggravate longstanding cognitive deficits characteristic of ADHD. PMID:23992650

  20. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    PubMed

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research. PMID:27399309

  1. "Turning down the heat": Is poor performance of children with ADHD on tasks tapping "hot" emotional regulation caused by deficits in "cool" executive functions?

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberge, Valerie; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Wiersema, Jan R

    2015-12-01

    Emotional dysregulation in daily life is very common in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is however not clear whether this reflects a specific deficit or that it may be the result of generic executive function (EF) deficits. The current study addresses this question by means of an emotional working memory (WM) task with 2 memory load conditions and four possible backgrounds (blank screen, neutral, positive or negative picture), which was administered to 38 typically developing children and 29 children with ADHD. Children responded slower on trials when negative pictures were presented at the background versus when neutral pictures were presented, indicating an emotional interference effect; however crucially, groups did not differ in this respect. Reaction times were also slower on trials with a neutral picture as background versus trials without a picture, with children with ADHD showing an enhanced interference effect. There was a main effect of WM load on performance, but it did not interact with interference or group effects. To summarize, the findings indicate a generic interference control deficit in the children with ADHD in the current sample, while they could not provide support for an emotional interference deficit. PMID:26444927

  2. Music and video as distractors for boys with ADHD in the classroom: comparison with controls, individual differences, and medication effects.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Sams, Susan E; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced significant distraction, particularly for the boys with ADHD, and MPH improved the performance of boys with ADHD across distractor conditions.There were individual differences in response to the music such that some boys were adversely affected and others benefited relative to no-distractor.In a second study, music and MPH were assessed in an additional 86 boys with ADHD to examine further the music results. In the presence or absence of music, MPH improved performance relative to placebo. Similar individual differences were found as in Experiment 1. PMID:21695447

  3. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  4. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  5. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  6. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria P.; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  7. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  8. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD. PMID:26107579

  9. ADHD diagnosis from multiple data sources with batch effects.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Emanuele; Greiner, Susanne; Avesani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects the school-age population and has large social costs. The scientific community is still lacking a pathophysiological model of the disorder and there are no objective biomarkers to support the diagnosis. In 2011 the ADHD-200 Consortium provided a rich, heterogeneous neuroimaging dataset aimed at studying neural correlates of ADHD and to promote the development of systems for automated diagnosis. Concurrently a competition was set up with the goal of addressing the wide range of different types of data for the accurate prediction of the presence of ADHD. Phenotypic information, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and resting state fMRI recordings were provided for nearly 1000 typical and non-typical young individuals. Data were collected by eight different research centers in the consortium. This work is not concerned with the main task of the contest, i.e., achieving a high prediction accuracy on the competition dataset, but we rather address the proper handling of such a heterogeneous dataset when performing classification-based analysis. Our interest lies in the clustered structure of the data causing the so-called batch effects which have strong impact when assessing the performance of classifiers built on the ADHD-200 dataset. We propose a method to eliminate the biases introduced by such batch effects. Its application on the ADHD-200 dataset generates such a significant drop in prediction accuracy that most of the conclusions from a standard analysis had to be revised. In addition we propose to adopt the dissimilarity representation to set up effective representation spaces for the heterogeneous ADHD-200 dataset. Moreover we propose to evaluate the quality of predictions through a recently proposed test of independence in order to cope with the unbalancedness of the dataset. PMID:23060755

  10. Voxel-based morphometry analysis reveals frontal brain differences in participants with ADHD and their unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bralten, Janita; Greven, Corina U.; Franke, Barbara; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Hartman, Catharina; van der Meer, Dennis; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on structural brain alterations in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconsistent. Both ADHD and brain volumes have a strong genetic loading, but whether brain alterations in patients with ADHD are familial has been underexplored. We aimed to detect structural brain alterations in adolescents and young adults with ADHD compared with healthy controls. We examined whether these alterations were also found in their unaffected siblings, using a uniquely large sample. Methods We performed voxel-based morphometry analyses on MRI scans of patients with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and typically developing controls. We identified brain areas that differed between participants with ADHD and controls and investigated whether these areas were different in unaffected siblings. Influences of medication use, age, sex and IQ were considered. Results Our sample included 307 patients with ADHD, 169 unaffected siblings and 196 typically developing controls (mean age 17.2 [range 8–30] yr). Compared with controls, participants with ADHD had significantly smaller grey matter volume in 5 clusters located in the precentral gyrus, medial and orbitofrontal cortex, and (para)cingulate cortices. Unaffected siblings showed intermediate volumes significantly different from controls in 4 of these clusters (all except the precentral gyrus). Medication use, age, sex and IQ did not have an undue influence on the results. Limitations Our sample was heterogeneous, most participants with ADHD were taking medication, and the comparison was cross-sectional. Conclusion Brain areas involved in decision making, motivation, cognitive control and motor functioning were smaller in participants with ADHD than in controls. Investigation of unaffected siblings indicated familiality of 4 of the structural brain differences, supporting their potential in molecular genetic analyses in ADHD research. PMID:26679925

  11. Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Mackenzie, Genevieve

    2015-03-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate reading comprehension in youth with and without a prior diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first goal was to determine whether youth with and without ADHD matched in word reading ability exhibited differences in reading comprehension proficiency. The next goal was to determine whether good and poor comprehenders within the ADHD subgroup differed from each other on language and academic achievement measures. The third objective was to examine whether word recognition or oral vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of ADHD symptoms on reading comprehension performance. Youth with ADHD scored significantly lower than the comparison youth on a standardized measure of reading comprehension. Relative to good comprehenders with ADHD, poor comprehenders with ADHD exhibited weaknesses in expressive vocabulary, mathematical reasoning, written expression, and exhibited more executive function (EF) difficulties as reported by the teacher. Expressive vocabulary and word reading, but not teacher EF ratings, accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension performance and mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and reading comprehension. Implications for further research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:25589478

  12. Academic Outcome Trajectories of Students with ADHD: Does Exceptional Education Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Porter, Phillip; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana; Garvan, Cynthia; Reid, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with poor academic performance, but little is known about learning trajectories and risk factors for poor academic outcomes. This study investigates the relationship between ADHD and academic performance in students with ADHD (n = 87), students with subclinical ADHD (n = 23), and…

  13. Impairment of Concept Formation Ability in Children with ADHD: Comparisons between Lower Grades and Higher Grades

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Seo, Wan Seok; Koo, Bon Hoon; Bai, Dai Seg; Jeong, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated executive functions (EFs), as evaluated by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and other EF between lower grades (LG) and higher grades (HG) in elementary-school-age attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods We classified a sample of 112 ADHD children into 4 groups (composed of 28 each) based on age (LG vs. HG) and WCST performance [lower vs. higher performance on WCST, defined by the number of completed categories (CC)] Participants in each group were matched according to age, gender, ADHD subtype, and intelligence. We used the Wechsler intelligence Scale for Children 3rd edition to test intelligence and the Computerized Neurocognitive Function Test-IV, which included the WCST, to test EF. Results Comparisons of EFs scores in LG ADHD children showed statistically significant differences in performing digit spans backward, some verbal learning scores, including all memory scores, and Stroop test scores. However, comparisons of EF scores in HG ADHD children did not show any statistically significant differences. Correlation analyses of the CC and EF variables and stepwise multiple regression analysis in LG ADHD children showed a combination of the backward form of the Digit span test and Visual span test in lower-performance ADHD participants significantly predicted the number of CC (R2=0.273, p<0.001). Conclusion This study suggests that the design of any battery of neuropsychological tests for measuring EF in ADHD children should first consider age before interpreting developmental variations and neuropsychological test results. Researchers should consider the dynamics of relationships within EF, as measured by neuropsychological tests. PMID:20927306

  14. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  15. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  16. ADHD and growth: questions still unanswered.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Kuzelova, Hana; Stefano, George B; Raboch, Jirí; Kream, Richard M; Goetz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorders. It is manifested in every part of an affected child's behavior, with multiple symptomatology and heterogenous etiology. Published studies report that ADHD children may show changes in growth and development. Most of the studies on ADHD have been focused on connections between medication and growth changes and describe growth delays associated with medication. However, recent research results point to the low significance of the changes accompanying pharmacological treatment. Changes in growth may not only be a secondary effect of the treatment, but may also be specific characteristics of ADHD. PMID:24625909

  17. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population

  18. The relationship between ADHD and key cognitive phenotypes is not mediated by shared familial effects with IQ

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A. C.; Rijsdijk, F.; Johnson, K. A.; Andreou, P.; Albrecht, B.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; McLoughlin, G.; Rommelse, N. N. J.; Sergeant, J. A.; Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S.; Uebel, H.; van der Meere, J. J.; Banaschewski, T.; Gill, M.; Manor, I.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Oades, R. D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Steinhausen, H. C.; Faraone, S. V.; Asherson, P.; Kuntsi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Twin and sibling studies have identified specific cognitive phenotypes that may mediate the association between genes and the clinical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with lower IQ scores. We aimed to investigate whether the familial association between measures of cognitive performance and the clinical diagnosis of ADHD is mediated through shared familial influences with IQ. Method Multivariate familial models were run on data from 1265 individuals aged 6–18 years, comprising 920 participants from ADHD sibling pairs and 345 control participants. Cognitive assessments included a four-choice reaction time (RT) task, a go/no-go task, a choice–delay task and an IQ assessment. The analyses focused on the cognitive variables of mean RT (MRT), RT variability (RTV), commission errors (CE), omission errors (OE) and choice impulsivity (CI). Results Significant familial association (rF) was confirmed between cognitive performance and both ADHD (rF=0.41–0.71) and IQ (rF=−0.25 to −0.49). The association between ADHD and cognitive performance was largely independent (80–87%) of any contribution from etiological factors shared with IQ. The exception was for CI, where 49% of the overlap could be accounted for by the familial variance underlying IQ. Conclusions The aetiological factors underlying lower IQ in ADHD seem to be distinct from those between ADHD and RT/error measures. This suggests that lower IQ does not account for the key cognitive impairments observed in ADHD. The results have implications for molecular genetic studies designed to identify genes involved in ADHD. PMID:20522277

  19. Pay attention to impulsivity: modelling low attentive and high impulsive subtypes of adult ADHD in the 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in female rats.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Harte, Michael K; Barnes, Samuel A; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2014-08-01

    Varying levels of attention and impulsivity deficits are core features of the three subtypes of adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, little is known about the neurobiological correlates of these subtypes. Development of a translational animal model is essential to improve our understanding and improve therapeutic strategies. The 5-choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) in rats can be used to examine different forms of attention and impulsivity. Adult rats were trained to pre-set 5C-CPT criterion and subsequently separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, premature responding and response disinhibition in the 5C-CPT. The behavioural subgroups were selected to represent the different subtypes of adult ADHD. Consequently, effects of the clinically used pharmacotherapies (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) were assessed in the different subgroups. Four subgroups were identified: low-attentive (LA), high-attentive (HA), high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI). Methylphenidate and atomoxetine produced differential effects in the subgroups. Methylphenidate increased sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced premature responding in HI animals. Atomoxetine also improved sustained attention and vigilance in LA animals, and reduced response disinhibition and premature responding in HI animals. This is the first study using adult rats to demonstrate the translational value of the 5C-CPT to select subgroups of rats, which may be used to model the subtypes observed in adult ADHD. Our findings suggest that this as an important paradigm to increase our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of adult ADHD-subtypes and their response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:24882551

  20. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  1. Vigilance and Sustained Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Walitza, Susanne; Sontag, Thomas A.; Laufkotter, Rainer; Linder, Martin; Lange, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present article tests the hypothesis of a sustained attention deficit in children and adults suffering from ADHD. Method: Vigilance and sustained attention of 52 children with ADHD and 38 adults with ADHD were assessed using a computerized vigilance task. Furthermore, the attentional performance of healthy children (N = 52) and…

  2. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  3. Gifted Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    This digest summarizes what is known about gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It identifies three subtypes of ADHD, noting both criteria for diagnosis and the subjective determination of what constitutes significant impairment. Discussion of differences in gifted and non-gifted children with ADHD reports findings…

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  5. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  6. Language Characteristics of Children with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Okmi H.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2000-01-01

    Language characteristics of 11 children (ages 6-8) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 typically developing children were compared for semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language skills. Findings indicated no differences on receptive vocabulary, but children with ADHD performed worse on tests of expressive speech and…

  7. A Hybrid Actuation System Demonstrating Significantly Enhanced Electromechanical Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Xu, Tian-Bing; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) utilizing advantages of a combination of electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer (EAP), an electrostrictive copolymer, and an electroactive ceramic single crystal, PZN-PT single crystal, has been developed. The system employs the contribution of the actuation elements cooperatively and exhibits a significantly enhanced electromechanical performance compared to the performances of the device made of each constituting material, the electroactive polymer or the ceramic single crystal, individually. The theoretical modeling of the performances of the HYBAS is in good agreement with experimental observation. The consistence between the theoretical modeling and experimental test make the design concept an effective route for the development of high performance actuating devices for many applications. The theoretical modeling, fabrication of the HYBAS and the initial experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Newcorn, J.H.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Telang, F.; Folwer, J.S.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Klein, N.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-08-17

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [{sup 11}C]raclopride and [{sup 11}C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11 {+-} 5 vs 14 {+-} 3, P < 0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r = 0.39, P < 0.008; midbrain: r = 0.41, P < 0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r = 0.35, P < 0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor - and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD.

  9. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown. PMID:20452044

  10. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Olfactory Performance and Significance of Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Klötze, Paula; Gerber, Friederike; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents’ olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants. PMID:27332887

  11. A Review of Non-Medication Interventions to Improve the Academic Performance of Children and Youth with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for academic failure. Although studies have evaluated the effects of medication on academic outcomes, the literature on non-medication interventions has not received equal attention. This review examined 41 studies that evaluated the impact of non-medication interventions on…

  12. A comparative study of the effects of ABT-418 and methylphenidate on spatial memory in an animal model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianyou; Yang, Chuang; Guo, Lanting; Liu, Kezhi

    2012-10-18

    Impaired learning performance in scholastic settings is a characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our present study compares the effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, ABT-418, and methylphenidate (MPH) on spatial memory in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. Neither chronic administration of ABT-418 nor MPH affected the learning performance during training in the Morris water maze. However, both compounds significantly improved memory. SHRs treated with a combination of the compounds did not perform better than either drug alone. Furthermore, the cortical α4 and β2 nAChR subunits and the hippocampal α4 subunit expression were significantly enhanced by ABT-418 treatments. Collectively, these results suggest that ABT-418 effectively improved spatial memory in an animal model of ADHD, providing a theoretical foundation for the use of a nAChR agonist in ADHD treatment. PMID:22985505

  13. Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Gormley, Matthew J; Laracy, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) can co-occur for a significant minority of children with each disorder. A total of 17 studies (2001-2011) examining ADHD-LD comorbidity were reviewed, revealing a higher mean comorbidity rate (45.1%) than has been obtained previously. Higher comorbidity may be the result of including students with writing disorders, not just reading and/or math disabilities. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for both disorders will likely affect comorbidity rates; however, it is unclear whether such rates will increase or decrease. Regardless of the specific impact of DSM revisions, academic skill and/or performance deficits should be assessed for students with ADHD as part of screening, comprehensive evaluation, and treatment monitoring. Comprehensive intervention services for students with comorbid ADHD and LD will require empirically supported treatment strategies that address both disorders and that are implemented across school and home settings. PMID:23144063

  14. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  15. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving. PMID:20380911

  16. Extended Time Accommodations and the Mathematics Performance of Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Parolin, Rosanne; Gordon, Michael; Codding, Robin S.

    2007-01-01

    Test accommodations such as extended time are presumed to reduce the impact of a disability, while not affecting test scores of the general population. This study examined the effects of an extended time (time and one-half) accommodation on the mathematics performance of fifth- to seventh-grade students with and without attention deficit…

  17. Topological organization of the “small-world” visual attention network in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shugao; Foxe, John J.; Sroubek, Ariane E.; Branch, Craig; Li, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. Disrupted sustained attention is one of the most significant behavioral impairments in this disorder. We mapped systems-level topological properties of the neural network responsible for sustained attention during a visual sustained task, on the premise that strong associations between anomalies in network features and clinical measures of ADHD would emerge. Methods: Graph theoretic techniques (GTT) and bivariate network-based statistics (NBS) were applied to fMRI data from 22 children with ADHD combined-type and 22 age-matched neurotypicals, to evaluate the topological and nodal-pairing features in the functional brain networks. Correlation testing for relationships between network properties and clinical measures were then performed. Results: The visual attention network showed significantly reduced local-efficiency and nodal-efficiency in frontal and occipital regions in ADHD. Measures of degree and between-centrality pointed to hyper-functioning in anterior cingulate cortex and hypo-functioning in orbito-frontal, middle-occipital, superior-temporal, supra-central, and supra-marginal gyri in ADHD. NBS demonstrated significantly reduced pair-wise connectivity in an inner-network, encompassing right parietal and temporal lobes and left occipital lobe, in the ADHD group. Conclusions: These data suggest that atypical topological features of the visual attention network contribute to classic ADHD symptomatology, and may underlie the inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity that are characteristics of this syndrome. PMID:24688465

  18. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  19. Enlarged striatal volume in adults with ADHD carrying the 9-6 haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene DAT1.

    PubMed

    Onnink, A Marten H; Franke, Barbara; van Hulzen, Kimm; Zwiers, Marcel P; Mostert, Jeanette C; Schene, Aart H; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis C; Buitelaar, Jan; Hoogman, Martine

    2016-08-01

    The dopamine transporter gene, DAT1 (SLC6A3), has been studied extensively as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different alleles of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in this gene have been associated with childhood ADHD (10/10 genotype and haplotype 10-6) and adult ADHD (haplotype 9-6). This suggests a differential association depending on age, and a role of DAT1 in modulating the ADHD phenotype over the lifespan. The DAT1 gene may mediate susceptibility to ADHD through effects on striatal volumes, where it is most highly expressed. In an attempt to clarify its mode of action, we examined the effect of three DAT1 alleles (10/10 genotype, and the haplotypes 10-6 and 9-6) on bilateral striatal volumes (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans using automated tissue segmentation. Analyses were performed separately in three cohorts with cross-sectional MRI data, a childhood/adolescent sample (NeuroIMAGE, 301 patients with ADHD and 186 healthy participants) and two adult samples (IMpACT, 118 patients with ADHD and 111 healthy participants; BIG, 1718 healthy participants). Regression analyses revealed that in the IMpACT cohort, and not in the other cohorts, carriers of the DAT1 adult ADHD risk haplotype 9-6 had 5.9 % larger striatum volume relative to participants not carrying this haplotype. This effect varied by diagnostic status, with the risk haplotype affecting striatal volumes only in patients with ADHD. An explorative analysis in the cohorts combined (N = 2434) showed a significant gene-by-diagnosis-by-age interaction suggesting that carriership of the 9-6 haplotype predisposes to a slower age-related decay of striatal volume specific to the patient group. This study emphasizes the need of a lifespan approach in genetic studies of ADHD. PMID:26935821

  20. Leukoaraiosis Significantly Worsens Driving Performance of Ordinary Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rencheng; Fang, Fang; Ohori, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroki; Kumagai, Yasuhiho; Okada, Hiroshi; Teramura, Kazuhiko; Nakayama, Satoshi; Irimajiri, Akinori; Taoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. Method This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. Results The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. Conclusions Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction. PMID:25295736

  1. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. Method A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. Results ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. Conclusion It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. PMID:26811680

  2. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  3. A new rating scale for adult ADHD based on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90-R).

    PubMed

    Eich, Dominique; Angst, Jules; Frei, Anja; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Gamma, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is increasingly recognized as a clinically important syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric performance of a new scale for adult ADHD based on the widely used Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). Scale performance was assessed in a clinical study including 100 ADHD patients and 65 opiate-dependent patient controls, and in the Zurich study, an epidemiological age cohort followed over 30 years of adult life. Assessments included a ROC analysis of sensitivity and specificity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, external validity and measurement invariance over nine testing occasions. The new scale showed a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 54%, respectively, internal consistency over 0.8 (McDonald's omega, Cronbach's alpha), one-year test-retest reliabilities over 0.7, statistically significant and substantial correlations with two other validated self-rating scales of adult ADHD (R = 0.5 and 0.66, respectively), and an acceptable degree of longitudinal stability (i.e., measurement invariance). The proposed scale must be further evaluated, but these preliminary results indicate it could be a useful rating instrument for adult ADHD in situations where SCL-90-R data, but no specific ADHD assessment, are available, such as in retrospective data analysis or in prospective studies with limited methodical resources. PMID:22212725

  4. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  5. Evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Smucker, W D; Hedayat, M

    2001-09-01

    Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychologic conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. The stimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine remain the pharmacologic agents of first choice for the management of ADHD. These agents are equally effective in improving the core symptoms of the disorder, but individual children may respond better to one stimulant medication than to another. Achievement of maximal benefit may require titration of the initial dosage and dosing before breakfast, before lunch and in the afternoon. The family physician should tailor the treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child and family. Psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in the child with ADHD. PMID:11563573

  6. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  7. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem . About 15% to 20% of kids with ADHD ... art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous continue Alternative Treatments The only ADHD therapies ...

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback as a treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Anna-Maria; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Furdea, Adrian; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Gevensleben, Holger; Freitag, Christine M.; Fuchsenberger, Yvonne; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Strehl, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP) and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus). The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS), to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG) or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG). In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7–10 years, took part. Changes in parents’ ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents’ and teachers’ ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens’ self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents’ ratings. In teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training. The performance in the computer based attention test improved significantly. Within-group comparisons after 12 sessions of NIRS-, EEG- and EMG-training revealed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in the NIRS-group and a trend for EEG- and EMG-groups. No significant differences for symptom reduction were found between the groups. Despite the limitations of small groups and the comparison of a completed with two uncompleted interventions, the results of this pilot study are promising. NIRS-neurofeedback could be a time-effective treatment for ADHD and an

  9. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  10. Executive Cognitive Dysfunction and ADHD in Cocaine Dependence: Searching for a Common Cognitive Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Ometto, Mariella; dos Santos, Bernardo; Nicastri, Sergio; Busatto, Geraldo F.; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) present executive cognitive function (ECF) deficits, but the impact of psychiatric comorbidities such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on neuropsychological functioning is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if CDI with ADHD (CDI + ADHD) would have a distinct pattern of executive functioning when compared with CDI without ADHD (CDI). Methods: We evaluated 101 adults, including 69 cocaine-dependent subjects (divided in CDI and CDI + ADHD) and 32 controls. ECF domains were assessed with Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were used for diagnosis and previous ADHD symptoms (in the childhood) were retrospectively assessed by the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Results: There were no significant differences between CDI + ADHD, CDI, and controls in estimated intellectual quotient (IQ), socioeconomic background, education (in years), and pre-morbid IQ (p > 0.05). SCWT and WCST scores did not differ across groups (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, CDI and CDI + ADHD performed more poorly than controls in total score of the FAB (p < 0.05). Also, CDI + ADHD did worse than CDI on DF (F = 4.756, p = 0.011), DB (F = 8.037, p = 0.001), Conceptualization/FAB (F = 4.635, p = 0.012), and Mental flexibility/FAB (F = 3.678, p = 0.029). We did not find correlations between cocaine-use variables and neuropsychological functioning, but previous ADHD symptoms assessed by WURS were negatively associated with DF (p = 0.016) and with the total score of the FAB (p = 0.017). Conclusion: CDI + ADHD presented more pronounced executive alterations than CDI and CDI exhibited poorer cognitive functioning than controls. Pre-existing ADHD symptoms may have a significant negative impact on

  11. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  12. Significant improvements in long trace profiler measurement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Bresloff, C.J.

    1996-07-01

    A Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical efforts and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-}0.1{degrees}C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. We illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500mm, trace length. We are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500mm long trace length, and we are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 run.

  13. Significant improvements in Long Trace Profiler measurement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Bresloff, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument. The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical errors and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-} 0.1 C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. The authors illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500 mm trace length. They are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500 mm long trace length, and they are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200 mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 nm.

  14. The relationship of self-reported subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms and impulsivity among adults with AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Brown, Franklin C; Katz, Lynda J; Roth, Robert M; Beers, Sue R

    2014-04-30

    This study examined the degree to which subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms (SOCS) among individuals with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) were associated with response inhibition difficulties on a performance-based test. Participants consisted of 64 adults with AD/HD who completed the Conner׳s Continuous Performance Test, Second Edition (CPT-II), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (ADD Scale). Individuals with higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale from the SCL-90-R made significantly more commission errors on the CPT-II; whereas other SCL-90-R scores did not demonstrate such a relationship. We did not find that SOCS were related to severity of AD/HD. These results supported the hypothesis that individuals with AD/HD with response inhibition difficulties tend to report more subclinical obsessive symptoms. PMID:24556290

  15. Cerebellar Symptoms Are Associated With Omission Errors and Variability of Response Time in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Michal; Schwabova, Jaroslava; Hlavka, Zdenek; Ptacek, Radek; Zumrova, Alena; Hort, Vladimír; Doyle, Robert

    2014-01-10

    Objective: We examined the presence of cerebellar symptoms in ADHD and their association with behavioral markers of this disorder. Method: Sixty-two children with ADHD and 62 typically developing (TD) children were examined for cerebellar symptoms using the ataxia rating scale and tested using Conners' Continuous Performance Test. Results: Children with ADHD had significantly more cerebellar symptoms compared with the TD children. Cerebellar symptom scores decreased with age in the ADHD group; in the TD group remained stable. In both groups, cerebellar symptoms were associated with parent-rated hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, variability of response time standard error (RT-SE) and increase of RT-SE as the test progresses. More variables were associated with cerebellar symptoms in the ADHD group including omission errors, overall RT-SE and its increase for prolonged interstimulus intervals. Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of research into motor functions in children with ADHD and indicate a role for cerebellar impairment in this disorder. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:24412970

  16. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  17. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  18. Characterising resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Shumskaya, Elena; Mennes, Maarten; Onnink, A Marten H; Hoogman, Martine; Kan, Cornelis C; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Norris, David G

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood psychiatric disorder that often persists into adulthood. While several studies have identified altered functional connectivity in brain networks during rest in children with ADHD, few studies have been performed on adults with ADHD. Existing studies have generally investigated small samples. We therefore investigated aberrant functional connectivity in a large sample of adult patients with childhood-onset ADHD, using a data-driven, whole-brain approach. Adults with a clinical ADHD diagnosis (N=99) and healthy, adult comparison subjects (N=113) underwent a 9-minute resting-state fMRI session in a 1.5T MRI scanner. After elaborate preprocessing including a thorough head-motion correction procedure, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied from which we identified six networks of interest: cerebellum, executive control, left and right frontoparietal and two default-mode networks. Participant-level network maps were obtained using dual-regression and tested for differences between patients with ADHD and controls using permutation testing. Patients showed significantly stronger connectivity in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the executive control network. Trends were also observed for stronger connectivity in the cerebellum network in ADHD patients compared to controls. However, there was considerable overlap in connectivity values between patients and controls, leading to relatively low effect sizes despite the large sample size. These effect sizes were slightly larger when testing for correlations between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and connectivity strength in the executive control and cerebellum networks. This study provides important insights for studies on the neurobiology of adult ADHD; it shows that resting-state functional connectivity differences between adult patients and controls exist, but have smaller effect sizes than existing literature suggested. PMID:26825495

  19. Event-related brain potentials, bilateral electrodermal activity and Mangina-Test performance in learning disabled/ADHD pre-adolescents with severe behavioral disorders as compared to age-matched normal controls.

    PubMed

    Mangina, C A; Beuzeron-Mangina, J H; Grizenko, N

    2000-07-01

    The most frequently encountered developmental problems of learning disabilities/ADHD often co-exist with severe behavioral disorders. As a direct consequence, this condition opens the way to delinquency, school drop-out, depression, suicide, substance abuse, work absenteeism, and other psycho-social complications. In this paper, we are presenting a selective overview of our previous research and its clinical applications in this field as it relates to our present research data pertaining to the effects of our original Memory Workload Paradigm on the event-related brain potentials in differentiating normal and pathological pre-adolescents (learning disabled/ADHD with concomitant severe behavioral disorders such as oppositional and conduct). In addition, it provides data on the bilateral electrodermal activity during cognitive workload and Mangina-Test performance of pathological and normal pre-adolescents conducted in separate sessions. The results of our present research indicate that a significant memory load effect for the P450 latency (F(3,27)=4.98, P<0.01) and the P450 amplitude (F(3,27)=3.57, P<0.05) was present for normal pre-adolescents which was absent in pathological pre-adolescents. Moreover, enhanced N450 ERP amplitudes to our Memory Workload Paradigm in pre-frontal and frontal regions clearly differentiated normal from pathological pre-adolescents (F(1, 18)=12.21, P<0.004). Furthermore, significant differences between normal and pathological groups were found in bilateral electrodermal activity (F(1,18)=23.86, P<0.001) and on the Mangina-Test performance (F(1,18)=75.35, P<0.001). Our present research findings provide an original and valuable demonstration of an integrative and effective clinical psychophysiological application of central (ERPs), autonomic (bilateral electrodermal activity) and neuro-psychometric aspects (Mangina-Test) which characterize normal and pathological pre-adolescents and underpin the neurophysiological basis of learning

  20. How 'core' are motor timing difficulties in ADHD? A latent class comparison of pure and comorbid ADHD classes.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Hartman, Catharina A; Thissen, Andrieke J A M; Oerlemans, Anoek M; Luman, Marjolein; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2016-04-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have motor timing difficulties. This study examined whether affected motor timing accuracy and variability are specific for ADHD, or that comorbidity with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) contributes to these motor timing difficulties. An 80-trial motor timing task measuring accuracy (μ), variability (σ) and infrequent long response times (τ) in estimating a 1-s interval was administered to 283 children and adolescents (8-17 years) from both a clinic and population based sample. They were divided into four latent classes based on the SCQ and CPRS-R:L data. These classes were: without behavioral problems 'Normal-class' (n = 154), with only ADHD symptoms 'ADHD-class' (n = 49), and two classes with both ASD and ADHD symptoms; ADHD(+ASD)-class (n = 39) and ASD(+ADHD)-class (n = 41). The pure ADHD-class did not deviate from the Normal class on any of the motor timing measures (mean RTs 916 and 925 ms, respectively). The comorbid ADHD(+ASD) and ASD(+ADHD) classes were significantly less accurate (more time underestimations) compared to the Normal class (mean RTs 847 and 870 ms, respectively). Variability in motor timing was reduced in the younger children in the ADHD(+ASD) class, which may reflect a tendency to rush the tedious task. Only patients with more severe behavioral symptoms show motor timing deficiencies. This cannot merely be explained by high ADHD severity with ASD playing no role, as ADHD symptom severity in the pure ADHD-class and the ASD(+ADHD) class was highly similar, with the former class showing no motor timing deficits. PMID:26154019

  1. S-index: Measuring significant, not average, citation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2009-03-01

    We recently [1] introduced the ``citation density curve'' (or cumulative impact factor curve) that captures the full citation performance of a journal: its size, impact factor, the maximum number of citations per paper, the relative size of the different-cited portions of the journal, etc. The citation density curve displays a universal behavior across journals. We exploit this universality to extract a simple metric (the ``S-index'') to characterize the citation impact of ``significant'' papers in each journal. In doing so, we go beyond the journal impact factor, which only measures the impact of the average paper. The conventional wisdom of ranking journals according to their impact factors is thus challenged. Having shown the utility and robustness of the S-index in comparing and ranking journals of different sizes but within the same field, we explore the concept further, going beyond a single field, and beyond journals. Can we compare different scientific fields, departments, or universities? And how should one generalize the citation density curve and the S-index to address these questions? [1] M. Antonoyiannakis and S. Mitra, ``Is PRL too large to have an `impact'?'', Editorial, Physical Review Letters, December 2008.

  2. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

  3. Absence of the 7-repeat variant of the DRD4 VNTR is associated with drifting sustained attention in children with ADHD but not in controls.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A; Kelly, Simon P; Robertson, Ian H; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Daly, Michael; Lambert, David; McDonnell, Caroline; Connor, Thomas J; Hawi, Ziarih; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    Many genetic studies have demonstrated an association between the 7-repeat (7r) allele of a 48-base pair variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3 of the DRD4 gene and the phenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations between the 7r allele and neurocognitive performance in children with ADHD. We investigated the performance of 128 children with and without ADHD on the Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). We employed time-series analyses of reaction-time data to allow a fine-grained analysis of reaction time variability, a candidate endophenotype for ADHD. Children were grouped into either the 7r-present group (possessing at least one copy of the 7r allele) or the 7r-absent group. The ADHD group made significantly more commission errors and was significantly more variable in RT in terms of fast moment-to-moment variability than the control group, but no effect of genotype was found on these measures. Children with ADHD without the 7r allele made significantly more omission errors, were significantly more variable in the slow frequency domain and showed less sensitivity to the signal (d') than those children with ADHD the 7r and control children with or without the 7r. These results highlight the utility of time-series analyses of reaction time data for delineating the neuropsychological deficits associated with ADHD and the DRD4 VNTR. Absence of the 7-repeat allele in children with ADHD is associated with a neurocognitive profile of drifting sustained attention that gives rise to variable and inconsistent performance. PMID:18361436

  4. Amplitude variability over trials in hemodynamic responses in adolescents with ADHD: The role of the anterior default mode network and the non-specific role of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Eichele, T; van Wageningen, H; Plessen, K J; Stevens, M C

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance on attention and other cognitive tasks might be a cognitive endophenotype in individuals with ADHD. Despite robust IIV findings in behavioral data, only sparse data exist on how what type of brain dysfunction underlies variable response times. In this study, we asked whether ADHD IIV in reaction time on a commonly-used test of attention might be related to variation in hemodynamic responses (HRs) observed trial-to-trial. Based on previous studies linking IIV to regions within the "default mode" network (DMN), we predicted that adolescents with ADHD would have higher HR variability in the DMN compared with controls, and this in turn would be related to behavioral IIV. We also explored the influence of social anxiety on HR variability in ADHD as means to test whether higher arousal associated with high trait anxiety would affect the neural abnormalities. We assessed single-trial variability of HRs, estimated from fMRI event-related responses elicited during an auditory oddball paradigm in adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls (11-18 years old; N = 46). Adolescents with ADHD had higher HR variability compared with controls in anterior regions of the DMN. This effect was specific to ADHD and not associated with traits of age, IQ and anxiety. However, an ADHD effect of higher HR variability also appeared in a basal ganglia network, but for these brain regions the relationships of HR variability and social anxiety levels were more complex. Performance IIV correlated significantly with variability of HRs in both networks. These results suggest that assessment of trial-to-trial HR variability in ADHD provides information beyond that detectable through analysis of behavioral data and average brain activation levels, revealing specific neural correlates of a possible ADHD IIV endophenotype. PMID:27622136

  5. College Students with and without ADHD: Comparison of Self-Report of Medication Usage, Study Habits, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…

  6. Underarousal in Adult ADHD: How Are Peripheral and Cortical Arousal Related?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah Nicole; Strehl, Ute

    2016-07-01

    In children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a general slowing of spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity and a decrease of event-related potential amplitudes such as the contingent negative variation (CNV) are observed. Additionally, some studies have reported decreased skin conductance level (SCL) in this clinical population leading to the hypothesis of a peripheral hypoarousal, which may be a target of biofeedback treatment in addition to or instead of neurofeedback. To our knowledge, the relationship between SCL and CNV has not been simultaneously investigated in one experiment. Using the theoretical background of the hypoarousal model, this article aims to gain more insight into the differences and correlations of cortical (CNV) and peripheral (SCL) arousal in adults with ADHD. A sample of 23 adults with ADHD and 22 healthy controls underwent an auditory Go-NoGo task with simultaneous 22-channel EEG and SCL recordings. Reaction time (RT) and reaction time variability (RTV) were also measured to assess task performance. Significantly decreased CNV amplitude and significantly higher RTV were observed in the ADHD group, reflecting cortical underarousal and problems with sustained attention. No significant correlation between peripheral underarousal and cortical underarousal was observed in the ADHD group or the control group. The observed cortical underarousal reflected in the decreased CNV supports the notion of a reduced CNV amplitude as a possible biomarker for ADHD. However, the connection between cortical and peripheral arousal is not as clear as is suggested in previous research investigating both separately. Implications of these results for new treatment options for ADHD such as biofeedback are discussed. PMID:25802473

  7. Inflammation: good or bad for ADHD?

    PubMed

    Donev, Rossen; Thome, Johannes

    2010-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by the typical behavioural core symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD is a usually chronic health conditions, mostly diagnosed in childhood, creating a significant challenge for youth, their families and professionals who treat it. This disorder requires long-term treatments, including psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions, which in some cases may lead to adverse effects. Understanding the mechanism by which ADHD risk factors affect the biochemical processes in the human brain and consequentially the behaviour will help to identify novel targets for the development of therapeutics with less adverse results and better efficacy including higher responder rates. Although inflammatory responses in the brain have been recognised for years as critical in neurodegeneration and behaviour in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, their role for the development, treatment and prevention of ADHD has been so far largely overlooked, although historically, ADHD symptoms were initially observed in patients who survived an ONJ infection, i.e. inflammation. In this review, we discuss the interrelationship between different ADHD risk factors and inflammation with respect to the triggered molecular mechanisms and the contribution they are likely to have to this disorder. This paper provides a rationale for future studies on ADHD with an intent to inspiring the development of new agents for a more efficient management of this disorder. PMID:21432611

  8. Global consensus on ADHD/HKD.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut

    2005-05-01

    A Global ADHD Working Group of experienced clinicians and researchers was gathered to review the latest evidence, discuss current best practice in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and make a statement based on consensus. The statement aims to re-affirm ADHD as a valid disorder that exists across different cultures, has a significant global impact, and should be diagnosed and effectively treated wherever it occurs. ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders of childhood and impacts on many aspects of development, including social, emotional and cognitive functioning, in the home and school environment. Although these findings are from developed countries, the impact in developing countries is likely to be similar. There is strong supportive evidence for the validity of ADHD as a syndrome with neurobiological aspects, and complex genetic factors are primarily implicated in the aetiology. Accurate diagnosis and measurement of impairment is important to enable appropriate and successful management of symptoms. ADHD is a persistent condition that needs to be treated and monitored over time. The evidence supporting medication-based interventions (such as methylphenidate) is strong and consensus treatment algorithms to guide the multimodal treatment of ADHD, alone and in combination with common comorbidities, are suggested. PMID:15959658

  9. Toward a better understanding of ADHD: LPHN3 gene variants and the susceptibility to develop ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    During the past 15 years, an impressive amount of genetic information has become available in the research field of psychiatry, particularly as it relates to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the classical clinical approach to ADHD has minimally affected and not significantly been improved by this genetic revolution. It is difficult to predict how long it will take for genetic findings to alter the way clinicians treat patients with ADHD. New medications or treatment protocols may take years to become routine clinical practice. However, when taken together, recent successes in genomics, pharmacogenomics, and genetic epidemiology have the potential (1) to prevent comorbid consequences of ADHD, (2) to individualize therapies for patients with ADHD, and (3) to define new epidemiological policies to aid with the impact of ADHD on society. Here, we present an overview of how genetic research may affect and improve the quality of life of patients with ADHD: as an example, we use the discovery of LPHN3, a new gene in which variants have recently been shown to be associated with ADHD. PMID:21432600

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers.

    PubMed

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as "cognitive enhancers."Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve "attention," produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote "risky behavior" and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the "real world," despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  11. A Pilot Study of Stimulant Medication for Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Who Are Parents of Adolescents with ADHD: The Acute Effects of Stimulant Medication on Observed Parent–Adolescent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Humphrey, Hugh; Alfonso, Alexandra; Crum, Kathleen I.; Bernstein, Melissa; Slavec, Janine; Augustus, Junea N.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study explores the use of stimulant medication for parents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who also have adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Five parents, diagnosed with ADHD, had their dose of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) titrated to optimal effect. Next, parents and their adolescents completed two interactions, once when parents were on placebo and once when parents were on optimal dose of LDX, to assess acute effects of parental medication on parenting during a neutral discussion (NeuDiss), a problem discussion (ProbDiss), and a homework task (HW). Results: Parents demonstrated a significant decrease in the ratio of commands to total verbalizations during the NeuDiss on LDX compared with placebo. Although no other statistically significant effects emerged at the p<0.05 level, moderate to large effects of medication on some aspects of parenting related to the amount and timing of speech (i.e., total verbalizations, total commands, ratio of commands to total verbalizations, and responsiveness) emerged and varied by task. Parental stimulant medication did not appear to impact the content of parents' speech (i.e., use of negative talk or praise). Conclusions: These results add to a growing literature suggesting that treatment for parental ADHD may impact parenting performance, and suggest that attention to parental ADHD in treatment for adolescents with ADHD may possibly enhance family functioning. PMID:25386742

  12. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task.

    PubMed

    Rosetti, Marcos F; Ulloa, Rosa E; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; de la Peña, Francisco; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologically based ball-search field task (BSFT), which required them to locate and collect golf balls in a large outdoor area. Children of both groups enjoyed the task and were motivated to participate in it. However, performance showed that ADHD-diagnosed subjects were significantly less efficient in their searching. We suggest that the BSFT provides a promising basis for developing more complex ecologically-derived tests that might help to better identify particular cognitive processes and impairments associated with ADHD. PMID:26805450

  13. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task

    PubMed Central

    Rosetti, Marcos F.; Ulloa, Rosa E.; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L.; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; de la Peña, Francisco; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologically based ball-search field task (BSFT), which required them to locate and collect golf balls in a large outdoor area. Children of both groups enjoyed the task and were motivated to participate in it. However, performance showed that ADHD-diagnosed subjects were significantly less efficient in their searching. We suggest that the BSFT provides a promising basis for developing more complex ecologically-derived tests that might help to better identify particular cognitive processes and impairments associated with ADHD. PMID:26805450

  14. Good Vibrations – Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Attention in Healthy Individuals and Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. PMID:24587412

  15. Pharmacotherapy for adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 medications, atomoxetine and the extended-release formulations of amphetamine salts and dexmethylphenidate, for the treatment of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Different formulations of the same drugs, as well as other agents and cognitive-behavioral therapy, have been tested to determine efficacy in ADHD alone and in ADHD with comorbid substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. A deficit in research exists in regard to these comorbidities in adults with ADHD. PMID:19552859

  16. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5-10 at Wave 1, 7-12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child's baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child's age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775

  17. Managing the risks of ADHD treatments.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin N; Enenbach, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-established and effective treatment modality. However, ADHD medications are not without side effects. Understanding the prevalence of adverse events and effective management of risks associated with stimulants and other medications used to treat ADHD is central to broad applicability and effective treatment. This review discusses the literature on the prevalence of adverse events and management strategies employed. We searched online MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles using several keywords relating to adverse events associated with ADHD medication management. We discuss the relevant data on the significance and prevalence of side effects and adverse events, highlight recent updates in the field, and suggest approaches to clinical management. PMID:25135779

  18. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children’s development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge. PMID:22642834

  19. Impaired response inhibition is associated with self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD in female FMR1 premutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Kraan, Claudine M; Hocking, Darren R; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Archibald, Alison D; Fielding, Joanne; Trollor, Julian; Bradshaw, John L; Cohen, Jonathan; Cornish, Kim M

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation carriers (PM-carriers) have a defective trinucleotide expansion on the FMR1 gene that is associated with continuum of neuropsychological and mental disorders. Currently, little is known about the distinct subcomponents of executive function potentially impaired in female PM-carriers, and there have been no investigations into associations between executive function and incidences of mental disorders. A total of 35 female PM-carriers confirmed by Asuragen triple primed PCR DNA testing and 35 age- and intelligence-matched controls completed tests of executive function (i.e., response inhibition and working memory) and self-reported on social anxiety, depression, and ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) symptoms. Compared to controls, PM-carriers were significantly elevated on self-reported social anxiety and ADHD-PI symptoms. Irrespective of mental symptoms, female PM-carries performed significantly worse than controls on a response inhibition test, and further investigations revealed significant correlations between executive function performance and self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression and ADHD-PI. Critically, among PM-carriers with good executive function performance, no women exceeded threshold markers for probable caseness of mental disorder. However, rates of probable caseness were elevated in those with average performance (response inhibition: social anxiety: 41.7%; depression: 20%; ADHD: 44.4%; working memory: social anxiety: 27.3%; depression: 9.1%; ADHD: 18.2%) and highly elevated for those with poor executive function performance (response inhibition: social anxiety: 58.3%; depression: 80%; ADHD: 55.6%; working memory: social anxiety: 100%; depression: 50%; ADHD: 83.3%). These data suggest that subtle executive dysfunction may be a useful neuropsychological indicator for a range of mental disorders previously reported in female PM-carriers. PMID:24166828

  20. Nova Scotia Teachers' ADHD Knowledge, Beliefs, and Classroom Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotnicky-Gallant, Pamela; Martin, Cheron; McGonnell, Melissa; Corkum, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on children's social, emotional, and academic performance in school, and as such, teachers are in a good position to provide evidence-based interventions to help ensure optimal adjustment of their students. The current study examined teachers' knowledge and beliefs…

  1. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  2. Serious transport accidents in adults with ADHD, and the effect of medication: A population based study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Importance Studies have shown that Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with transport accidents, but the magnitude of the association remains unclear. Importantly, it is also unclear whether ADHD medication reduces this risk. Objective First, to estimate the association between ADHD and the risk of serious transport accidents. Second, to explore the extent to which ADHD medication influences this risk among ADHD patients. Design, Setting, and Participants 17,408 patients with a diagnosis of ADHD were followed from 2006 to 2009 for serious transport accidents in Swedish national registers. The association between ADHD and accidents was estimated with Cox regression. To study the effect of ADHD medication, we used stratified Cox regression to compare the risk of accidents during medication period with the risk during non-medication period within the same patients. Main Outcome and Measure Serious transport accident, identified as admission to an emergency hospital care or death due to transport accident. Results Compared with individuals without ADHD, male ADHD patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] =1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–1.63) and female ADHD patients (HR=1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.71) had increased risk of serious transport accidents. In male ADHD patients, ADHD medication was associated with a 58% risk reduction (HR=0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.75), but there was no significant association in female patients. Estimates of the population attributable fractions suggested that 41% – 49% of the accidents in male patients with ADHD could have been avoided if they had been on treatment the entire follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance ADHD is associated with an increased risk of serious transport accidents, and this risk seems to be possibly reduced by ADHD medication, at least among male ADHD patients. This should lead to increased awareness of the association between serious transport accidents and ADHD medication among clinicians and

  3. Two forms of implicit learning in childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Kelly Anne; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.; Kenealy, Laura; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity mediated by frontal-striatal-cerebellar dysfunction. These circuits support implicit learning of perceptual-motor sequences but not visual-spatial context. ADHD and control children performed the Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task, a measure of sequence learning, and the Contextual Cueing (CC) task, a measure of spatial contextual learning. Relative to controls, children with ADHD showed inconsistent ASRT learning but did not differ on CC learning. Thus, implicit sequence learning, a cognitive process mediated by frontal-striatal-cerebellar circuitry that is not under executive control, was atypical in ADHD. PMID:20721771

  4. Effect of Backward Walking on Attention: Possible Application on ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Davide; Travaglio, Michele; Cacciola, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The human requires attentive effort as assessed in dual-task experiments. Consistently, an attentive task can modify the walking pattern and a attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by gait modifications. Here we investigated the relationships between backward walking and attentive performances in ADHD children (n=13) and healthy age-, height and weight matched controls (n=17). We evaluated the attentive/impulsive profile by means of a Go/No-Go task and the backward and forward gait parameters by step length, cadence and Froude number. Moreover, to test the causal relationship between attention and gait parameters, we trained children to walk backward. The training program consisted of 10 min backward walking session, thrice a week for two months. Results showed a significant negative correlation between Froude number during backward walking and reaction time in the Go/No-Go test. Besides, after training with backward walking control children increased their cadence by 9.3% and their Froude number by 17% during backward walking. Conversely, ADHD children did not modify their walking parameters after training, and showed a significant reduction in their number of errors in the Go/No-Go task (−49%) compared to the score before the training. These data suggest that specific physical training with attention-demanding tasks may improve attentive performance. PMID:25674550

  5. Effect of backward walking on attention: possible application on ADHD.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Davide; Travaglio, Michele; Cacciola, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The human requires attentive effort as assessed in dual-task experiments. Consistently, an attentive task can modify the walking pattern and a attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by gait modifications. Here we investigated the relationships between backward walking and attentive performances in ADHD children (n=13) and healthy age-, height and weight matched controls (n=17). We evaluated the attentive/impulsive profile by means of a Go/No-Go task and the backward and forward gait parameters by step length, cadence and Froude number. Moreover, to test the causal relationship between attention and gait parameters, we trained children to walk backward. The training program consisted of 10 min backward walking session, thrice a week for two months. Results showed a significant negative correlation between Froude number during backward walking and reaction time in the Go/No-Go test. Besides, after training with backward walking control children increased their cadence by 9.3% and their Froude number by 17% during backward walking. Conversely, ADHD children did not modify their walking parameters after training, and showed a significant reduction in their number of errors in the Go/No-Go task (-49%) compared to the score before the training. These data suggest that specific physical training with attention-demanding tasks may improve attentive performance. PMID:25674550

  6. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  7. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  8. The attention network test: a characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Adólfsdóttir, Steinunn; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2008-01-01

    Background The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. Methods The sample included 157 children (M = 10 years) who performed the child version of ANT as participants of the Bergen Child Study. Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N = 45) were compared to a group of children with other diagnoses (N = 55) and a group of children without any diagnosis (N = 57). Results The group of children with ADHD showed low accuracy scores and a variable response set, indicating an inattentive response style. No differences were found between the groups on RT and accuracy measures of the alerting, orienting, and conflict networks. A high correlation between full scale IQ (FSIQ) and ANT measures was only found in the ADHD group. When FSIQ score was included as a covariate, the group differences were not statistically significant on any ANT measure. Conclusion The present study showed that accuracy and variability measures rather than measures of the three attention networks conveyed the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD. The results emphasized the importance of including these measures to extend the sensitivity of the ANT, and the importance of reporting results both with and without FSIQ as a covariate. PMID:18269768

  9. ADHD and delinquency--a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood. PMID:22371085

  10. Increased ongoing neural variability in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Arazi, Ayelet; Shahar, Nitzan; Karmon, Anat; Haar, Shlomi; Meiran, Nachshon; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-08-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been described as a disorder where frequent lapses of attention impair the ability of an individual to focus/attend in a sustained manner, thereby generating abnormally large intra-individual behavioral variability across trials. Indeed, increased reaction time (RT) variability is a fundamental behavioral characteristic of individuals with ADHD found across a large number of cognitive tasks. But what is the underlying neurophysiology that might generate such behavioral instability? Here, we examined trial-by-trial EEG response variability to visual and auditory stimuli while subjects' attention was diverted to an unrelated task at the fixation cross. Comparisons between adult ADHD and control participants revealed that neural response variability was significantly larger in the ADHD group as compared with the control group in both sensory modalities. Importantly, larger trial-by-trial variability in ADHD was apparent before and after stimulus presentation as well as in trials where the stimulus was omitted, suggesting that ongoing (rather than stimulus-evoked) neural activity is continuously more variable (noisier) in ADHD. While the patho-physiological mechanisms causing this increased neural variability remain unknown, they appear to act continuously rather than being tied to a specific sensory or cognitive process. PMID:27179150

  11. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  12. Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-01-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including…

  13. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  14. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  15. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  16. Developmental context and treatment principles for ADHD among college students.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between 2 and 8 % of college students. ADHD is associated with impaired academic, psychological, and social functioning, and with a wide array of negative outcomes including lower GPAs, graduation rates, and self-reported quality of life. The college environment often brings decreased external structure and increased availability of immediate rewards, presenting added demands for behavioral self--regulation-an area in which students with ADHD are already vulnerable. Despite the significant impact of ADHD in college and the unique challenges presented by the college context, virtually no treatment development research has been conducted with this population. In order to provide a framework to guide intervention development, this comprehensive review integrates research from three key domains that inform treatment for college students with ADHD: (1) functional impairment associated with ADHD among college students, (2) etiology of ADHD and the developmental context for ADHD among emerging adults (age 18-24), and (3) treatment outcome research for ADHD among adolescents and adults. A detailed set of proposed treatment targets and intervention principles are identified, and key challenges associated with treatment development in this population are discussed. PMID:23053445

  17. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  18. Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

  19. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  20. Injury among Stimulant-Treated Youth with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Steven C.; Wan, George J.; Zhang, Huabin F.; Olfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk factors for injury among children and adolescents treated with stimulants for ADHD. Method: An analysis was performed of pharmacy and service claims data from 2000-2003 California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) focusing on children and adolescents ages 6 to 17 years who initiated stimulant therapy for ADHD. Bivariate and…

  1. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  2. Animal models of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  3. Childhood ADHD Potentiates the Association between Problematic Drinking and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with problematic drinking and IPV, but it is unclear whether problem drinkers with ADHD are more likely than those without ADHD to perpetrate IPV. Method We compared the strength of association between problem drinking trajectories and IPV perpetration among 19 to 24 year-old men with (n=241) and without (n=180) childhood ADHD. Results Men with ADHD who reported higher heavy episodic drinking or alcohol use problems at age 19, and slower decreases in alcohol use problems from age 19 to 24, were more likely to perpetrate IPV than problem drinkers without ADHD, among whom the same associations were non-significant. Associations between problem drinking and IPV were not attenuated in adults with ADHD upon controlling for antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion Study findings highlight the heightened risk of problem drinkers with ADHD perpetrating IPV. PMID:25394520

  4. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD: associations with behavioural variability and post-error adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Allen, Elena A.; Eichele, Heike; van Wageningen, Heidi; Høvik, Marie Farstad; Sørensen, Lin; Worren, Marius Kalsås; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Eichele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the blood-oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods We acquired functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8–12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. Results We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions and higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly reduced in children with ADHD. This adaptation was inversely related to activation of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) on error trials and to task-driven connectivity between the cingulo-opercular system and the VAN. Limitations Our study was limited by the modest sample size and imperfect matching across groups. Conclusion Our findings show a deficit in cingulo-opercular activation in children with ADHD that could relate to reduced signalling for errors. Moreover, the reduced orienting of the VAN signal may mediate deficient post-error motor adaptions. Pinpointing general performance monitoring problems to specific brain regions and operations in error processing may help to guide the targets of future treatments for ADHD. PMID:26441332

  5. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (p<.050). Linear regression analyses showed predictive ability of more beneficial OROS-mph effects in ADHD patients with higher EF severity (RTV: β=.670, t=2.097, p=.042; omission errors (OE): β=-.098, t=-4.759, p<.001), and with more severe ADHD symptoms (RTV: F=6.363, p=.019; HRT: F=3.914, p=.061). Side effects rates were substantially but non-significantly greater for OROS-mph compared to placebo (77% vs. 46%, p=.063). OROS-mph effects indicated RTV as the most sensitive parameter for measuring both neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in adults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration. PMID:24508533

  6. Patterns and predictors of ADHD persistence into adulthood: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard A.; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jaeger, Savina; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite growing interest in adult ADHD, little is known about predictors of persistence of childhood cases into adulthood. METHODS A retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD, childhood risk factors, and a screen for adult ADHD were included in a sample of 3197 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Blinded adult ADHD clinical reappraisal interviews were administered to a sub-sample of respondents. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate adult persistence of childhood ADHD. Logistic regression was used to study retrospectively reported childhood predictors of persistence. Potential predictors included socio-demographics, childhood ADHD severity, childhood adversity, traumatic life experiences, and comorbid DSM-IV child-adolescent disorders (anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance disorders). RESULTS 36.3% of respondents with retrospectively assessed childhood ADHD were classified by blinded clinical interviews as meeting DSM-IV criteria for current ADHD. Childhood ADHD severity and childhood treatment significantly predicted persistence. Controlling for severity and excluding treatment, none of the other variables significantly predicted persistence even though they were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. CONCLUSIONS No modifiable risk factors were found for adult persistence of ADHD. Further research, ideally based on prospective general population samples, is needed to search for modifiable determinants of adult persistence of ADHD. PMID:15950019

  7. Medication Adherence in Psychopharmacologically Treated Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safren, Steven A.; Duran, Petra; Yovel, Iftah; Perlman, Carol A.; Sprich, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: One of the potential causes of residual symptoms of ADHD in adults can be difficulties with consistent adherence to medications. Method: This formative study examined self-reported medication adherence in adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms despite medication treatment. Results: Mean adherence for the two-week period…

  8. Research Forum on Psychological Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Margaret; Safren, Steven A.; Solanto, Mary V.; Hechtman, Lily; Rostain, Anthony L.; Ramsay, J. Russell; Murray, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Background: A literature search found five empirical studies of psychological treatment for adults with ADHD, out of 1,419 articles on ADHD in adults. Practice guidelines to date all recommend multimodal intervention, given that a significant number of patients cannot tolerate, do not respond to, or fail to reach optimal outcomes with medication…

  9. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  10. Lisdexamfetamine: A Review in ADHD in Adults.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2016-04-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting amfetamine prodrug with a convenient once-daily oral regimen that offers the potential for improved adherence and reduced abuse compared with short-acting preparations of amfetamines. Lisdexamfetamine (as Elvanse Adult(®); Tyvense Adult™) has been approved for use in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the EU decentralization procedure, with the first approvals in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. This approval reflects the results of three short-term trials in adults with ADHD in which fixed- or flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine produced significantly greater improvements than placebo in ADHD symptoms, overall functioning, executive functioning (including in patients with significant pre-existing impairment) and quality of life. Of note, a post hoc analysis of one of these studies suggested that the response to lisdexamfetamine was generally similar in treatment-naïve patients and those who had already received-and not responded satisfactorily to-previous ADHD therapies, including methylphenidate (MPH). Two further studies demonstrated the longer-term effectiveness of flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine in reducing ADHD symptoms, albeit maintenance of efficacy required ongoing treatment with the drug. Lisdexamfetamine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with an adverse event profile typical of that reported for other long-acting stimulants. Head-to-head comparisons with other long-acting agents, notably MPH and atomoxetine, are lacking. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available data, lisdexamfetamine provides a useful alternative option for the treatment of adults with ADHD, including those who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD therapies, including MPH. PMID:27048350

  11. Psychostimulant effects on academic and behavioral measures for ADHD junior high school students in a lecture format classroom.

    PubMed

    Evans, S W; Pelham, W E

    1991-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two doses of psychostimulants on nine ADHD students' performance in a classroom designed to be analogous to a junior high school American history class conducted during a summer treatment program. Double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment revealed significant and clinically important effects of psychostimulants on quiz and test performance, observations of attention and behavior during lectures, and teacher ratings, as well as accuracy on assignments completed during study hall. Analysis of individual differences revealed a 66% positive response rate. The implications for use of psychostimulants with ADHD young adolescents are discussed. PMID:1770184

  12. Adolescents with ADHD: patterns of behavioral adjustment, academic functioning, and treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Barkley, R A; Anastopoulos, A D; Guevremont, D C; Fletcher, K E

    1991-09-01

    Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with a control group on a comprehensive assessment battery. More ADHD teenagers had oppositional defiant disorder (68%) and conduct disorder (39%) and were rated as more impaired in social competence, behavioral and emotional adjustment, and school performance by parents and teachers than control teens. The ADHD youths, however, rated themselves as better adjusted than did their parents and teachers, differing only from controls in depressive symptoms and antisocial acts. Poorer performances in verbal learning and vigilance and greater ADHD behaviors during a math task also distinguished the ADHD from control teenagers. PMID:1938790

  13. Restless Leg Syndrome in ADHD children: levetiracetam as a reasonable therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Antonella; Aricò, Irene; Calarese, Tiziana; Condurso, Rosaria; Germanò, Eva; Cedro, Clemente; Spina, Edoardo; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2011-06-01

    The comorbidity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with sleep disorders has been extensively studied. In particular, Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) appears to be consistently more frequent in children with ADHD. Several papers also draw attention to the frequent occurrence of epileptic seizures and EEG abnormalities in ADHD children. We performed a preliminary open label study to evaluate the efficacy of Levetiracetam (LEV) to ameliorate the sleep pattern and reduce RLS symptoms in children with a complex comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), RLS and focal interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) on EEG. We recruited seven children (all males, aged between 5 and 12years) who fulfilled the following criteria: ADHD diagnosis combined subtype; presence of idiopathic RLS; and presence of focal IEDs on EEG. All children were given LEV at a starting dose of approximately 10-20mg/kg/day followed by 10mg/kg/day incrementing at 1-week intervals up to 50-60mg/kg/day given in two separate doses. At a 3 and 6month follow-up, all children showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in global International RLS Rating Scale (IRLS-RS). Parents' reports revealed improved sleep quality with fewer awakenings and restorative sleep in their children. LEV was well tolerated and no major side effects were reported. With an accessory report we observed the reduction of epileptiform EEG activity during sleep. In most patients (6 on 7) the discharges completely disappeared; in the last patient epileptiform EEG activity was significantly reduced. These children may represent a subgroup of ADHD patients in which the hyperactivity and attention difficulties might be aggravated by sleep disturbances and by IEDs. LEV could represent a therapeutic option for these comorbid conditions. PMID:20950971

  14. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's<.05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, had longer response latencies, and increased variability in response time. Moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  15. Maturation processes in automatic change detection as revealed by event-related brain potentials and dipole source localization: significance for adult AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Oades, Robert D; Juran, Stephanie A

    2005-10-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential reflecting automatic attention-related information processing marking the detection of auditory change. The bilateral scalp distribution develops by 14 years of age, and is elicited with adult latencies by 17 years. But consistent with reports of continued brain maturation after adolescence, we show here that features of the temporal and frontal lobe dipole sources also continue to develop in the third decade of life. This has consequences for studies of the developmental course of MMN anomalies, from childhood into adulthood, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Two groups of healthy subjects with mean ages of 17 and 30 years were presented with a 3-tone auditory oddball. The duration-deviant MMN was recorded during attention to a visual discrimination (auditory-passive condition) and an active auditory discrimination. MMN amplitudes were smaller in the older subjects and the MMN lasted longer over the right hemisphere. Latencies and moments of the four dipoles in the temporal and frontal lobes did not distinguish the two subject-groups. But both temporal lobe sources were located significantly more ventrally and further left in the young adult than in the adolescent subjects. The left cingular source moved posteriorly and the right inferior frontal source moved antero-medially in the older subjects. Brain development in the third decade may cause the two frontal sources to move apart on the rostro-caudal axis but the temporal lobe sources to move left on the lateral and down on the dorsoventral axes. Thus special care is necessary in interpreting putative dysfunctional neurobiological changes in developmental attention-deficit disorders where as-yet-unspecified sub-groups may show a late developmental lag, partial lag, or no lag at all, associated with other impairments. PMID:15922470

  16. Medicines for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007592.htm Medicines for ADHD To use the sharing features on ... that the treatment plan is successful. TYPES OF MEDICINES Stimulants are the most commonly used type of ...

  17. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  18. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  19. Atypical EEG Beta Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD1

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Walshaw, Patricia D.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal brain laterality (ABL) is well established in ADHD. However, its clinical specificity and association to cognitive and clinical symptoms is not yet understood. Previous studies indicate increased right hemisphere (RH) contribution in both ADHD and reading impaired samples. The current study investigates whether this ABL characteristic occurs in adults with ADHD absent comorbid language impairment. Methods EEG beta asymmetry was compared in 35 adult ADHD subjects and 104 controls during rest and active cognition. Group differences in beta asymmetry were then further evaluated for association to linguistic and attentional abilities, as well as association to beta asymmetry measures across different brain regions. Results Adults with ADHD showed pronounced rightward beta asymmetry (p = .00001) in inferior parietal regions (P8-P7) during a continuous performance task (CPT) that could not be attributed to linguistic ability. Among ADHD subjects only, greater rightward beta asymmetry at this measure was correlated with better CPT performance. Furthermore, this measure showed a lack of normal association (i.e., observed in controls) to left-biased processing in temporal-parietal (TP8-TP7) brain regions important for higher order language functions. Conclusion Adult ADHD involves abnormally increased right-biased contribution to CPT processing that could not be attributed to poor language ability. This appears to also involve abnormal recruitment of LH linguistic processing regions and represents an alternative, albeit less effective, CPT processing strategy. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic mechanisms likely underlie RH biased processing in ADHD and reading impaired samples. PMID:20705076

  20. Aberrant Development of Functional Connectivity among Resting State-Related Functional Networks in Medication-Naïve ADHD Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok; Lee, Sang Won; Go, Hyo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the compromised developmental trajectory of the functional connectivity among resting-state-related functional networks (RSFNs) in medication-naïve children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects and Methods Using both independent component analysis and dual regression, subject-specific time courses of 12 RSFNs were extracted from both 20 medication-naïve children with ADHD, and 20 age and gender-matched control children showing typical development (TDC). Both partial correlation coefficients among the 12 RSFNs and a resting-state resource allocation index (rsRAI) of the salience network (SN) were entered into multiple linear regression analysis to investigate the compromised, age-related change in medication-naïve ADHD children. Finally, correlation analyses were performed between the compromised RSFN connections showing significant group-by-age interaction and rsRAI of SN or clinical variables. Results Medication-naïve ADHD subjects failed to show age-related increment of functional connectivity in both rsRAI of SN and two RSFN connections, SN-Sensory/motor and posterior default mode/precuneus network (pDMN/prec) – anterior DMN. Lower SN-Sensory/motor connectivity was related with higher scores on the ADHD Rating Scale, and with poor scores on the continuous performance test. The pDMN/prec-aDMN connectivity was positively related with rsRAI of SN. Conclusions Our results suggest that medication-naïve ADHD subjects may have delayed maturation of the two functional connections, SN-Sensory/Motor and aDMN-pDMN/prec. Interventions that enhance the functional connectivity of these two connections may merit attention as potential therapeutic or preventive options in both ADHD and TDC. PMID:24386219

  1. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  2. Effectiveness and Duration of Effect of Open-Label Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Lynch, Lauren R; Shaw, David M; Wallace, Samantha P; O'Donnell, Katherine E; Ciranni, Michael A; Briggie, Alexis M; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-05-01

    Objectives: (a) Evaluate the efficacy and duration of effect of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in adult ADHD. (b) Assess the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Medication Smoothness of Effect Scale (AMSES) and Adult ADHD Medication Rebound Scale (AMRS). Method: Adults (N = 40) with ADHD were treated with LDX for up to 12 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). The psychometric properties of the AMSES and AMRS are analyzed and compared with the ADHD-RS, ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS). Results: ADHD-RS scores were significantly improved with LDX. The AMSES and AMRS had high internal consistency and were correlated with the ADHD-RS, ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist, and TASS. Conclusion: LDX is effective in treating adult ADHD and has a smooth drug effect throughout the day with limited symptom rebound. The AMSES and AMRS are valid and reliable measures. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23657761

  3. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression.

    PubMed

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J L; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D; McGough, James J; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. METHOD Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. RESULTS Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. CONCLUSIONS Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  4. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  5. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  6. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anne E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Method Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; grades 2–6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; aged 26–59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Results Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at post-assessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically-supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at-risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child’s homework performance. Conclusions Parents at-risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention, but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  7. Perinatal Risk Factors Interacting With Catechol O-Methyltransferase and the Serotonin Transporter Gene Predict ASD symptoms in Children With ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J.M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Ormel, Johan; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Given the previously found familiality of ASD symptoms in children with ADHD, addressing these symptoms may be useful for genetic association studies, especially for candidate gene findings that have not been consistently replicated for ADHD. Methods We studied the association of the catechol o-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4/SERT/5-HTT) 5-HTTLPR insertion/deletion polymorphism with ASD symptoms in children with ADHD, and whether these polymorphisms would interact with pre- and perinatal risk factors, i.e., maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight. Analyses were performed using linear regression in 207 Dutch participants with combined type ADHD of the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study, and repeated in an independent ADHD sample (n = 439) selected from the TRracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Dependent variables were the total and subscale scores of the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ). Results No significant main effects of COMT Val158Met, 5-HTTLPR, maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight on ASD symptoms were found. However, the COMT Val/Val genotype interacted with maternal smoking during pregnancy in increasing stereotyped behavior in the IMAGE sample (p = 0.008); this interaction reached significance in the TRAILS sample after correction for confounders (p = 0.02). In the IMAGE sample, the 5-HTTLPR S/S genotype interacted with maternal smoking during pregnancy, increasing problems in social interaction (p = 0.02), and also interacted with low birth weight, increasing rigid behavior (p = 0.03). Findings for 5-HTTLPR in the TRAILS sample were similar, albeit for related CSBQ subscales. Conclusions These findings suggest gene-environment interaction effects on ASD symptoms in children with ADHD. PMID:20868372

  8. Adult ADHD Among NSW Prisoners: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Sunjic, Sandra; Kaye, Sharlene; Archer, Vicki; Indig, Devon

    2013-10-17

    Objective: Given the paucity of research among prisoners, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity associated with adult ADHD. Method: The study was conducted at four NSW correctional facilities (2 male; 2 female). Results: Thirty-five percent of the sample screened positive for adult ADHD, and 17% of the sample met criteria for a full diagnosis. After adjustment, benzodiazepine dependence, borderline personality disorder, social phobia, antisocial personality disorder, and a number of lifetime psychological disorders remained significantly and independently associated with the diagnosis of adult ADHD. Lowering the threshold on the ADHD Self-Rating Scale to ≥3 (vs. ≥4) increased the sensitivity (80%-93%), but lowered the specificity (55%-47%). Conclusion: Adult ADHD among NSW prisoners is elevated, with substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity common. A greater acceptance of this disorder among prisoners, and appropriate treatment, is warranted. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134874

  9. A trial-by-trial analysis reveals more intense physical activity is associated with better cognitive control performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, T A; Krafft, C E; Iosif, A M; Schweitzer, J B

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a key symptom and the most observable manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The over-activity associated with ADHD can cause specific challenges in academic settings, extracurricular activities and social relationships. Cognitive control challenges are also well established in ADHD. The current study included 44 children between the ages of 10 and 17 diagnosed with ADHD or who were typically developing (TD), all of whom had no psychiatric co-morbidity or significant learning disorders. Participants wore an actometer on their ankle while performing a flanker paradigm in order to objectively measure their rates of activity in association with cognitive control. Analyses assessed the relationship between frequency and intensity of activity to task accuracy on a trial-by-trial basis. A significant interaction effect between group and performance revealed that more intense movement was associated with better performance in the ADHD group but not in the TD group. The ADHD group demonstrated more intense activity than the TD group during correct (but not error) trials. Within-group, children with ADHD generated higher intensity movements in their correct trials compared to their error trials, whereas the TD group did not demonstrate any within-group differences. These findings suggest that excessive motoric activity associated with clinically significant ADHD symptoms may reflect compensatory efforts to modulate attention and alertness. Future research should systematically explore the relationship between motion in ADHD and how it might be used to improve cognitive performance. PMID:26059476

  10. Commentary: Working Memory Training and ADHD--Where Does Its Potential Lie? Reflections on Chacko et al. (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Chacko et al.'s investigation of the clinical utility of WM training to alleviate key symptoms of ADHD is timely and substantial, and marks a significant point in cognitive training research. Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) involves intensive practice on multiple memory span tasks that increase in difficulty as performance improves with…

  11. Academic Achievement and Emotional Status of Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard; Klein, Rachel G.; Weiss, Gabrielle; Respitz, Chara; Kouri, Joan; Blum, Carol; Greenfield, Brian; Etcovitch, Joy; Fleiss, Karen; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention (that includes academic assistance and psychotherapy) combined with methylphenidate significantly enhances the academic performance and emotional status of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and with…

  12. Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jillani, Sarah; Patel, Prina; Trestman, Robert; Kamath, Jayesh

    2016-06-01

    Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that adolescents with ADHD have a higher risk of arrest and incarceration during adulthood. The present report examines evidence related to efficacy of atomoxetine, a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of adolescent ADHD, and presents data from a case series evaluating the effectiveness of atomoxetine for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the Connecticut correctional setting. The results from the case series suggest that atomoxetine is effective for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the context of significant past substance use. In summary, adolescents with ADHD have an elevated risk of incarceration and developing substance use disorders. The present review and pilot case series suggest that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD in the correctional setting. PMID:27236169

  13. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  14. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication and Pregnancy ADHD and Driving Organization and Time Management Managing Money Relationships & Social Skills Marriage and Partnerships ... For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...

  15. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25512360

  16. Unique white matter microstructural patterns in ADHD presentations-a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Svatkova, Alena; Nestrasil, Igor; Rudser, Kyle; Goldenring Fine, Jodene; Bledsoe, Jesse; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) and combined (ADHD-C) presentations are likely distinct disorders that differ neuroanatomically, neurochemically, and neuropsychologically. However, to date, little is known about specific white matter (WM) regions differentiating ADHD presentations. This study examined differences in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 20 ADHD-PI, 18 ADHD-C, and 27 typically developed children. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI measurements in major fiber bundles was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Clusters showing diffusivity abnormalities were used as regions of interest for regression analysis between fractional anisotropy (FA) and neuropsychological outcomes. Compared to neurotypicals, ADHD-PI children showed higher FA in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and in the left corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, the ADHD-C group exhibited higher FA in the bilateral cingulum bundle (CB). In the ADHD-PI group, differences in FA in the left ILF and ATR were accompanied by axial diffusivity (AD) abnormalities. In addition, the ADHD-PI group exhibited atypical mean diffusivity in the forceps minor (FMi) and left ATR and AD differences in right CB compared to healthy subjects. Direct comparison between ADHD presentations demonstrated radial diffusivity differences in FMi. WM clusters with FA irregularities in ADHD were associated with neurobehavioral performance across groups. In conclusion, differences in WM microstructure in ADHD presentations strengthen the theory that ADHD-PI and ADHD-C are two distinct disorders. Regions with WM irregularity seen in both ADHD presentations might serve as predictors of executive and behavioral functioning across groups. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3323-3336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27159198

  17. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  18. Effects of a Summer Treatment Program on Functional Sports Outcomes in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children’s sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  19. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  1. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  2. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion…

  3. Time windows matter in ADHD-related developing neuropsychological basic deficits: A comprehensive review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Becker, Katja

    2015-08-01

    Normative development of neuropsychological functions that are assumed to underlie attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may show transition periods, i.e., periods of heightened developmental discontinuity and reduced differential continuity. During such periods differences between ADHD cases and controls in these functions might be obscured because assessments probably not only reflect individual differences in the ADHD-related deviation but also individual differences in speed/onset of the transition. Our review focuses on executive inhibitory control (IC) and delay aversion/discounting (DA) because normative developmental processes of these characteristics are relatively well described. For complex IC performance a transition period can be assumed in preschool years, for DA around puberty. Published meta-analyses on neuropsychological IC tasks and a meta-regression analysis of 23 case-control comparisons in DA tasks comprising 1395 individuals with ADHD and 1195 controls confirmed our assumption. Effect sizes of case-control comparisons were significantly larger outside transition periods, i.e., in age-periods of relative developmental continuity. An increasingly precise identification of such time windows could contribute to the understanding of the etiological pathways of ADHD. PMID:25956255

  4. A Preliminary Neuroimaging Study of Preschool Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    E.M., Mahone; D., Crocetti; M.E., Ranta; A., Gaddis; M., Cataldo; K.J., Slifer; M.B., Denckla; S.H., Mostofsky

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder which, by current definition, has onset prior to age 7 years. MRI studies have provided some insight into brain differences associated with ADHD, but thus far have almost exclusively focused on children ages 7 years and older. To better understand the neurobiological development of ADHD, cortical and subcortical brain development should be systematically examined in younger children presenting with symptoms of the disorder. High resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images, acquired on a 3.0T scanner, were analyzed in a total of 26 preschoolers, ages 4–5 years (13 with ADHD, 13 controls, matched on age and sex). The ADHD sample was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria, and screened for language disorders. Cortical regions were delineated and measured using automated methods in Freesurfer; basal ganglia structures were manually delineated. Children with ADHD showed significantly reduced caudate volumes bilaterally; in contrast, there were no significant group differences in cortical volume or thickness in this age range. After controlling for age and total cerebral volume, left caudate volume was a significant predictor of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive symptom severity. Anomalous basal ganglia, particularly caudate, development appears to play an important role among children presenting with early onset symptoms of ADHD. PMID:21660881

  5. The association of ADHD symptoms to self-harm behaviours: a systematic PRISMA review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-harm is a major public health issue in young people worldwide and there are many challenges to its management and prevention. Numerous studies have indicated that ADHD is associated with completed suicides and other suicidal behaviours (i.e., suicidal attempt and ideation). However, significantly less is known about the association between ADHD and self-harm. Method This is the first review of the association between ADHD and self-harm. A systematic PRISMA review was conducted. Two internet-based bibliographic databases (Medline and CINAHL) were searched to access studies which examined to any degree the association between, specifically, ADHD and self-harm. Results Only 15 studies were identified which investigated the association between ADHD and self-harm and found evidence to support that ADHD is a potential risk factor for self-harm. Conclusion This association raises the need for more awareness of self-harm in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24884622

  6. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Snitselaar, Mark A; Smits, Marcel G; Spijker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the ADHD-C subgroup, although not significantly (p = 0.066). RLS symptoms were correlated with particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity (ρ = 0.742; p: 0.000). ADHD patients with positive RLS scores reported higher scores on the ADHD-Rating scale compared with patients with negative RLS scores (Z: -2.968, p = 0.003), mainly due to higher hyperactivity-impulsivity scores (Z: -3.145; p = 0.002). Our findings show that clinicians need to be aware of RLS among adult ADHD patients, particularly those with severe hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. PMID:26418664

  7. Occupational issues of adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general. Results The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem. Conclusions Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems. PMID:23414364

  8. ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology. PMID:23758944

  9. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance on Students with Learning Disabilities and ADD/ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Serena M.; Prater, Mary Anne; Jenkins, Amelia; Edelen-Smith, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of self-monitoring of academic productivity and accuracy on the academic performance and on-task behavior of three male students (ages 12-13) with both learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders. Students made gains in academic productivity and accuracy and their on-task behaviors improved across all…

  10. ADHD deficit as measured in adolescent boys with a continuous performance task is related to antenatal maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, Bea R H; Mennes, Maarten; Stevens, Veerle; van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert; Stiers, Peter; Marcoen, Alfons; Lagae, Lieven

    2006-01-01

    Antenatal maternal anxiety has been shown to be related to infant temperament, childhood disorders, and impulsivity in adolescence. This study prospectively investigated whether antenatal maternal anxiety is associated with performance on a continuous performance task. Sixty-four adolescents (mean age, 15 y; 34 boys, 30 girls) were examined with a computerized continuous performance task (CPT) measuring sustained attention. Results showed that the CPT performance of boys of mothers with high levels of state anxiety during the 12th to 22nd postmenstrual week of pregnancy declined as the task progressed: their processing speed became slower and the variability in their reaction times increased. The study controlled for the possible confounding influences of postnatal maternal anxiety, the parents' educational level, and intelligence. Establishing a link between antenatal maternal anxiety and an objective measure of sustained attention/self-regulation, our results extend the growing evidence for an association between antenatal maternal anxiety and the neurobehavioral development of the offspring up into adolescence. PMID:16327007

  11. ADHD stigma among college students.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda Chi; Lefler, Elizabeth K

    2016-03-01

    The current study examined ADHD stigma within a college-enrolled young adult population, including the debate regarding the cause of stigma: label or behavior. In Phase 1, 135 college students rated stigma toward one of the four fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD alone, the behaviors associated with ADHD alone, the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or neither the label nor behaviors. In Phase 2, 48 college students rated stigma toward one of the two assigned fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or the label of Depression and a set of behaviors associated with Depression. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the label and the behaviors would cause the highest levels of ADHD stigma and that ADHD would elicit more stigma than Depression. In Phase 1, stigma was associated with the behaviors of ADHD, but not the label. In Phase 2, ADHD and Depression were found to be equally stigmatized. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:26135022

  12. Social Skills in Adults with AD/HD

    MedlinePlus

    ... often struggle in social situations. Interacting successfully with peers and significant adults is one of the most ... percent of children with ADHD have difficulty with peer relationships. Over 25 percent of Americans experience chronic ...

  13. [Symptom variations in ADHD: importance of context, development and comorbidity].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Wohl, M; Michel, G; Mouren, M C; Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children and is associated with significant impairment in social and academic functioning. Its recognition is based on congruent information from different sources, because most ADHD children and adolescents are not completely aware of impairments caused by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Fluctuations in symptom expression may complicate the diagnosis: during clinical examination or tests sessions, ADHD symptoms may be less severe than usual or completely absent. This review examines variations in ADHD symptoms due to environmental context, internal state, circadian factors, development, psychiatric comorbidity and discusses their clinical relevance. Generally, ADHD symptoms are pervasive and identified in different areas of functioning. Despite their chronicity, they show a relative context-dependency. An unfamiliar environment or situation may lessen symptoms. The same happens in dual relations or in calm settings, when the child receives attention and positive reinforcement from the adult. On the contrary, the classroom situation with its high stimulation level (noise, visual distractors, large class size) is likely to reveal or accentuate instability, impulsivity and inattention. Independently from objective symptom fluctuations, the impact of ADHD symptoms, and their consequences on self-esteem may also vary with the degree of environmental mismatch. Recent research in experimental psychology also draws attention to the motivational state of ADHD children: preference for immediate gratification and delay aversion may explain why most of them show satisfactory attentional capacities in certain activities (for instance video games or TV), while showing impairment in school work or in other effortful tasks. The diagnosis of the full ADHD syndrome requires significant impact on functioning in at least two areas. Some children with "situational" ADHD are impaired either in

  14. Self-reported efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in a clinical randomized controlled study of ADHD children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Nezla S; Aßmus, Jörg; Elgen, Irene B

    2014-01-01

    Background Many non-pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been attempted, but reports indicate that most are ineffective. Although neurofeedback (NF) is a treatment approach for children with ADHD that remains promising, a variety of appropriate measures have been used in reporting and evaluating its effect. Objective To report the self-evaluations of NF treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods Randomized controlled trial in 91 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged less than 18 years (mean, 11.2 years) participated in a 30-session program of intensive NF treatment. Participants were randomized and allocated by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes into three groups: methylphenidate (MPH) as an active control group, and two trial groups NF with MPH, and NF alone. ADHD core symptoms and school performance were given on a scale of 1 to 10 using a self-reporting questionnaire, and the changes in these scores after treatment were used as the self-reported evaluation. Basic statistical methods (descriptive, analyses of variance, exact χ2 test, and paired t-test) were used to investigate the baseline data. Changes in ADHD core symptoms and treatment effects were investigated using a general linear model for repeated measures. Results Eighty participants completed the treatment study and 73 (91%) responded sufficiently on the self-reporting questionnaires. The treatment groups were comparable in age, sex, and cognition as well as in the baseline levels of core ADHD symptoms. All treatments resulted in significant improvements regarding attention and hyperactivity (P<0.001), and did not differ from each other in effectiveness. However, a significant treatment effect in school performance was observed (P=0.042), in which only the NF group showed a significant improvement. Conclusion The self-reported improvements in ADHD core symptoms and school performance shortly after

  15. Genetic Risks and ADHD Symptomatology: Exploring the Effects of Parental Antisocial Behaviors in an Adoption-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Nedelec, Joseph L.; Rowland, Meghan W.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and…

  16. Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory was examined in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing peers (TD). Thirty-two children (ADHD = 16, TD = 16) completed three versions of a phonological working memory task that varied with regard to stimulus presentation modality (auditory, visual, or dual auditory and visual), as well as a visuospatial task. Children with ADHD experienced the largest magnitude working memory deficits when phonological stimuli were presented via a unimodal, auditory format. Their performance improved during visual and dual modality conditions but remained significantly below the performance of children in the TD group. In contrast, the TD group did not exhibit performance differences between the auditory- and visual-phonological conditions but recalled significantly more stimuli during the dual-phonological condition. Furthermore, relative to TD children, children with ADHD recalled disproportionately fewer phonological stimuli as set sizes increased, regardless of presentation modality. Finally, an examination of working memory components indicated that the largest magnitude between-group difference was associated with the central executive. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer. PMID:24830472

  17. Integration of an EEG biomarker with a clinician's ADHD evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Steven M; Rugino, Thomas A; Hornig, Mady; Stein, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is the first to evaluate an assessment aid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both Class-I evidence standards of American Academy of Neurology and De Novo requirements of US Food and Drug Administration. The assessment aid involves a method to integrate an electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarker, theta/beta ratio (TBR), with a clinician's ADHD evaluation. The integration method is intended as a step to help improve certainty with criterion E (i.e., whether symptoms are better explained by another condition). Methods To evaluate the assessment aid, investigators conducted a prospective, triple-blinded, 13-site, clinical cohort study. Comprehensive clinical evaluation data were obtained from 275 children and adolescents presenting with attentional and behavioral concerns. A qualified clinician at each site performed differential diagnosis. EEG was collected by separate teams. The reference standard was consensus diagnosis by an independent, multidisciplinary team (psychiatrist, psychologist, and neurodevelopmental pediatrician), which is well-suited to evaluate criterion E in a complex clinical population. Results Of 209 patients meeting ADHD criteria per a site clinician's judgment, 93 were separately found by the multidisciplinary team to be less likely to meet criterion E, implying possible overdiagnosis by clinicians in 34% of the total clinical sample (93/275). Of those 93, 91% were also identified by EEG, showing a relatively lower TBR (85/93). Further, the integration method was in 97% agreement with the multidisciplinary team in the resolution of a clinician's uncertain cases (35/36). TBR showed statistical power specific to supporting certainty of criterion E per the multidisciplinary team (Cohen's d, 1.53). Patients with relatively lower TBR were more likely to have other conditions that could affect criterion E certainty (10 significant results; P ≤ 0.05). Integration of this information with a

  18. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J

    2012-04-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD + BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter N-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD + BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD + BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. PMID:22272986

  19. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  20. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account. PMID:24311027

  1. Unveiling the mystery about adult ADHD: one woman's journey.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta; Ivey, Nicole

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurobiological disorder, affects millions of individuals and can significantly impact an individual's life course. Research guidelines used in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment have focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress how gender and other contextual factors are considered. Consequently many women and persons from diverse cultural groups can be ignored or misdiagnosed. Undiagnosed and untreated women with ADHD are therefore limited in their potential to flourish socially, academically, interpersonally, and in their family roles. This case example of a 38-year-old African American woman illustrates how her life journey was affected by undiagnosed ADHD. PMID:19657868

  2. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  3. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5–10 at Wave 1, 7–12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child’s baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child’s age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775

  4. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E

    2012-06-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult's ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD - cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  5. Phenotypic and measurement influences on heritability estimates in childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Rohde, Luis A; Lempp, Thomas; Romanos, Marcel

    2010-03-01

    Twin studies described a strongly heritable component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. However, findings varied considerably between studies. In addition, ADHD presents with a high rate of comorbid disorders and associated psychopathology. Therefore, this literature review reports findings from population-based twin studies regarding the influence of subtypes, assessment instruments, rater effects, sex differences, and comorbidity rates on ADHD heritability estimates. In addition, genetic effects on the persistence of ADHD are discussed. By reviewing relevant factors influencing heritability estimates more homogeneous subtypes relevant for molecular genetic studies can be elicited. A systematic search of population-based twin studies in ADHD was performed, using the databases PubMed and PsycInfo. Results of family studies were added in case insufficient or contradictory findings were obtained in twin studies. Heritability estimates were strongly influenced by rater effects and assessment instruments. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were likely influenced by common as well as specific genetic risk factors. Besides persistent ADHD, ADHD accompanied by symptoms of conduct or antisocial personality disorder might be another strongly genetically determined subtype, however, family environmental risk factors have also been established for this pattern of comorbidity. PMID:20213230

  6. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  7. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  8. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  9. ADHD Medication Trends in Turkey: 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Oner, Ozgür; Yilmaz, Esra Safak; Karada X011f, Hasan; Vural, Mert; Vural, Elif Hilal; Akbulat, Akif; Gürsöz, Hakk X0131; Türkçapar, Hakan; Kerman, Saim

    2014-02-19

    Objective: To investigate the change of ADHD medication prescriptions in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. Method: Consumption data of ADHD medications, immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), OROS MPH (Concerta), and atomoxetine (Strattera) were obtained from IMS Health database for the November 2008 to October 2013 period. Defined daily dose (DDD) of each drug was calculated according to WHO definitions and time-series analysis was conducted. Results: There was a significant seasonal effect for prescription of all drugs. Annual use of ADHD medications increased 2.18 times for all ADHD medications combined. DDDs per 1,000 population per day for all ADHD medications were 0.28 in 2009, 0.41 in 2010, 0.52 in 2011, and 0.59 in 2012. OROS MPH represented almost 75% of all ADHD medication utilization. Conclusion: As reported from several other countries, ADHD medication use increased in Turkey. Results suggested that over- and underdiagnosis might be seen at the same time. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24554298

  10. Intraindividual Variability in Inhibitory Function in Adults with ADHD – An Ex-Gaussian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Walther, Stephan; Debelak, Rudolf; Rentrop, Mirjam; Westermann, Celina; Sharma, Anuradha; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with inhibitory dysfunction contributing to typical behavioral symptoms like impulsivity or hyperactivity. However, some studies analyzing intraindividual variability (IIV) of reaction times in children with ADHD (cADHD) question a predominance of inhibitory deficits. IIV is a measure of the stability of information processing and provides evidence that longer reaction times (RT) in inhibitory tasks in cADHD are due to only a few prolonged responses which may indicate deficits in sustained attention rather than inhibitory dysfunction. We wanted to find out, whether a slowing in inhibitory functioning in adults with ADHD (aADHD) is due to isolated slow responses. Methods Computing classical RT measures (mean RT, SD), ex-Gaussian parameters of IIV (which allow a better separation of reaction time (mu), variability (sigma) and abnormally slow responses (tau) than classical measures) as well as errors of omission and commission, we examined response inhibition in a well-established GoNogo task in a sample of aADHD subjects without medication and healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. Results We did not find higher numbers of commission errors in aADHD, while the number of omissions was significantly increased compared with controls. In contrast to increased mean RT, the distributional parameter mu did not document a significant slowing in aADHD. However, subjects with aADHD were characterized by increased IIV throughout the entire RT distribution as indicated by the parameters sigma and tau as well as the SD of reaction time. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between tau and the number of omission errors. Conclusions Our findings question a primacy of inhibitory deficits in aADHD and provide evidence for attentional dysfunction. The present findings may have theoretical implications for etiological models of ADHD as well as more practical implications for neuropsychological

  11. Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Luiz Rogério Jorgensen

    2015-01-01

    ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6–14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant’s performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music. Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD. PMID:26441688

  12. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  13. ADHD in context: Young adults' reports of the impact of occupational environment on the manifestation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Arielle K; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; W Murray, Desiree; Swanson, James M

    2016-07-01

    Does changing context play a role in the decline in ADHD symptoms in adulthood? Insufficient research has explored the functioning of adults with ADHD. As adults, individuals with ADHD have significantly more latitude to control aspects of their day-to-day environments. Do the new contexts young adults find themselves in alter their experience of ADHD? Are there particular occupational or educational contexts in which young adults report functioning better than others? To examine this issue, we conducted semi-structured interviews at four North American sites in 2010-11 with 125 young adults, originally diagnosed with ADHD as children, regarding their work and post-secondary educational environments. Many subjects describe their symptoms as context-dependent. In some contexts, participants report feeling better able to focus; in others, their symptoms-such as high energy levels-become strengths rather than liabilities. Modal descriptions included tasks that were stressful and challenging, novel and required multitasking, busy and fast-paced, physically demanding or hands-on, and/or intrinsically interesting. Consistent with a developmental psychopathology framework, ADHD is experienced as arising from an interaction between our subjects and their environments. These findings demonstrate the need to account for the role of context in our understanding of ADHD as a psychiatric disorder, especially as it manifests in young adulthood. PMID:27299978

  14. The Integration of the Neurosciences, Child Public Health, and Education Practice: Hemisphere-Specific Remediation Strategies as a Discipline Partnered Rehabilitation Tool in ADD/ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Mualem, Raed; Machado, Calixto

    2013-01-01

    ADD/ADHD is the most common and most studied neurodevelopmental problem. Recent statistics from the U.S. Center for Disease Control state that 11% or approximately one out of every nine children in the US and one in five high school boys are diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. This number is thought to be increasing at around 15–20% per year. The US National Institute of Mental Health’s Multi-modal Treatment Study has shown that medication has no long-term benefit for those with ADHD. To effectively address ADD/ADHD from within the framework of child public health, an interdisciplinary strategy is necessary that is based on a neuroeducational model that can be readily implemented on a large-scale within the educational system. This study is based on previous findings that ADD/ADHD children possess underactivity between sub-cortical and cortical regions. An imbalance of activity or arousal in one area can result in functional disconnections similar to that seen in split-brain patients. Since ADD/ADHD children exhibit deficient performance on tests developed to measure perceptual laterality, evidence of weak laterality or failure to develop laterality has been found across various modalities (auditory, visual, tactile). This has reportedly resulted in abnormal cerebral organization and ineffective cortical specialization necessary for the development of language and non-language function. This pilot study examines groups of ADD/ADHD and control elementary school children all of whom were administered all of the subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests, the Brown Parent Questionnaire, and given objective performance measures on tests of motor and sensory coordinative abilities. Results measured after a 12-week remediation program aimed at increasing the activity of the hypothesized underactive right hemisphere function, yielded significant improvement of greater than 2 years in grade level in all domains except in mathematical reasoning. The treated group also

  15. The Integration of the Neurosciences, Child Public Health, and Education Practice: Hemisphere-Specific Remediation Strategies as a Discipline Partnered Rehabilitation Tool in ADD/ADHD.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Mualem, Raed; Machado, Calixto

    2013-01-01

    ADD/ADHD is the most common and most studied neurodevelopmental problem. Recent statistics from the U.S. Center for Disease Control state that 11% or approximately one out of every nine children in the US and one in five high school boys are diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. This number is thought to be increasing at around 15-20% per year. The US National Institute of Mental Health's Multi-modal Treatment Study has shown that medication has no long-term benefit for those with ADHD. To effectively address ADD/ADHD from within the framework of child public health, an interdisciplinary strategy is necessary that is based on a neuroeducational model that can be readily implemented on a large-scale within the educational system. This study is based on previous findings that ADD/ADHD children possess underactivity between sub-cortical and cortical regions. An imbalance of activity or arousal in one area can result in functional disconnections similar to that seen in split-brain patients. Since ADD/ADHD children exhibit deficient performance on tests developed to measure perceptual laterality, evidence of weak laterality or failure to develop laterality has been found across various modalities (auditory, visual, tactile). This has reportedly resulted in abnormal cerebral organization and ineffective cortical specialization necessary for the development of language and non-language function. This pilot study examines groups of ADD/ADHD and control elementary school children all of whom were administered all of the subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests, the Brown Parent Questionnaire, and given objective performance measures on tests of motor and sensory coordinative abilities. Results measured after a 12-week remediation program aimed at increasing the activity of the hypothesized underactive right hemisphere function, yielded significant improvement of greater than 2 years in grade level in all domains except in mathematical reasoning. The treated group also

  16. ADHD: does parenting style matter?

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Danforth, Jeffrey S; Brooks, Donna

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition typically arising in childhood, which untreated, can have consequences reaching into adolescence and beyond. Effective pharmacological treatment is available and has become widespread in the West. Outcomes for both the child with ADHD and the parent may be influenced by the nature of interaction between them. The authors of this article aim to review published research examining the interaction between parents and their children with ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted of studies written in English between 2000 and 2007 with the keywords ADHD and parenting. Child ADHD elicits high levels of parental stress and maladaptive parenting. The presence of parental psychopathology is common and influences the parent's response to the child's ADHD symptoms. Optimizing parent-child interaction and parental psychiatric status may improve outcomes for both parent and child. PMID:18559885

  17. Impaired Executive Function Mediates the Association between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Child ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Hobel, Calvin J.; Swanson, James M.; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests exposure to adverse conditions in intrauterine life may increase the risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood. High maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been shown to predict child ADHD symptoms, however the neurocognitive processes underlying this relationship are not known. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this association is mediated by alterations in child executive function. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based cohort of 174 children (mean age  = 7.3±0.9 (SD) yrs, 55% girls) was evaluated for ADHD symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist, and for neurocognitive function using the Go/No-go task. This cohort had been followed prospectively from early gestation and birth through infancy and childhood with serial measures of maternal and child prenatal and postnatal factors. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of child ADHD symptoms (F(1,158) = 4.80, p = 0.03) and of child performance on the Go/No-go task (F(1,157) = 8.37, p = 0.004) after controlling for key potential confounding variables. A test of the mediation model revealed that the association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and child ADHD symptoms was mediated by impaired executive function (inefficient/less attentive processing; Sobel Test: t = 2.39 (±0.002, SEM), p = 0.02). Conclusions/Significance To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI-related alterations in child neurocognitive function may mediate its effects on ADHD risk. The finding is clinically significant and may extrapolate to an approximately 2.8-fold increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children of obese compared to those of non-obese mothers. These results add further evidence to the growing awareness that neurodevelopmental disorders such as ADHD may have their foundations very early in life

  18. Sensitivity of Scales to Evaluate Change in Symptomatology with Psychostimulants in Different ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Rodrigues Pereira, Ricardo M.; Joober, Ridha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity of scales (Conners’ Global Index Parent and Teacher form [CGI-P, CGI-T], Clinical Global Impression Scale [CGI], Continuous Performance Test [CPT], and Restricted Academic Situation Scale [RASS]) in evaluating improvement in symptomatology with methylphenidate in different Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Four hundred and ninety children (309 with ADHD Combined/Hyperactive [ADHD-CH] and 181 with ADHD Inattentive subtype [ADHD-I]) participated in a two week double-blind placebo-controlled crossover methylphenidate trial. Results: CGI-P showed small effect size for ADHD-I and medium effect size for the ADHD-CH subtype. CGI-T showed medium effect size for ADHD-I and large effect size for ADHD-CH subtype. CGI and RASS showed large effect size while CPT showed medium effect size for both subtypes. Conclusion: Acute behavioural assessments by clinicians (CGI, RASS) are better at detecting improvement with medication in all subtypes than parent or teacher reports (CGI-P, CGI-T). CGI-T is better than CGI-P for ADHD-I in detecting change in symptomatology as there is a greater demand for attention at school. PMID:23667362

  19. Prevalence of adult ADHD in an all-female prison unit.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Romana; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Keoghan, Sue; Adamou, Marios

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting a link between ADHD and criminality, including a strong association between ADHD symptoms and the likelihood of being on probation or in prison. Most studies investigating the prevalence of ADHD in prison populations have focused on adult male offenders. In the current study, 69 female prisoners were screened for both childhood and adult ADHD symptoms using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV. The results indicate that 41 % of the prisoners met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and continued to meet criteria for ADHD as adults. More importantly, young female prisoners (aged 18-25) were significantly more likely to report symptoms of ADHD than older prisoners. Prisoners who reported symptoms of ADHD also reported high levels of impairment associated with these symptoms. A better understanding of the prevalence of ADHD in female prison units can highlight specific areas for intervention during rehabilitation, as well as the management of serious incidents within prison. PMID:26650925

  20. Executive Functions in Girls with ADHD Followed Prospectively into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Ho, Jennifer; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Overview We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison group (n = 88) into young adulthood (Mage = 19.6), 10 years after childhood initial assessments, to evaluate neuropsychological functioning. We hypothesized that neuropsychological deficits would persist through young adulthood for those with ADHD, and that those with continuing ADHD symptomatology in young adulthood would show the largest impairments. Method Neuropsychological measures at follow-up emphasized executive functions (EF) including planning, organization, inhibitory control, sustained attention, working memory, and set shifting. Results Parallel to findings from childhood and adolescence, the girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD displayed medium to large deficits in EF relative to comparisons at follow-up, even with statistical control of baseline demographic and comorbidity variables. The addition of IQ as a covariate attenuated differences but several remained significant. Comparisons between the inattentive and combined subtypes of ADHD yielded nonsignificant results with small effect sizes. EF impairments were evident in both participants whose ADHD diagnoses persisted and in those whose ADHD symptoms had remitted to a non-diagnosable level; both subgroups had more EF deficits than those who did not meet criteria for ADHD in either childhood or young adulthood. Conclusions Those in both the persistent and remitted ADHD groups showed impairments in EF relative to comparisons and generally did not differ from each other. Overall, childhood ADHD in girls portends neuropsychological/EF deficits that persist for at least 10 years. PMID:22468822

  1. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  2. Functional Properties of Rare Missense Variants of Human CDH13 Found in Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mavroconstanti, Thegna; Johansson, Stefan; Winge, Ingeborg; Knappskog, Per M.; Haavik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The CDH13 gene codes for T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored protein with cell adhesion properties that is highly expressed in the brain and cardiovascular system. Previous studies have suggested that CDH13 may be a promising candidate gene for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aims of this study were to identify, functionally characterize, and estimate the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in adult ADHD patients and controls. We performed sequencing of the CDH13 gene in 169 Norwegian adult ADHD patients and 63 controls and genotyping of the identified variants in 641 patients and 668 controls. Native and green fluorescent protein tagged wild type and variant CDH13 proteins were expressed and studied in CHO and HEK293 cells, respectively. Sequencing identified seven rare missense CDH13 variants, one of which was novel. By genotyping, we found a cumulative frequency of these rare variants of 2.9% in controls and 3.2% in ADHD patients, implying that much larger samples are needed to obtain adequate power to study the genetic association between ADHD and rare CDH13 variants. Protein expression and localization studies in CHO cells and HEK293 cells showed that the wild type and mutant proteins were processed according to the canonical processing of GPI-anchored proteins. Although some of the mutations were predicted to severely affect protein secondary structure and stability, no significant differences were observed between the expression levels and distribution of the wild type and mutant proteins in either HEK293 or CHO cells. This is the first study where the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in patients and controls is reported and also where the functional properties of these variants are examined. Further investigations are needed to conclude whether CDH13 is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD or other conditions. PMID:23936508

  3. Functional properties of rare missense variants of human CDH13 found in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients.

    PubMed

    Mavroconstanti, Thegna; Johansson, Stefan; Winge, Ingeborg; Knappskog, Per M; Haavik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The CDH13 gene codes for T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored protein with cell adhesion properties that is highly expressed in the brain and cardiovascular system. Previous studies have suggested that CDH13 may be a promising candidate gene for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aims of this study were to identify, functionally characterize, and estimate the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in adult ADHD patients and controls. We performed sequencing of the CDH13 gene in 169 Norwegian adult ADHD patients and 63 controls and genotyping of the identified variants in 641 patients and 668 controls. Native and green fluorescent protein tagged wild type and variant CDH13 proteins were expressed and studied in CHO and HEK293 cells, respectively. Sequencing identified seven rare missense CDH13 variants, one of which was novel. By genotyping, we found a cumulative frequency of these rare variants of 2.9% in controls and 3.2% in ADHD patients, implying that much larger samples are needed to obtain adequate power to study the genetic association between ADHD and rare CDH13 variants. Protein expression and localization studies in CHO cells and HEK293 cells showed that the wild type and mutant proteins were processed according to the canonical processing of GPI-anchored proteins. Although some of the mutations were predicted to severely affect protein secondary structure and stability, no significant differences were observed between the expression levels and distribution of the wild type and mutant proteins in either HEK293 or CHO cells. This is the first study where the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in patients and controls is reported and also where the functional properties of these variants are examined. Further investigations are needed to conclude whether CDH13 is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD or other conditions. PMID:23936508

  4. Abnormal centroparietal ERP response in predominantly medication-naive adolescent boys with ADHD during both response inhibition and execution.

    PubMed

    Gow, Rachel V; Rubia, Katya; Taylor, Eric; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Sumich, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal event-related potential (ERP) responses have been reported in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a medication history compared with in healthy controls during tasks of response control and conflict inhibition. This study reports neurophysiologic correlates of a task dependent on these cognitive functions in a large, predominantly medication naive, group of adolescents with ADHD compared with that in healthy age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis. Fifty-four adolescents with ADHD and 55 healthy comparisons completed a hybrid conflict and response inhibition Go/NoGo ERP task. The performance data showed that children with ADHD compared with controls had deficits in both the inhibitory measures (higher commission errors) and the Go process of the task (slower reaction times and enhanced omission errors). The ERP data showed significant impairments in brain function in the ADHD relative to the control group for late, endogenous ERPs (N2, P3a, and P3b), whereas no group differences were found for the earlier P200. All findings remained when a minority of children with medication history was excluded. Furthermore, deficits were not specific to the inhibitory processes of the task but were equally observed during the execution functions. Group differences were particularly pronounced over central and centroparietal sites across all time points, presumably reflecting the midline attention system mediated by anterior and posterior cingulate that is important for generic, condition-independent visual-spatial attention and response selection processes. The findings demonstrate that adolescents with ADHD have abnormal ERP responses not only during inhibitory, but also execution-related processes and, furthermore, that these deficits are independent from medication history. PMID:22469685

  5. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  6. Upregulated GABA Inhibitory Function in ADHD Children with Child Behavior Checklist–Dysregulation Profile: 123I-Iomazenil SPECT Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Chiba, Hiromi; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Croarkin, Paul E.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-01-01

    The child behavior checklist–dysregulation profile (CBCL–DP) refers to a pattern of elevated scores on the attention problems, aggression, and anxiety/depression subscales of the child behavior checklist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of GABA inhibitory neurons in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dysregulation assessed with a dimensional measure. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 35 children with ADHD using 123I-iomazenil, which binds with high affinity to benzodiazepine receptors. Iomazenil binding activities were assessed with respect to the presence or absence of a threshold CBCL–DP (a score ≥210 for the sum of the three subscales: Attention Problems, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression). We then attempted to identify which CBCL–DP subscale explained the most variance with respect to SPECT data, using “age,” “sex,” and “history of maltreatment” as covariates. Significantly higher iomazenil binding activity was seen in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) of ADHD children with a significant CBCL–DP. The Anxiety/Depression subscale on the CBCL had significant effects on higher iomazenil binding activity in the left superior frontal, middle frontal, and temporal regions, as well as in the PCC. The present brain SPECT findings suggest that GABAergic inhibitory neurons may play an important role in the neurobiology of the CBCL–DP, in children with ADHD. PMID:26082729

  7. Promoting Family and School Success for Children With ADHD: Strengthening Relationships While Building Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with ADHD typically experience significant impairment at home and school, and their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers often are strained. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD generally focus on behavior change in one environment at a time (i.e., either home or school); however, unisystemic interventions generally are not sufficient. The purpose of this article is to describe a family–school intervention for children with ADHD. In addition, program strategies and theoretical bases are discussed. PMID:22013285

  8. Structured dyadic behavior therapy processes for ADHD intervention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F

    2014-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed. PMID:24377401

  9. Service needs of families with children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Judy; Leo, Michael C; Perrin, Nancy; Hatton, Diane

    2005-08-01

    This article describes service use, perceived helpfulness of services, and the services requested of 157 families living with a child or adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specifically asks if service use and service need is a function of certain social demographic factors. Whereas these data suggest that ADHD is a fairly universal experience, as indicated by the high rate of service use across ethnic groups, income status, sex, and family composition, single-mother families used the most services, Hispanic families used the fewest, and families with boys with ADHD used more services than families with girls with ADHD. Income was not a significant factor in any services used or services requested. This study lends strength to the argument that more specialized services for certain groups are needed in venues with local community services, such as schools, where the majority of these children and families are already seeking help. PMID:16287828

  10. Diet, ADHD & Behavior: A Quarter-Century Review [and] A Parent's Guide to Diet, ADHD & Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael F.; Schardt, David

    This report reviews 23 controlled studies of the effect of food dyes and other dietary constituents on the behavior of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or other behavioral problems. Findings indicate 17 of the 23 studies found evidence that some children's behavior significantly worsens after they consume artificial…

  11. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found…

  12. Classification of ADHD children through multimodal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dai, Dai; Wang, Jieqiong; Hua, Jing; He, Huiguang

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection, and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL). The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic. PMID:22969710

  13. Exogenous orienting of visual-spatial attention in ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rodrigo; López, Vladimir; Carrasco, Ximena; Anllo-Vento, Lourdes; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Visual spatial orienting of attention towards exogenous cues has been one of the attentional functions considered to be spared in ADHD. Here we present a design in which 60 (30 ADHD) children, age: 10.9±1.4, were asked to covertly orient their attention to one or two (out of four) cued locations, and search for a target stimulus in one of these locations, while recording behavioral responses and EEG/ERP. In all conditions, ADHD children showed delayed reaction times and poorer behavioral performance. They also exhibited larger cue-elicited P2 but reduced CNV in the preparation stage. Larger amplitude of CNV predicted better performance in the task. Target-elicited N1 and selection negativity were also reduced in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD. Groups also differed in the early and late P3 time-windows. The present results suggest that exogenous orienting of attention could be dysfunctional in ADHD under certain conditions. This limitation is not necessarily caused by an impairment of the orienting process itself, but instead by a difficulty in maintaining the relevant information acquired during the early preparation stage through the target processing stage, when it is really needed. PMID:23200900

  14. Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

  15. Impact of ADHD symptoms on autism spectrum disorder symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:23973801

  16. EEG Power Spectrum Analysis in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kamida, Akira; Shimabayashi, Kenta; Oguri, Masayoshi; Takamori, Toshihiro; Ueda, Naoyuki; Koyanagi, Yuki; Sannomiya, Naoko; Nagira, Haruki; Ikunishi, Saeko; Hattori, Yuiko; Sato, Kengo; Fukuda, Chisako; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pathological condition that is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) power differences between children with ADHD and healthy control children. Methods EEGs were recorded as part of routine medical care received by 80 children with ADHD aged 4–15 years at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in Tottori University Hospital. Additionally, we recorded in 59 control children aged 4–15 years after obtaining informed consent. Specifically, awake EEG signals were recorded from each child using the international 10–20 system, and we used ten 3-s epochs on the EEG power spectrum to calculate the powers of individual EEG frequency bands. Results The powers of different EEG bands were significantly higher in the frontal brain region of those in the ADHD group compared with the control group. In addition, the power of the beta band in the ADHD group was significantly higher in all brain regions, except for the occipital region, compared with control children. With regard to developmental changes, the power of the alpha band in the occipital region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups, with slightly lower power in the ADHD group. Additionally, the intergroup difference decreased in children aged 11 years or older. As with the alpha band in the occipital region, the beta band in the frontal region showed an age-dependent decrease in both groups. Unlike the alpha band, the power of the beta band was higher in the ADHD group than in the control group for children of all ages. Conclusion The observed intergroup differences in EEG power may provide insight into the brain function of children with ADHD. PMID:27493489

  17. The Effect of Methylphenidate on Neurological Soft Signs in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hrtanek, Igor; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Snircova, Eva; Kulhan, Tomas; Farsky, Ivan; Nosalova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurological soft signs are very common in children with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the first line medication of this disorder is methylphenidate. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of methylphenidate on the neurological soft signs in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD depending on the dose of methylphenidate. Methods Thirty five patients with ADHD were investigated by the ADHD RS-IV parent version questionnaire and the Revised Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs before treatment adjustment and after four weeks of methylphenidate medication. The changes in hyperactivity symptomatology, neurological soft signs during therapy and the influence of the methylphenidate dose were statistically analyzed. Results A significant decrease in hyperactivity symptomatology was found after one month of methylphenidate medication (p=0.0001) and significant decrease in neurological soft signs was demonstrated in 21 from a total of 26 items (p<0.05). Correlation analysis showed no relationship between the dose of methylphenidate and the improvement of neurological soft signs. Similarly, the improvement of ADHD symptomatology had not correlation with the improvement of neurological soft signs. Conclusion The study demonstrated the positive effect of methylphenidate on neurological soft signs in which improvement occurred independently of the dose, indicating that their progress may be due to methylphenidate treatment of any dose. The unrelated effect of methylphenidate on the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurological soft signs suggest that methylphenidate might be useful in the therapy of clumsy child syndrome and in ADHD treatment of non-responders. PMID:26508967

  18. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy. PMID:26266467

  19. ADHD-200 Global Competition: diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew R G; Sidhu, Gagan S; Greiner, Russell; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Bastani, Meysam; Silverstone, Peter H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify) that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined (ADHD-C) type, or ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ), without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52%) as well as the highest score (124 of 195) of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data. PMID:23060754

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one. PMID:26879095

  1. Absence of linkage of apparently single gene mediated ADHD with the human syntenic region of the mouse mutant coloboma

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, E.J.; Rogan, P.K.; Domoto, M.

    1995-12-18

    Attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is a complex biobehavioral phenotype which affects up to 8% of the general population and often impairs social, academic, and job performance. Its origins are heterogeneous, but a significant genetic component is suggested by family and twin studies. The murine strain, coloboma, displays a spontaneously hyperactive phenotype that is responsive to dextroamphetamine and has been proposed as a genetic model for ADHD. Coloboma is a semi-dominant mutation that is caused by a hemizygous deletion of the SNAP-25 and other genes on mouse chromosome 2q. To test the possibility that the human homolog of the mouse coloboma gene(s) could be responsible for ADHD, we have carried out linkage studies with polymorphic markers in the region syntenic to coloboma (20p11-p12). Five families in which the pattern of inheritance of ADHD appears to be autosomal dominant were studied. Segregation analysis of the traits studied suggested that the best fitting model was a sex-influenced, single gene, Mendelian pattern. Several genetic models were evaluated based on estimates of penetrance, phenocopy rate, and allele frequency derived from our patient population and those of other investigators. No significant linkage was detected between the disease locus and markers spanning this chromosome 20 interval. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  3. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  4. Understanding ADHD: Our Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahy, Tammy Lynn

    2004-01-01

    No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…

  5. Attention, Task Difficulty, and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2005-01-01

    Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

  6. ADHD: From Intervention to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaban, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurological disorder, is not formally recognized in the educational systems across Canada. As a result, there is little opportunity for collaboration or sharing of information between the medical/research community and the educational system. Because ADHD is not formally identified,…

  7. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  8. Parent-child interaction of mothers with depression and their children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-chin; Lin, Keh-chung; Robson, Deborah; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Niew, Wern-ing

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that may have a chronic and pervasive impact on the child's function and cause long-term stress to parents. A higher rate of depression is associated with mothers of children with ADHD. This observational study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal depression and the child's ADHD on the quality of the parent-child interaction in children with ADHD and their mothers with depression. The study participants comprised 39 mother-son dyads including children with ADHD and mothers with depression, children with ADHD and mothers without depression, and children without ADHD and mothers without depression. The Specific Affect Coding System, 20-code version was used to code interactional affect, including positive engagement, negative engagement, negative disengagement, and neural affect. There were no statistically significant group-by-context interaction effects or group effects on all affective variables between the group of children with ADHD and mothers without depression and the group of children without ADHD and mothers without depression. Stimulant medication may account for these nonsignificant findings. No significant difference of positive affect between neutral and conflict-solving contexts was observed in depressed mothers whose children were diagnosed as ADHD. Children with ADHD whose mothers were depressed were less positive in their parent-child interaction compared with children in the other groups. Maternal depression may play an important role in the affective presentation of dyads of children with ADHD and mothers with depression. Implications for clinical practice and future research are provided. PMID:23123879

  9. ERP Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control in Treatment-Naïve Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Brunner, Jan Ferenc; Endestad, Tor; Aasen, Ida Emilia S; Kropotov, Juri; Knight, Robert Thomas; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female) differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female) in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP) indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV), and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3) derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients. However, the patients had attenuated Go P3 and NoGoP3 amplitudes relative to controls, suggesting reduced allocation of attentional resources to processes involved in response control. The patients also had a higher rate of Go signal omission errors, but no other performance decrements compared with controls. Reduced Go P3 and NoGo P3 amplitudes were associated with poorer task performance, particularly in the ADHD group. Notably, the ERPs were not associated with self-reported mood or anxiety. The results provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced effortful engagement of attentional resources to both Go and NoGo signals when reactive response control is needed. The absence of group differences in ERP components indexing proactive control points to impairments in specific aspects of cognitive processes in an untreated adult ADHD cohort. The associations between ERPs and task performance provided additional support for the altered electrophysiological responses. PMID:27448275

  10. ERP Correlates of Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control in Treatment-Naïve Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Endestad, Tor; Aasen, Ida Emilia S.; Kropotov, Juri; Knight, Robert Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female) differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female) in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP) indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV), and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3) derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients. However, the patients had attenuated Go P3 and NoGoP3 amplitudes relative to controls, suggesting reduced allocation of attentional resources to processes involved in response control. The patients also had a higher rate of Go signal omission errors, but no other performance decrements compared with controls. Reduced Go P3 and NoGo P3 amplitudes were associated with poorer task performance, particularly in the ADHD group. Notably, the ERPs were not associated with self-reported mood or anxiety. The results provide electrophysiological evidence for reduced effortful engagement of attentional resources to both Go and NoGo signals when reactive response control is needed. The absence of group differences in ERP components indexing proactive control points to impairments in specific aspects of cognitive processes in an untreated adult ADHD cohort. The associations between ERPs and task performance provided additional support for the altered electrophysiological responses. PMID:27448275

  11. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties. PMID:25246134

  12. Strategy Selection in ADHD Characteristics Children: A Study in Arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Re, Anna Maria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-03-26

    Objective: It has been argued that ADHD characteristics children have difficulties in selecting the best strategy when they accomplish cognitive tasks. The detrimental influence of these poor strategy skills may be crucial for several aspects of academic achievement such as mathematical learning. Method: Fourth- and fifth-grade children with ADHD symptoms and matched controls were asked to select the better of two rounding strategies in a computational estimation task (i.e., finding the best estimate of two-digit addition problems). Results: (a) Both control and ADHD children correctly executed a selected strategy, (b) ADHD children selected the best strategy less often than controls, (c) ADHD took more time to estimate sums of two-digit addition problems and provided poorer estimates, and (d) different factors predicted best strategy selections in each group. Conclusion: These findings have important implications for further understanding the sources of differences in cognitive performance between ADHD and control children. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22451509

  13. Confronting ADHD in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…

  14. Socioeconomic Associations with ADHD: Findings from a Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Russell, Ginny

    2015-01-01

    Background Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds are at greater risk of a range of negative outcomes throughout their life course than their peers; however the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status relates to different health outcomes in childhood are as yet unclear. Aims The current study investigates the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and investigates putative mediators of this association in a longitudinal population-based birth cohort in the UK. Methods Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used (n = 8,132) to explore the relationship between different measures of socioeconomic status at birth-3 years and their association with a diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. A multiple mediation model was utilised to examine factors occurring between these ages that may mediate the association. Results Financial difficulties, housing tenure, maternal age at birth of child and marital status were significantly associated with an outcome of ADHD, such that families either living in financial difficulty, living in council housing, with younger or single mothers’ were more likely to have a child with a research diagnosis of ADHD at age 7. Financial difficulties was the strongest predictor of ADHD (OR 2.23 95% CI 1.57-3.16). In the multiple mediation model, involvement in parenting at age 6 and presence of adversity at age 2-4 mediated 27.8% of the association. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage, conceptualised as reported difficulty in affording basic necessities (e.g. heating, food) has both direct and indirect impacts on a child’s risk of ADHD. Lower levels of parent involvement mediates this association, as does presence of adversity; with children exposed to adversity and those with less involved parents being at an increased risk of having ADHD. This study highlights the importance of home and environmental factors as small but

  15. Parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G; Barkley, R A; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L

    2001-12-01

    Eighty-seven male teens (ages 12-18 years) with ADHD/ODD and their parents were compared to 32 male teens and their parents in a community control (CC) group on mother, father, and teen ratings of parent-teen conflict and communication quality, parental self-reports of psychological adjustment, and direct observations of parent-teen problem-solving interactions during a neutral and conflict discussion. Parents and teens in the ADHD/ODD group rated themselves as having significantly more issues involving parent-teen conflict, more anger during these conflict discussions, and more negative communication generally, and used more aggressive conflict tactics with each other than did parents and teens in the CC group. During a neutral discussion, only the ADHD/ODD teens demonstrated more negative behavior. During the conflict discussion, however, the mothers, fathers, and teens in the ADHD/ODD group displayed more negative behavior, and the mothers and teens showed less positive behavior than did participants in the CC group. Differences in conflicts related to sex of parent were evident on only a few measures. Both mother and father self-rated hostility contributed to the level of mother-teen conflict whereas father self-rated hostility and anxiety contributed to father-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by level of teen ODD and ADHD symptoms. Results replicated past studies of mother-child interactions in ADHD/ODD children, extended these results to teens with these disorders, showed that greater conflict also occurs in father-teen interactions, and found that degree of parental hostility, but not ADHD symptoms, further contributed to levels of parent-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by severity of teen ADHD and ODD symptoms. PMID:11761288

  16. [Alternative agents used in ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, Frank; Dück, Alexander; Reis, Olaf; Buchmann, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is, with a prevalence of 2% to 6%, one of the most common neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adolescents, persisting into adulthood. Comorbidity and psychosocial circumstances enter into the choice of intervention strategies. Several agents have been demonstrated effective in treating individuals with ADHD. Direct or indirect attenuation of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission appears closely related to both the stimulant and nonstimulant medications efficacious in ADHD. However, important differences concerning efficacy and side effects exist both between and with the specific classes of agents like neuroleptics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, alpha-agonists, beta-blockers, buspiron, l-dopa, melatonin, pycnogenol, zinc, magnesium, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and homeopathy. Elucidating the various mechanisms of action of ADHD medications may lead to better choices in matching potential responses to the characteristics of individuals. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected complementary and alternative medicine therapies for ADHD in childhood and adolescence. PMID:19105161

  17. Organizational-skills interventions in the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Graham, Amanda J

    2008-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience problems with temporal and materials organization. These difficulties remain prominent throughout development. For children, organizational problems are most apparent in the school setting and result in impairments such as lost and forgotten homework assignments and inadequate planning for tests. Temporal aspects of organization tend to be most salient for adults with ADHD and manifest as procrastination and missed appointments and deadlines. Skills and strategy training interventions have been developed to address the organizational problems of children and adults with ADHD. Patients are taught systems for managing their time and materials more effectively. Contingency management is often used in conjunction with organizational skills training to promote the use of organizational skills and their generalization. Organizational skills interventions have been evaluated as standalone interventions and part of multicomponent interventions for children, adolescents and adults with ADHD. These interventions are associated with significant improvements in the organization of materials, homework management, time management and planning. There is also some evidence to suggest that organizational improvements lead to reductions in ADHD symptoms and gains in academic functioning. Additional research using randomized controlled research designs and long-term follow-up evaluation is necessary before organizational interventions may be considered established evidence-based interventions for patients with ADHD. PMID:18928347

  18. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume. PMID:20929114

  19. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. PMID:23870443

  20. The Impact of Financial Reward Contingencies on Cognitive Function Profiles in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Ivo; Höpcke, Cornelia; Berger, Christoph; Wandschneider, Roland; Herpertz, Sabine C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well established that cognitive performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is affected by reward and that key deficits associated with the disorder may thereby be attenuated or even compensated, this phenomenon in adults with ADHD has thus far not been addressed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the motivating effect of financial reward on task performance in adults with ADHD by focusing on the domains of executive functioning, attention, time perception, and delay aversion. Methods We examined male and female adults aged 18–40 years with ADHD (n = 38) along with a matched control group (n = 40) using six well-established experimental paradigms. Results Impaired performance in the ADHD group was observed for stop-signal omission errors, n-back accuracy, reaction time variability in the continuous performance task, and time reproduction accuracy, and reward normalized time reproduction accuracy. Furthermore, when rewarded, subjects with ADHD exhibited longer reaction times and fewer false positives in the continuous performance task, which suggests the use of strategies to prevent impulsivity errors. Conclusions Taken together, our results support the existence of both cognitive and motivational mechanisms for the disorder, which is in line with current models of ADHD. Furthermore, our data suggest cognitive strategies of “stopping and thinking” as a possible underlying mechanism for task improvement that seems to be mediated by reward, which highlights the importance of the interaction between motivation and cognition in adult ADHD. PMID:23840573

  1. The role of ASTN2 variants in childhood and adult ADHD, comorbid disorders and associated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Lempp, Thomas; Nguyen, T Trang; Jacob, Christian P; Weissflog, Lena; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Previous linkage and genome wide association (GWA) studies in ADHD indicated astrotactin 2 (ASTN2) as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASTN2 plays a key role in glial-guided neuronal migration. To investigate whether common variants in ASTN2 contribute to ADHD disorder risk, we tested 63 SNPs spanning ASTN2 for association with ADHD and specific comorbid disorders in two samples: 171 families of children with ADHD and their parents (N = 592), and an adult sample comprising 604 adult ADHD cases and 974 controls. The C-allele of rs12376789 in ASTN2 nominally increased the risk for ADHD in the trio sample (p = 0.025). This was not observed in the adult case-control sample alone, but retained in the combined sample (nominal p = 0.030). Several other SNPs showed nominally significant association with comorbid disorders, especially anxiety disorder, in the childhood and adult ADHD samples. Some ASTN2 variants were nominally associated with personality traits in the adult ADHD sample and overlapped with risk alleles for comorbid disorders in childhood. None of the findings survived correction for multiple testing, thus, results do not support a major role of common variants in ASTN2 in the pathogenesis of ADHD, its comorbid disorders or ADHD associated personality traits. PMID:27138430

  2. The complexity of ADHD: diagnosis and treatment of the adult patient with comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Weiss, Margaret; Stein, Mark A

    2007-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing but usually treatable condition. Popular culture propagates the myth that ADHD recedes with age; this is not the case. Although it is common, <20% of adults with ADHD are diagnosed or treated. Adults with ADHD show significant comorbidities with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use, oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorders, sleep problems, and learning disabilities. However, symptoms that result from ADHD, such as mood symptoms or lability, are often mistaken for comorbid disorders. Comorbidity with ADHD impacts treatment compliance, treatment response, and patient insight. Insufficient data on the interaction between ADHD and comorbidities impedes proper diagnosis and treatment. Better clinical tools for assessing these conditions are needed. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatments for adult ADHD include stimulants, dexmethylphenidate, and the nonstimulant atomoxetine. Effect sizes of approved medicines at approved doses are half those seen in children. Adults may also need longer duration of medication effects than children. Short-acting stimulants are likely to result in poorer adherence and have a higher risk for diversion or abuse. Risk of abuse is a major concern; stimulant treatments are controlled substances, and children with ADHD show increased risk of substance abuse. Psychosocial interventions may be beneficial in treating both ADHD and comorbidities.In this expert roundtable supplement, Margaret Weiss, MD, PhD, presents a comprehensive overview of complications surrounding differential diagnosis in adults with ADHD. Next, Mark A. Stein, PhD, reviews evaluation, comorbidity, and development of a treatment plan in this population. Finally, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD, provides a discussion on the pharmacologic options available for adults with ADHD, considering dosages specific to adults and common comorbidities. PMID:17667893

  3. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley, 2007; Nigg, 2001), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds particular relevance in light of recent work suggesting that ADHD/I might be better characterized as a disorder separate from ADHD/C (Diamond, 2005; Milich et al., 2001). The current paper describes major findings in the area of inhibitory performance in ADHD and highlights recent research suggesting important areas of divergence between the subtypes. In particular, preliminary findings point to potential differences between the subtypes with respect to how children process important contextual information from the environment, such as preparatory cues that precede responses and rewarding or punishing feedback following behavior. These suggestive findings are discussed in the context of treatment implications, which could involve differential intervention approaches for each subtype targeted to the specific deficit profiles that characterize each group of children. Future research avenues aimed toward building a sound theoretical model of ADHD/I and a better understanding of its relation to ADHD/C are also presented. Specifically, investigators are encouraged to continue studying the complex interplay between inhibitory and attentional processes, as this area seems particularly promising in its ability to improve our understanding of the potentially distinct pathologies underlying the ADHD subtypes. PMID:19072751

  4. A Review of Co-Morbid Depression in Pediatric ADHD: Etiologies, Phenomenology, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews the literature and highlights the need for further research regarding the phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of co-morbid depression in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD). Depression occurs in youths with ADHD at a significantly higher rate than in youths without ADHD. Youths with ADHD and depression together have a more severe course of psychopathology and a higher risk of long-term impairment and suicide than youths with either disorder alone. Assessment of such co-morbid depression is complicated by overlapping symptoms with ADHD and with other disorders that commonly occur with ADHD. Depressive disorders typically emerge several years after the onset of ADHD and may arise from environmental difficulties associated with chronic ADHD that interact with genetic risks as the child gets older. Despite a scarcity of well-designed treatment studies for youths with ADHD and co-morbid depression, there is increasing preliminary evidence for the role of stimulants, selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors, bupropion, and atomoxetine to target either or both disorders. There is also some indirect evidence for the benefit of combining pharmacological treatments with psychosocial interventions that specifically target relevant environmental factors and functional impairments. PMID:19108661

  5. Cognitive Load Differentially Impacts Response Control in Girls and Boys with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Rosch, Keri S

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) consistently show impaired response control, including deficits in response inhibition and increased intrasubject variability (ISV) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. However, significantly less research has examined factors that may influence response control in individuals with ADHD, such as task or participant characteristics. The current study extends the literature by examining the impact of increasing cognitive demands on response control in a large sample of 81children with ADHD (40 girls) and 100 TD children (47 girls), ages 8-12 years. Participants completed a simple Go/No-Go (GNG) task with minimal cognitive demands, and a complex GNG task with increased cognitive load. Results showed that increasing cognitive load differentially impacted response control (commission error rate and tau, an ex-Gaussian measure of ISV) for girls, but not boys, with ADHD compared to same-sex TD children. Specifically, a sexually dimorphic pattern emerged such that boys with ADHD demonstrated higher commission error rate and tau on both the simple and complex GNG tasks as compared to TD boys, whereas girls with ADHD did not differ from TD girls on the simple GNG task, but showed higher commission error rate and tau on the complex GNG task. These findings suggest that task complexity influences response control in children with ADHD in a sexually dimorphic manner. The findings have substantive implications for the pathophysiology of ADHD in boys versus girls with ADHD. PMID:25624066

  6. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P.; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD. PMID:27445873

  7. Maternal psychiatric history is associated with the symptom severity of ADHD in offspring.

    PubMed

    López Seco, F; Aguado-Gracia, J; Mundo-Cid, P; Acosta-García, S; Martí-Serrano, S; Gaviria, A M; Vilella, E; Masana-Marín, A

    2015-04-30

    Controversy exists about the role of parent psychopathology in persistence and severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in their children. Here we aimed to analyse the potential association between the severity of ADHD symptoms in children and the presence of psychiatric and ADHD symptoms in their biological parents. Seventy-three triads of children and their parents who were in active treatment for their diagnosed ADHD were evaluated in our Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centers. The mental health of the parents was also assessed. The general psychopathology of the parents was evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and symptoms of hyperactivity were examined using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS v.1.1). The severity of symptoms in children was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). Variables that could have affected the clinical development of ADHD such as sex, evolution time, age, academic level and the presence of comorbidities were controlled. The severity of the symptoms in children with ADHD was significantly related to the psychiatric history of their mother, the younger age of the child and the presence of a comorbid conduct disorder in the child. We discussed the importance of screening for parental psychopathology in clinical practice. PMID:25747683

  8. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  9. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and the Adult ADHD Brain: A Neuropsychotherapeutic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Katharina; Lam, Alexandra P; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD. It is assumed that medication ameliorates ADHD symptoms by improving the functioning of the brain areas affected in the condition. However, side effects, contraindications, or non-response can limit the effectiveness of a psychopharmacological treatment for ADHD. It is therefore necessary to develop non-pharmacological interventions that target neuronal mechanisms associated with the condition in the same way as pharmacological treatment. We think that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention could help patients with ADHD to regulate impaired brain functioning and thereby reduce ADHD symptoms. In this paper, we highlight the mechanisms of such mindfulness meditation, and thus provide a rationale for further research and treatment development from a neuropsychotherapeutic perspective. We conclude that mindfulness meditation employed as a neuropsychotherapeutic intervention in therapy is a promising treatment approach in ADHD. PMID:27445873

  10. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD. PMID:25346392

  11. Dopamine β-hydroxylase gene associates with stroop color-word task performance in Han Chinese children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ning; Shuai, Lan; Chen, Yun; Liu, Lu; Li, Hai-mei; Li, Ze-hua; Yang, Li; Qian, Qiu-jin; Tang, Yi-lang; Cubells, Joseph F; Wang, Yu-feng

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive deficits observed in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are candidate endophenotypes for genetic association studies. Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine, and its activity is under strong genetic control. Prior studies suggest association between ADHD and DBH gene. The present study examined associations between a putative functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at DBH with performance on the Stroop task in patients with ADHD and in healthy control subjects. A total of 812 Han Chinese youths with DSM-IV ADHD and 233 unaffected controls were included in the study. Comprehensive phenotype data were collected, including performance on a series of Stroop interference tests examining inhibition of response to interfering stimuli. DBH SNP -1021C/T was genotyped using the 5'-exonuclease (TaqMan®) method. Compared to unaffected controls, children with ADHD performed significantly worse in all categories of the Stroop test. In ADHD cases, DBH genotype at -1021C/T significantly associates with reaction times of incongruent color word parts but not the interference times, with TT genotype performing significantly better in both reaction time and interference time than other two genotype groups. DBH genotype did not associate with cognitive performance in unaffected controls or in the combined group. DBH genotype at -1021C/T associates with differences in performance on the Stroop task in children with ADHD. PMID:21761554

  12. External validation of bifactor model of ADHD: explaining heterogeneity in psychiatric comorbidity, cognitive control, and personality trait profiles within DSM-IV ADHD.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T

    2011-11-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, and California Q-Sort. Children completed the Stop and Trail-Making Task. Specific inattention was associated with depression/withdrawal, slower cognitive task performance, introversion, agreeableness, and high reactive control; specific hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with rule-breaking/aggressive behavior, social problems, errors during set-shifting, extraversion, disagreeableness, and low reactive control. It is concluded that the bifactor model provides better explanation of heterogeneity within ADHD than DSM-IV ADHD symptom counts or subtypes. PMID:21735050

  13. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  14. Test-Taking Skills in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gathje, Rebecca A.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Gordon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    College students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often request and receive extended time to complete high-stakes exams and classroom tests. This study examined the performances and behaviors of college students on computerized simulations of high-stakes exams. Thirty-five college students with ADHD were compared to 185 typical…

  15. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  16. Resilience and Well-Being in College Students with and without a Diagnosis of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmshurst, Linda; Peele, Marella; Wilmshurst, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examines psychological well-being and self-concept in college students diagnosed with ADHD. Method: We surveyed 17 undergraduate college students with ADHD and 19 undergraduate controls concerning academic and emotional support received from family and friends. All students completed the Connor's Continuous Performance Test…

  17. Accuracy of Self-Evaluation in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from a Driving Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knouse, Laura E.; Bagwell, Catherine L.; Barkley, Russell A.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2005-01-01

    Research on children with ADHD indicates an association with inaccuracy of self-appraisal. This study examines the accuracy of self-evaluations in clinic-referred adults diagnosed with ADHD. Self-assessments and performance measures of driving in naturalistic settings and on a virtual-reality driving simulator are used to assess accuracy of…

  18. Electrophysiological Correlates of Semantic Processing during Encoding of Neutral and Emotional Pictures in Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Lenz, Daniel; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Santel, Stephanie; Rellum, Thomas; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the relevance of semantic processing and stimulus salience for memory performance in young ADHD patients and healthy control participants. 18 male ADHD patients and 15 healthy control children and adolescents participated in an ERP study during a visual memory paradigm with two different encoding tasks requiring…

  19. fMRI of Intrasubject Variability in ADHD: Anomalous Premotor Activity with Prefrontal Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskauer, Stacy J.; Simmonds, Daniel J.; Caffo, Brian S.; Denckla, Martha B.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2008-01-01

    Neural correlates of intrasubject variability (ISV) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing(TD) children performing simple go/no-go tasks. Results concluded that in children with ADHD, dysfunction of premotor systems resulted in increased…

  20. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  1. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Boys with ADHD across Tests of Motor and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosch, Keri Shiels; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased intrasubject variability (ISV), or short-term, within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance is consistently found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with impairments in motor control, particularly in boys. The results of the few studies that have examined variability in self-generated…

  2. Engaging ADHD Students in Tasks with Hand Gestures: A Pedagogical Possibility for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the effects of teachers' speech and hand gestures on the task performances of students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-five 7 1/2-year-old students clinically diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. The students were asked to solve three sets of puzzles. The teachers supported the students in…

  3. ERPs Associated with Monitoring and Evaluation of Monetary Reward and Punishment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Meel, Catharina S.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Luman, Marjolein; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose abnormalities in the response to behavioural contingencies. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the monitoring and subsequent evaluation of performance feedback resulting in either reward or punishment in children with ADHD (N =…

  4. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  5. Performance feedback, paraeducators, and literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westover, Jennifer M; Martin, Emma J

    2014-12-01

    Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students with significant disabilities, strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine friendships, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology, and future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, many educators lack the knowledge to design or implement appropriate evidence-based literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. Furthermore, students with significant disabilities often receive the majority of their instruction from paraeducators. This single-subject design study examined the effects of performance feedback on the delivery skills of paraeducators during systematic and explicit literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. The specific skills targeted for feedback were planned opportunities for student responses and correct academic responses. Findings suggested that delivery of feedback on performance resulted in increased pacing, accuracy in student responses, and subsequent attainment of literacy skills for students with significant disabilities. Implications for the use of performance feedback as an evaluation and training tool for increasing effective instructional practices are provided. PMID:25271082

  6. Promoting Family and School Success for Children with ADHD: Strengthening Relationships while Building Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with ADHD typically experience significant impairment at home and school, and their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers often are strained. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD generally focus on behavior change in one environment at a time (i.e., either home or school); however, unisystemic interventions generally are not…

  7. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.

    While it is acknowledged that there is no flawless measure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, a review of the literature reveals significant agreement in recommended assessment procedures. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. It begins with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, such as symptom…

  8. College Students with ADHD: Prescriptive Concepts for Best Practices in Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola O.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the second most endorsed disability among college populations today, totaling approximately 11%. ADHD causes significant problems in education and social and occupational functioning of college students as well as in their postcollege work environment. Although the literature is replete with…

  9. Cross-Age Peer Coaching: Enhancing the Peer Interactions of Children Exhibiting Symptoms of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardo, Brigid A.; DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Hojnoski, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can experience social difficulties. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of cross-age peer coaching on social behaviors of first graders with significant symptoms of ADHD using a multiple baseline design. Four students who met criteria…

  10. Patterns of Behavioral Adjustment and Maladjustment in Mental Retardation: Comparison of Children with and without ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David; Loveland, Katherine A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Faria, Laura P.; Azzam, Pierre N.; Hentges, Beth A.; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared the behavioral adjustment of 48 children (mean age=11) with mental retardation and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 47 children with mental retardation. The children with ADHD had significantly more symptoms of depression, family conflict, noncompliance, anxiety, hyperactivity, inadequate social skills, and…

  11. A Novel Group Therapy for Children with ADHD and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Wymbs, Fran A.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Belin, Peter J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Babocsai, Lysett; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Akinnusi, Opeolowa O.; Haak, Jenifer L.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: No psychosocial treatments have been developed for children with ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) despite the significant prevalence and morbidity of this combination. Therefore, the authors developed a novel treatment program for children with ADHD and SMD. Method: The novel therapy program integrates components of…

  12. Differentiating SLI from ADHD Using Children's Sentence Recall and Production of Past Tense Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    Measures of sentence recall and past tense marking were used to examine the similarities and differences between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with specific language impairment (SLI), and typically developing (TD) children. Both SLI and ADHD group means for sentence recall tasks were significantly lower…

  13. Symptomatic Improvement in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Weiss, Gabrielle; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypotheses that in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (1) symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and overall functioning are significantly improved by methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial treatment compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate…

  14. Literature Review: ADHD in Adults--A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Megan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD presents significant challenges to adults. The current review's goals are (a) to critically examine the current state of knowledge regarding ADHD in adults and (b) to provide clinicians with practice-friendly information regarding assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Method: Searches of PsycINFO and Medline were conducted, and…

  15. Adults with ADHD. An overview.

    PubMed

    Wender, P H; Wolf, L E; Wasserstein, J

    2001-06-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common, genetically transmitted neurological disorder, with onset in childhood, probably mediated by decreased brain dopaminergic functioning. The first author was one of the earliest to describe the persistence of symptoms into adulthood. Prevalence and natural history data suggest that of the 3 to 10% of children diagnosed with ADHD, one- to two-thirds (somewhere between 1 and 6% of the general population) continue to manifest appreciable ADHD symptoms into adult life. This paper describes how ADHD in adults can be readily diagnosed and treated, despite resembling or coexisting with other psychiatric disorders. The Wender Utah diagnostic criteria address adult characteristics of the disorder. Informant and patient interviews and rating scales are used to determine the psychiatric status of the patient as a child, make a retroactive diagnosis of childhood ADHD, and establish the current diagnosis of the adult. Stringent diagnosis is key to determining effective treatment. Dopamine agonist stimulant medications appear to be the most effective in treating ADHD. About 60% of patients receiving stimulant medication showed moderate-to-marked improvement, as compared with 10% of those receiving placebo. The core symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, mood lability, temper, disorganization, stress sensitivity, and impulsivity have been shown to respond to treatment with stimulant medications. Non-dopaminergic medications, such as the tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs have generally not been useful in adults with ADHD in the absence of depression or dysthymia. Pemoline is no longer approved for use in these patients, despite early favorable reports. Appropriate management of adult patients with ADHD is multimodal. Psychoeducation, counseling, supportive problem-directed therapy, behavioral intervention, coaching, cognitive remediation, and couples and family therapy are useful adjuncts to medication management

  16. Attention-related EEG markers in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Roland; Perroud, Nader; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Herrmann, François; Prada, Paco; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Deiber, Marie-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    ADHD status affects both bottom-up sensory processing and top-down attentional selection, impairing professional and social functioning. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of attention deficits in adult ADHD by examining the electrophysiological activities associated with bottom-up attentional cueing (temporal and spatial orienting of attention) and top-down control (conflict resolution). Continuous EEG was recorded in 21 adult ADHD patients (40.05±9.5 years) and 20 healthy adults (25.5±4 years) during performance of the Attention Network Test (ANT). We examined the cue and target-related P1, N1 and P3 components as well as the contingent negative variation (CNV) developing between cue and target. Oscillatory responses were analyzed in the alpha (8-13Hz) and beta (14-19Hz) frequency bands. ADHD patients performed similarly to controls but showed reduced P3 amplitude, larger early CNV decrementing over time, reduced preparatory activation in both alpha and beta bands, as well as flattened target-related posterior alpha and beta responses. As compared to controls, the inverted CNV pattern suggested peculiar preparatory processing in ADHD patients. The singular pattern of target-related beta response indicated increased inhibitory processes in the case of easier task resolution and more generally, the lack of association between conflict resolution speed and beta activity supported alternative executive processing in ADHD patients. Overall, the reduced activation of the functional networks devoted to bottom-up and top-down attention suggests that adult ADHD patients engage reduced cortical resources in this composite task, compatible with the cortical hypoarousal model. PMID:27178310

  17. Investigation of the relative significance of individual environmental parameters to sonar performance prediction uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding; Xu, Wen; Schmidt, Henrik

    2002-11-01

    A large part of sonar performance prediction uncertainty is associated with the uncertain ocean acoustic environment. Optimal in situ measurement strategy, i.e. adaptively capturing the most critical uncertain environmental parameters within operational constrains can minimize the sonar performance prediction uncertainty. Understanding the relative significance of individual environmental parameters to sonar performance prediction uncertainty is fundamental to the heuristics to determine the most critical environmental parameters. Based on this understanding, the optimal parametrization of ocean acoustic environments can be defined, which will significantly simplify the adaptively sampling pattern. As an example, the matched-field processing is used to localize an unknown sound source position in a realistic ocean environment. Typical shallow water environmental models are used with some of the properties being stochastic variables. The ratio of the main lobe peak to the maximum side lobe peak of the ambiguity function and the main lobe peak displacement due to mismatch are chosen as performance metrics, respectively, in two different scenarios. The relative significance of some environmental parameters such as sediment thickness, weights of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) has been computed. Some preliminary results are discussed.

  18. Childhood ADHD and Risk for Substance Dependence in Adulthood: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Killian, Jill M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. Objective This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Method Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. Results A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years, respectively). ADHD cases were more likely than controls to have a SUD diagnosed in adolescence and were more likely to have alcohol (adjusted OR 14.38, 95% CI 1.49–138.88) and drug (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.38–8.79) dependence in adulthood. The subgroup of participating ADHD cases who did not have SUD during adolescence were no more likely than controls to develop new onset alcohol dependence as adults, although they were significantly more likely to develop new onset drug dependence. Conclusions Our study found preliminary evidence that adults with childhood ADHD are more susceptible than peers to developing drug dependence, a disorder associated with neurological changes in the brain. The relationship between ADHD and

  19. Prevalence of neurological soft signs and their neuropsychological correlates in typically developing Chinese children and Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; McAlonan, Grainne M; Yang, Binrang; Lin, Li; Shum, David; Manschreck, Theo C

    2010-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of soft signs in 214 typically developing Chinese children and investigated whether soft signs are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this population. Chinese children with ADHD (N = 54) scored significantly higher than age-matched controls on all three soft signs subscales and motor coordination correlated significantly with Stroop interference. Logistic regression supported the utility of the soft sign scales in discriminating children with ADHD and controls. Children with ADHD had a significant excess of soft signs, which may be a useful marker of developmental disruption in this clinical condition. PMID:21038161

  20. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188

  1. ADHD, Methylphenidate, and Childhood Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; Plioplys, Sigita

    2016-06-01

    Investigators from the Department of Functional Neurology, Epileptology and Epilepsy Institute (IDEE), and the Lyon's University Hospital examined the clinical determinants of ADHD severity in children with epilepsy (CWE) along with the response to treatment with methylphenidate (MPH). PMID:27617408

  2. Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Sprich, Susan; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV psychiatric disorder associated with significant functional impairment in multiple domains. Although stimulant and other pharmacotherapy regimens have the most empirical support as treatments for ADHD in adults, many adults with the disorder continue to experience significant residual symptoms. In the present manuscript, we review the published studies examining group and individual psychosocial treatments for adult ADHD. We include a discussion of coaching interventions and how they differ from cognitive–behavioral therapy. We conclude that the available data support the use of structured, skills-based psychosocial interventions as a viable treatment for adults with residual symptoms of ADHD. Common elements across the various treatment packages include psychoeducation, training in concrete skills (e.g., organization and planning strategies) and emphasis on outside practice and maintenance of these strategies in daily life. These treatments, however, require further study for replication, extension and refinement. Finally, we suggest future directions for the application of psychosocial treatments to the problems of adults with ADHD. PMID:18928346

  3. Evidence that putative ADHD low risk alleles at SNAP25 may increase the risk of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, L S; Kendall, K; O'Donovan, M C; Owen, M J; Williams, N M

    2009-10-01

    Synaptosomal Associated Protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia by numerous neuropathological studies and genetic variation at SNAP25 has been reported to be associated with ADHD. Expression levels of the putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene DTNBP1 has been shown to influence the levels of SNAP25 in vitro. We undertook directed mutation screening of SNAP25 in UK schizophrenic cases followed by direct association analysis of all variants identified and identified known exonic SNPs that showed evidence for association (rs3746544 P = 0.004 OR = 1.26, rs8636 P = 0.003 OR = 1.27), although these SNPs are highly correlated (r(2) > 0.99). We additionally genotyped a further 31 tag SNPs spanning the SNAP25 locus and identified several independent SNPs that were nominally associated with schizophrenia (strongest association at rs3787283, P = 0.006, OR = 1.25) however, due to the number of tests performed no SNP met experiment-wise significance (minimum permuted P-value = 0.1). Post hoc analysis revealed that the SNPs nominally associated with schizophrenia (rs3787283, rs3746544) were the same as those previously demonstrated to be associated with ADHD but with the opposite alleles, allowing the intriguing hypothesis that genetic variation at SNAP25 may be differentially associated with both schizophrenia and ADHD. PMID:19132710

  4. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms and Interhemispheric Interaction in Adults: A Dimensional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N = 112) completed Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and letter matching reaction time tasks. In the tasks, participants had to match a single target letter displayed below the fixation cross, either on left or right visual field, with one of two letters displayed above the fixation cross, one letter on each visual field. For each task, identical letters were presented either within the same visual field (within hemisphere condition) or across visual fields (across hemisphere condition). Interhemispheric interaction was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between within and across hemisphere conditions. Comorbid problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress may affect task performance and are controlled for in this study. Findings indicated that self-reported ADHD symptomology, especially hyperactivity, in the presence of stress was weakly but significantly associated with fast interhemispheric interaction. PMID:26089596

  5. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms and Interhemispheric Interaction in Adults: A Dimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N = 112) completed Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and letter matching reaction time tasks. In the tasks, participants had to match a single target letter displayed below the fixation cross, either on left or right visual field, with one of two letters displayed above the fixation cross, one letter on each visual field. For each task, identical letters were presented either within the same visual field (within hemisphere condition) or across visual fields (across hemisphere condition). Interhemispheric interaction was indexed as the difference in mean reaction time between within and across hemisphere conditions. Comorbid problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress may affect task performance and are controlled for in this study. Findings indicated that self-reported ADHD symptomology, especially hyperactivity, in the presence of stress was weakly but significantly associated with fast interhemispheric interaction. PMID:26089596

  6. The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    de Zwaan, Martina; Gruss, Barbara; Müller, Astrid; Graap, Holmer; Martin, Alexandra; Glaesmer, Heide; Hilbert, Anja; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population aged 18-64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate the prevalence of ADHD. A 4-item screening tool was used to assess probable cases of current depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire). The estimated crude prevalence rate of current ADHD was 4.7%. Adult ADHD was significantly associated with lower age, low educational level, unemployment, marital status (never married and divorced), and rural residency. No association was found with gender. Adult ADHD was strongly associated with positive screening results for depression and anxiety. ADHD is a common disorder of adulthood, is associated with significant social impairment and psychiatric co-morbidity, and should receive further research attention. PMID:21499942

  7. Are family variables associated with ADHD, inattentive type? A case-control study in schools.

    PubMed

    Pheula, Gabriel Ferreira; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Schmitz, Marcelo

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) seems to be associated with significant psychosocial adversity. However, few studies assessed the role of environmental, social and interpersonal factors specifically in ADHD, inattentive type (ADHD-I). Thus, this study aims to investigate whether family environment risk factors are associated with ADHD-I. In a case-control study, we assessed a non-referred sample of 100 children and adolescents with ADHD-I and 100 non-ADHD controls (6-18 years old). They were systematically evaluated through structured diagnostic interviews. The following family adversity measures were used: Rutter's family adversity index (marital discord, low social class, large family size, paternal criminality, maternal mental disorder), Family Environment Scale (FES) (subscores of cohesion, expressiveness and conflict) and Family Relationship Index (FRI) (based on the subscores above). After adjusting for confounding factors (social phobia and maternal history of ADHD), the odds ratio (OR) for ADHD-I increased as the number of Rutter's indicators increased. Families of children with lower FES cohesion subscores presented higher OR for ADHD-I (OR 1.24; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.45). Lower levels of FRI, a general index of family relationship, were also related to higher risk of ADHD-I (OR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.21). Our findings suggest that family adversity (in general), low family cohesion and low FRI (in particular) are associated with an increase in the risk for ADHD-I. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits our ability to infer causality. PMID:21290154

  8. Does IQ influence Associations between ADHD Symptoms and other Cognitive Functions in young Preschoolers?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. Methods In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). Results The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Conclusions Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low. PMID:24884579

  9. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    PubMed

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions. PMID:22047859

  10. Variations in EEG discharges predict ADHD severity within individual Smith-Lemli-Opitz patients

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, John M.; Lanham, Diane C.; Trescher, William H.; Sparks, Susan E.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Caffo, Brian S.; Porter, Forbes D.; Tierney, Elaine; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine the prevalence of EEG abnormalities in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) as well as the relationship between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and within-subject variations in attentional symptom severity. Methods: In the context of a clinical trial for SLOS, we performed cross-sectional and repeated-measure observational studies of the relationship between EEG findings and cognitive/behavioral factors on 23 children (aged 4–17 years). EEGs were reviewed for clinical abnormalities, including IEDs, by readers blinded to participants' behavioral symptoms. Between-group differences in baseline characteristics of participants with and without IEDs were analyzed. Within-subject analyses examined the association between the presence of IEDs and changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Results: Of 85 EEGs, 43 (51%) were abnormal, predominantly because of IEDs. Only one subject had documented clinical seizures. IEDs clustered in 13 subjects (57%), whereas 9 subjects (39%) had EEGs consistently free of IEDs. While there were no significant group differences in sex, age, intellectual disability, language level, or baseline ADHD symptoms, autistic symptoms tended to be more prevalent in the “IED” group (according to Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule–2 criteria). Within individuals, the presence of IEDs on a particular EEG predicted, on average, a 27% increase in ADHD symptom severity. Conclusions: Epileptiform discharges are common in SLOS, despite a relatively low prevalence of epilepsy. Fluctuations in the presence of epileptiform discharges within individual children with a developmental disability syndrome may be associated with fluctuations in ADHD symptomatology, even in the absence of clinical seizures. PMID:24920862

  11. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2016-06-01

    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized. PMID:27200458

  12. Differential dopamine receptor D4 allele association with ADHD dependent of proband season of birth.

    PubMed

    Brookes, K J; Neale, B; Xu, X; Thapar, A; Gill, M; Langley, K; Hawi, Z; Mill, J; Taylor, E; Franke, B; Chen, W; Ebstein, R; Buitelaar, J; Banaschewski, T; Sonuga-Barke, E; Eisenberg, J; Manor, I; Miranda, A; Oades, R D; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J; Steinhausen, H C; Faraone, S V; Asherson, P

    2008-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in two existing studies. One further study reported an interaction between SOB and genotypes of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene. It is important that these findings are further investigated to confirm or refute the findings. In this study, we investigated the SOB association with ADHD in four independent samples collected for molecular genetic studies of ADHD and found a small but significant increase in summer births compared to a large population control dataset. We also observed a significant association with the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in exon three with probands born in the winter season, with no significant differential transmission of this allele between summer and winter seasons. Preferential transmission of the 2-repeat allele to ADHD probands occurred in those who were born during the summer season, but did not surpass significance for association, even though the difference in transmission between the two seasons was nominally significant. However, following adjustment for multiple testing of alleles none of the SOB effects remained significant. We conclude that the DRD4 7-repeat allele is associated with ADHD but there is no association or interaction with SOB for increased risk for ADHD. Our findings suggest that we can refute a possible effect of SOB for ADHD. PMID:17525975

  13. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  14. The association of ADHD symptoms and reading acquisition during elementary school years.

    PubMed

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Kerner Auch Koerner, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-09-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were examined in a sample comprising 2,014 elementary schoolchildren at the end of Grades 1, 2, 3, respectively, and in the middle of Grade 4. Latent change score models revealed that the level of ADHD symptoms was associated with lower levels and less growth in decoding speed and text comprehension. Furthermore, individual differences in changes in ADHD symptoms and reading performance were negatively associated. Together, these results indicate commonalities in the development of ADHD symptomatology and reading achievement throughout elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570983

  15. Proper nozzle location, bit profile, and cutter arrangement affect PDC-bit performance significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gavito, D.; Azar, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    During the past 20 years, the drilling industry has looked to new technology to halt the exponentially increasing costs of drilling oil, gas, and geothermal wells. This technology includes bit design innovations to improve overall drilling performance and reduce drilling costs. These innovations include development of drag bits that use PDC cutters, also called PDC bits, to drill long, continuous intervals of soft to medium-hard formations more economically than conventional three-cone roller-cone bits. The cost advantage is the result of higher rates of penetration (ROP's) and longer bit life obtained with the PDC bits. An experimental study comparing the effects of polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC)-bit design features on the dynamic pressure distribution at the bit/rock interface was conducted on a full-scale drilling rig. Results showed that nozzle location, bit profile, and cutter arrangement are significant factors in PDC-bit performance.

  16. Significantly enhanced robustness and electrochemical performance of flexible carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors by electrodepositing polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Du, Lianhuan; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Yu, Xiang; Mai, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report robust, flexible CNT-based supercapacitor (SC) electrodes fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole (PPy) on freestanding vacuum-filtered CNT film. These electrodes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical properties (with the ultimate tensile strength of 16 MPa), and greatly enhanced electrochemical performance (5.6 times larger areal capacitance). The major drawback of conductive polymer electrodes is the fast capacitance decay caused by structural breakdown, which decreases cycling stability but this is not observed in our case. All-solid-state SCs assembled with the robust CNT/PPy electrodes exhibit excellent flexibility, long lifetime (95% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles) and high electrochemical performance (a total device volumetric capacitance of 4.9 F/cm3). Moreover, a flexible SC pack is demonstrated to light up 53 LEDs or drive a digital watch, indicating the broad potential application of our SCs for portable/wearable electronics.

  17. Significantly improving electromagnetic performance of nanopaper and its shape-memory nanocomposite by aligned carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Gou, Jan

    2012-04-01

    A new nanopaper that exhibits exciting electrical and electromagnetic performances is fabricated by incorporating magnetically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Electromagnetic CNTs were blended with and aligned into the nanopaper using a magnetic field, to significantly improve the electrical and electromagnetic performances of nanopaper and its enabled shape-memory polymer (SMP) composite. The morphology and structure of the aligned CNT arrays in nanopaper were characterized with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A continuous and compact network of CNFs and aligned CNTs indicated that the nanopaper could have highly conductive properties. Furthermore, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of the SMP composites with different weight content of aligned CNT arrays was characterized. Finally, the aligned CNT arrays in nanopapers were employed to achieve the electrical actuation and accelerate the recovery speed of SMP composites.

  18. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  19. An update on the comorbidity of ADHD and ASD: a focus on clinical management.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Zhang-James, Yanli; Wagner, Kayla E; Ledesma, Ana; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly co-occur. With the DSM-5, clinicians are permitted to make an ASD diagnosis in the context of ADHD. In earlier versions of the DSM, this was not acceptable. Both ASD and ADHD are reported to have had substantial increases in prevalence within the past 10 years. As a function of both the increased prevalence of both disorders as well as the ability to make an ASD diagnosis in ADHD, there has been a significant amount of research focusing on the comorbidity between ADHD and ASD in the past few years. Here, we provide an update on the biological, cognitive and behavioral overlap/distinctiveness between the two neurodevelopmental disorders with a focus on data published in the last four years. Treatment strategies for the comorbid condition as well as future areas of research and clinical need are discussed. PMID:26807870

  20. Impairment in flexible regulation of speed and accuracy in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vallesi, Antonino; D'Agati, Elisa; Pasini, Augusto; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor adaptation of behavior to environmental demands, including difficulties in flexibly regulating behavior. To understand whether ADHD is associated with a reduction of strategic flexibility in modulating speed and accuracy, we used a perceptual decision-making task that required participants to randomly stress either fast or accurate responding. Thirty-one drug-free boys with ADHD combined-type (mean age: 10.2 years) and 33 healthy control boys (mean age: 10.7 years), matched for age and IQ, participated. Both reaction time and accuracy data were analyzed. Our findings demonstrated significantly lower accuracy in ADHD children than in controls when switching from speed to accuracy instructions. This deficit was directly associated with hyperactivity symptoms but not with inattention. Our results showed that ADHD is associated with a deficit in dynamically switching response strategy according to task demands on a trial-to-trial basis. PMID:24007981

  1. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions. PMID:22678107

  2. Antisocial Behaviors Moderate the Deviant Peer Pathway to Substance Use in Children With ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Marshal, Michael P.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the interplay of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, deviant peer group affiliation, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) as risk factors among 142 adolescents with childhood ADHD. Deviant peer affiliation mediated the relation between childhood ADHD symptoms and 6 substance use and abuse variables. Moreover, moderated mediation analyses found that for children with high levels of ODD and CD symptoms, the mediated effect of ADHD through deviant peer affiliation was significant; however, for children with low levels of ODD and CD symptoms, this mediated effect was weak and nonsignificant. Results suggest that children with severe ADHD symptomatology and comorbid antisocial behavior are at highest risk for peer-mediated substance use in adolescence. PMID:16597217

  3. Parental monitoring in late adolescence: relations to ADHD symptoms and longitudinal predictors.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Thorell, Lisa B

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to replicate Stattin and Kerr's (2000) study on parental monitoring and adolescents' deviant behavior, to extend their findings to ADHD symptoms, and to examine the longitudinal predictors (8-18 years) of parental knowledge and child disclosure. Results showed that conduct problems were primarily associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure, but not with parental solicitation and control. A similar pattern was observed for ADHD symptoms. However, while the relations for conduct problems were generally independent of ADHD symptoms, the relations for ADHD symptoms were primarily non-significant after controlling for conduct problems. Moreover, early behavior problems, but not insecure/disorganized attachment, were associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure in adolescence. In conclusion, child disclosure is primarily associated with deviant behavior rather than ADHD, and early child problem behavior is a more important predictor of child disclosure (implicating reciprocal relations between these two constructs) than is insecure/disorganized attachment. PMID:25602918

  4. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  5. DSM-5 changes enhance parent identification of symptoms in adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B

    2016-08-30

    This study evaluates the impact of the DSM-5 ADHD symptom wording changes on symptom endorsement among adolescents with ADHD. Parents of adolescents with systematically diagnosed DSM-IV-TR ADHD (N=78) completed counterbalanced DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 ADHD symptom checklists in a single sitting. General linear models were conducted to evaluate whether the new DSM-5 symptom descriptors influenced the total number of ADHD symptoms and overall ADHD symptom severity endorsed by parents, how demographic factors were associated with noted changes in symptom endorsement when moving to the DSM-5, and which DSM ADHD items displayed notable changes in endorsement rates under the new wording. On average, parents identified 1.15 additional symptoms of ADHD in adolescents when moving from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-5. Increased symptom identification was not specific to age, sex, ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status. Over half of the sample experienced increased symptom endorsement when changing texts (59.0%). Under the new DSM-5 wording, four symptoms had statistically significant endorsement increases (range: 11.2-16.7%): difficulty sustaining attention, easily distracted, difficulty organizing tasks and activities, and does not seem to listen. PMID:27288736

  6. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  7. The specificity of the Stroop interference score of errors to ADHD in boys.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Plessen, K J; Adolfsdottir, S; Lundervold, A J

    2014-01-01

    The Stroop Interference Test is widely used to assess the inhibition function; however, divergent results have emerged from meta-analyses in children with ADHD. This has led to conflicting results as to whether the Stroop test detects the level of inhibition in these children. We hypothesized that the general approach to include interference scores depending on response time causes conflicting results, whereas recordings of errors may prove a superior measure of the inhibition function in children with ADHD. In the present study, 39 children with an ADHD diagnosis, two subgroups with and without another comorbid mental health disorder, were compared with respect to their interference scores of response time and errors with two subgroups of children with no ADHD. The two subgroups comprised 33 children with another mental health disorder other than ADHD and 56 children with no psychiatric disorder. The between-group analyses detected a multivariate, marginal main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the Stroop interference scores, and a univariate main effect of an ADHD diagnosis on the interference score of errors. Further, only the interference score of errors predicted significantly the parent reported scores on the Inhibit scale from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. These findings support that a Stroop interference score of errors is sensitive for inhibition problems in children with ADHD and encourages the use of Stroop versions including error recordings independent of response time. PMID:24228780

  8. Nonstimulant therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Waxmonsky, James G

    2005-01-01

    While stimulant medications are the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD across the lifespan, a subset of patients with ADHD do not experience significant symptom relief from stimulants or can not tolerate effective stimulant doses. Psychosocial therapies, particularly behavioral modification techniques, should be considered for children with ADHD and oppositional behaviors, while Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) may be a helpful adjunct for adolescents and adults with ADHD. Among the nonstimulant medications, atomoxetine (Strattera) is the only the FDA approved option. It has been found to be efficacious for the entire spectrum of ADHD symptoms in both children and adults. However, daily compliance is essential, and it may take several weeks to achieve full therapeutic effect. Other nonstimulants that have been used to treat ADHD include bupropion (Wellbutrin), the alpha-2 agonists guanfacine (Tenex) and clonidine (Catapres) as well as the tricylic antidepressants. Modafinil (Provigil) is actively being studied for the treatment of pediatric ADHD, and there has been some preliminary studies assessing the efficacy of cholinergic agents for ADHD. Recently, there has been increasing interest in combining nonstimulant therapies with stimulants to further enhance treatment effects. However, more controlled data on the safety and efficacy of combining pharmacological therapies are needed. PMID:16222911

  9. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  10. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  11. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  12. Processing Patterns of ADHD, ADHD-I, and ADHD/LD Children on the LET-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper discusses the findings from a study that investigated the information processing characteristics of 93 children (ages 8-16) who have been diagnosed as having either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and combined ADHD and learning disabilities (LD). Thirty-nine average students,…

  13. Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159904.html Do ADHD Medicines Boost Substance Abuse Risk? Chances were actually ... that their children who take stimulants to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at higher risk for substance ...

  14. ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160571.html ADHD More Often Missed in Minority Kids Study found ... percentage of black children show the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than white kids, they are less likely ...

  15. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  16. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  17. Atypical Acquisition and Atypical Expression of Memory Consolidation Gains in a Motor Skill in Young Female Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Fox, Orly; Karni, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD often show performance deficits in motor tasks. It is not clear, however, whether this reflects less effective acquisition of skill (procedural knowledge), or deficient consolidation into long-term memory, in ADHD. The aim of the study was to compare the acquisition of skilled motor performance, the expression of…

  18. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  19. Testing Accommodations for University Students with AD/HD: Computerized vs. Paper-Pencil/Regular vs. Extended Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathryn S.; Osborne, Randall E.; Carpenter, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by a previous study investigating the effects of pacing on the academic testing performance of college students with AD/HD, we further explored our preliminary findings, which suggested that a computerized testing environment enhanced the testing performance of college students with AD/HD. We compared the effects of a computerized vs.…

  20. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  1. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  2. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27086226

  3. Do ADHD and executive dysfunctions, measured by the hebrew version of Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF), completely overlap?

    PubMed

    Linder, Neta; Kroyzer, Naama; Maeir, Adina; Wertman-Elad, Raya; Pollak, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    The centrality of executive function deficits (EFD) in attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well accepted albeit EFD is not synonymous with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which ADHD and EF overlap and to validate the Hebrew version of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). Parents of 178 children with and without ADHD completed the BRIEF and the ADHD-Rating Scale. Significant differences were found between groups on each scale even after controlling for the other scale. Internal consistency analysis supported the reliability of the Hebrew version of the BRIEF. We conclude that ADHD and Executive Dysfunctions do not completely overlap. PMID:20521184

  4. Personality Traits and Comorbidity in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Instanes, Johanne Telnes; Haavik, Jan; Halmøy, Anne

    2013-11-22

    Objective: To assess personality traits using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in a group of 63 previously diagnosed ADHD patients and 68 population controls and investigate the impact of common comorbid psychiatric disorders on these personality measures. Method: Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and personality traits by the TCI. Results: The patient group had significantly higher scores on the TCI dimensions Harm avoidance and Novelty seeking compared with the control group. However, when adjusting for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder, the ADHD group no longer showed higher Harm avoidance than the control group. The difference in Novelty seeking between the patient and control groups was correlated with lifetime diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Conclusion: It is important to take comorbid psychiatric disorders into account while investigating personality traits in ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24271945

  5. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of dexmethylphenidate versus placebo in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Narong; Maneeton, Benchalak; Woottiluk, Pakapan; Suttajit, Sirijit; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Charnsil, Chawanun; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH) has been proven in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective The aim of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of d-MPH in child and adolescent ADHD. Methods The searches of SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in February 2015. All randomized controlled trials of d-MPH versus placebo that were performed in children and adolescents with ADHD up to 18 years of age were included in the study. The efficacy was measured by using the pooled mean-endpoint or mean-changed scores of ADHD rating scales and the response rate. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by using the pooled rates of overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events, respectively. Results A total of 1,124 children and adolescents diagnosed as having ADHD were included in this review. In a laboratory school setting, the pooled mean-change and mean-endpoint scores in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than those of the placebo-treated group with standardized mean difference (95% confidence interval [CI]) of −1.20 (−1.73, −0.67), I2=95%. Additionally, the pooled mean-changed scores of the ADHD rating scales for teachers and parents in the d-MPH-treated group were significantly greater than that of the placebo-treated group with weighted mean difference (95% CI) of −13.01 (−15.97, −10.05), I2=0% and (95% CI) of −12.99 (−15.57, −10.42), I2=0%, respectively. The pooled response rate in the d-MPH-treated groups had a significance higher than that of the placebo-treated group. The rates of pooled overall discontinuation and discontinuation due to adverse events between the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Based on the findings in this review, it can be concluded that d-MPH medication is efficacious and tolerable in child and

  6. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  7. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  8. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  9. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  10. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  11. Gifted Children with AD/HD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovecky, Deirdre V.

    This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…

  12. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  13. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  14. 48 CFR 1553.216-70 - EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. 1553.216-70 Section 1553.216-70 Federal... 1553.216-70 EPA Form 1900-41A, CPAF Contract Summary of Significant Performance Observation. As prescribed in 1516.404-278, EPA Form 1900-41A shall be used to document significant performance...

  15. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  16. Saccadic movement deficiencies in adults with ADHD tendencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sangil; Chang, Munseon; Kwak, Ho-Wan

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore deficits in gaze detection and emotional value judgment during a saccadic eye movement task in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tendencies. Thirty-two participants, consisting of 16 ADHD tendencies and 16 controls, were recruited from a pool of 243 university students. Among the many problems in adults with ADHDs, our research focused on the deficits in the processing of nonverbal cues, such as gaze direction and the emotional value of others' faces. In Experiment 1, a cue display containing a face with emotional value and gaze direction was followed by a target display containing two faces located on the left and right side of the display. The participant's task was to make an anti-saccade opposite to the gaze direction if the cue face was not emotionally neutral. ADHD tendencies showed more overall errors than controls in making anti-saccades. Based on the hypothesis that the exposure duration of the cue display in Experiment 1 may have been too long, we presented the cue and target display simultaneously to prevent participants from preparing saccades in advance. Participants in Experiment 2 were asked to make either a pro-saccade or an anti-saccade depending on the emotional value of the central cue face. Interestingly, significant group differences were observed for errors of omission and commission. In addition, a significant three-way interaction among groups, cue emotion, and target gaze direction suggests that the emotional recognition and gaze control systems might somehow be interconnected. The result also shows that ADHDs are more easily distracted by a task-irrelevant gaze direction. Taken together, these results suggest that tasks requiring both response inhibition (anti-saccade) and gaze-emotion recognition might be useful in developing a diagnostic test for discriminating adults with ADHDs from healthy adults. PMID:25993912

  17. ADHD, Stimulant Treatment, and Growth: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Harstad, Elizabeth B.; Weaver, Amy L.; Colligan, Robert C.; Kumar, Seema; Chan, Eugenia; Voigt, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is ongoing concern that stimulant medications may adversely affect growth. In a sample of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases and controls from a population-based birth cohort, we assessed growth and the association between stimulant treatment and growth. METHODS: Subjects included childhood ADHD cases (N = 340) and controls (N = 680) from a 1976 to 1982 birth cohort (N = 5718). Height and stimulant treatment information were abstracted from medical records and obtained during a prospective, adult follow-up study. For each subject, a parametric penalized spline smoothing method modeled height over time, and the corresponding height velocity was calculated as the first derivative. Peak height velocity (PHV) age and magnitude were estimated from the velocity curves. Among stimulant-treated ADHD cases, we analyzed height Z scores at the beginning, at the end, and 24 months after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Neither ADHD itself nor treatment with stimulants was associated with differences in magnitude of PHV or final adult height. Among boys treated with stimulants, there was a positive correlation between duration of stimulant usage before PHV and age at PHV (r = 0.21, P = .01). There was no significant correlation between duration of treatment and change in height Z scores (r = −0.08 for beginning vs end change, r = 0.01 for end vs 24 months later change). Among the 59 ADHD cases treated for ≥3 years, there was a clinically insignificant decrease in mean Z score from beginning (0.48) to end (0.33) of treatment (P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ADHD treatment with stimulant medication is not associated with differences in adult height or significant changes in growth. PMID:25180281

  18. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  19. Kernel Principal Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction in fMRI-based diagnosis of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gagan S; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Greiner, Russell; Brown, Matthew R G

    2012-01-01

    This study explored various feature extraction methods for use in automated diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) data. Each participant's data consisted of a resting state fMRI scan as well as phenotypic data (age, gender, handedness, IQ, and site of scanning) from the ADHD-200 dataset. We used machine learning techniques to produce support vector machine (SVM) classifiers that attempted to differentiate between (1) all ADHD patients vs. healthy controls and (2) ADHD combined (ADHD-c) type vs. ADHD inattentive (ADHD-i) type vs. controls. In different tests, we used only the phenotypic data, only the imaging data, or else both the phenotypic and imaging data. For feature extraction on fMRI data, we tested the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), different variants of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and combinations of FFT and PCA. PCA variants included PCA over time (PCA-t), PCA over space and time (PCA-st), and kernelized PCA (kPCA-st). Baseline chance accuracy was 64.2% produced by guessing healthy control (the majority class) for all participants. Using only phenotypic data produced 72.9% accuracy on two class diagnosis and 66.8% on three class diagnosis. Diagnosis using only imaging data did not perform as well as phenotypic-only approaches. Using both phenotypic and imaging data with combined FFT and kPCA-st feature extraction yielded accuracies of 76.0% on two class diagnosis and 68.6% on three class diagnosis-better than phenotypic-only approaches. Our results demonstrate the potential of using FFT and kPCA-st with resting-state fMRI data as well as phenotypic data for automated diagnosis of ADHD. These results are encouraging given known challenges of learning ADHD diagnostic classifiers using the ADHD-200 dataset (see Brown et al., 2012). PMID:23162439

  20. Injection Temperature Significantly Affects In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Collagen-Platelet Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, M.P.; Abreu, E.L.; Mastrangelo, A.; Murray, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen-platelet composites have recently been successfully used as scaffolds to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) wound healing in large animal models. These materials are typically kept on ice until use to prevent premature gelation; however, with surgical use, placement of a cold solution then requires up to an hour while the solution comes to body temperature (at which point gelation occurs). Bringing the solution to a higher temperature before injection would likely decrease this intra-operative wait; however, the effects of this on composite performance are not known. The hypothesis tested here was that increasing the temperature of the gel at the time of injection would significantly decrease the time to gelation, but would not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the composite or its ability to support functional tissue repair. Primary outcome measures included the maximum elastic modulus (stiffness) of the composite in vitro and the in vivo yield load of an ACL transection treated with an injected collagen-platelet composite. In vitro findings were that injection temperatures over 30°C resulted in a faster visco-elastic transition; however, the warmed composites had a 50% decrease in their maximum elastic modulus. In vivo studies found that warming the gels prior to injection also resulted in a decrease in the yield load of the healing ACL at 14 weeks. These studies suggest that increasing injection temperature of collagen-platelet composites results in a decrease in performance of the composite in vitro and in the strength of the healing ligament in vivo and this technique should be used only with great caution. PMID:19030174

  1. Speed of Language Comprehension Is Impaired in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenberg, Renske; Hendriksen, Jos G. M.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; Feron, Frans J. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have an increased risk of poor academic performance. It is important to identify cognitive processes that may be related to this academic failure. In Western schooling systems, especially language processing skills may be of relevance. The present study, therefore, compares the ability to comprehend complex sentences…

  2. Performance evaluation of hydrological models: Statistical significance for reducing subjectivity in goodness-of-fit assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Axel; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    SummarySuccess in the use of computer models for simulating environmental variables and processes requires objective model calibration and verification procedures. Several methods for quantifying the goodness-of-fit of observations against model-calculated values have been proposed but none of them is free of limitations and are often ambiguous. When a single indicator is used it may lead to incorrect verification of the model. Instead, a combination of graphical results, absolute value error statistics (i.e. root mean square error), and normalized goodness-of-fit statistics (i.e. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient, NSE) is currently recommended. Interpretation of NSE values is often subjective, and may be biased by the magnitude and number of data points, data outliers and repeated data. The statistical significance of the performance statistics is an aspect generally ignored that helps in reducing subjectivity in the proper interpretation of the model performance. In this work, approximated probability distributions for two common indicators (NSE and root mean square error) are derived with bootstrapping (block bootstrapping when dealing with time series), followed by bias corrected and accelerated calculation of confidence intervals. Hypothesis testing of the indicators exceeding threshold values is proposed in a unified framework for statistically accepting or rejecting the model performance. It is illustrated how model performance is not linearly related with NSE, which is critical for its proper interpretation. Additionally, the sensitivity of the indicators to model bias, outliers and repeated data is evaluated. The potential of the difference between root mean square error and mean absolute error for detecting outliers is explored, showing that this may be considered a necessary but not a sufficient condition of outlier presence. The usefulness of the approach for the evaluation of model performance is illustrated with case studies including those with

  3. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  4. Nanoporosity Significantly Enhances the Biological Performance of Engineered Glass Tissue Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojie; Kowal, Tia J.; Marei, Mona K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporosity is known to impact the performance of implants and scaffolds such as bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds, either by providing a higher concentration of bioactive chemical species from enhanced surface area, or due to inherent nanoscale topology, or both. To delineate the role of these two characteristics, BG scaffolds have been fabricated with nearly identical surface area (81 and 83±2 m2/g) but significantly different pore size (av. 3.7 and 17.7 nm) by varying both the sintering temperature and the ammonia concentration during the solvent exchange phase of the sol-gel fabrication process. In vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells on such scaffolds show that initial cell attachment is increased on samples with the smaller nanopore size, providing the first direct evidence of the influence of nanopore topography on cell response to a bioactive structure. Furthermore, in vivo animal tests in New Zealand rabbits (subcutaneous implantation) indicate that nanopores promote colonization and cell penetration into these scaffolds, further demonstrating the favorable effects of nanopores in tissue-engineering-relevant BG scaffolds. PMID:23427819

  5. Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Created by Site-Specific Heteroatom Substitution with Significantly Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zu, Lianhai; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Chengliang; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Jinhu; Yang, Shihe

    2016-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires that have been extensively studied are typically in a crystalline phase. Much less studied are amorphous semiconductor nanowires due to the difficulty for their synthesis, despite a set of characteristics desirable for photoelectric devices, such as higher surface area, higher surface activity, and higher light harvesting. In this work of combined experiment and computation, taking Zn2GeO4 (ZGO) as an example, we propose a site-specific heteroatom substitution strategy through a solution-phase ions-alternative-deposition route to prepare amorphous/crystalline Si-incorporated ZGO nanowires with tunable band structures. The substitution of Si atoms for the Zn or Ge atoms distorts the bonding network to a different extent, leading to the formation of amorphous Zn1.7Si0.3GeO4 (ZSGO) or crystalline Zn2(GeO4)0.88(SiO4)0.12 (ZGSO) nanowires, respectively, with different bandgaps. The amorphous ZSGO nanowire arrays exhibit significantly enhanced performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting, such as higher and more stable photocurrent, and faster photoresponse and recovery, relative to crystalline ZGSO and ZGO nanowires in this work, as well as ZGO photocatalysts reported previously. The remarkable performance highlights the advantages of the ZSGO amorphous nanowires for photoelectric devices, such as higher light harvesting capability, faster charge separation, lower charge recombination, and higher surface catalytic activity. PMID:27494205

  6. DIRAS2 is Associated with Adult ADHD, Related Traits, and Co-Morbid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Andreas; Nguyen, T Trang; Weißflog, Lena; Jacob, Christian P; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Buttenschon, Henriette N; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Gessner, Alexandra; Weber, Heike; Neuner, Maria; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Zamzow, Karin; Kreiker, Susanne; Walitza, Susanne; Meyer, Jobst; Freitag, Christine M; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Gómez, Nuria; Ribasès, Marta; Bayès, Mónica; Buitelaar, Jan K; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kooij, J J Sandra; Kan, Cees C; Hoogman, Martine; Johansson, Stefan; Jacobsen, Kaya K; Knappskog, Per M; Fasmer, Ole B; Asherson, Phil; Warnke, Andreas; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Mahler, Jessie; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Mors, Ole N; Schäfer, Helmut; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Cormand, Bru; Haavik, Jan; Franke, Barbara; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Several linkage analyses implicated the chromosome 9q22 region in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disease with remarkable persistence into adulthood. This locus contains the brain-expressed GTP-binding RAS-like 2 gene (DIRAS2) thought to regulate neurogenesis. As DIRAS2 is a positional and functional ADHD candidate gene, we conducted an association study in 600 patients suffering from adult ADHD (aADHD) and 420 controls. Replication samples consisted of 1035 aADHD patients and 1381 controls, as well as 166 families with a child affected from childhood ADHD. Given the high degree of co-morbidity with ADHD, we also investigated patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) (n=336) or personality disorders (PDs) (n=622). Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the structural gene and the transcriptional control region of DIRAS2 were analyzed. Four SNPs and two haplotype blocks showed evidence of association with ADHD, with nominal p-values ranging from p=0.006 to p=0.05. In the adult replication samples, we obtained a consistent effect of rs1412005 and of a risk haplotype containing the promoter region (p=0.026). Meta-analysis resulted in a significant common OR of 1.12 (p=0.04) for rs1412005 and confirmed association with the promoter risk haplotype (OR=1.45, p=0.0003). Subsequent analysis in nuclear families with childhood ADHD again showed an association of the promoter haplotype block (p=0.02). rs1412005 also increased risk toward BD (p=0.026) and cluster B PD (p=0.031). Additional SNPs showed association with personality scores (p=0.008–0.048). Converging lines of evidence implicate genetic variance in the promoter region of DIRAS2 in the etiology of ADHD and co-morbid impulsive disorders. PMID:21750579

  7. Symptoms of autism and ADHD: a Swedish twin study examining their overlap.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Angelica; Larsson, Henrik; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show high comorbidity. The following questions were addressed regarding their specific symptoms: What is the factor structure of ASD and ADHD symptoms, to what degree do different symptom domains cluster together, to what extent are these domains caused by the same genetic and environmental influences, and what is the best model of their co-occurrence? A population-based twin cohort of over 17,000 9- and 12-year-olds were assessed using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities parental interview inventory. Principal component analyses were conducted, and symptom domain clustering was assessed. Four multivariate twin models were compared. Factors split into three ASD (social impairments, communication impairments, and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests), and three ADHD (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) symptom domains. Some ASD-ADHD symptom domain combinations clustered together often, although others not at all. A two-factor common pathway model fit the data, suggesting that ASD and ADHD symptom domains tap into separate "ASD" and "ADHD" latent factors that showed high genetic overlap. All subdomains also showed significant specific genetic and environmental influences, reflecting the etiological heterogeneity both within and between ASD and ADHD. These findings support the conceptual distinction of ASD and ADHD, and demonstrate the considerable natural co-occurrence of particular ASD/ADHD symptom domains. The results imply that more children with 1 condition show features of the other condition than show complete comorbidity. Emphasis on symptom co-occurrence, rather than complete comorbidity between disorders, may help focus clinical approaches and advance molecular genetic research. PMID:24731073

  8. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cook, Bryan G; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that youth with comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly more likely than peers without LD or ADHD to be obese; that youth with LD only, ADHD only, and comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly less likely to meet recommended levels of physical activity; and that youth with LD only were significantly more likely to exceed recommended levels of sedentary behavior. Medication status mediated outcomes for youth with ADHD. We offer school-based recommendations for improving health-related outcomes for students with LD and ADHD. PMID:24449262

  9. Increased Risk of Asthma in Children with ADHD: Role of Prematurity and Maternal Stress during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Grizenko, Natalie; Osmanlliu, Esli; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and asthma are prevalent conditions in childhood, with complex pathophysiology involving genetic-environmental interplay. The study objective is to examine the prevalence of asthma in our ADHD population and explore factors that may increase the risk of developing asthma in children with ADHD. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the presence of maternal stress during pregnancy and history of asthma in 201 children diagnosed with ADHD. Results: Chi-square analysis indicated significant higher presence of asthma in our ADHD sample compared to Quebec children, χ2(1, N = 201) = 15.37, P<0.001. Only prematurity and stress during pregnancy significantly predicted asthma in a logistic regression model, χ2(2)=23.70, P<0.001, with odds ratios of 10.6 (95% CI: 2.8–39.5) and 3.2 (95% CI: 1.4–7.3), respectively. Conclusion: Children with ADHD have a higher prevalence of asthma than the general Quebec pediatric population. Children with ADHD born prematurely and/or those whose mothers experienced stress during pregnancy have a significantly increased risk of developing asthma. The study highlights the importance of potentially offering social and psychological support to mothers who experienced stress during pregnancy and/or are at risk of delivering prematurely. PMID:26379722

  10. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  11. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  12. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  13. Field Significance of Performance Measures in the Context of Regional Climate Model Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to rigorously evaluate the skill of dynamically downscaled global climate simulations. We investigate a dynamical downscaling of the ERA-Interim reanalysis using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with the NOAH land surface model within the scope of EURO-CORDEX. WRF has a horizontal resolution of 11° and contains the following physics: the Yonsei university atmospheric boundary layer parameterization, the Morrison two-moment microphysics, the Kain-Fritsch-Eta convection and the Community Atmosphere Model radiation schemes. Daily precipitation is verified over Germany for summer and winter against high-resolution observation data from the German weather service for the first time. The ability of WRF to reproduce the statistical distribution of daily precipitation is evaluated using metrics based on distribution characteristics. Skill against the large-scale ERA-Interim data gives insight into the potential, additional skill of dynamical downscaling. To quantify it, we transform the absolute performance measures to relative skill measures against ERA-Interim. Their field significance is rigorously estimated and locally significant regions are highlighted. Statistical distributions are better reproduced in summer than in winter. In both seasons WRF is too dry over mountain tops due to underestimated and too rare high and underestimated and too frequent small precipitations. In winter WRF is too wet at windward sides and land-sea transition regions due to too frequent weak and moderate precipitation events. In summer it is too dry over land-sea transition regions due to underestimated small and too rare moderate precipitations, and too wet in some river valleys due to too frequent high precipitations. Additional skill relative to ERA-Interim is documented for overall measures as well as measures regarding the spread and tails of the statistical distribution, but not regarding mean seasonal precipitation. The added

  14. Young Children with ADHD: Early Identification and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…

  15. Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092

  16. The Diversity of Attention Deficits in ADHD: The Prevalence of Four Cognitive Factors in ADHD Versus Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Shalev, Lilach; Mevorach, Carmel

    2005-01-01

    The performance of participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to control participants was measured on four tasks uniquely assessing the functions of selective attention, executive attention, sustained attention, and orienting of attention. The results showed that deficits in sustained attention were the most…

  17. Examining autistic traits in children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but not ADHD severity or anxiety, in the ADHD+ subgroup compared to those with ADHD only. These results highlight the importance of specifically examining autistic traits in children with ADHD for better characterization in studies of the underlying physiopathology and treatment. PMID:21108041

  18. College students classified with ADHD and the foreign language requirement.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Richard L; Javorsky, James; Philips, Lois

    2004-01-01

    The conventional assumption of most disability service providers is that students classified as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will experience difficulties in foreign language (FL) courses. However, the evidence in support of this assumption is anecdotal. In this empirical investigation, the demographic profiles, overall academic performance, college entrance scores, and FL classroom performance of 68 college students classified as having ADHD were examined. All students had graduated from the same university over a 5-year period. The findings showed that all 68 students had completed the university's FL requirement by passing FL courses. The students' college entrance scores were similar to the middle 50% of freshmen at this university, and their graduating grade point average was similar to the typical graduating senior at the university. The students had participated in both lower (100) and upper (200, 300, 400) level FL courses and had achieved mostly average and above-average grades (A, B, C) in these courses. One student had majored and eight students had minored in an FL. Two thirds of the students passed all of their FL courses without the use of instructional accommodations. In this study, the classification of ADHD did not appear to interfere with participants' performance in FL courses. The findings suggest that students classified as having ADHD should enroll in and fulfill the FL requirement by passing FL courses. PMID:15493238

  19. Neuropsychological Functioning and Severity of ADHD in Early Childhood: A Four-Year Cross-Lagged study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Rindskopf, David; O’Neill, Sarah; Marks, David J.; Nomura, Yoko; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have poorer neuropsychological functioning relative to their typically-developing peers. However, it is unclear whether early neuropsychological functioning predicts later ADHD severity and/or the latter is longitudinally associated with subsequent neuropsychological functioning; and whether these relations are different in children with and without early symptoms of ADHD. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal associations between ADHD severity and neuropsychological functioning among children at high and low risk of developing ADHD. Hyperactive/Inattentive (H/I; N=140) and Typically-developing (TD; N=76) preschoolers (age 3 – 4 years) were recruited (BL) and followed annually for 3 years (F1, F2 and F3). Teachers rated the children’s ADHD severity and impairment using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 and the Children’s Problem Checklist, respectively. Parent reports of children’s ADHD severity were obtained using the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia – Present and Lifetime version. Neuropsychological functioning was assessed using the NEPSY. In the full sample, there were bi-directional longitudinal associations between neuropsychological functioning and ADHD severity between F1 and F3. Among H/I children, neuropsychological functioning at F1 and F2 predicted ADHD severity at F2 and F3, respectively. In contrast, among TD children the only significant relationship observed was that elevated ADHD symptoms at F2 were associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at F3. Improved neuropsychological functioning may attenuate ADHD symptoms and associated impairment among H/I children during the early school years. Interventions designed to improve neuropsychological functioning among young H/I children may be beneficial in reducing their ADHD severity. PMID:24364619

  20. ADHD and cannabis use in young adults examined using fMRI of a Go/NoGo task.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod; Casey, B J; van Erp, Theo G M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Buss, Claudia; Bjork, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Velanova, Katerina; Mathalon, Daniel H; Somerville, Leah; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Tim; Arnold, L Eugene; Potkin, Steven G

    2016-09-01

    Children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for substance abuse. Response inhibition is a hallmark of ADHD, yet the combined effects of ADHD and regular substance use on neural networks associated with response inhibition are unknown. Task-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from young adults with childhood ADHD with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) cannabis use ≥ monthly in the past year were compared with a local normative comparison group (LNCG) with (n = 11) and without (n = 12) cannabis use. Go/NoGo behavioral and fMRI data were evaluated for main and interaction effects of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use. ADHD participants made significantly more commission errors on NoGo trials than controls. ADHD participants also had less frontoparietal and frontostriatal activity, independent of cannabis use. No main effects of cannabis use on response inhibition or functional brain activation were observed. An interaction of ADHD diagnosis and cannabis use was found in the right hippocampus and cerebellar vermis, with increased recruitment of these regions in cannabis-using controls during correct response inhibition. ADHD participants had impaired response inhibition combined with less fronto-parietal/striatal activity, regardless of cannabis use history. Cannabis use did not impact behavioral response inhibition. Cannabis use was associated with hippocampal and cerebellar activation, areas rich in cannabinoid receptors, in LNCG but not ADHD participants. This may reflect recruitment of compensatory circuitry in cannabis using controls but not ADHD participants. Future studies targeting hippocampal and cerebellar-dependent function in these groups may provide further insight into how this circuitry is altered by ADHD and cannabis use. PMID:26489976

  1. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  2. ADHD in college: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Elizabeth K; Sacchetti, Gina M; Del Carlo, Dawn I

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects many adults and is particularly impairing for emerging adults enrolled in college. Research has shown substantial academic impairment for these individuals. However, research on ADHD impairment has largely been quantitative and focused on children. Therefore, the current study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to explore the lived experience of college students with ADHD with the following two research questions: (1) What is it like to be a college student with ADHD? and (2) What resources are utilized by college students with ADHD? Thirty-six college students with ADHD were interviewed in focus group settings. Our participants reported a complex and mixed experience living with ADHD in college and varied use of treatments and other accommodations. Specifically, three Constructs emerged in the current study: Consequences of Diagnosis, Impairment, and Treatment Management. Implications for professionals working with these students and future directions for researchers are discussed. PMID:26825556

  3. Social Functioning in Children with ADHD Treated with Long-Term Methylphenidate and Multimodal Psychosocial Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G.; Gallagher, Richard; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test that methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes social skills training, significantly enhances social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and methylphenidate plus nonspecific psychosocial treatment…

  4. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Cubero-Millán, Isabel; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; Machado-Casas, Irene; Fernández-López, Luisa; Martínez-Serrano, Sylvia; Tortosa-Pinto, Pilar; Ruiz-López, Aida; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan-de-Dios; Uberos, José; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1) the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2) the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria) were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI). Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD) of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit. PMID:25257531

  5. Comparative study of OROS-MPH and atomoxetine on executive function improvement in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Cao, Qingjiu; Shuai, Lan; Li, Haimei; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Yufeng

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on executive function in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by a randomized controlled trial. Subjects who met DSM-IV ADHD criteria were randomized to receive either OROS-MPH or ATX treatment. The doses were titrated to achieve optimal response and then maintained for 4-6 wk. A battery of executive function tests and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were administered to subjects who completed the dose titration (OROS-MPH, n=85; ATX, n=57) at the pre- and post-treatment periods. Forty-six children without ADHD were recruited as controls. Both OROS-MPH and ATX significantly improved scores in the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), digit span, and Stroop color-word task. The scores in RCFT and the reverse digit span were not significantly different from the control group at post-treatment assessment (OROS-MPH=ATX=control, p>0.05), whereas the word interference time of the Stroop test was still more than that of the control group (OROS-MPH=ATX>control, p>0.05). OROS-MPH also significantly improved the total correct response in the verbal fluency test to normal level, and the shifting time in the trail-making test to subnormal level. The current findings suggest both OROS-MPH and ATX improved executive function generally in children and adolescents with ADHD, and could return working memory back to normative performance level. PMID:22017969

  6. Glutamate/glutamine and neuronal integrity in adults with ADHD: a proton MRS study.

    PubMed

    Maltezos, S; Horder, J; Coghlan, S; Skirrow, C; O'Gorman, R; Lavender, T J; Mendez, M A; Mehta, M; Daly, E; Xenitidis, K; Paliokosta, E; Spain, D; Pitts, M; Asherson, P; Lythgoe, D J; Barker, G J; Murphy, D G

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities in glutamate signalling may contribute to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([1H]MRS) can be used to measure glutamate, and also its metabolite glutamine, in vivo. However, few studies have investigated glutamate in the brain of adults with ADHD naive to stimulant medication. Therefore, we used [1H]MRS to measure the combined signal of glutamate and glutamine (Glu+Gln; abbreviated as Glx) along with other neurometabolites such as creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline. Data were acquired from three brain regions, including two implicated in ADHD-the basal ganglia (caudate/striatum) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)-and one 'control' region-the medial parietal cortex. We compared 40 adults with ADHD, of whom 24 were naive for ADHD medication, whereas 16 were currently on stimulants, against 20 age, sex and IQ-matched healthy controls. We found that compared with controls, adult ADHD participants had a significantly lower concentration of Glx, Cr and NAA in the basal ganglia and Cr in the DLPFC, after correction for multiple comparisons. There were no differences between stimulant-treated and treatment-naive ADHD participants. In people with untreated ADHD, lower basal ganglia Glx was significantly associated with more severe symptoms of inattention. There were no significant differences in the parietal 'control' region. We suggest that subcortical glutamate and glutamine have a modulatory role in ADHD adults; and that differences in glutamate-glutamine levels are not explained by use of stimulant medication. PMID:24643164

  7. No Significant Effect of Prefrontal tDCS on Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Jonna; Lebedev, Alexander V.; Lövdén, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been put forward as a non-pharmacological alternative for alleviating cognitive decline in old age. Although results have shown some promise, little is known about the optimal stimulation parameters for modulation in the cognitive domain. In this study, the effects of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) on working memory performance were investigated in thirty older adults. An N-back task assessed working memory before, during and after anodal tDCS at a current strength of 1 mA and 2 mA, in addition to sham stimulation. The study used a single-blind, cross-over design. The results revealed no significant effect of tDCS on accuracy or response times during or after stimulation, for any of the current strengths. These results suggest that a single session of tDCS over the dlPFC is unlikely to improve working memory, as assessed by an N-back task, in old age. PMID:26696882

  8. Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Sams, Susan E.; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced…

  9. The Impact of Distraction on the Driving Performance of Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Brassell, Anne A.; Saxby, Dyani; Antonini, Tanya N.; O'Brien, Kathleen M.; Tamm, Leanne; Matthews, Gerald; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2013-01-01

    Importance This study extends the literature regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) related driving impairments to a newly-licensed, adolescent population. Objective To investigate the combined risks of adolescence, ADHD, and distracted driving (cell phone conversation and text messaging) on driving performance. Design Adolescents with and without ADHD engaged in a simulated drive under three conditions (no distraction, cell phone conversation, texting). During each condition, one unexpected event (e.g., car suddenly merging into driver's lane) was introduced. Setting Driving simulator. Participants Adolescents aged 16–17 with ADHD (n=28) and controls (n=33). Interventions/Main Exposures Cell phone conversation, texting, and no distraction while driving. Outcome Measures Self-report of driving history; Average speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position, braking reaction time during driving simulation. Results Adolescents with ADHD reported fewer months of driving experience and a higher proportion of driving violations than controls. After controlling for months of driving history, adolescents with ADHD demonstrated more variability in speed and lane position than controls. There were no group differences for braking reaction time. Further, texting negatively impacted the driving performance of all participants as evidenced by increased variability in speed and lane position. Conclusions This study, one of the first to investigate distracted driving in adolescents with ADHD, adds to a growing body of literature documenting that individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for negative driving outcomes. Furthermore, texting significantly impairs the driving performance of all adolescents and increases existing driving-related impairment in adolescents with ADHD, highlighting the need for education and enforcement of regulations against texting for this age group. PMID:23939758

  10. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Boys with ADHD Across Tests of Motor and Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intrasubject variability (ISV), or short-term, within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance is consistently found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with impairments in motor control, particularly in boys. The results of the few studies that have examined variability in self-generated motor output in children with ADHD have been inconsistent. The current study examined variability in motor control during a finger sequencing task among boys with and without ADHD as well as the relationship between intrasubject variability during motor and cognitive control tasks. Changes in performance over the course of the task and associations with ADHD symptom domains were also examined to elucidate the nature of impaired motor control in children with ADHD. Fifty-one boys (ages 8 to 12 years) participated in the study, including 28 boys with ADHD and 23 typically developing (TD) boys. Participants completed a finger sequencing task and a Go/No-Go task providing multiple measures of response speed and variability. Boys with ADHD were slower and more variable in both intertap interval on the finger sequencing task and reaction time on the Go/No-Go task, with measures of speed and variability correlated across the two tasks. For the entire cohort, the only unique predictor of parent ratings of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms was variability in intertap interval during finger sequencing, whereas inattentive symptoms were only predicted by reaction time variability on the Go/No-Go task. These findings suggest that inefficient motor control is implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, particularly in regards to developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity and impulsivity. PMID:23135288

  11. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  12. Predicting ADHD by Assessment of Rutter’s Indicators of Adversity in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Østergaard, Søren D.; Larsen, Janne T.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Agerbo, Esben; Mors, Ole; Petersen, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset. ADHD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, partly due to delayed diagnosis. Identification of children at high risk for developing ADHD could lead to earlier diagnosis and potentially change the negative trajectory of the illness for the better. Since early psychosocial adversity is considered to be a likely etiological risk factor for ADHD, markers of this construct may be useful for early identification of children at high risk. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether Rutter’s indicators of adversity (low social class, severe marital discord, large family size, paternal criminality, maternal mental disorder, and placement in out-of-home care) assessed in infancy could serve as early predictors for the development of ADHD. Methods and Findings Using data from the Danish nationwide population-based registers, we established a cohort consisting of all 994,407 children born in Denmark between January 1st 1993 and December 31st 2011 and extracted dichotomous values for the six Rutter’s indicators of adversity at age 0–12 months (infancy) for each cohort member. The cohort members were followed from their second birthday and the association between the sum of Rutter’s indicators of adversity (RIA-score) in infancy and subsequent development of ADHD was estimated by means of Cox regression. Also, the number needed to screen (NNS) to detect one case of ADHD based on the RIA-scores in infancy was calculated. During follow-up (9.6 million person-years), 15,857 males and 5,663 females from the cohort developed ADHD. For both males and females, there was a marked dose-response relationship between RIA-scores assessed in infancy and the risk for developing ADHD. The hazard ratios for ADHD were 11.0 (95%CI: 8.2–14.7) and 11.4 (95%CI: 7.1–18.3) respectively, for males and females with RIA-scores of 5–6, compared to males and

  13. Discriminative Ability of CHC Factor Scores from the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up approximately 5% of the school-aged population and they often experience significant difficulties in school, particularly in the areas of academics, disruptive behavior, and social relationships. A diagnosis of ADHD does not provide guidance for creating interventions to address…

  14. Parental Functioning in Families of Children with ADHD: Evidence for Behavioral Parent Training and Importance of Clinically Meaningful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Schneider, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective/Method: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful effects of behavioral parent training on parental functioning were examined for 20 children with ADHD and their parents who had successfully completed a psychosocial treatment for ADHD. Results/Conclusion: Findings suggest that behavioral parent training resulted in…

  15. Comparison of Mother, Father, and Teacher Reports of ADHD Core Symptoms in a Sample of Child Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. Method: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M…

  16. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  17. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  18. The Efficacy of Computerized Cognitive Training in Adults With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Stern, Adi; Malik, Elad; Pollak, Yehuda; Bonne, Omer; Maeir, Adina

    2014-04-22

    Objective: This is a randomized control trial examining the efficiency of computerized cognitive training (CCT) for adults with ADHD, comparing two training conditions with graded levels of executive cognitive demands. Method: Adults with ADHD (n = 60) were randomized into study (n = 34) and control (n = 26) groups. Training was conducted with the computerized AttenFocus program. Control group received a simple, non-hierarchical version with less executive demands. Results: Significant positive changes in symptoms ratings, ecological measures of executive functions, and occupational performance were found in both groups. No significant changes were found in variables of neurocognitive performance battery and quality of life. No significant time by group interaction effects were found. Conclusion: No benefits of the intervention were found relative to the control. Lack of interaction effects may be due to insufficient power, non-specific cognitive training or placebo effects. Results demonstrate some positive findings for general CCT, yet do not support the inclusion of specific higher level executive training. PMID:24756172

  19. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  20. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  1. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  2. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  3. ADHD Psychosocial Treatments: Generalization Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have demonstrated clinical utility in improving the behavior of children with ADHD, especially in specialized therapeutic milieus (Pelham et al., 2000). Improvements in children's target behaviors often occur in the treatment settings where contingencies are in place and delivered consistently. However, generalization of…

  4. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  5. Comorbidity of Asthma with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…

  6. Auditory Conflict Processing in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Mourik, Rosa; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Konig, Claudia; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been implicated as an important developmental pathway to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cognitive control is crucial to suppress interference resulting from conflicting information and can be measured by Stroop-like tasks. This study was conducted to gain insight into conflict processing…

  7. Substance Use and Delinquency among Adolescents with Childhood ADHD: The Protective Role of Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Belendiuk, Katharine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen’s activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. A sample of 242 adolescents, 142 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and prospectively followed into adolescence, and 100 without ADHD in childhood, were the focus of study. The relations between adolescent-reported outcomes (i.e. substance use and delinquency) and parenting behaviors were tested using latent variable modeling to determine both the effects of general (common) and specific (unique) parenting behaviors for participants with and without a history of ADHD. Adolescents’ report of parental knowledge was a significant correlate of delinquency and substance use above and beyond other parenting variables and the variance in common across the parenting variables. More knowledge was associated with less delinquency and substance use for all participants, but parental knowledge was more strongly associated with alcohol use for adolescents with versus without childhood ADHD. These correlational findings suggest that, despite the increased difficulty of parenting youths with ADHD histories, actions taken by parents and youth to increase parental awareness may provide some protection against behavioral transgressions known to be elevated in this population. PMID:22329747

  8. Media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikkelen, Sanne W C; Valkenburg, Patti M; Huizinga, Mariette; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-09-01

    There are several theoretical reasons to believe that media use might be related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies into the media-ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we still do not know whether children's media use and ADHD-related behaviors are related and, if so, under which conditions. To fill this gap in the literature, we first identified 6 different hypotheses that may explain why media use in general and viewing fast-paced or violent media content might be related to 1 or more ADHD-related behaviors. Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 empirical studies investigating the relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents. Our results indicated a small significant relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors (r+ = .12). Finally, we identified several specific gaps in the existing literature and presented 5 crucial directions for future research. PMID:24999762

  9. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children. PMID:25152531

  10. Change in neuropsychological functioning is associated with the trajectory of ADHD severity and impairment in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Trampush, Joey W.; Rindskopf, David; Marks, David J.; O’Neill, Sarah; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined whether changes in neuropsychological functioning were associated with the trajectory of ADHD-related symptoms and impairment between preschool and school-age. Method The sample consisted of 3- and 4-year-old children (N=138) who were identified as being “at-risk” for ADHD based on parent and teacher reports. Neuropsychological functioning was measured annually using the NEPSY at four points of time (Mean ages: 4.19, 5.36, 6.35 and 7.35 years). ADHD symptoms and impairment were assessed using semi-annual parent and teacher reports on the ADHD-RS-IV and the Children’s Problems Checklist over 10 points of time (Mean age at baseline and final assessment = 4.19 and 8.81 years, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess the trajectories of change in neuropsychological functioning and ADHD severity as well as the association of change in neuropsychological functioning with change in ADHD severity over time. Results Baseline neuropsychological functioning was not significantly associated with the slope of change in ADHD severity. However, the magnitude of change in neuropsychological functioning was linearly associated with the trajectory of ADHD symptom severity and impairment such that individuals with greater neuropsychological growth over time had a greater diminution of ADHD severity and impairment. Family socioeconomic status at baseline was significantly associated with initial ADHD severity and impairment but not with change over time. Conclusion Interventions that enhance neuropsychological functioning from an early age may be beneficial to attenuating long-term ADHD severity and impairment. PMID:23897408

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sluggish cognitive tempo dimensions in relation to executive functioning in adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has failed to find a consistent relation between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and executive function (EF) in youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) when laboratory-based neuropsychological tasks of EF are used, whereas recent research with youth and adults suggests a significant relation between SCT and ratings of EF. The purpose of this study was to examine ADHD dimensions and SCT symptoms in relation to ratings of EF in adolescents with ADHD. Fifty-two adolescents (ages 12-16; 70 % male) participated in this study. Parents and teachers completed validated measures of SCT, ADHD symptoms, and EF in daily life. Adolescents' intelligence and academic achievement were also assessed. ADHD and SCT symptoms were significantly correlated with ratings of EF. Regression analyses demonstrated that, as hypothesized, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were strongly associated with behavioral regulation EF deficits, with ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms unrelated to behavioral regulation EF when hyperactive-impulsivity symptoms were included in the model. The parent-reported SCT Slow scale measuring motivation, initiative, and apathy predicted both parent- and teacher-reported metacognitive EF deficits above and beyond youth characteristics and ADHD symptoms. In contrast, teacher-reported ADHD inattention was most clearly associated with teacher-reported metacognitive EF deficits. This study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of SCT symptoms in relation to metacognitive EF deficits among adolescents with ADHD and the need to further investigate the overlap and distinctiveness of SCT/ADHD. Further research is needed to replicate and extend these findings. PMID:23443466

  12. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  13. Willingness to use ADHD treatments: a mixed methods study of perceptions by adolescents, parents, health professionals and teachers.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Mason, Dana; Mayerson, Gillian; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about factors that influence willingness to engage in treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From 2007 to 2008, in the context of a longitudinal study assessing ADHD detection and service use in the United States, we simultaneously elicited ADHD treatment perceptions from four stakeholder groups: adolescents, parents, health care professionals and teachers. We assessed their willingness to use ADHD interventions and views of potential undesirable effects of two pharmacological (short- and long-acting ADHD medications) and three psychosocial (ADHD education, behavior therapy, and counseling) treatments. In multiple regression analysis, willingness was found to be significantly related to respondent type (lower for adolescents than adults), feeling knowledgeable, and considering treatments acceptable and helpful, but not significantly associated with stigma/embarrassment, respondent race, gender and socioeconomic status. Because conceptual models of undesirable effects are underdeveloped, we used grounded theory method to analyze open-ended survey responses to the question: "What other undesirable effects are you concerned about?" We identified general negative treatment perceptions (dislike, burden, perceived ineffectiveness) and specific undesirable effect expectations (physiological and psychological side effects, stigma and future dependence on drugs or therapies) for pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. In summary, findings indicate significant discrepancies between teens' and adults' willingness to use common ADHD interventions, with low teen willingness for any treatments. Results highlight the need to develop better treatment engagement practices for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:22133584

  14. Willingness to use ADHD Treatments: A Mixed Methods Study of Perceptions by Adolescents, Parents, Health Professionals and Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Noguchi, Kenji; Mason, Dana; Mayerson, Gillian; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about factors that influence willingness to engage in treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). From 2007 to 2008, in the context of a longitudinal study assessing ADHD detection and service use in the United States, we simultaneously elicited ADHD treatment perceptions from four stakeholder groups: adolescents, parents, health care professionals and teachers. We assessed their willingness to use ADHD interventions and views of potential undesirable effects of two pharmacological (short- and long-acting ADHD medications) and three psychosocial (ADHD education, behavior therapy, and counseling) treatments. In multiple regression analysis, willingness was found to be significantly related to respondent type (lower for adolescents than adults), feeling knowledgeable, and considering treatments acceptable and helpful, but not significantly associated with stigma/embarrassment, respondent race, gender and socioeconomic status. Because conceptual models of undesirable effects are underdeveloped, we used grounded theory method to analyze open-ended survey responses to the question: “What other undesirable effects are you concerned about?” We identified general negative treatment perceptions (dislike, burden, perceived ineffectiveness) and specific undesirable effect expectations (physiological and psychological side-effects, stigma and future dependence on drugs or therapies) for pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. In summary, findings indicate significant discrepancies between teens’ and adults’ willingness to use common ADHD interventions, with low teen willingness for any treatments. Results highlight the need to develop better treatment engagement practices for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:22133584

  15. Efficacy of Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Mitchell, Katherine; Abikoff, Howard; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.; Kofman, Michele D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of a 12-week manualized Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) group designed to enhance time-management, organization, and planning in adults with AD/HD. Method Eighty-eight clinically referred adults who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD based on clinical and structured diagnostic interviews and standardized questionnaires were stratified vis-à-vis ADHD medication use and otherwise randomly assigned to receive MCT or supportive psychotherapy in a group modality. MCT employs cognitive-behavioral principles and methods to impart skills and strategies in time-management, organization, and planning, and target depressogenic and anxiogenic cognitions that undermine effective self-management. The Support group controlled for non-specific aspects of treatment by providing support while avoiding discussion of cognitive-behavioral strategies. MCT and Support groups were comparable in gender (29% and 39% male, respectively) and age (41±11.59 yr and 42 ± 12.09 years, respectively). Therapeutic response was assessed by an independent (blind) evaluator via structured interview pre- and post-treatment, as well as by self-report and collateral informant behavioral ratings. Results General linear models, comparing change from baseline between treatments, revealed statistically significant effects for independent evaluator, self-report, and collateral ratings of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Employing dichotomous indices of therapeutic response, a significantly greater proportion of MCT vs. Support group members demonstrated improvement. Logistic regression examining group differences in operationally defined response (controlling for baseline ADHD severity) revealed a robust effect of Treatment Group (odds ratio=5.41; 95%CI=1.77,16.55). Conclusion MCT (vs. Support) yielded significantly greater improvements in dimensional and categorical estimates of ADHD severity, supporting its efficacy as a viable psychosocial intervention. PMID:20231319

  16. Psychiatric gene discoveries shape evidence on ADHD's biology

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, A; Martin, J; Mick, E; Arias Vásquez, A; Langley, K; Scherer, S W; Schachar, R; Crosbie, J; Williams, N; Franke, B; Elia, J; Glessner, J; Hakonarson, H; Owen, M J; Faraone, S V; O'Donovan, M C; Holmans, P

    2016-01-01

    A strong motivation for undertaking psychiatric gene discovery studies is to provide novel insights into unknown biology. Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, and large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to risk, little is known about its pathogenesis and it remains commonly misunderstood. We assembled and pooled five ADHD and control CNV data sets from the United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Northern Europe and Canada. Our aim was to test for enrichment of neurodevelopmental gene sets, implicated by recent exome-sequencing studies of (a) schizophrenia and (b) autism as a means of testing the hypothesis that common pathogenic mechanisms underlie ADHD and these other neurodevelopmental disorders. We also undertook hypothesis-free testing of all biological pathways. We observed significant enrichment of individual genes previously found to harbour schizophrenia de novo non-synonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; P=5.4 × 10−4) and targets of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (P=0.0018). No enrichment was observed for activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (P=0.23) or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (P=0.74) post-synaptic signalling gene sets previously implicated in schizophrenia. Enrichment of ADHD CNV hits for genes impacted by autism de novo SNVs (P=0.019 for non-synonymous SNV genes) did not survive Bonferroni correction. Hypothesis-free testing yielded several highly significantly enriched biological pathways, including ion channel pathways. Enrichment findings were robust to multiple testing corrections and to sensitivity analyses that excluded the most significant sample. The findings reveal that CNVs in ADHD converge on biologically meaningful gene clusters, including ones now established as conferring risk of other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26573769

  17. Psychiatric gene discoveries shape evidence on ADHD's biology.

    PubMed

    Thapar, A; Martin, J; Mick, E; Arias Vásquez, A; Langley, K; Scherer, S W; Schachar, R; Crosbie, J; Williams, N; Franke, B; Elia, J; Glessner, J; Hakonarson, H; Owen, M J; Faraone, S V; O'Donovan, M C; Holmans, P

    2016-09-01

    A strong motivation for undertaking psychiatric gene discovery studies is to provide novel insights into unknown biology. Although attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, and large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to risk, little is known about its pathogenesis and it remains commonly misunderstood. We assembled and pooled five ADHD and control CNV data sets from the United Kingdom, Ireland, United States of America, Northern Europe and Canada. Our aim was to test for enrichment of neurodevelopmental gene sets, implicated by recent exome-sequencing studies of (a) schizophrenia and (b) autism as a means of testing the hypothesis that common pathogenic mechanisms underlie ADHD and these other neurodevelopmental disorders. We also undertook hypothesis-free testing of all biological pathways. We observed significant enrichment of individual genes previously found to harbour schizophrenia de novo non-synonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; P=5.4 × 10(-4)) and targets of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (P=0.0018). No enrichment was observed for activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (P=0.23) or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (P=0.74) post-synaptic signalling gene sets previously implicated in schizophrenia. Enrichment of ADHD CNV hits for genes impacted by autism de novo SNVs (P=0.019 for non-synonymous SNV genes) did not survive Bonferroni correction. Hypothesis-free testing yielded several highly significantly enriched biological pathways, including ion channel pathways. Enrichment findings were robust to multiple testing corrections and to sensitivity analyses that excluded the most significant sample. The findings reveal that CNVs in ADHD converge on biologically meaningful gene clusters, including ones now established as conferring risk of other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26573769

  18. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Causes of ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Scientists ... research discounts this theory than supports it. Diagnosing ADHD Children mature at different rates and have different ...

  19. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  20. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  1. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD ... percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury. Sugar. The idea that refined sugar ...

  2. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  3. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training for Children with ADHD and Mindful Parenting for their Parents.

    PubMed

    van der Oord, Saskia; Bögels, Susan M; Peijnenburg, Dorreke

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for children aged 8-12 with ADHD and parallel mindful parenting training for their parents. Parents (N = 22) completed questionnaires on their child's ADHD and ODD symptoms, their own ADHD symptoms, parenting stress, parental overreactivity, permissiveness and mindful awareness before, immediately after the 8-week training and at 8-week follow-up. Teachers reported on ADHD and ODD behavior of the child. A within-group waitlist was used to control for the effects of time and repeated measurement. Training was delivered in group format. There were no significant changes between wait-list and pre-test, except on the increase of teacher-rated ODD behavior. There was a significant reduction of parent-rated ADHD behavior of themselves and their child from pre-to posttest and from pre- to follow-up test. Further, there was a significant increase of mindful awareness from pre-to posttest and a significant reduction of parental stress and overreactivity from pre-to follow-up test. Teacher-ratings showed non-significant effects. Our study shows preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness for children with ADHD and their parents, as rated by parents. However, in the absence of substantial effects on teacher-ratings, we cannot ascertain effects are due to specific treatment procedures. PMID:22347788

  4. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  5. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD; clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Kollins, S.H., Wigal, t.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Zhu, W.; Logan, J.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2009-09-09

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity - is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward pathway (mesoaccumbens). We used positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synaptic markers (transporters and D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors) in 53 nonmedicated adults with ADHD and 44 healthy controls between 2001-2009 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We measured specific binding of positron emission tomographic radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [{sup 11}C]cocaine and for D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors using [{sup 11}C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio -1). For both ligands, statistical parametric mapping showed that specific binding was lower in ADHD than in controls (threshold for significance set at P < .005) in regions of the dopamine reward pathway in the left side of the brain. Region-of-interest analyses corroborated these findings. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference) for DAT in the nucleus accumbens for controls was 0.71 vs 0.63 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.13, P = .004) and in the midbrain for controls was 0.16 vs 0.09 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.12; P {le} .001); for D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptors, the mean accumbens for controls was 2.85 vs 2.68 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.06-0.30, P = .004); and in the midbrain, it was for controls 0.28 vs 0.18 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.17, P = .01). The analysis also corroborated differences in the left caudate: the mean DAT for controls was 0.66 vs 0.53 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = .003) and the mean D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} for controls was 2.80 vs 2.47 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0

  6. Comparative efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in child and adolescent ADHD: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maneeton, Benchalak; Maneeton, Narong; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Suttajit, Sirijit; Narkpongphun, Assawin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Woottiluk, Pakapan

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that lisdexamfetamine (LDX) is efficacious in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives Aims of this study were to systematically review the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of LDX in child and adolescent ADHD. Any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of LDX versus placebo carried out in children and adolescents with ADHD were included. Data sources The searches of the SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were performed in September 2014. Additional searches in the ClinicalTrials. gov and EU Clinical Trials Register database were conducted. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions This review included all RCTs of LDX versus placebo which were carried out in children and adolescents up to 18 years old. Additionally, the included studies must have reported the final outcomes of: i) severity of ADHD symptoms with standardized scales, ii) rates of improvement, iii) rates of discontinuation. To be more thorough, the languages of such RCTs were not limited. Study appraisal and synthesis methods The abstracts from databases were inspected and the full text versions of relevant trials were examined and extracted for important outcomes. The efficacious measurements included either the pooled mean end-point or changed scores of ADHD rating scales, and the rate of improvement. Acceptability and tolerability were measured by the pooled overall discontinuation rate and the pooled discontinuation rate due to adverse events, respectively. A random effect model technique was utilized to synthesize the mean differences (either standardized mean differences or weighted mean differences) and relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 1,016 children and adolescents with ADHD were included. The dosage of LDX was 30 to 70 mg/day. The pooled mean change scores of LDX-treated group was significantly greater than that

  7. Methylphenidate improves diminished error and feedback sensitivity in ADHD: An evoked heart rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Groen, Yvonne; Mulder, Lambertus J M; Wijers, Albertus A; Minderaa, Ruud B; Althaus, Monika

    2009-09-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that has previously been related to a decreased sensitivity to errors and feedback. Supplementary to the traditional performance measures, this study uses autonomic measures to study this decreased sensitivity in ADHD and the modulating effects of medication. Children with ADHD, on and off Methylphenidate (Mph), and typically developing (TD) children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditions: reward, punishment and no feedback. Evoked Heart Rate (EHR) responses were computed for correct and error trials. All groups performed more efficiently with performance feedback than without. EHR analyses, however, showed that enhanced EHR decelerations on error trials seen in TD children, were absent in the medication-free ADHD group for all feedback conditions. The Mph-treated ADHD group showed 'normalised' EHR decelerations to errors and error feedback, depending on the feedback condition. This study provides further evidence for a decreased physiological responsiveness to errors and error feedback in children with ADHD and for a modulating effect of Mph. PMID:19464338

  8. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08), followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09) and sexual abuse (OR=2.07). Conclusions The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations. Highlights of the article Child maltreatment is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in a nationally representative sample of young Danish adults. Co-occurring (multiple) types of maltreatment display stronger associations with ADHD symptoms with attenuated effects for sexual abuse. Males confer stronger associations with ADHD symptoms than females. Findings underscore the importance of exploring the role of childhood trauma in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:27306866

  9. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R; Shanahan, Jacqueline M; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O'Connell, Redmond G; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  10. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R.; Shanahan, Jacqueline M.; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O’Connell, Redmond G.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  11. Self-regulation in ADHD: the role of error processing.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent and impairing developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Such behavioral dysregulation may be a consequence of deficits in self-monitoring or adaptive control, both of which are required for adaptive behavior. Processing of contextual demands, ongoing monitoring of one's behavior to evaluate whether it is appropriate for a particular situation, and adjusting behavior when it is suboptimal are components of self-regulation. This review examines and integrates the emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control as components of self-regulation into the prominent etiological theories of ADHD. Available data on error-processing, as reflected in event-related potentials (ERN and Pe) and behavioral performance, suggest that both early error detection and later error-evaluation may be diminished in ADHD, thereby interfering with adaptive control processes. However, variability in results limit broad conclusions, particularly for early error detection. A range of methodological issues, including ERP parameters and sample and task characteristics, likely contribute to this variability, and recommendations for future work are presented. The emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control informs etiological theories of ADHD in general and may provide a method for testing self-regulation models in particular. PMID:20659781

  12. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Gómez, Dulce I.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Martínez Hernández, Mario Iván; Ramos Méndez, José; Hidalgo Tobón, Silvia; Dies Suarez, Pilar; Barragán Pérez, Eduardo; De Celis Alonso, Benito

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  13. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    González Gómez Dulce, I. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E. E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón; Pilar, Dies Suarez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Benito, De Celis Alonso

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  14. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    was not significantly better, and on a few outcomes significantly less effective, than HNC. Conclusions The results do not support the claim that NFPP addresses putative dysfunctions underlying ADHD, bringing about generalized change in ADHD, and its underpinning self-regulatory processes. The findings support documented difficulties in achieving generalization across non-targeted settings, and the importance of using blinded measures to provide meaningful assessments of treatment effects. PMID:25318650

  15. Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Lindholm, Päivi; Moilanen, Irma; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Barnett, Jennifer H; Nikkinen, Juha; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K

    2016-05-01

    When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p < 0.05 FWE corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load-dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasise the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time. PMID:26307356

  16. Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Chen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD. PMID:23645101

  17. The Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Difficulties and ADHD: Etiologies of Comorbidity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Willcutt, Erik G; Pennington, Bruce F; Olson, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 60% of children with reading difficulties (RD) meet criteria for at least one co-occurring disorder. The most common of these, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), occurs in 20-40% of individuals with RD. Recent studies have suggested that genetic influences are responsible. To assess the genetic etiologies of RD and the comorbidity of RD and two ADHD symptom dimensions -- inattention (IN) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) -- we are conducting the first longitudinal twin study of RD and ADHD. Data from twin pairs in which at least one member of the pair met criteria for proband status for RD at initial assessment, and were reassessed 5 years later, were subjected to DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis. Analyses of reading composite data indicated that over 60% of the proband deficit at initial assessment was due to genetic influences, and that reading deficits at follow-up were due substantially to the same genetic influences. When a bivariate DF model was fitted to reading performance and IN data, genetic influences accounted for 60% of contemporaneous comorbidity and over 60% of the longitudinal relationship. In contrast, analysis of the comorbidity between reading performance and H/I indicated that common genetic influences accounted for only about 20% of the contemporaneous and about 10% of the longitudinal relationships. Results indicate that (1) genetic influences on RD are substantial and highly stable; (2) the comorbidity between RD and IN is due largely to genetic influences, both contemporaneously and longitudinally; and (3) genetic influences contribute significantly less to the comorbidity between RD and H/I. PMID:26537134

  18. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Bae, Jae Nam; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Ahn, Joon Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-04-30

    We examined the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Korean community using data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Korea conducted in 2006. A total of 6081 subjects aged 18 to 59 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener and Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, sleep disturbances, and suicidal tendency were compared in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Odds ratios and significance levels were calculated. The 6 month prevalence of adult ADHD symptoms was 1.1%. Associations between ADHD symptoms and alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, sleep disturbances, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (P<0.05), after controlling for gender and age. Adult ADHD symptoms are highly associated with substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, sleep disturbances and suicidality, suggesting that clinicians should carefully evaluate and treat such psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:20724004

  19. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544

  20. Distinct neural signatures detected for ADHD subtypes after controlling for micro-movements in resting state functional connectivity MRI data.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Nigg, Joel T; Iyer, Swathi; Bathula, Deepti; Mills, Kathryn L; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Mennes, Maarten; Gutman, David; Bangaru, Saroja; Buitelaar, Jan K; Dickstein, Daniel P; Di Martino, Adriana; Kennedy, David N; Kelly, Clare; Luna, Beatriz; Schweitzer, Julie B; Velanova, Katerina; Wang, Yu-Feng; Mostofsky, Stewart; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing enthusiasm that functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could achieve clinical utility for a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, several barriers remain. For example, the acquisition of large-scale datasets capable of clarifying the marked heterogeneity that exists in psychiatric illnesses will need to be realized. In addition, there continues to be a need for the development of image processing and analysis methods capable of separating signal from artifact. As a prototypical hyperkinetic disorder, and movement-related artifact being a significant confound in functional imaging studies, ADHD offers a unique challenge. As part of the ADHD-200 Global Competition and this special edition of Frontiers, the ADHD-200 Consortium demonstrates the utility of an aggregate dataset pooled across five institutions in addressing these challenges. The work aimed to (1) examine the impact of emerging techniques for controlling for "micro-movements," and (2) provide novel insights into the neural correlates of ADHD subtypes. Using support vector machine (SVM)-based multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) we show that functional connectivity patterns in individuals are capable of differentiating the two most prominent ADHD subtypes. The application of graph-theory revealed that the Combined (ADHD-C) and Inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes demonstrated some overlapping (particularly sensorimotor systems), but unique patterns of atypical connectivity. For ADHD-C, atypical connectivity was prominent in midline default network components, as well as insular cortex; in contrast, the ADHD-I group exhibited atypical patterns within the dlPFC regions and cerebellum. Systematic motion-related artifact was noted, and highlighted the need for stringent motion correction. Findings reported were robust to the specific motion correction strategy employed. These data suggest that resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data can be