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Sample records for adhd rating scale-iv

  1. Heart Rate and Reinforcement Sensitivity in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…

  2. Cultural Structures of the Persian Parents' Ratings of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the cultural structure of Farsi-speaking parents' ratings with diagnostic definitions of ADHD. Method: The children with ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The parents rated their children on the Farsi-speaking parents' ADHD rating questionnaire. Results: The principal components analysis extracted the…

  3. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  4. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  5. Blinded, multi-center validation of EEG and rating scales in identifying ADHD within a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Steven M; Quintana, Humberto; Sexson, Sandra B; Knott, Peter; Haque, A F M; Reynolds, Donald A

    2008-06-30

    Previous validation studies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment by rating scales or EEG have provided Class-IV evidence per standards of the American Academy of Neurology. To investigate clinical applications, we collected Class-I evidence, namely from a blinded, prospective, multi-center study of a representative clinical sample categorized with a clinical standard. Participating males (101) and females (58) aged 6 to 18 had presented to one of four psychiatric and pediatric clinics because of the suspected presence of attention and behavior problems. DSM-IV diagnosis was performed by clinicians assisted with a semi-structured clinical interview. EEG (theta/beta ratio) and ratings scales (Conners Rating Scales-Revised and ADHD Rating Scales-IV) were collected separately in a blinded protocol. ADHD prevalence in the clinical sample was 61%, whereas the remainder had other childhood/adolescent disorders or no diagnosis. Comorbidities were observed in 66% of ADHD patients and included mood, anxiety, disruptive, and learning disorders at rates similar to previous findings. EEG identified ADHD with 87% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Rating scales provided sensitivity of 38-79% and specificity of 13-61%. While parent or teacher identification of ADHD by rating scales was reduced in accuracy when applied to a diverse clinical sample, theta/beta ratio changes remained consistent with the clinician's ADHD diagnosis. Because theta/beta ratio changes do not identify comorbidities or alternative diagnoses, the results do not support the use of EEG as a stand-alone diagnostic and should be limited to the interpretation that EEG may complement a clinical evaluation for ADHD.

  6. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Has ADHD en español El ADHD ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a medical condition that affects ... them through first. ADHD used to be called attention deficit disorder , or ADD for short. In 1994, it ...

  7. Heart rate variability and methylphenidate in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Buchhorn, Reiner; Conzelmann, Annette; Willaschek, Christian; Störk, Dagmar; Taurines, Regina; Renner, Tobias J

    2012-06-01

    Although an extensive number of studies support the efficacy and tolerability of stimulants in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in recent years, increasing concerns have been raised about their cardiovascular safety. We investigated whether a time domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) recordings in 24-h ECG under medication with stimulants yielded new information about therapy control in ADHD. We analysed the HRV parameter standard deviation of all normal sinus RR intervals over 24 h (SDNN), percentage of successive normal sinus RR intervals > 50 ms (pNN50) and root-mean-square of the successive normal sinus RR interval difference (rMSSD) from 23 children diagnosed by ADHD (19 boys and 4 girls), aged 10.5 ± 2.2 years, who were consecutively referred to our outpatient clinic for paediatric cardiology. Eleven children received medication with methylphenidate (MPH), while twelve children were initially examined without medication. Of these, eight probands were re-examined after therapy with MPH was established. Controls comprised 19 children (10 boys, 9 girls) from our Holter ECG data base without any cardiac or circulatory disease. Compared to healthy controls, the ADHD children with and without MPH treatment showed significantly higher mean heart rates (ADHD without MPH: 94.3 ± 2.2; ADHD with MPH: 90.5 ± 1.8, controls: 84.7 ± 1.8). pNN50 (ADHD without MPH: 6.5 ± 2.7; ADHD with MPH: 14.2 ± 6.9, controls: 21.5 ± 9.0) and rMSSD (ADHD without MPH: 26.1 ± 4.1; ADHD with MPH: 36.7 ± 8.3, controls: 44.5 ± 10.1) were lowest in ADHD children without MPH, middle in ADHD children with MPH and highest in controls. SDNN values were not significantly different. The hourly analysis shows highly significant reduced pNN50 and rMSSD values in untreated ADHD children between 5:00 pm and 6:00 am while the pattern approaches to levels of controls during MPH treatment. Data of this pilot study indicate a decreased vagal tone with

  8. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  9. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... skills. Sometimes groups of people who have ADHD work together in group therapy. Group therapy can help people with ADHD ... Medicines Is My ADHD Medication Affecting My Sleep? Learning Disabilities How to Make Homework Less Work Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  10. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III).

  11. Reliability and Validity of Self- and Other-Ratings of Symptoms of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined concordance between raters of ADHD symptoms in adults; there is less information on how well rating scales function in distinguishing adult ADHD from other disorders. This study examined these variables using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Method: The sample included 349 adults evaluated for…

  12. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  13. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  14. Teacher Ratings of Young Children with and without ADHD: Construct Validity of Two Child Behavior Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Amy G.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined teachers' behavioral ratings of young children (ages 5 and 6) with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A study group consisting of 30 children with formal diagnoses of ADHD and a comparison group of 30 children without ADHD were developed using randomized matching procedures. Teachers of these children…

  15. Correspondence and Disparity in the Self- and Other Ratings of Current and Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Impairment in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Knouse, Laura E.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Experts recommend that clinicians evaluating adults for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) obtain information from others who know the patient well. The authors examined correspondence between the self- and other-ratings of ADHD symptoms and impairment using 3 groups of adults recruited on the basis of their severity of ADHD: ADHD…

  16. Effect of Stimulant Medication Use by Children with ADHD on Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Horn, Mary P.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)--heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 [plus or minus] 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 [plus or minus] 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD…

  17. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  18. Review of clinical validation of ADHD behavior rating scales.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Steven M; Hall, James R; Cornwell, Sonya L; Quintana, Humberto

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the range of overall accuracies for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) behavior rating scales evaluated in clinical validation studies. Studies were characterized according to the evidence standards of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN). Studies were excluded due to major design problems such as overfitting by discriminant analysis. The 13 included evaluations of rating scales revealed overall accuracy in the range of 59%-79% with a pooled mean of 69% (+/-7%, standard deviation) and a pooled sample size of 2228 subjects from nine studies. While some of the excluded studies demonstrated higher overall accuracies (>79%), these studies were observed to have factors in experimen tal design and statistics that are known to unduly inflate accuracy. We recommend further research following the full AAN standards, namely well-designed, blinded, pro spective studies of rating scales applied to clinically representative samples evaluated with a clinical standard.

  19. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  20. Improving Expressive Writing Skills of Children Rated for ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Caeran, Monica; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the expressive writing abilities of children described by their teachers as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and of matched controls and the effects of two types of facilitation. A group of 35 ADHD children and matched controls are given the task of composing a letter either under standard…

  1. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  2. Parent-, teacher-, and self-rated motivational styles in ADHD subtypes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Caryn L; Booth, Jane E; Shin, Misung; Canu, Will H

    2002-01-01

    The motivational styles of 25 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD/C), 13 children with ADHD, inattentive type (ADHD/IA), and 25 nondiagnosed controls (NC) were compared using parent, teacher, and self-ratings. Both ADHD subtypes demonstrated motivational impairment characterized by a preference for easy work, less enjoyment of learning, less persistence, and a greater reliance on external than on internal standards to judge their performance relative to NC. Some motivational style differences between ADHD subtypes were also revealed, with the ADHD/C group more motivated by competitiveness and a desire to be perceived as superior to others and the ADHD/IA group less uncooperative and possibly more passive in their learning styles. When IQ was statistically controlled, these results were generally unchanged. The contributing role of motivational deficits to the generally poor academic functioning of children with ADHD is discussed, along with potential intervention implications of the divergent motivational styles of different ADHD subtypes.

  3. Rate and predictors of divorce among parents of youths with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Tracey K; Greenhouse, Joel B

    2008-10-01

    Numerous studies have asserted the prevalence of marital conflict among families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but evidence is surprisingly less convincing regarding whether parents of youths with ADHD are more at risk for divorce than are parents of children without ADHD. Using survival analyses, the authors compared the rate of marital dissolution between parents of adolescents and young adults with and without ADHD. Results indicated that parents of youths diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (n = 282) were more likely to divorce and had a shorter latency to divorce compared with parents of children without ADHD (n = 206). Among a subset of those families of youths with ADHD, prospective analyses indicated that maternal and paternal education level; paternal antisocial behavior; and child age, race/ethnicity, and oppositional-defiant/conduct problems each uniquely predicted the timing of divorce between parents of youths with ADHD. These data underscore how parent and child variables likely interact to exacerbate marital discord and, ultimately, dissolution among families of children diagnosed with ADHD.

  4. Improving expressive writing skills of children rated for ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Caeran, Monica; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the expressive writing abilities of children described by their teachers as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and of matched controls and the effects of two types of facilitation. A group of 35 ADHD children and matched controls are given the task of composing a letter either under standard instructions or with facilitation (a guide scheme), preceded by a brief training on how to use the facilitation. Results show that both groups drew benefit from the guide scheme. Despite the fact that differences between groups were maintained after the training for the case of spelling errors, the poorer performance of ADHD children vanished. It is concluded that ADHD children have poor expressive writing skills, but this can be improved through the help of a guide scheme preceded by brief training.

  5. ADHD and epilepsy: contributions from the use of behavioral rating scales to investigate psychiatric comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Karina Soares; Carvalho, Alysson Massote; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Nascimento, Jane de Almeida

    2011-03-01

    Children with epilepsy have a high incidence of psychiatric comorbidities, especially attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This observational cross-sectional study investigated the presence of ADHD in 30 children with idiopathic epilepsy. The Brazilian versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Teacher Report Form (TRF), and the MTA-SNAP-IV questionnaire were used to assess comorbid psychiatric conditions. ADHD diagnosis was confirmed in 53.3% of children. The combined type was the most prevalent (43.7%), followed by the hyperactive-impulsive (37.5%) and inattentive (18.7%) types. Scores above the cutoff point on these scales were strongly correlated with the presence of ADHD. The high prevalence of ADHD in association with other psychiatric comorbidities in children with epilepsy justifies the use of behavioral rating scales as screening tests.

  6. Reliable Ratings or Reading Tea Leaves: Can Parent, Teacher, and Clinician Behavioral Ratings of Preschoolers Predict ADHD at Age Six?

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sarah; Schneiderman, Robyn L.; Rajendran, Khushmand; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative ability of parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers to predict ADHD severity and diagnosis at 6 years of age. Method Hyperactive/inattentive preschoolers [N=104, 75% boys, Mean (SD) age = 4.37 (.47) years] were followed over two years (mean=26.44 months, SD=5.66). At baseline (BL), parents and teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV and clinicians completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children following a psychological testing session. At age 6, [Mean (SD) age = 6.62 (.35) years], parents were interviewed with the K-SADS-PL; teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV; and laboratory measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention were obtained from children. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses examined which combination of BL ratings best predicted 6-year-old ADHD diagnosis and severity, respectively. Results At age 6, 56 (53.8%) children met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD. BL ratings from parent/teacher/clinician, parent/teacher and parent/clinician combinations significantly predicted children who had an ADHD diagnosis at age 6. Parent and clinician, but not teacher, behavior ratings were significant independent predictors of ADHD diagnosis and severity at 6-years-old. However, only clinician reports of preschoolers’ behaviors predicted laboratory measures of over-activity and inattention at follow-up. Conclusion Cross-situationality is important for a diagnosis of ADHD during the preschool years. Among parents, teachers and clinicians, positive endorsements from all three informants, parent/teacher or parent/clinician appear to have prognostic value. Clinicians’ ratings of preschoolers’ inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are valid sources of information for predicting ADHD diagnosis and severity over time. PMID:24085388

  7. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Parent Ratings of ADHD and ODD Symptoms across Gender for American and Malaysian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder…

  8. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  9. Assessment of daily profiles of ADHD and ODD symptoms, and symptomatology related to ADHD medication, by parent and teacher ratings.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Dieter; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred

    2011-10-01

    DAYAS is a new two-part rating scale that assesses: (1) ADHD and ODD symptoms (externalising symptom ratings) and (2) symptomatology potentially related to ADHD medication (potentially medication-related symptoms) in real-world settings at different time periods throughout a normal school day. Data from a proof-of-concept study and two observational trials (Medikinet(®) retard [methylphenidate] and the Equasym XL(®) [methylphenidate] OBSEER study) evaluated: (1) validity of weekly externalising symptom ratings using DAYAS, in place of daily ratings; (2) reliability and internal consistency of DAYAS ratings for externalising symptoms and potentially medication-related symptoms; and (3) convergent and divergent validity of the externalising symptom ratings with existing validated scales. From the proof-of-concept study, daily scores by period of day and during the whole day correlated strongly with equivalent weekly scores (r = 0.83-0.92). Internal consistency of externalising symptom rating scales calculated from pooled data were acceptable or good by period of day (Cronbach's alpha = 0.68-0.90) and very high for whole day scores (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88-0.95). Internal consistency of the rating scale for potentially medication-related symptoms was also good for both teacher and parent ratings. From OBSEER data, correlations between FBB-ADHD total symptom scores and ratings on both parent and teacher versions of DAYAS were high (r = 0.73 and r = 0.84, respectively). Correlations between DAYAS and SDQ were highest for the SDQ subscales hyperactivity and conduct problems and substantially lower for pro-social behaviour, peers and emotional problems. The DAYAS rating scale had good internal consistency, and DAYAS scores correlated well with existing validated scales and the SDQ subscales hyperactivity and conduct problems. Weekly DAYAS scores (whole day and by period of day) could be considered a suitable replacement for daily assessment scores.

  10. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered heart rate asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerová, I; Ondrejka, I; Farský, I; Višňovcová, Z; Mešťaník, M; Javorka, M; Jurko, A; Čalkovská, A

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with complex neurocardiac integrity. We aimed to study heart rate time asymmetry as a nonlinear qualitative feature of heart rate variability indicating complexity of cardiac autonomic control at rest and in response to physiological stress (orthostasis) in children suffering from ADHD. Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 healthy age-matched boys at the age of 8 to 12 years were examined. The continuous ECG was recorded in a supine position and during postural change from lying to standing (orthostasis). Time irreversibility indices - Porta's (P%), Guzik's (G%) and Ehlers' (E) - were evaluated. Our analysis showed significantly reduced heart rate asymmetry indices at rest (P%: 49.8 % vs. 52.2 %; G%: 50.2 % vs. 53.2 %; p<0.02), and in response to orthostatic load (P%: 52.4 % vs. 54.5 %, G%: 52.3 % vs. 54.5 %; p<0.05) associated with tachycardia in ADHD children compared to controls. Concluding, our study firstly revealed the altered heart rate asymmetry pattern in children suffering from ADHD at rest as well as in response to posture change from lying to standing (orthostasis). These findings might reflect an abnormal complex cardiac regulatory system as a potential mechanism leading to later cardiac adverse outcomes in ADHD.

  11. Event Rate and Event-Related Potentials in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersema, Roeljan; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; Van, Coster, Rudy; Baeyens, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has been repeatedly found that performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more impaired when a long inter-stimulus interval (ISI) is used than when a short ISI is used. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this may reflect difficulty in remaining in an optimal motor activation state…

  12. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  13. Sustained attention and heart rate variability in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kristi R; Quintana, Daniel S; Hermens, Daniel F; Spooner, Chris; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role in attention and self-regulation by modulating physiological arousal to meet environmental demands. Core symptoms of ADHD such as inattention and behavioral disinhibition may be related to dysregulation of the ANS, however previous findings have been equivocal. We examined autonomic activity and reactivity by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) in a large sample of un-medicated children and adolescents (6-19 years) with ADHD (n=229) compared to typically-developing controls (n=244) during rest and sustained attention. Four heart rate variability measures were extracted: Root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat-intervals (rMSSD), absolute high frequency (HFA) power, absolute low frequency (LFA) power and ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF). There were no group differences in HFA or rMSSD, even when assessing across child and adolescent groups separately, by gender or ADHD subtype. LF/HF however was higher in ADHD during both rest and sustained attention conditions, particularly in male children. Sustained attention was impaired in ADHD relative to controls, and a higher LF/HF ratio during sustained attention was associated with poorer performance in both groups. Lower rMSSD and HFA were associated with higher anxiety, oppositional behaviors and social problems, supporting prevailing theories that these measures index emotion regulation and adaptive social behavior. Different measures of heart rate variability provide important insights into the sustained attention and emotional and behavioral regulation impairments observed in ADHD and may aid in delineating ADHD pathophysiology.

  14. Understanding source effects in ADHD rating scales: reply to DuPaul (2003).

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Gomez, Rapson; Walsh, James A; de Moura, Marcela Alves

    2003-03-01

    G. J. DuPaul (2003) offered two suggestions for additional research to understand the strong source effects reported by R. Gomez, G. L. Burns, J. A. Walsh, and M. A. de Moura (2003) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scales. The first suggestion was to determine whether the source effects represent mostly bias or accuracy. The second suggestion was to minimize source effects through the development of better ADHD rating scales. Because source effects can represent bias or accuracy, it is important to minimize the bias aspect through content validation procedures prior to attempts to determine whether source effects better reflect bias or accuracy. This comment offers various suggestions to reduce the bias in ADHD rating scales.

  15. Measuring ADHD and ODD Symptoms and Impairment Using High School Teachers' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven W.; Brady, Christine E.; Harrison, Judith R.; Bunford, Nora; Kern, Lee; State, Talida; Andrews, Christiana

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the results of high school teachers' ratings of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder, as well as school-related impairment of 875 adolescents. One hundred forty-three teachers at 19 high schools across 4 states each rated 6 students from their first-period classes according to…

  16. Validity of the behavior rating inventory of executive function in children with ADHD and/or Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Cirino, Paul T; Cutting, Laurie E; Cerrone, Paula M; Hagelthorn, Kathleen M; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Singer, Harvey S; Denckla, Martha B

    2002-10-01

    The dynamic, multidimensional nature of executive function (EF), thought to be characteristically impaired in those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has been challenging to operationalize and assess in a clinical setting [Barkley, R. A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: Guilford Press.]. Gioia, Isquith, Guy, and Kenworthy [Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000) Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.] developed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to address these concerns. In order to provide concurrent validity information on the BRIEF, parents of 76 children (ADHD=18; Tourette syndrome (TS)=21; TS+ADHD=17; controls=20) completed the BRIEF, additional behavior rating scales and interviews, measures of psychoeducational (PE) competence, and performance-based measures of EF. Both ADHD and TS+ADHD groups were rated as more impaired (P<.0001) than the other groups on the five primary BRIEF indices. BRIEF index scores showed no significant correlation with performance-based EF or PE measures, with the exception of math achievement; however, the BRIEF showed a strong relationship with interviews and other parent rating measures of behaviors seen in ADHD. Future attempts to validate the BRIEF should focus on differences within subtypes of ADHD (e.g., inattentive, combined subtypes), and separating ADHD from other clinical groups in which EF is reported to be a problem.

  17. Gender Differences in the Effects of Oppositional Behavior on Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David A.; King, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child…

  18. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  19. Reliability of DSM-IV Symptom Ratings of ADHD: Implications for DSM-V

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the intrarater reliability of "DSM-IV" ADHD symptoms. Method: Two-hundred-two children referred for attention problems and 49 comparison children (all 7-12 years) were rated by parents and teachers on the identical "DSM-IV" items presented in two different formats, the…

  20. Modifying the Response Labels of an ADHD Teacher Rating Scale: Psychometric and Epidemiologic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Umbach, David M.; Bohlig, E. Michael; Stallone, Lil; Sandler, Dale P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of changing the response labels of a teacher rating scale in a population-based study of ADHD. Method: For parents, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, which asks whether each of 18 symptoms occurred "often" in the past year, was used. For teachers, most scales use a 4-point scale, with…

  1. Validating a Self-Report Screen for ADHD in Early Adulthood Using Childhood Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlie, E. B.; Lazare, Kim; Beitchman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article evaluates the diagnostic utility of a self-report screening tool for adults based on "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") ADHD criteria. Method: Children with speech/language (S/L) impairment and typically developing controls had ADHD symptoms rated by parents and…

  2. Psychometrically Informed Approach to Integration of Multiple Informant Ratings in Adult ADHD in a Community-Recruited Sample.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Although Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition requires that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are apparent across settings, assessed by multiple informants, there remains no standardized approach to integration of multiple sources in adult ADHD diagnosis. The goal of the study was to evaluate informant effects on adult ADHD symptom ratings. Participants were 406 adults, ages 18 to 37, and identified second reporters, recruited from the community, and completing a comprehensive diagnostic and cognitive assessment, including a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and self- and other-report questionnaires of ADHD symptoms. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a trifactor model of ADHD, including general ADHD, specific inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, and self- and other-perspective factors. Yet there were a number of symptoms on the specific hyperactive-impulsive and self-factors that exhibited nonsignificant loadings. Significant differential item functioning across self-ratings and informant ratings was also noted. The external validation indices of laboratory executive function and diagnostic team-rated impairment was significantly correlated with the specific inattentive factor. While executive function was marginally significantly correlated with the other perspective factor, impairment was associated with the self-perspective factor. Overall, inattentive symptoms may be more sensitive measures of adult ADHD, and other and self-ratings may provide different information in relation to external criteria.

  3. Predictive validity of parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms in adolescence on adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Du Rietz, Ebba; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Brikell, Isabell; Jangmo, Andreas; Sariaslan, Amir; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kuntsi, Jonna; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-02-10

    There is scarcity of research investigating the validity of self-report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms compared to other informants, such as parents. This study aimed to compare the predictive associations of ADHD symptoms rated by parents and their children across adolescence on a range of adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood. Parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms were assessed in 2960 individuals in early (13-14 years) and late adolescence (16-17 years). Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the associations between parent- and self-rated ADHD symptoms at both time points and adverse life outcomes in young adulthood obtained from Swedish national registries. Both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes, although associations of parent-ratings were more often statistically significant and were generally stronger (OR = 1.12-1.49, p < 0.05) than self-ratings (OR = 1.07-1.17, p < 0.05). After controlling for the other informant, parent-ratings of ADHD symptoms in both early and late adolescence significantly predicted academic and occupational failure, criminal convictions and traffic-related injuries, while self-ratings of ADHD symptoms only in late adolescence predicted substance use disorder and academic failure. Our findings suggest that both parent- and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms in adolescence provides valuable information on risk of future adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes, however, self-ratings are not valuable once parent-ratings have been taken into account in predicting most outcomes. Thus, clinicians and researchers should prioritize parent-ratings over self-ratings.

  4. Impairment in Occupational Functioning and Adult ADHD: The Predictive Utility of Executive Function (EF) Ratings Versus EF Tests

    PubMed Central

    Barkley, Russell A.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF). ADHD in adults is also associated with impairments in major life activities, particularly occupational functioning. We investigated the extent to which EF deficits assessed by both tests and self-ratings contributed to the degree of impairment in 11 measures involving self-reported occupational problems, employer reported workplace adjustment, and clinician rated occupational adjustment. Three groups of adults were recruited as a function of their severity of ADHD: ADHD diagnosis (n = 146), clinical controls self-referring for ADHD but not diagnosed with it (n = 97), and community controls (n = 109). Groups were combined and regression analyses revealed that self-ratings of EF were significantly predictive of impairments in all 11 measures of occupational adjustment. Although several tests of EF also did so, they contributed substantially less than did the EF ratings, particularly when analyzed jointly with the ratings. We conclude that EF deficits contribute to the impairments in occupational functioning that occur in conjunction with adult ADHD. Ratings of EF in daily life contribute more to such impairments than do EF tests, perhaps because, as we hypothesize, each assesses a different level in the hierarchical organization of EF as a meta-construct. PMID:20197297

  5. The incremental validity of a computerised assessment added to clinical rating scales to differentiate adult ADHD from autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Groom, Madeleine J; Young, Zoe; Hall, Charlotte L; Gillott, Alinda; Hollis, Chris

    2016-09-30

    There is a clinical need for objective evidence-based measures that are sensitive and specific to ADHD when compared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. This study evaluated the incremental validity of adding an objective measure of activity and computerised cognitive assessment to clinical rating scales to differentiate adult ADHD from Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adults with ADHD (n=33) or ASD (n=25) performed the QbTest, comprising a Continuous Performance Test with motion-tracker to record physical activity. QbTest parameters measuring inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity were combined to provide a summary score ('QbTotal'). Binary stepwise logistic regression measured the probability of assignment to the ADHD or ASD group based on scores on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-subscale E (CAARS-E) and Autism Quotient (AQ10) in the first step and then QbTotal added in the second step. The model fit was significant at step 1 (CAARS-E, AQ10) with good group classification accuracy. These predictors were retained and QbTotal was added, resulting in a significant improvement in model fit and group classification accuracy. All predictors were significant. ROC curves indicated superior specificity of QbTotal. The findings present preliminary evidence that adding QbTest to clinical rating scales may improve the differentiation of ADHD and ASD in adults.

  6. Rate and Predictors of Divorce among Parents of Youths with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M Wilson, Tracey K.; Greenhouse, Joel B.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have asserted the prevalence of marital conflict among families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but evidence is surprisingly less convincing regarding whether parents of youths with ADHD are more at risk for divorce than are parents of children without ADHD. Using survival analyses, the authors…

  7. Item response theory analyses of the parent and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD rating scale.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-08-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 265-274, 1999) for a group of 1,475 primary school-aged children. The results for the discrimination parameters showed that all symptoms for both groups of respondents were generally good for discriminating their respective latent traits. For virtually all symptoms, their threshold values showed moderate to large increases in the level of the latent trait at each subsequent response dichotomy, with the symptoms being especially good at representing the appropriate traits from mean to moderately high trait levels. The item information function values for most symptoms indicated reasonable reliability from, approximately, the mean trait levels to moderately high trait levels. These findings indicate good psychometric properties for the parent and teacher ratings of the DARS. The implications of the findings for the use of the DARS and other similar scales are discussed.

  8. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  9. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  10. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-03-03

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p < .01, deficits in fine motor regulation (Welch´s t-test = 44.768; p < .001) and sensory/motor activity (Welch'st-test = 95.683, p < .001; Welch's t-test = 79.537, p < .001). Both groups exhibited a similar performance in response control, F(3, 170) = .93, p = .43.Children with ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli.

  11. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD.

  12. Categorical and Dimensional Definitions and Evaluations of Symptoms of ADHD: History of the SNAP and the SWAN Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Swanson, James M; Schuck, Sabrina; Porter, Miranda Mann; Carlson, Caryn; Hartman, Catharina A; Sergeant, Joseph A; Clevenger, Walter; Wasdell, Michael; McCleary, Richard; Lakes, Kimberley; Wigal, Timothy

    2012-04-01

    An earlier version of this article was originally submitted for publication in early 2000 to introduce a new dimensional of concept of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. The SWAN was developed to correct some obvious deficiencies of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP) rating scale that was based on the categorical concept of ADHD. The first submission was not accepted for publication, so a draft of the article was posted on a website (www.ADHD.net). The SWAN scale was published as a table in a review article (Swanson et al, 2001) to make it available to those interested in this dimensional approach to assessment of ADHD. Despite its relative inaccessibility, the SWAN has been used in several genetic studies of ADHD (e.g., Hay, Bennett, Levy, Sergeant, & Swanson, 2005; Cornish et al, 2005) and has been translated into several languages for European studies of ADHD (e.g., Lubke et al, 2006; Polderman et al, 2010) and into Spanish for studies in the United States (e.g., Lakes, Swanson, & Riggs, 2011; Kudo et al., this issue). Recently, invitations to include the SWAN in the PhenX Toolkit (www.phenx.org) for genomic studies (Hamilton et al, 2011) and to describe thedimensional approach of the SWAN for discussion of diagnostic (Swanson, Wigal, & Lakes, 2009) and ethical (Swanson, Wigal, Lakes, &Volkow, 2011) issues has convinced us that the unpublished article is still relevant after more than a decade, so it is presented here with some minor updates. We use examples (a) to document some consequences (e.g., over-identification of extreme cases) of using statistical cutoffs based on the assumption for a distribution of SNAP ratings that is highly skewed and (b) to show how the SWAN corrects the skewness of the SNAP by rewording the items on the scale and using a wider range of rating alternatives, which corrects the tendency to over-identify extreme cases.

  13. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  14. Rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with ADHD and associations with internalizing symptoms and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Mehari, Krista R; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of the present study were to: (1) describe rates of peer victimization in young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, (2) evaluate the association between types of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational, and reputational) and internalizing problems (i.e., anxiety, depression, and self-esteem), and (3) examine whether associations between victimization and internalizing problems differ for males or females. Participants were 131 middle-school students (ages 11-15 years, 73 % male, 76 % White) diagnosed with ADHD who completed ratings of victimization, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Over half of the participants (57 %) reported experiencing at least one victimization behavior at a rate of once per week or more, with higher rates of relational victimization (51 %) than reputational victimization (17 %) or physical victimization (14 %). Males reported experiencing more physical victimization than females, but males and females did not differ in rates of relational or reputational victimization. Whereas relational and physical victimization were both uniquely associated with greater anxiety for both males and females, relational victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem for males but not females. These findings indicate that young adolescents with ADHD frequently experience peer victimization and that the association between victimization and internalizing problems among young adolescents with ADHD differs as a result of victimization type, internalizing domain, and sex.

  15. Event rate and reaction time performance in ADHD: Testing predictions from the state regulation deficit hypothesis using an ex-Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Wiersema, Jan R; Verguts, Tom; Gasthuys, Roos; van Der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    According to the state regulation deficit (SRD) account, ADHD is associated with a problem using effort to maintain an optimal activation state under demanding task settings such as very fast or very slow event rates. This leads to a prediction of disrupted performance at event rate extremes reflected in higher Gaussian response variability that is a putative marker of activation during motor preparation. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using ex-Gaussian modeling, which distinguishes Gaussian from non-Gaussian variability. Twenty-five children with ADHD and 29 typically developing controls performed a simple Go/No-Go task under four different event-rate conditions. There was an accentuated quadratic relationship between event rate and Gaussian variability in the ADHD group compared to the controls. The children with ADHD had greater Gaussian variability at very fast and very slow event rates but not at moderate event rates. The results provide evidence for the SRD account of ADHD. However, given that this effect did not explain all group differences (some of which were independent of event rate) other cognitive and/or motivational processes are also likely implicated in ADHD performance deficits.

  16. Event rate and reaction time performance in ADHD: Testing predictions from the state regulation deficit hypothesis using an ex-Gaussian model.

    PubMed

    Metin, Baris; Wiersema, Jan R; Verguts, Tom; Gasthuys, Roos; van Der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-12-06

    According to the state regulation deficit (SRD) account, ADHD is associated with a problem using effort to maintain an optimal activation state under demanding task settings such as very fast or very slow event rates. This leads to a prediction of disrupted performance at event rate extremes reflected in higher Gaussian response variability that is a putative marker of activation during motor preparation. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis using ex-Gaussian modeling, which distinguishes Gaussian from non-Gaussian variability. Twenty-five children with ADHD and 29 typically developing controls performed a simple Go/No-Go task under four different event-rate conditions. There was an accentuated quadratic relationship between event rate and Gaussian variability in the ADHD group compared to the controls. The children with ADHD had greater Gaussian variability at very fast and very slow event rates but not at moderate event rates. The results provide evidence for the SRD account of ADHD. However, given that this effect did not explain all group differences (some of which were independent of event rate) other cognitive and/or motivational processes are also likely implicated in ADHD performance deficits.

  17. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... under a psychiatrist's or other doctor's care. ADHD medications have helped teens with ADHD in all sorts of areas, even helping reduce things like substance abuse, injuries, and automobile accidents. ADHD medicines also can ...

  18. ADHD Rating Scales' Susceptibility to Faking in a College Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, April Bryington; Watkins, Marley W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinicians must often rely on self-report data to make a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Unfortunately, self-report data are subject to intentional distortion. This becomes a concern when assessing for the disorder in the college population due to perceptions that there are benefits to having a documented…

  19. Across the Continuum of Attention Skills: A Twin Study of the SWAN ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, Jim J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Posthuma, Danielle; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Most behavior checklists for attention problems or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) have a narrow range of scores, focusing on the extent to which problems are present. It has been proposed that measuring attention on a continuum, from positive attention skills to attention…

  20. Maternal Ratings of Attention Problems in ADHD: Evidence for the Existence of a Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Hudziak, James J.; Derks, Eske M.; van Bijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether items assessing attention problems provide evidence of quantitative differences or categorically distinct subtypes of attention problems (APs) and to investigate the relation of empirically derived latent classes to "DSM-IV" diagnoses of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), for…

  1. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD medications work by increasing the levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters help send messages between nerve cells in the brain. There are two main kinds of ADHD medications: ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news ... Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  3. Relationships between computer-based testing and behavioral ratings in the assessment of attention and activity in a pediatric ADHD stimulant crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Ramtvedt, Bjørn Erik; Sundet, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between computer-based testing and behavioral ratings in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity in a pediatric ADHD crossover trial with methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, and a placebo. Here 36 children between 9 and 14 years old were randomly and evenly assigned to each of six counterbalanced drug orders. A computer-based continuous performance test combined with a motion-tracking system (cb-CPT-MTS) and an ADHD questionnaire rated by teachers constituted the outcome measures. All outcome measures responded to stimulants in a comparable way at the group level, as shown by significant treatment effects of similar size for the two stimulants compared with a placebo. Computer-based and rating-based measures were unrelated in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity in individual children; no significant correlations between these measures in the assessment of change from placebo to stimulant conditions across the sample were detected. Results suggest that computer-based testing and behavioral ratings cannot be considered equivalent in the assessment of stimulant-induced changes in attention and activity among ADHD children.

  4. Usefulness of a Clinician Rating Scale in Identifying Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopin, Chaya; Healey, Dione; Castelli, Katia; Marks, David; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children (BRIC), a novel clinician inventory for preschoolers. Method: Completion of the BRIC for 214 preschoolers follows 2 evaluation sessions, generally separated by less than 2 weeks. Items are submitted to a Principal Components…

  5. ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Egan, Theresa E; Sacchetti, Gina M; Tams, Sean T; Wymbs, Frances A

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) often have elevated ADHD and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the risk of ineffective parenting and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether child ADHD/ODD behavior and parent ADHD or depressive symptoms uniquely or synergistically predict the quality of parenting and interparental communication during triadic (mother-father-child) interactions. Ninety parent couples, including 51 who have children diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child (84 % male) exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Parents reported their own ADHD and depressive symptoms, and parents and observers rated the quality of parenting and interparental communication during the interaction. Actor-partner interdependence modeling indicated that child ADHD/ODD behavior predicted less positive and more negative parenting and communication, independent of adult ADHD and depressive symptoms. Parent couples including two parents with elevated ADHD communicated more positively while managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than couples managing children behaving typically or couples with only one parent with elevated ADHD symptoms. Couples including one parent with, and one parent without, elevated ADHD or depressive symptoms parented less positively and more negatively, and communicated more negatively, when managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than when managing children behaving typically. Taken together, depending on the similarity of ADHD and depressive symptom levels in parent couples, adults managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior may parent or communicate positively or negatively. Findings highlight the need to consider the psychopathology of both parents when treating children with ADHD in two-parent homes.

  6. The Influence of Feedback of Diagnosis and Executive Function Skills on Rates of False Positive and False Negative Outcomes for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stacy L.; Privitera, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive function (EF) skills and self-reported symptoms of ADHD. EF skills were measured to determine whether skills were different between groups that reported clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (clinical group) and nonclinical levels of ADHD symptoms (nonclinical group). EF skills in the nonclinical group were also…

  7. Developing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental…

  8. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines A A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  9. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  11. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  12. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior.

  13. ADHD with Comorbid Anxiety: A Review of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, David Beck; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective/Method: ADHD is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with rates approaching 25% in many samples. This current review's goal is to examine the literature on ADHD with comorbid anxiety from 1998 to the present. Results: Recent studies indicate that anxiety in ADHD may a) partially inhibit the impulsivity and response inhibition deficits,…

  14. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  15. Modelling ADHD: A review of ADHD theories through their predictions for computational models of decision-making and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Sigurd; Pedersen, Mads L; Mowinckel, Athanasia M; Biele, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by altered decision-making (DM) and reinforcement learning (RL), for which competing theories propose alternative explanations. Computational modelling contributes to understanding DM and RL by integrating behavioural and neurobiological findings, and could elucidate pathogenic mechanisms behind ADHD. This review of neurobiological theories of ADHD describes predictions for the effect of ADHD on DM and RL as described by the drift-diffusion model of DM (DDM) and a basic RL model. Empirical studies employing these models are also reviewed. While theories often agree on how ADHD should be reflected in model parameters, each theory implies a unique combination of predictions. Empirical studies agree with the theories' assumptions of a lowered DDM drift rate in ADHD, while findings are less conclusive for boundary separation. The few studies employing RL models support a lower choice sensitivity in ADHD, but not an altered learning rate. The discussion outlines research areas for further theoretical refinement in the ADHD field.

  16. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  17. Comparison of scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for children with low functioning autism, high functioning autism, Asperger's disorder, ADHD, and typical development.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (designed for children with LFA and HFA), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for children with LFA, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS). For children with LFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 100% for the Checklist and 98% for the CARS clinician scores. For children with HFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 99% for the Checklist and 93% for the GADS clinician scores. Clinician-parent diagnostic agreement was high (90% Checklist, 90% CARS, and 84% GADS).

  18. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  19. Developing ADHD.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the concept of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has developed from the notion of a specific form of brain dysfunction to that of a heterogeneous set of related behaviours. The great advances in genetics, neuroimaging and neuropsychiatry have made it one of the best understood forms of complex mental disturbance--but much remains to be done to translate understanding into practice. More effective treatment may come from identifying and treating more specific components of disorder and by a focus on identifying the factors determining course in the longer term so that they, as well as the core features of disorder, can become targets for intervention.

  20. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown.

  1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms.

  2. [Relationship between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance].

    PubMed

    Theiling, J; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2013-11-01

    This study has examined the relationship between cognitive functions and self-reported symptoms in ADHD adults. Cognitive functions were investigated with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) in N=113 ADHD adults. The severity of self-reported symptoms was based on a screening questionnaire (ADHS-E). Results indicated only weak correlations between self-reported ADHD symptoms and WAIS-IV performance. The ADHS-E scale "Emotion & Affect" accounted for a small but significant variance on most WAIS-IV indices and turned out to be the most important variable to explain performance. The findings suggest that concurrent and discrepant information contribute to a differentiated examination on adult ADHD and that both objective performance diagnostics and self-reports complement each other within the diagnostic process.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive adults with and without childhood ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Oguz; Metin, Baris; Metin, Sinem

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The prevalence of childhood ADHD symptoms was 40.9 % (n = 34) and that of adult ADHD was 16.9 % (n = 14). Patients with childhood ADHD symptoms had an earlier onset of OCD, higher scores of the BAI and BIS-11. The scores of the Y-BOCS and HDRS-17 did not differ between those having and not having childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood history of ADHD symptoms is common in adult OCD patients who have never been diagnosed as ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with an earlier age of OCD, more severe anxiety and higher impulsiveness. Even remitted ADHD may be a risk factor for OCD in later life.

  4. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  5. Improving recognition and management of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Fiona

    2010-04-01

    ADHD covers a group of common, chronic neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by developmentally abnormal and disabling levels of restlessness and overactivity (usually combined with impulsiveness) and/or inattention. There are three subtypes of ADHD: predominantly inattentive; predominantly hyperactive-impulsive; and combined type. For a diagnosis of ADHD to be made: onset of symptoms has to occur before the age of seven, symptoms should have been present longer than 6 months and they must be causing significant impairment. The prevalence of ADHD is at least 5%. Two-thirds of children with ADHD continue to have symptoms in adolescence. At the age of 25, half will still have symptoms which continue to cause significant impairment. ADHD is associated with an increased rate of other disorders: mood disorders; anxiety; other behavioural disorders; autism spectrum disorders; tic disorders; specific learning difficulties; developmental co-ordination disorder and sleep disorders. The GP has an important role in identification of possible ADHD, and onward referral, and also in the management of ADHD post-diagnosis, particularly with respect to prescribing medication usually on a shared care basis with specialist services.

  6. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... learning skills, including memory tips from LD Online. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) top ADHD is a ... condition that affects a person’s ability to pay attention, sit still, and follow directions. If you have ...

  7. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Getting an X-ray ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A What's in ...

  8. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  9. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  10. Bayesian probability approach to ADHD appraisal.

    PubMed

    Robeva, Raina; Penberthy, Jennifer Kim

    2009-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of attentional disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is imperative because there are multiple negative psychosocial sequelae related to undiagnosed and untreated ADHD. Early and accurate detection can lead to effective intervention and prevention of negative sequelae. Unfortunately, diagnosing ADHD presents a challenge to traditional assessment paradigms because there is no single test that definitively establishes its presence. Even though ADHD is a physiologically based disorder with a multifactorial etiology, the diagnosis has been traditionally based on a subjective history of symptoms. In this chapter we outline a stochastic method that utilizes a Bayesian interface for quantifying and assessing ADHD. It can be used to combine of a variety of psychometric tests and physiological markers into a single standardized instrument that, on each step, refines a probability for ADHD for each individual based on information provided by the individual assessments. The method is illustrated with data from a small study of six college female students with ADHD and six matched controls in which the method achieves correct classification for all participants, where none of the individual assessments was capable of achieving perfect classification. Further, we provide a framework for applying this Bayesian method for performing meta-analysis of data obtained from disparate studies and using disparate tests for ADHD based on calibration of the data into a unified probability scale. We use this method to combine data from five studies that examine the diagnostic abilities of different behavioral rating scales and EEG assessments of ADHD, enrolling a total of 56 ADHD and 55 control subjects of different age groups and gender.

  11. Externalizing Outcomes of Youth with and without ADHD: Time-Varying Prediction by Parental ADHD and Mediated Effects.

    PubMed

    Moroney, Elizabeth; Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A; Peris, Tara S; Lee, Steve S

    2017-04-01

    Although parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for multiple negative youth outcomes, it is unknown how change in parental ADHD symptoms over time affects change in child ADHD symptoms; moreover, mediators of these predictions are largely unknown. Parents of 230 5-10 year-old children (68 % male) with (n = 120) and without ADHD (n = 110) were followed prospectively for 6-7 years across three separate waves. Parents self-reported their ADHD and depression symptoms and similarly rated offspring ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms; youth self-reported their substance use. Temporally-ordered mediators consisted of parental expressed emotion (EE), derived from the Five Minute Speech Sample, and self-reported positive and negative parenting behavior. Controlling for key demographics and parental depression symptoms, increasing parental ADHD symptoms were a time-varying predictor of worsening youth ADHD and ODD, although it was unrelated to change in CD and alcohol/substance use. Next, although EE facets (i.e., criticism, emotional over-involvement) did not mediate these predictions, negative parenting behavior significantly mediated predictions of youth ADHD (and marginally in predictions of ODD) from parental ADHD symptoms. These quasi-experimental findings suggest that parental ADHD symptoms are a potential unique causal risk factor for offspring ADHD and ODD; also, preventing negative parenting behavior secondary to parental ADHD symptoms is critical to improve trajectories of youth ADHD and ODD. We consider parental ADHD symptoms and family factors underlying emergent externalizing problems utilizing a developmental psychopathology framework, including implications for intervention and prevention.

  12. Emotion regulation mediates the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in youth.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-05-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including increased rates of suicidal ideation and suicide completion. Despite these very serious outcomes, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and depression in youth. The present study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in 69 youth between the ages of 10 and 14, with (n = 37) and without (n = 32) ADHD. Parent and youth ratings of depressive symptoms and ER were collected. Youth with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer ER ability relative to youth without ADHD. ER fully mediated the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Item Response Theory Analyses of Adult Self-Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in the Current Symptoms Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2011-01-01

    The graded response model, which is based on item response theory, was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of adult self-ratings (N = 852) of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms presented in the Current Symptoms Scale. This scale has four ordered response categories. The…

  14. Item Response Theory Analyses of Parent and Teacher Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms for Recoded Dichotomous Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Gomez, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The two-parameter logistic model (2PLM) was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms. Method: To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale (DBRS) for a group of 934 primary school-aged children. Results: The results for the…

  15. ADHD and dyscalculia: Evidence for independent familial transmission.

    PubMed

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Faraone, Stephen V; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated rates of ADHD in relatives of both ADHD proband groups, regardless of dyscalculia status, and elevated rates of dyscalculia in relatives of probands with dyscalculia, irrespective of ADHD status. There was no evidence for cosegregation or assortative mating. Our findings support the hypothesis that ADHD and dyscalculia are independently transmitted in families and are etiologically distinct. These results reinforce the current nosological approach to these disorders and underscore the need for separate identification and treatment strategies for children with both conditions.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one ...

  17. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  18. Impact of the Impairment Criterion in the Diagnosis of Adult ADHD: 33-Year Follow-Up Study of Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannuzza, Salvatore; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Roizen, Erica R.; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua, Erin C.; Klein, Rachel G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and impairment among adults diagnosed as having ADHD in childhood (ages 6-12). Method: Clinicians blindly interviewed 121 White males; the mean age was 41 years across the sample. "DSM-IV" adult ADHD behaviors were systematically rated, and impairment resulting from…

  19. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  20. Intervening to Improve Communication between Parents, Teachers, and Primary Care Providers of Children with ADHD or at High Risk for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolraich, Mark L.; Bickman, Leonard; Lambert, E. Warren; Simmons, Tonya; Doffing, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines interventions designed to improve communication between individuals who take care of children with ADHD. A teacher rating of 6,171 elementary school children identifies 1,573 children with ADHD or with high risk for ADHD. Parent interviews and information from teachers are collected on 243 children who are randomized into…

  1. Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control, behavioral regulation, fluid reasoning, and planning compared to the ADHD groups. Number of symptoms of ADHD or AS was found to be significantly related to ratings of difficulty with behavior regulation, metacognition, and general behavioral regulation across the sample. These findings indicate that children with AS or ADHD may have a differing EF profile and thus, may respond differentially to interventions.

  2. Validity of proposed DSM-5 ADHD impulsivity symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Ünsel Bolat, Gül; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Bilaç, Öznur; Massuti, Rafael; Uysal Özaslan, Taciser; Bolat, Hilmi; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-10-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) working group on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) proposed the inclusion of four new impulsivity symptoms. However, they were not included in DSM-5 due to the lack of sufficient evidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the proposed four ADHD impulsivity symptoms with respect to: (a) ADHD factor structure; (b) performance in predicting clinical impairment; (c) specificity for ADHD diagnosis and (d) best symptomatic threshold to predict clinical impairment. The sample comprised 416 children (31 ADHD subjects according to both DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5, 20 ADHD subjects according to just one diagnostic system and 365 controls) from 12 schools. Diagnoses were derived using semi-structured interviews and ADHD rating scales. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that addition of the four new impulsivity items provided a slightly better factor structure if compared to models including only 18 items. Regression analyses showed that only one of the new impulsivity symptoms (impatient) was part of the list of best predictors of impairment. None of the four new impulsivity items was specifically associated with ADHD diagnosis. The best cutoff point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension for predicting impairment did not change significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that the determination on how to best capture impulsivity dimension as part of the ADHD construct needs more investigation and that there is not enough evidence to include these four assessed impulsivity symptoms as part of the ADHD criteria.

  3. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  4. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  5. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The role of ADHD severity and treatment response in a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Edward V.; Covey, Lirio S.; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Somoza, Eugene; Winhusen, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment of ADHD with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) promotes abstinence from smoking among ADHD-smokers with greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline, or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. Method A randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial, was conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at six clinical sites, sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers, meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, were randomly assigned to OROS-MPH (72 mg/day) (N = 127) or matching placebo (N = 128). All participants received nicotine patch (21 mg) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS during treatment, and their interactions. Results Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS at baseline (p=0.01), and with change in ADHD-RS during treatment (p=0.008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (>36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥24), 70% achieved abstinence on OROS-MPH, compared to 37% on placebo (p=.02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30% achieved abstinence on OROS-MPH, compared to 61% on placebo (p=.02). Conclusions OROS-MPH, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD, and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to the medication. OROS-MPH may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD. PMID:24229749

  6. Comparison of QEEG Findings between Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without Comorbidity and ADHD Comorbid with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Ha; Hong, Ji Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Min, Kyoung Joon; Lee, Young Sik; Kee, Baik Seok; Kim, Sun Mi

    2017-03-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3-F4 and C3-C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4-O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz-Cz and T4-T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group.

  7. Comparison of QEEG Findings between Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without Comorbidity and ADHD Comorbid with Internet Gaming Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3–F4 and C3–C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4–O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz–Cz and T4–T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group. PMID:28145657

  8. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  9. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD in a Community Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAweeney, Mary; Rogers, Nikki L.; Huddleston, Carole; Moore, Dennis; Gentile, Julie P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a common comorbid condition with substance use disorder. This study seeks to examine the discrepancy in the prevalence rate between those previously diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed while in treatment. It is hypothesized that clients with ADHD would have earlier unsuccessful terminations from treatment than non-ADHD…

  10. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  11. The Positive Illusory Bias: Does It Explain Self-Evaluations in College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Best, Lori; Baker, Leigh; Van Walker, Jerry; Taylor, Nicki Wright

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the positive illusory bias explains the self-evaluations of driving and work behaviors in college students with ADHD. Method: A total of 103 students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 94 students without ADHD. Both groups completed self-reports of their specific driving and work behaviors and then rated their…

  12. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  13. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  14. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  15. Developmental Context and Treatment Principles for ADHD among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Andrew P.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between 2 and 8 % of college students. ADHD is associated with impaired academic, psychological, and social functioning, and with a wide array of negative outcomes including lower GPAs, graduation rates, and self-reported quality of life. The college environment often brings decreased…

  16. Access Patterns of ADHD Students Utilizing Campus Disability Services Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Meribeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Source of initial access to disability services, accommodations received as supports on campus, and the rate of continuous enrollment data was measured and compared for students diagnosed with ADHD prior to age eighteen and those diagnosed with ADHD after age eighteen. These two groups were compared to analyze the assumption that students who were…

  17. Coexisting Disorders and Academic Achievement among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…

  18. Developmental context and treatment principles for ADHD among college students.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between 2 and 8 % of college students. ADHD is associated with impaired academic, psychological, and social functioning, and with a wide array of negative outcomes including lower GPAs, graduation rates, and self-reported quality of life. The college environment often brings decreased external structure and increased availability of immediate rewards, presenting added demands for behavioral self--regulation-an area in which students with ADHD are already vulnerable. Despite the significant impact of ADHD in college and the unique challenges presented by the college context, virtually no treatment development research has been conducted with this population. In order to provide a framework to guide intervention development, this comprehensive review integrates research from three key domains that inform treatment for college students with ADHD: (1) functional impairment associated with ADHD among college students, (2) etiology of ADHD and the developmental context for ADHD among emerging adults (age 18-24), and (3) treatment outcome research for ADHD among adolescents and adults. A detailed set of proposed treatment targets and intervention principles are identified, and key challenges associated with treatment development in this population are discussed.

  19. Semantic language as a mechanism explaining the association between ADHD symptoms and reading and mathematics underachievement.

    PubMed

    Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M

    2012-11-01

    ADHD is associated with academic underachievement, but it remains unclear what mechanism accounts for this association. Semantic language is an underexplored mechanism that provides a developmental explanation for this association. The present study will examine whether semantic language deficits explain the association between ADHD and reading and mathematics underachievement, taking into account alternative explanations for associations, including verbal working memory (WM) impairments, as well as specificity of effects to inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 546 children (54 % male) ages six to twelve (M = 9.77, SD = 1.49). ADHD symptoms were measured via maternal and teacher report during structured interviews and on standardized rating forms. Children completed standardized semantic language, verbal WM, and academic testing. Semantic language fully mediated the ADHD-reading achievement association and partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics achievement association. Verbal WM also partially mediated the ADHD-mathematics association but did not mediate the ADHD-reading achievement association. Results generalized across inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptom domains. Semantic language explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement and partially explained the association between ADHD and mathematics underachievement. Together, language impairment and WM fully explained the association between ADHD and reading underachievement, in line with developmental models suggesting that language and WM conjointly influence the development of attention and subsequent academic achievement. This work has implication for the development of tailored interventions for academic underachievement in children with ADHD.

  20. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs.

  1. Association of ADHD with reactive and proactive violent behavior in a forensic population.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael

    2010-12-01

    ADHD is associated with social problems and aggressive behavior. As hyperactive-impulsive traits are core symptoms of ADHD, it has been hypothesized that reactive-impulsive violence is more likely related to ADHD psychopathology than proactive-instrumental violence. One hundred and twenty-seven adult violent offenders participated in the study. Diagnosis of ADHD and ratings of reactive and proactive features of the committed crimes were performed using standardized instruments. According to DSM-IV, 16.5% subjects fulfilled diagnostic criteria for ADHD, 23.6% were diagnosed as ADHD in partial remission, and 59.8% had no ADHD. Univariate analyses revealed higher reactive violence ratings in both ADHD groups when compared to subjects without ADHD, whereas the opposite was found regarding proactive violence ratings. Using multivariate analyses of variance controlled for age, gender and comorbid substance use disorders, childhood ADHD psychopathology and current ADHD significantly increased the risk of reactive violence and decreased the risk of proactive violence. Significant impact of male gender on proactive violence was found. The findings suggest that ADHD is associated with reactive but not proactive violence in aggressive offenders.

  2. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  3. Shooting the Messenger: The Case of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gretchen Lefever; Arcona, Andrea Powell; Antonuccio, David O; Healy, David

    2014-01-01

    Medicating ADHD is a controversial subject that was acutely inflamed in 1995 when high rates of ADHD diagnosis and treatment were documented in southeastern Virginia. Psychologists in southeastern Virginia formed a regional school health coalition to implement and evaluate interventions to address the problem. Other professionals with strong ties to the pharmaceutical industry launched ad hominem attacks on the coalition's research and work. These attacks contributed to the work being terminated in 2005. In the ensuing years, ADHD drug treatment continued to escalate. Today, the national rate of ADHD diagnosis exceeds all reasonable estimates of the disorder's true prevalence, with 14 % of American children being diagnosed before reaching young adulthood. Notable key opinion leaders continue to claim that there is no cause for concern, but with a message shift from "the prevalence is not too high" to "high prevalence is not too concerning." This paper provides an object lesson about how innovative research can be derailed to the detriment of sound medical and mental health care of children when industry interests are threatened. Tenure may be the only option for protecting innovative research from specious attacks. The authors offer a summary of the data on ADHD drug treatments, suggest judicious use of such treatments, and add their voices to others who are once again sounding a cautionary alarm.

  4. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9) of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01) and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08). Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B) = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45). Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents. PMID:21961882

  5. Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD: relationship to gender and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S; Arnold, L L Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Pollack, Simcha; Martin, Diane; Alvir, Jose; March, John S; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Greiner, Andrew; Cantwell, Dennis P; Conners, C Keith; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L; Kraemer, Helena; Pelham, William E; Severe, Joanne B; Swanson, James M; Wells, Karen; Wigal, Tim

    2002-08-01

    Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7-10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15/16 and 13/16 categories, respectively. Compared to comparison girls, girls with ADHD had relatively high rates of verbal aggression to children. Boys with ADHD engaged in more rule-breaking and externalizing behaviors than did girls with ADHD, but the sexes did not differ on more "neutral," unobtrusive behaviors. The sex differences are consistent with notions of why girls with ADHD are identified and referred later than boys. Contrary to hypothesis, the presence of comorbid anxiety disorder (ANX) was not associated with behavioral suppression; yet, as hypothesized, children with a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) had higher rates of rule-breaking, and impulsive and aggressive behavior, than did children with ADHD alone and those with ADHD+ANX. Elevated rates of ADHD behaviors were also observed in children with comorbid DBD, indicating that these behaviors are truly present and suggesting that reports of higher ADHD ratings in this subgroup are not simply a consequence of negative halo effects and rater biases.

  6. Medicines for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007592.htm Medicines for ADHD To use the sharing features on ... that the treatment plan is successful. TYPES OF MEDICINES Stimulants are the most commonly used type of ...

  7. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ... many parents and teachers that ADHD is a “boys’ disorder” that rarely occurs in girls. In fact, ...

  8. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure you're learning in a way that works for you. For example, some schools will allow extra time for students with ADHD to take tests. Some teens may benefit from smaller class sizes and tutoring help. Use ...

  9. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  10. Treating ADHD in schools.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M S

    2004-11-01

    The school nurse has a tremendous opportunity to be a part of the home, school, and community team in promoting state-of-the-art care for youngsters with ADHD. The multi-modal strategic approach, combining carefully titrated pharmacotherapy with these specific behavioral interventions in the child's school and other settings, currently provides the greatest likelihood of a positive treatment outcome for youth with ADHD.

  11. Motor skills development in children with inattentive versus combined subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Marsha; Bender, H Allison; Macallister, William S

    2014-01-01

    The relations between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and motor skills are well documented, with research indicating both early and lifelong motor deficits in children with this disorder. Despite neuroanatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, which may predict differential rates of motor impairment between ADHD subtypes, evaluation of motor skill deficits in children with different presentations are limited in scope and equivocal in findings. The present investigation evaluated early motor development history and objectively measured motor skills in children with ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). One hundred and one children with ADHD-I (n = 53) and ADHD-C (n = 48) were included. Variables included Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), history of motor delays, and utilization of early intervention services, as well as objectively measured motor impairment as assessed via tasks of fine-motor coordination. No between-group differences were found for FSIQ, but differences in age emerged, with the ADHD-I group being older. No differences in early motor delays were observed, though a considerably higher percentage of children with ADHD-C demonstrated early difficulties. Surprisingly, although children and adolescents with ADHD-C reported more frequent utilization of early intervention services, those with ADHD-I exhibited greater levels of current motor impairment on objective tasks. Given the over-representation of older children in the ADHD-I group, data were reanalyzed after excluding participants older than 10 years of age. Although the between-group differences were no longer significant, more than twice the number of parents of children with ADHD-C reported early motor delays, as compared with the ADHD-I group. Overall, children with ADHD-I were more likely to exhibit current objectively measured motor impairment, possibly due to later identification, less intervention, and/or different neurodevelopmental substrates

  12. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predict Levels of Depressive Symptoms during Emerging Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  14. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  15. Executive Impairment Determines ADHD Medication Response: Implications for Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Reddy, Linda A.; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A.; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to "indirect" informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes "direct" neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment…

  16. The associations between ADHD and asthma in Korean children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in school children, and childhood allergic disease by evaluating their respective prevalence. Methods Subjects were comprised of first and second grade students in twenty two elementary schools in a city in the Republic of Korea. The mode of measurement for ADHD was based on DSM-IV from clinical interviews conducted by child psychiatrists. Along with the diagnostic interviews, we also used the epidemiological questionnaires, Computerized Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic System, the abbreviated Conner’s Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and DuPaul’s ADHD Rating Scales. Allergic conditions, such as asthma, have been separately evaluated based on the questionnaire items whose validity and reliability were proved by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC). All questionnaires were completed by the subjects’ parents. Results The lifetime prevalence rate of asthma in ADHD patients was 36.6%, compared to a prevalence of 24.3% in control subjects. The lifetime prevalence rate of allergic rhinitis in ADHD patients was 59.0%, compared to a prevalence of 47.0% in control subjects. Statistically significant difference has been found between the two groups. In the logistic regression model of the ADHD and the control group, the relative risk of asthma was 1.60 times higher (confidence interval 1.301-1.964), the relative risk of allergic rhinitis was 1.38 times higher (confidence interval 1.124-1.681), which showed statistical significance. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest significant association between ADHD and childhood asthma and allergic rhinitis. Therefore, appropriate evaluation and treatment are needed for asthmatic children with attention-deficit symptoms, or allergic rhinitis with ADHD. Besides, further research is needed to determine the

  17. Regulation of emotion in ADHD: can children with ADHD override the natural tendency to approach positive and avoid negative pictures?

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberge, Valerie; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Wiersema, Jan R

    2017-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated inefficient use of antecedent-focused emotion regulation strategies in children with ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the current study we tested for the first time if ADHD is also associated with difficulties in response-focused strategies by measuring the ability to override action tendencies induced by emotional information. Performance data on a computer-based approach-avoidance paradigm of 28 children with ADHD and 38 typically developing children between 8 and 15 years of age were analyzed, by comparing a congruent condition in which they were instructed to approach positive and avoid negative pictures and an incongruent condition where they had to override these automatic reactions and approach negative and avoid positive pictures. Children also rated the valence and salience of the pictures. Children with ADHD and typically developing children rated the emotional valence of the pictures appropriately and similarly, while positive pictures were rated as more arousing by children with ADHD. Solid congruency effects were found indicating that the task measured response-focused emotion regulation; however groups did not differ in this respect. Our findings do not support a deficit in emotion regulation in ADHD in terms of the ability to override natural tendencies to approach positive and avoid negative pictures.

  18. Comparison of a Norm-Based versus Criterion-Based Approach to Measuring ADHD Symptomatology in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Tara E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD symptomatology in college students is unclear because rates can vary depending on the methodology that is employed. Gender differences in college prevalence have also remained unexplored. Method: Self-reported ADHD symptomatology was assessed in 1,096 college students using the College ADHD Response Evaluation, a…

  19. The screens culture: impact on ADHD.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Margaret D; Baer, Susan; Allan, Blake A; Saran, Kelly; Schibuk, Heidi

    2011-12-01

    Children's use of electronic media, including Internet and video gaming, has increased dramatically to an average in the general population of roughly 3 h per day. Some children cannot control their Internet use leading to increasing research on "internet addiction." The objective of this article is to review the research on ADHD as a risk factor for Internet addiction and gaming, its complications, and what research and methodological questions remain to be addressed. The literature search was done in PubMed and Psychinfo, as well as by hand. Previous research has demonstrated rates of Internet addiction as high as 25% in the population and that it is addiction more than time of use that is best correlated with psychopathology. Various studies confirm that psychiatric disorders, and ADHD in particular, are associated with overuse, with severity of ADHD specifically correlated with the amount of use. ADHD children may be vulnerable since these games operate in brief segments that are not attention demanding. In addition, they offer immediate rewards with a strong incentive to increase the reward by trying the next level. The time spent on these games may also exacerbate ADHD symptoms, if not directly then through the loss of time spent on more developmentally challenging tasks. While this is a major issue for many parents, there is no empirical research on effective treatment. Internet and off-line gaming overuse and addiction are serious concerns for ADHD youth. Research is limited by the lack of measures for youth or parents, studies of children at risk, and studies of impact and treatment.

  20. Deficit in response inhibition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): impact of motivation?

    PubMed

    Desman, Christiane; Petermann, Franz; Hampel, Petra

    2008-11-01

    To date, neuropsychological and psycho-physiological studies have revealed inconsistent results regarding an executive or motivational deficit explaining the response inhibition deficit in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research on differentiating neuropsychological processes in ADHD subtypes is still scarce. Therefore, the motivational impact on response inhibition among boys with ADHD was examined in this study. In the first study, 19 boys with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects performed a modified Go/No-Go task with the following experimental conditions: neutral, auditory feedback, reward, response cost, and reward/response cost. Performance and physiological data (heart rate and skin conductance responses) were recorded. In a second study with the modified Go/No-Go task, data for six children with ADHD-C, six with ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and six healthy control subjects were compared. Neither of the two studies revealed group by condition interactions. In study 1, boys with ADHD-C generally made more commissions and omissions compared to the control group. However, feedback significantly improved the response inhibition in all children. The heart rate of all children was increased in the two conditions of reward and reward/response cost. Study 2 revealed that children with ADHD-I responded more slowly and showed increased reaction time variability compared to both other groups. The present study supports an executive rather than a motivational deficit in the response inhibition among children with ADHD-C, though further results also indicate the role of auditory feedback on response inhibition. Additionally, the findings support the differentiation of ADHD-C and ADHD-I, suggesting that ADHD-I children are characterized by a sluggish cognitive tempo.

  1. [Drug addiction in young prison inmates with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Schneider, M; Scherk, H; Hengesch, G; Rösler, M

    2007-05-01

    Prospective studies of children with ADHD have shown a high level of substance use disorder comorbidity, particularly when associated with social maladaptation and antisocial behavior. Conversely, studies of drug abusing participants and delinquents revealed a high prevalence of ADHD comorbidity. In this study 129 young male prison inmates were systematically examined for ADHD and substance use disorders. 64,3 % showed harmful alcohol consumption. 67,4 % fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for any drug abuse or dependence. 28,8 % of these participants were diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, other 52,1 % showed ADHD residual type. Opioid dependence was more common in delinquents without ADHD. Addicted delinquents with ADHD showed worse social environment and a higher degree of psychopathology, including externalizing and internalizing behavior, compared to addicted delinquents without ADHD. Neuroticism and conscientiousness ratings of the addicted ADHD group, but not of those without ADHD, differed from non-addicted delinquents. The results underline the need of adequate therapeutic programs for addicted young prison inmates considering ADHD comorbidity, which is associated with additional psychopathology and social problems.

  2. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD.

  3. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD symptoms may not be as clear as ADHD symptoms in children. In adults, hyperactivity may decrease, but struggles with ... similar to treatment for childhood ADHD, though some ADHD medications approved for children are not approved for adult use. Adult ADHD ...

  4. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  5. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  6. A prospective look at substance use and criminal behavior in urban ADHD youth: what is the role of maltreatment history on outcome?

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Virginia A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-06-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence/early adulthood. Here, we characterize the antisocial outcomes of a sample of urban, lower-socioeconomic-status, ethnically diverse ADHD youth and investigate the impact of maltreatment history on criminal and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes. Ninety-eight participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood were re-assessed 10 years later and compared with controls. Regression analyses investigated the effect of maltreatment on antisocial outcomes among four groups based on ADHD and maltreatment status. ADHD subjects and controls did not differ in rates of arrest, conviction, incarceration, or recidivism. ADHD youth were younger at their first arrest with higher rates of SUDs when compared to controls. Controls and ADHD subjects with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of SUDs compared to the no-ADHD/no-maltreatment group. Only ADHD youth with maltreatment had significantly higher rates of arrest than the reference group. In contrast to prior studies, ADHD youth did not differ from controls on most measures of antisocial behavior. Maltreatment increased the rate of arrest only among ADHD youth, though increased the rate of SUD for ADHD youth and controls. This suggests that ADHD youth, in the absence of maltreatment, are at no greater risk of SUDs or arrest than controls without maltreatment.

  7. [ADHD across the lifespan - an update on research and practice].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Schüßler, Gerhard; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    ADHD can be regarded as a lifespan disorder. From biopsychosocial vantage point, ADHD leads to age-specific impairments, high psychological distress and is associated with a high occurrence of comorbid disorders. For this review, we summarize actual findings from epidemiological, neuroscientific and clinical studies to present an overview of ADHD-research. We discuss the proposed revisions for DSM-V criteria by comparing them with the present DSM-IV-TR criteria, with a focus on the implications for research and practice. In the second part of this paper, we present new findings from socioeconomic, diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. There is evidence for a high economic burden that is indirectly caused by ADHD (e.g., production loss, material costs, higher accident rates). Consequently, there is a high demand for comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We present a summary of the latest available diagnostic instruments and therapeutic manuals. The results of research and practice show a growing support for a lifespan perspective on ADHD psychopathology. The burdens resulting from ADHD are evident in all age groups, which has led to establishing age-specific diagnostic and therapeutic materials. Although there is a lack in ADHD-specific healthcare in adulthood, this should be realized by structural changes in healthcare services.

  8. Is Emotion Recognition Related to Core Symptoms of Childhood ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Noorazar, Gholamreza; Shahrivar, Zahra; Banaraki, Anahita Khorrami; Beigi, Parvane Farhad; Noorian, Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Objective Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have some problems in social relationships which may be related to their deficit in recognizing emotional expressions. It is not clear if the deficit in emotion recognition is secondary to core symptoms of ADHD or can be considered as an independent symptom. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of detecting emotional faces and its relation to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in children with ADHD compared to a typically developing (TD) group. Methods Twenty-eight boys diagnosed as having ADHD, aged from seven to 12 years old were compared to 27 TD boys using a computerized Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT). Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II) were also administered to assess the severity of inattention and impulsivity. Results The percentages of angry, happy and sad faces detected by children with ADHD were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control group. The time spent in recognizing happy faces was higher in the ADHD group (p=0.04). The sequential regression analyses showed a significant association between angry and sad targets recognition and inattention (P<0.05), as well as between oppositionality and angry faces detection (P<0.05) when hyperactivity-impulsivity was added to the model. Conclusion It can be concluded that children with ADHD suffer from some impairments in recognizing angry, happy and sad faces. This deficit may be related to inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:28331501

  9. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  10. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... with ADHD to take tests. Some teens may benefit from smaller class sizes and tutoring help. Use tools that help you stay organized. For example, keep track of assignments in a homework notebook, including a list of books and readings you'll need to bring home to do. ...

  11. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  12. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  13. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives.

  14. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Søren

    2013-02-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes and the impact they may have, and in addition, the paper will make an overview of the main characteristics of some of the international and national guidelines for assessment and treatment of ADHD and how these impact the clinical practice.

  16. Differentiating between comorbidity and symptom overlap in ADHD and early onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Udal, Anne H; Egeland, Jens; Oygarden, Bjørg; Malt, Ulrik F; Lövdahl, Hans; Pripp, Are H; Groholt, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Reported rates of comorbidity between early onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a wide range, perhaps due to developmental issues and differences in interpretation of overlapping symptoms. We compared questionnaire-based and neuropsychological measures of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity, in children/adolescents with ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C; n26), concurrent ADHD-C and BD (n15), BD (n25) with Controls (n69). Sub-analyses were performed on BD with and without inattention symptoms. The two ADHD-C groups displayed neuropsychological impairments that were not found in the BD group in spite of subjective and questionnaire-rated inattention. The findings caution against over-diagnosis of ADHD in BD.

  17. Body movement analysis during sleep for children with ADHD using video image processing.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Masahiro; Okada, Shima; Shimizu, Sachiko; Mohri, Ikuko; Ohno, Yuko; Taniike, Masako; Makikawa, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of children with sleep disorders that cause arousal during sleep or light sleep is increasing. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a cause of this sleep disorder; children with ADHD have frequent body movement during sleep. Therefore, we investigated the body movement during sleep of children with and without ADHD using video imaging. We analysed large gross body movements (GM) that occur and obtained the GM rate and the rest duration. There were differences between the body movements of children with ADHD and normally developed children. The children with ADHD moved frequently, so their rest duration was shorter than that of the normally developed children. Additionally, the rate of gross body movement indicated a significant difference in REM sleep (p < 0.05). In the future, we will develop a new device that can easily diagnose children with ADHD, using video image processing.

  18. Positive Illusions of Social Competence in Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    We compared social self-competence ratings in 9-12 year old girls with (n = 42) versus without (n = 40) ADHD, relative to ratings of the girls' social competence made by mothers, teachers, and blind raters during a social laboratory task. Relative to scores from mothers, teachers, and the lab-task, girls with ADHD over-estimated their competence…

  19. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  20. Student-Perceived School Climate is Associated with ADHD Medication Treatment among Adolescents in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Susanna N.; Kramer, Dennis; Snyder, Angela B.; Sebian, Joyce; McGiboney, Garry; Handler, Arden

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the relationship between school climate and ADHD medication treatment among adolescents in Medicaid in Georgia (GA). Methods School climate and Medicaid claims data were aggregated for 159 GA counties. County-level school climate percentile and medicated ADHD prevalence were calculated. T-tests and regression evaluated the relationship between school climate, medicated ADHD, and demographics, weighted by county population. Poorer 2008 school climate (<25th percentile) was regressed on 2011 medicated ADHD prevalence, controlling for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of medicated ADHD was 7.8% among Medicaid-enrolled GA adolescents. The average county-level prevalence of medicated ADHD was 10.0% (SD=2.9%). Poorer school climate was associated with lower rates of medicated ADHD (p<0.0001) and with demographics accounted for 50% of the county variation in medicated ADHD. Conclusions School climate is associated with medicated ADHD among adolescents in Medicaid. Additional research may reveal whether high medicated ADHD may reflect a lack of access to non-pharmacological therapies. PMID:25710947

  1. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  2. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Role of Medication Diagnosis Slideshow For Teachers Classroom Management Teacher Training on ADHD Tips for Teachers Video Series Classroom Accommodations Executive Functioning Social Skills Instructional Process Homework ...

  3. Response to cocaine, alone and in combination with methylphenidate, in cocaine abusers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Collins, Stephanie L; Levin, Frances R; Foltin, Richard W; Kleber, Herbert D; Evans, Suzette M

    2006-04-28

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in adult cocaine abusers. Yet, it remains to be determined how the response to cocaine differs in cocaine abusers with ADHD compared to cocaine abusers without ADHD. Further, since ADHD is commonly treated with stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPH), it is important to examine whether MPH maintenance alters the response to cocaine in cocaine abusers with ADHD. Thus, the first phase of this study compared the response to cocaine in adult cocaine abusers with ADHD to those without ADHD. The second phase assessed the effects of oral sustained-release methylphenidate (MPH-SR) maintenance (40 and 60 mg) on the response to cocaine only in those with ADHD. Cocaine abusers with ADHD (N=7) and without ADHD (N=7) who were not seeking treatment remained inpatient initially for 1 week, when the effects of cocaine alone were tested (Phase 1). Cocaine abusers with ADHD remained inpatient for an additional 3 weeks, during which the effects of cocaine during oral MPH-SR maintenance were tested (Phase 2). During cocaine fixed dosing sessions, participants received four injections of i.v. cocaine (0, 16 or 48 mg/70 kg), spaced 14 min apart. During cocaine choice sessions, participants had a choice between receiving i.v. cocaine (16 or 48 mg/70 kg) or two tokens, each exchangeable for 2 US dollars. Subjective effects related to ADHD symptoms (e.g. ratings of "Able to Concentrate") were significantly lower in cocaine abusers with ADHD compared to those without ADHD when placebo cocaine was administered. Active cocaine produced similar increases in cardiovascular and positive subjective effects in both groups and there was no difference in cocaine choice between the two groups. These data suggest that the response to cocaine is not different between cocaine abusers with ADHD compared to those without ADHD. When the cocaine abusers with ADHD were maintained on MPH-SR, cardiovascular effects were increased, however, this did

  4. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  5. Cognitive Load Differentially Impacts Response Control in Girls and Boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Rosch, Keri S.

    2015-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) consistently show impaired response control, including deficits in response inhibition and increased intrasubject variability (ISV) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. However, significantly less research has examined factors that may influence response control in individuals with ADHD, such as task or participant characteristics. The current study extends the literature by examining the impact of increasing cognitive demands on response control in a large sample of 81children with ADHD (40 girls) and 100 TD children (47 girls), ages 8–12 years. Participants completed a simple Go/No-Go (GNG) task with minimal cognitive demands, and a complex GNG task with increased cognitive load. Results showed that increasing cognitive load differentially impacted response control (commission error rate and tau, an ex-Gaussian measure of ISV) for girls, but not boys, with ADHD compared to same-sex TD children. Specifically, a sexually dimorphic pattern emerged such that boys with ADHD demonstrated higher commission error rate and tau on both the simple and complex GNG tasks as compared to TD boys, whereas girls with ADHD did not differ from TD girls on the simple GNG task, but showed higher commission error rate and tau on the complex GNG task. These findings suggest that task complexity influences response control in children with ADHD in a sexually dimorphic manner. The findings have substantive implications for the pathophysiology of ADHD in boys versus girls with ADHD. PMID:25624066

  6. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  7. Accuracy of self-evaluation in adults with ADHD: evidence from a driving study.

    PubMed

    Knouse, Laura E; Bagwell, Catherine L; Barkley, Russell A; Murphy, Kevin R

    2005-05-01

    Research on children with ADHD indicates an association with inaccuracy of self-appraisal. This study examines the accuracy of self-evaluations in clinic-referred adults diagnosed with ADHD. Self-assessments and performance measures of driving in naturalistic settings and on a virtual-reality driving simulator are used to assess accuracy of self-evaluations. The group diagnosed with ADHD (n= 44) has a higher rate of collisions, speeding tickets, and total driving citations in their driving history; report less use of safe driving behaviors in naturalistic settings; and use fewer safe driving behaviors in the simulator than the community comparison group (n= 44). Despite poorer performance, adults with ADHD provide similar driving self-assessments, thereby overestimating in naturalistic settings to a greater degree than the comparison group. These findings extend research in children with ADHD to an adult sample in an important domain of functioning and may relate to findings of executive deficits associated with ADHD.

  8. [Neuropsychiatric bases of the methylphenidate-therapy of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Huber, M; Kirchler, E; Niederhofer, H; Gruber, L

    2007-05-01

    High prevalence and high co-morbidity rates with frequently aggravating psychosocial problems make the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of children, adolescents and adults an important target for research and healthcare. Recent findings suggest a dopaminergic fronto-striatal information processing deficit in ADHD-patients (executive functions). This review summarizes and presents, in the context of recent studies (MRI, f-MRI, PET, SPECT, Mapping Genes) the neurobiochemical bases of the methylphenidate-therapy, clinically successfully applied since almost one half century by the ADHD. The increased striatal dopamine transporter density by the ADHD-methylphenidate-responder is reported as a scientifically sound and useful clinical working model.

  9. Parent-teacher agreement on ADHD symptoms across development.

    PubMed

    Narad, Megan E; Garner, Annie A; Peugh, James L; Tamm, Leanne; Antonini, Tanya N; Kingery, Kathleen M; Simon, John O; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-03-01

    Parent-teacher agreement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom ratings ranges from low to moderate. Most studies evaluating parent-teacher agreement have not assessed measurement invariance across raters. Hence, it is unclear whether discordance across raters is due to differing ADHD constructs across raters or other factors (e.g., subjective differences across raters). Additionally, the effect of development on parent-teacher agreement is relatively unknown. To address these limitations, the present study used parent and teacher ADHD ratings from a large (N = 6,659) developmentally diverse (ages 4-17) sample. Using exploratory structural equation modeling on half the sample, and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the other half of the sample, confirmed a 2-factor structure with significant cross-loadings for the 18 ADHD symptoms. CFA invariance analyses demonstrated that the 2-factor symptom structure was similar across raters and age groups. After confirming measurement invariance, the correlation between latent factors within and across raters was examined for each age group as well as across age groups. Parents reported greater severity of ADHD symptoms than did teachers, and both parents and teachers reported higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity in younger children than in older children and consistent levels of inattention across development. Finally, correlations between parent-teacher ratings of like factors were weak for inattention and moderate-strong for hyperactivity/impulsivity, and the magnitude of parent-teacher agreement did not vary across development. In conclusion, while parent and teacher ratings of ADHD behaviors are only weakly to moderately correlated, each reporter provides unique and valid clinical information as it relates to ADHD symptom presentation.

  10. On the relation of mind wandering and ADHD symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Smallwood, Jonathan; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Mind wandering seems to be a prototypical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an important emerging distinction of mind-wandering types hinges on whether a given episode of mind wandering reflects a failure of executive control (spontaneous mind wandering) or the engagement of controlled processes for internal processing (deliberate mind wandering). Here we distinguish between spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and test the hypothesis that symptoms of ADHD are associated with the former but not the latter. We assessed ADHD symptomatology and everyday levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering in two large non-clinical samples (Ns = 1,354). In addition, to provide converging evidence, we examined rates of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering in a clinically diagnosed ADHD sample. Results provide clear evidence that spontaneous, but not deliberate, mind wandering is a central feature of ADHD symptomatology at both the clinical and non-clinical level. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding both ADHD and mind wandering.

  11. An ADHD educational intervention for elementary schoolteachers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barbaresi, W J; Olsen, R D

    1998-04-01

    We assessed the effect of pediatrician-led inservice training on the knowledge and stress of elementary schoolteachers related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The subjects were 44 schoolteachers staffing a 750-student school. Preintervention and postintervention questionnaires assessed teachers' training and knowledge concerning ADHD, teacher stress, and teacher-rated student behavior. The intervention was an ADHD curriculum developed by the national organization, Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit Disorder (CHADD). At preintervention, 41% of the teachers thought that ADHD could be caused by poor parenting and 41%, by sugar or food additives; 64% thought that methylphenidate should be used only as a last resort. Postintervention percentages of teachers holding these beliefs were 7%, 5%, and 34%, respectively. Sixty-one percent had no contact with physicians prescribing stimulants. Teacher stress correlated with ADHD behavior in male students and decreased postintervention. Use of the CHADD curriculum and discussion with a pediatrician were associated with improved teacher knowledge and decreased teacher stress related to ADHD.

  12. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  13. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  14. [Genetic findings in Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Friedel, Susann; Christiansen, Hanna; Dempfle, Astrid; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2006-11-01

    Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent psychiatric disorder with a prevalence rate of 3-7%. Formal genetic studies provided an estimated heritability of 0.6-0.8 and an approximately five-fold elevated risk for ADHD in first-degree relatives. Currently, four genome scans have led to the identification of chromosomal regions potentially relevant in ADHD; especially the evidence for linkage to chromosome 5p13 is convincing. Meta-analyses of a large number of candidate gene studies suggest association with gene variants of the dopaminergic receptors DRD4 and DRD5, the serotonergic receptor HTR1B, and the synaptosomal receptor protein (SNAP-25). Hyperactivity has been investigated particularly in animal models, focusing on knockout- and quantitative trait loci (QTL) designs, with promising results for the dopaminergic system. It is likely that several gene polymorphisms with moderate to small effect sizes contribute to the phenotype ADHD; different combinations of such predisposing variants presumably underlie ADHD in different individuals. Therefore, large samples for molecular genetic studies are mandatory to detect these polymorphisms. Accordingly, several of today's findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The understanding of ADHD's neurobiology may be advanced by new technologies, such as SNP-based genome scans performed with gene chips comprising 10,000-1,000,000 SNPs, as well as using more sophisticated animal model designs.

  15. Understanding ADHD: Our Personal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blahy, Tammy Lynn

    2004-01-01

    No good time exists to face the realities of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children across the United States and Canada are accompanied to clinics and schools by frightened, worried parents. In the book, In Understanding ADHD (2001), Ken and Andrea McCluskey bring to life the realities of the everyday journey of coping with…

  16. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  17. The Child's Experience of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Iser, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between parent- and child-reported quality of life (QoL) and the self-perceptions of children with ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional survey of school-aged children with ADHD and their parents was undertaken. Results: Parents reported their child's QoL as lower than the children rated…

  18. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  19. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  20. How do children with ADHD (mis)manage their real-life dyadic friendships? A multi-method investigation.

    PubMed

    Normand, Sébastien; Schneider, Barry H; Lee, Matthew D; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Kuehn, Sally M; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    This multimethod study provides detailed information about the friendships of 87 children (76% boys) with ADHD and 46 comparison children aged 7-13 years. The methods included parent and teacher ratings, self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. Results indicated that, in contrast with comparison children, children with ADHD had friends with high levels of ADHD and oppositional symptoms; they perceived fewer positive features and more negative features, and were less satisfied in their friendships. Observational data indicated that children with ADHD performed both more legal and more illegal maneuvers than comparison children in a fast-paced competitive game. While negotiating with their friends, children with ADHD made more insensitive and self-centered proposals than comparison children. In dyads consisting of one child with ADHD and one typically developing child, children with ADHD were often more dominant than their friends.

  1. Confronting ADHD in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…

  2. Parental Autonomy Support Moderates the Link between ADHD Symptomatology and Task Perseverance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomassin, Kristel; Suveg, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating role of mother and father autonomy support in the link between youth Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and task perseverance. ADHD symptomatology was assessed using a multi-informant composite of mother, father, and teacher ratings, and youth perseverance and parental support of…

  3. Four-Year Follow-Up of Children with Low Intelligence and ADHD: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Armstrong, Sharon; Buican, Brett; Sillick, Traci

    2002-01-01

    Twenty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and low IQs were followed up 4.5 years later (ages 8-20). A majority continued to screen positive for ADHD, as well as display high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, tics, and elimination disorders. Multiple medication trials resulted in significantly lower hyperactivity…

  4. Temperament at 7, 12, and 25 Months in Children at Familial Risk for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Judith G.; Berger, Andrea; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Arbelle, Shoshana; Cypin, Nira; Friedman, Adi; Landau, Rivka

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal investigation of infants at familial risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mothers and fathers independently completed temperament ratings on their infants. In this paper, we examine the 7-, 12-, and 25-month temperament of 58 boys, 36 of whom were considered at familial risk for ADHD and 22 of whom…

  5. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  6. Scales for the Identification of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Abigail; Deb, Shoumitro; Unwin, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the adult population. The associated co-morbidities and impairments can be relieved with treatment. Therefore, several rating scales have been developed to identify adults with ADHD who may benefit from treatment. No systematic review has yet sought to evaluate these scales in more…

  7. The Development of Children with ADHD in Day Treatment Centres after School Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, E. M.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.; van der Ploeg, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The behavioural and emotional development of children with ADHD visiting day treatment centres after school hours is described and the childrearing factors that govern positive development explored. Test scores on the "Child behaviour checklist" (CBCL) and "ADHD behavioural symptoms rating scale" were obtained over a period of nine months, in a…

  8. Evaluation of the CAARS Infrequency Index for the Detection of Noncredible ADHD Symptom Report in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on self-reports in detecting noncredible symptom report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (aADHD) has been questioned due to findings showing that symptoms can easily be feigned on self-report scales. In response, Suhr and colleagues developed an infrequency index for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CII)…

  9. Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity among Children with AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Smith, Taylor F.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Morrissey-Kane, Erin; Schatz, Nicole K.; Sommer, Jennifer L.; Kollins, Scott H.; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of self-regulation of emotion in relation to functional impairment and comorbidity among children with and without AD/HD. Method: A total of 358 probands and their siblings participated in the study, with 74% of the sample participants affected by AD/HD. Parent-rated levels of emotional lability served…

  10. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  11. Social Appraisal of Adult ADHD: Stigma and Influences of the Beholder's Big Five Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Newman, Matthew L.; Morrow, Tara L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates social stigma associated with a diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood and whether Big Five personality traits predict appraisals of affected individuals. Method: A sample of 257 undergraduates rate the desirability of targets with ADHD, minor medical problems, and with no appreciable weakness, across several social…

  12. Self-Reported Symptoms of ADHD among College Students in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Ingersoll, Travis; Zhang, Jie; Jia, Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined ADHD symptoms among college students in China and the United States. Method: A total of 283 (45%) American and 343 (55%) Chinese students completed the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Current Symptoms Scale (CSS), in addition to other measures. Results: Both of the ADHD measures appear to be reliable…

  13. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  14. Parent-Child Interaction of Mothers with Depression and Their Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Lin, Keh-chung; Robson, Deborah; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Niew, Wern-ing

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that may have a chronic and pervasive impact on the child's function and cause long-term stress to parents. A higher rate of depression is associated with mothers of children with ADHD. This observational study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal depression and the…

  15. The Association of ADHD Symptoms and Reading Acquisition during Elementary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehm, Jan-Henning; Kerner auch Koerner, Julia; Gawrilow, Caterina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Schmiedek, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were…

  16. Sleep Disturbances in Children with Attention – Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Comparative Study with Healthy Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Sreelakshmi; Shah, Henal; Gayal, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper’s purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. Methods The parents of 120 children of age group between 5–16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital’s Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD – RS. Results Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated children with ADHD than their healthy siblings, reduce with increasing age and are found more in the Predominantly Hyperactive/impulsive presentation of ADHD. Conclusion Sleep disturbances are more prevalent in pharmacologically treated ADHD, making it an important aspect of ADHD management. PMID:27924144

  17. Increased Anterior Pelvic Angle Characterizes the Gait of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Yatsuga, Chiho; Kubota, Masafumi; Matsuo, Hideaki; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Shimada, Seiichiro; Imai, Yuto; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have motor problems. Previous studies have reported that the characteristic gait in children with ADHD is immature and that subjects demonstrate higher levels of variability in gait characteristics for the lower extremities than healthy controls. However, little is known about body movement during gait in children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic body movements associated with ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD. Methods Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, we compared gait variables in boys with ADHD (n = 19; mean age, 9.58 years) and boys with typical development (TD) (n = 21; mean age, 10.71 years) to determine the specific gait characteristics related to ADHD symptoms. We assessed spatiotemporal gait variables (i.e. speed, stride length, and cadence), and kinematic gait variables (i.e. angle of pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle) to measure body movement when walking at a self-selected pace. Results In comparison with the TD group, the ADHD group demonstrated significantly higher values in cadence (t = 3.33, p = 0.002) and anterior pelvic angle (t = 3.08, p = 0.004). In multiple regression analysis, anterior pelvic angle was associated with the ADHD rating scale hyperactive/impulsive scores (β = 0.62, t = 2.58, p = 0.025), but not other psychiatric symptoms in the ADHD group. Conclusions Our results suggest that anterior pelvic angle represents a specific gait variable related to ADHD symptoms. Our kinematic findings could have potential implications for evaluating the body movement in boys with ADHD. PMID:28099484

  18. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  19. Co-occurrence of ADHD and low IQ has genetic origins.

    PubMed

    Kuntsi, J; Eley, T C; Taylor, A; Hughes, C; Asherson, P; Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies show that the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lower intelligence quotient (IQ) covary in children. We investigated the aetiology of this association in a large population-based sample of 5-year-old twins. The twins were individually assessed on an IQ test, and data on ADHD symptoms were obtained from mother interviews and teacher ratings. Confirming previous studies, the phenotypic correlation between ADHD symptom scores and IQ was -0.3 and, in a categorical analysis, children with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) ADHD research diagnosis obtained IQ scores nine points lower, on average, than comparison children. We show here that the co-occurrence of ADHD and lower IQ has genetic origins: 86% of the association between ADHD symptom scores and IQ, and 100% of the association between ADHD diagnosis and IQ, was accounted for by genetic influences that are shared by ADHD and IQ. Some candidate genes for ADHD could also contribute to variation in IQ or vice versa.

  20. Modulation of response timing in ADHD, effects of reinforcement valence and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were measured to examine the autonomic responses to reinforcement. Feedback-only trials were compared to low response cost trials (response cost for incorrect responses), low reward trials (reward for correct responses), high response cost and high reward trials. In feedback-only trials, children with ADHD underestimated more severely the interval and responded more variably than controls. Children with ADHD, unlike controls, were unaffected by the reinforcement conditions in terms of time underestimations. The variability of responding, on the other hand, decreased under conditions of reinforcement to a larger extent in children with ADHD than controls. There were no indications that children with ADHD were abnormally affected by the valence or magnitude of reinforcement. Furthermore, skin conductance responses increased when feedback was coupled with reinforcement, an effect which was larger in children with ADHD than controls. This could be interpreted as demonstrating that children with ADHD suffer from a diminished awareness of the significance of feedback in the feedback-only condition. The current study suggests that children with ADHD suffer from motivation problems when reinforcement was not available, at least when variability in responding was measured. Underestimations of time may reflect more stable deficits in ADHD.

  1. Integrative neuroscience approach to predict ADHD stimulant response.

    PubMed

    Hermens, Daniel F; Rowe, Donald L; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2006-05-01

    Despite high rates of prescription, little is known about the long-term consequences of stimulant medication therapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) sufferers. Historically, the clinical use of stimulants for ADHD has been based on trial and error before optimal therapy is reached. Concurrently, scientific research on the mechanism of action of stimulants has influenced neurobiological models of ADHD, but has not always informed their prescription. Whilst the two main stimulant types (methylphenidate and dexamphetamine) have numerous similarities, they also differ (slightly) in mechanism and possibly individual response. A further issue relates to differences in cost and availability compounded by the expectation for stimulants to be effective in ameliorating a broad spectrum of ADHD-related symptoms. Thus, there is an increasing need for treating clinicians to prescribe not only the most effective drug, but also the most appropriate dose with the associated release mechanism and schedule for each ADHD patient presented. In this regard, the field is witnessing an emergence of the personalized medicine approach to ADHD, in which treatment decisions are tailored to each individual. This shift requires a new approach to research into treatment response prediction. Given the heterogeneity of ADHD, a profile of information may be required to capture the most sensitive predictors of treatment response in individuals. These profiles will also benefit from the integration of data from clinical rating scales with more direct measures of cognition and brain function. In conclusion, there is a need to establish a more robust normative framework as the baseline for treatment, as well as diagnostic decisions, and as discussed, the growth of integrated neuroscience databases will be important in this regard.

  2. Maternal psychopathology and offspring clinical outcome: a four-year follow-up of boys with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate

    2017-02-01

    Previous cross-sectional research has shown that parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have high rates of psychopathology, especially ADHD and depression. However, it is not clear whether different types of parent psychopathology contribute to the course and persistence of ADHD in the child over time. The aim of this two wave study was to investigate if mother self-reported ADHD and depression influence persistence of offspring ADHD and conduct disorder symptom severity in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. A sample of 143 males with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in this study. ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms were assessed at baseline and reassessed 4 years later. The boys in this sample had a mean age of 10.7 years at Time 1 (SD 2.14, range 6-15 years) and 13.73 years at Time 2 (SD 1.74, range 10-17 years). Questionnaire measures were used to assess ADHD and depression symptoms in mothers at Time 1. Mother self-reported ADHD was not associated with a change in child ADHD or conduct symptom severity over time. Mother self-reported depression was found to predict an increase in child conduct disorder symptoms, but did not contribute to ADHD symptom levels. This study provides the first evidence that concurrent depression in mothers may be a predictor of worsening conduct disorder symptoms in adolescents with ADHD. It may, therefore, be important to screen for depression in mothers of children with ADHD in clinical practice to tailor interventions accordingly.

  3. Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

  4. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  5. Understanding ADHD in Girls: Identification and Social Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the hyperactive, impulsive, social, and emotional characteristics of girls with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These characteristics could be used to increase the referral rates of these girls and provide implications for intervention. Parent and self-ratings of a school-based…

  6. Family Interactions in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Gail; Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; Langlands, Robyn; Mouat, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    We used global ratings to compare the family (parent[s]-child) interactions of 51 clinic-referred children with ADHD and 32 non problem children. Children and parent(s) were videotaped while engaging in problem solving and game playing activities. Independent coders, blind to children's diagnostic status, rated the interactions using measures…

  7. [Time Trends in the Frequencies of ADHD and Stimulant Medication].

    PubMed

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Döpfner, Manfred; Schubert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Time-trends in the frequencies of mental disorders represent specific challenges for the planning of services. The present review addresses the specific question whether or not there are time changes in terms of an increase of prevalence and incidence rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) based on findings from international epidemiological studies from several decades. While there is no evidence that prevalence rates of ADHD have systematically increased, various national and international incidence studies on ADHD but also prevalence and incidence studies on prescribed medication indicate that the number of treated people with ADHD has increased significantly in the recent past. This increase remains even after adjusting for the general increase in the number of persons admitted to psychiatry for any disorder. Thus, the gap between those in need of treatment and those who actually receive treatment for ADHD has narrowed over time. However, after years of an increase, in recent years German studies dealing with prescriptions of medications have shown also a declining trend.

  8. Executive impairment determines ADHD medication response: implications for academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Hale, James B; Reddy, Linda A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Hain, Lisa A; Whitaker, James; Morley, Jessica; Lawrence, Kyle; Smith, Alex; Jones, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) often ameliorates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavioral dysfunction according to indirect informant reports and rating scales. The standard of care behavioral MPH titration approach seldom includes direct neuropsychological or academic assessment data to determine treatment efficacy. Documenting "cool" executive-working memory (EWM) and "hot" self-regulation (SR) neuropsychological impairments could aid in differential diagnosis of ADHD subtypes and determining cognitive and academic MPH response. In this study, children aged 6 to 16 with ADHD inattentive type (IT; n = 19) and combined type (n = 33)/hyperactive-impulsive type (n = 4) (CT) participated in double-blind placebo-controlled MPH trials with baseline and randomized placebo, low MPH dose, and high MPH dose conditions. EWM/ SR measures and behavior ratings/classroom observations were rank ordered separately across conditions, with nonparametric randomization tests conducted to determine individual MPH response. Participants were subsequently grouped according to their level of cool EWM and hot SR circuit dysfunction. Robust cognitive and behavioral MPH response was achieved for children with significant baseline EWM/SR impairment, yet response was poor for those with adequate EWM/ SR baseline performance. Even for strong MPH responders, the best dose for neuropsychological functioning was typically lower than the best dose for behavior. Findings offer one possible explanation for why long-term academic MPH treatment gains in ADHD have not been realized. Implications for academic achievement and medication titration practices for children with behaviorally diagnosed ADHD will be discussed.

  9. Writing abilities longitudinally predict academic outcomes of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Stephen J; Langberg, Joshua M; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Evans, Steven W

    2016-09-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience a host of negative academic outcomes, and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression, but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (Grades 6-8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student grade point average (GPA) and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence ...

  11. ADHD: Is Objective Diagnosis Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynda G.

    2005-01-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common cognitive disorders, the usual diagnostic procedures pursued by psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, and family practitioners are based largely, if not exclusively, on subjective assessments of perceived behavior. The recommended approaches to ADHD diagnosis are reviewed, first from the perspective of the various expert panels, and then from the research literature upon which those recommendations are based. The authors agree that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis, and that the assessment of subjective reports can be systematic. But they propose that objective data should also contribute to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and that new computerized assessment technology can generate objective cognitive data in an efficient and cost-effective way. Computerized tests can also improve the assessment of treatment response over time. PMID:21120096

  12. Clinical Correlates of Working Memory Deficits in Youth With and Without ADHD: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Ronna; Chan, James; Feinberg, Leah; Pope, Amanda; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective Both working memory (WM) (a brain system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of the information) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been associated with educational deficits. Since WM deficits are prevalent in children with ADHD, the main aim of the present study was to examine whether educational deficits are driven by working memory deficits or driven by the effect of ADHD itself. Method Participants were referred youth with (N=276) and without (N=241) ADHD ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric sources. Assessment included measures of psychiatric, psychosocial, educational, and cognitive functioning. Education deficits were defined as grade retention or placement in special classes, and were assessed using interviews and written rating scales. Working memory was assessed using the WISC-R Freedom from Distractibility (FFD) factor based on digit span, arithmetic and coding. Results Significantly more youth with ADHD had WM deficits than controls (31.9% vs. 13.7%, p< 0.05). In ADHD children, WM deficits were significantly (p<0.01) associated with an increased risk for grade retention and placement in special classes as well as lower scores on reading and math achievement tests, relative to ADHD children without WM deficits. In contrast, no other differences were noted in other areas of functioning. Although WM deficits also had some adverse impact on educational and cognitive correlates in non ADHD controls, these differences failed to attain statistical significance. Conclusion WM deficits significantly and selectively increase the risk for academic deficits and cognitive dysfunction in children with ADHD beyond those conferred by ADHD. Screening for WM deficits may help identify children with ADHD at high risk for academic and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26902180

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Childress, Ann C.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Squires, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy and safety versus placebo in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Adolescents (13 through 17) with at least moderately symptomatic ADHD (ADHD Rating Scale IV: Clinician Version [ADHD-RS-IV] score greater than or equal to 28) were randomized to…

  14. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment.

  15. Intensified testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls should reduce depression and smoking in adult females and the prevalence of ADHD in the longterm.

    PubMed

    Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Kassubek, Jan; Brummer, Dagmar; Koelch, Michael; Ludolph, Albert C; Fegert, Joerg M; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2009-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder in youth. About a third to one-half of the affected subjects continue to have symptoms in adulthood. Remarkably, the prevalence numbers published for adult females are higher than for girls. The differences in the epidemiological data between the age groups clearly point to underdiagnosed ADHD in girls. Major depression, the most frequent psychiatric condition worldwide in adulthood, is twice as common in female as in male adults. Anxiety and depression are also among the most common comorbidities in adults with ADHD. Therefore, an undiagnosed ADHD may often underlie the psychopathology in depressive women. Another possibly associated phenomenon is the increased frequency of smoking in adult females. Since nicotine indirectly enhances the intrasynaptic dopamine level which presumably is too low both in ADHD and in depression, smoking might be used as a self-medication in women with untreated ADHD and consecutive depression. Furthermore, smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for ADHD in the offspring, so the vicious circle is complete. Depression in mothers of children with ADHD is associated with a higher rate of comorbidity in the children. Improved screening for ADHD in girls and treatment in childhood might thus reduce the rate of depression and smoking in adult females. We hypothesize that earlier identification and interventions might not only improve the lives of millions of girls and women but might also reduce the prevalence rates in future generations or at least moderate the deviant behaviour in this highly heritable disorder in which the development and severity of symptoms and the functional impairment depend to a high degree on epigenetic factors.

  16. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  17. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  18. Acupuncture for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuro-psychiatric problem, affecting 7-9% of children. Pharmacological interventions are widely used with behavioral treatments in ADHD. Still, the origin of ADHD is unclear, limiting pharmacological effectiveness and making adverse effects common. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. CAM is used by 60-65% of parents of children with ADHD to relieve ADHD-associated symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with ADHD, but the available evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in patients (both and each treatment naive and conventional therapy children) with ADHD (any subtype) compared to the waitlist control. Methods/Design This study is a waitlist controlled open trial. We used a computer generated randomization scheme. This randomised, controlled trial had two parallel arms (acupuncture, and waitlist group). Each arm consisted of 40 participants. The acupuncture group received acupuncture treatment two times per week for a total of 12 sessions over 6 weeks. Post-treatment follow-up was performed 3 weeks later to complement the 12 acupuncture sessions. Participants in the waitlist group did not receive acupuncture treatments during the first six weeks but were only required to be assessed. After 6 weeks, the same treatments given to the acupuncture group were provided to the waitlist group. The primary outcome of this trial included differences in Korean version of ADHD-Rating Scale (K-ADHD-RS) before randomization, 3 weeks and 6 weeks after randomization, and 3 weeks after completing the treatment. Discussion Subjective measurements, like K-ADHD-RS, are commonly used in ADHD. Although these measurements have adequate reliability and validity

  19. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  20. Effects of a psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Presentación, M Jesús; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was applied to evaluate attention, interference control, verbal and visuospatial working memory, planning ability, and flexibility. The comparative analysis of the treated group of ADHD children and an untreated ADHD group showed significant differences that were especially important in visuospatial memory and planning in favor of the treated children, even when the scores in the pretreatment phase were included as covariables. Likewise, improvements were observed in the parents' and teachers' behavioral ratings of hyperactivity or impulsivity and inattention. The conclusion was drawn that psychosocial interventions with children with ADHD can have a positive effect on some executive functions.

  1. Classroom changes in ADHD symptoms following clinic-based behavior therapy.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F; Chapman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Jack; Mire, Sarah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined classroom behavioral outcomes for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) following their participation in a manualized, 10-week intervention called Family Skills Training for ADHD-Related Symptoms (Family STARS). Family STARS combined behavioral parent training (BPT) and child-focused behavioral activation therapy (CBAT). Participants were children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. Pre- and post-treatment teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms were compared using a single group, within-subjects research design. Intervention effectiveness was analyzed using paired-samples t-tests. Results indicated statistically significant classroom improvements for externalizing behaviors and attention problems with medium and large main effects (respectively) for the intervention. Possible implications for combining CBAT with BPT for the treatment of ADHD are discussed as well as the relevance of these results for improving the effectiveness and portability of empirically supported interventions.

  2. Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Kalpana; Lad, Sagar; Kale, Mrudula; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Mahadik, Sahebrao P; Patni, Bindu; Chaudhary, Arti; Bhave, Sheila; Pandit, Anand

    2006-01-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Few intervention studies with LCPUFA supplementation have reported inconsistent and marginal results. This pilot study evaluates the effect of alpha linolenic acid (ALA)-rich nutritional supplementation in the form of flax oil and antioxidant emulsion on blood fatty acids composition and behavior in children with ADHD. Post-supplementation levels of RBC membrane fatty acids were significantly higher than pretreatment levels as well as the levels in control. There was significant improvement in the symptoms of ADHD reflected by reduction in total hyperactivity scores of ADHD children derived from ADHD rating scale.

  3. DSM-5 changes enhance parent identification of symptoms in adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B

    2016-08-30

    This study evaluates the impact of the DSM-5 ADHD symptom wording changes on symptom endorsement among adolescents with ADHD. Parents of adolescents with systematically diagnosed DSM-IV-TR ADHD (N=78) completed counterbalanced DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 ADHD symptom checklists in a single sitting. General linear models were conducted to evaluate whether the new DSM-5 symptom descriptors influenced the total number of ADHD symptoms and overall ADHD symptom severity endorsed by parents, how demographic factors were associated with noted changes in symptom endorsement when moving to the DSM-5, and which DSM ADHD items displayed notable changes in endorsement rates under the new wording. On average, parents identified 1.15 additional symptoms of ADHD in adolescents when moving from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-5. Increased symptom identification was not specific to age, sex, ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status. Over half of the sample experienced increased symptom endorsement when changing texts (59.0%). Under the new DSM-5 wording, four symptoms had statistically significant endorsement increases (range: 11.2-16.7%): difficulty sustaining attention, easily distracted, difficulty organizing tasks and activities, and does not seem to listen.

  4. Assessment and monitoring of treatment response in adult ADHD patients: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, J Russell

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to “get by” before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others. A lifetime diagnosis of ADHD is associated with a wide range of life impairments, which makes a comprehensive and accurate diagnostic assessment essential in order to obtain appropriate treatment. Moreover, while there are effective medical and psychosocial treatments for ADHD, it is important to be able to track treatment response in order to evaluate whether adjustments in specific interventions are needed or referrals for adjunctive treatments and supports are indicated to facilitate optimal therapeutic outcomes. The goal of this article is to provide a clinically useful review of the various measures that practicing clinicians can use to aid in the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of psychosocial and medical treatment of ADHD in adult patients. This review includes various structured interviews, screening scales, adult ADHD symptom inventories, measures of associated features of ADHD, as well as ratings of impairment and functioning which can be adapted to clinicians’ practice needs in order to track treatment progress and optimize treatments for adults with ADHD. PMID:28184164

  5. Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Babinski, Dara E; Walther, Christine; Cheong, Jeewon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.

  6. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin; Moreno, Megan; Wilner, Molly; Whitlock, Kathryn B; Mendoza, Jason A

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) reduces symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); interventions to increase PA may improve functioning and health for adolescents with ADHD. Mobile health (mHealth) technology and social media constitute promising interactive modalities for engaging adolescents-who are at highest risk for ADHD treatment drop-out-in interventions to increase PA. The current pilot study evaluated feasibility and acceptability of an innovative intervention incorporating an mHealth-linked wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Flex) and a Facebook group to increase PA among adolescents with ADHD. 11 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 14-18, m = 15.5; 54% female) participated in a 4-week trial utilizing the Fitbit Flex in conjunction with (1) weekly personalized step count goals (2) social support through a Facebook group and (3) daily text messages about PA. The study took place in the greater Seattle, Washington area in the fall of 2015. Adolescents completed online surveys twice per week to rate their ADHD symptoms and positive and negative mood states, and parents rated adolescent ADHD symptoms weekly. Participants were adherent to the study protocol and acceptability of the intervention was high. Linear mixed models indicated that participants significantly increased their average weekly steps over the course of the study and demonstrated improvements in both adolescent and parent-reported ADHD Inattentive symptoms. Results indicate that this mHealth intervention is engaging and promising for increasing PA among adolescents with ADHD, and warrant further study. Implications for improving ADHD symptoms and overall functioning for this undertreated population are discussed.

  7. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  8. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment.

  9. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  10. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  11. Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle; Nikolas, Molly; Nigg, Joel T.

    2007-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine the specificity of executive function weakness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence. Results suggest that executive function weakness in ADHD is specifically associated with symptoms of inattention-disorganization.

  12. Low-Income Kids More Likely to Have ADHD, Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make ends meet are developing asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at faster rates than kids from families ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Asthma Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Health Disparities Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  13. ADHD in Finland and Types of Scandinavian Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapper, Marie-Louise; Michelsson, Katarina

    This paper reviews the history and current status of services to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Finland. It notes the availability of free or almost free health services in Finland and the resulting very low infant mortality rate. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), termed "minimal brain…

  14. Symptoms of ADHD and Close Friendships in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship of ADHD symptoms to different aspects of close friendship quality as rated by both adolescents (target adolescent and a close friend) within a friendship dyad. Method: Participants were 41 same-sex friendship dyads who completed questionnaires about their friendship. Separate symptom dimensions of…

  15. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  16. Teaching Children with ADHD: Icelandic Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Medication for the treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has increased tremendously in Iceland during the last decade and the country has now the highest prescription rates for methylphenidate in the world. This study examines Icelandic early childhood teachers' experiences and perspectives of children with behavioural…

  17. The Relationship between ADHD Symptom Dimensions, Clinical Correlates and Functional Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Annie Artiga; O’Connor, Briannon Colleen; Narad, Megan Elizabeth; Tamm, Leanne; Simon, John; Epstein, Jeffery Noah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To better understand how heterogeneity in ADHD symptoms relates to heterogeneity in functional impairment domains in children with ADHD after accounting for demographic variables and comorbidities, in particular oppositionality and internalizing symptoms. Method Parents and teachers (n=5,663) rated child/adolescent impairments across impairment domains in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as well as symptoms of ADHD and comorbidities. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to assess the relationship between parent- and teacher-ratings of ADHD symptom domains and functional impairments after accounting for personal factors and comorbid disorders. Results Symptoms of inattention were the strongest predictor of ratings of academic (math, writing, etc.) functioning, while hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were the strongest predictor of classroom disruption even after accounting for the presence of learning disorders and oppositional symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD accounted for minimal variance in interpersonal functioning or participation in organized activities after controlling oppositional symptoms. Conclusion The ADHD symptom domains demonstrate domain-specific relations with various ADHD-related functional impairments. In addition, the results highlight the role of oppositionality in interpersonal relationship difficulties and participation in organized activities. PMID:24042078

  18. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  19. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  20. ADHD--Building Academic Success. Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    This policy brief discusses students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their school performance. Reasons are presented to explain why children with ADHD fail. The three main characteristics of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity) and their interference with academic performance are discussed. The brief…

  1. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  2. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  3. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: Parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity.

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P; Servera, Mateu; Bernad, Maria Del Mar; García-Banda, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention (IN) symptoms demonstrated cross-setting invariance and unique associations with symptom and impairment dimensions across settings (i.e., home SCT and ADHD-IN uniquely predicting school symptom and impairment dimensions, and vice versa). Mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, academic impairment, social impairment, and peer rejection dimensions for 585 Spanish 3rd-grade children (53% boys). Within-setting (i.e., mothers, fathers; primary, secondary teachers) and cross-settings (i.e., home, school) invariance was found for both SCT and ADHD-IN. From home to school, higher levels of home SCT predicted lower levels of school ADHD-HI and higher levels of school academic impairment after controlling for home ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of home ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of school ADHD-HI, ODD, anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and peer rejection after controlling for home SCT. From school to home, higher levels of school SCT predicted lower levels of home ADHD-HI and ODD and higher levels of home anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment after controlling for school ADHD-IN, whereas higher levels of school ADHD-IN predicted higher levels of home ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment after controlling for school SCT. Although SCT at home and school was able to uniquely predict symptom and impairment dimensions in the other setting, SCT at school was a better predictor than ADHD-IN at school of psychopathology and impairment at home. Findings provide additional support for SCT's validity relative to ADHD-IN. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The structure of adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lenard A; Faraone, Stephen V; Spencer, Thomas J; Berglund, Patricia; Alperin, Samuel; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic. Exploratory factor analysis found four factors representing executive dysfunction/inattention (including, but not limited to, all the DSM-5 inattentive symptoms, with non-DSM symptoms having factor loadings comparable to those of DSM symptoms), hyperactivity, impulsivity, and emotional dyscontrol. Empirically-derived multivariate symptom profiles were broadly consistent with the DSM-5 inattentive-only, hyperactive/impulsive-only, and combined presentations, but with inattention including executive dysfunction/inattention and hyperactivity-only limited to hyperactivity without high symptoms of impulsivity. These results show that executive dysfunction is as central as DSM-5 symptoms to adult ADHD, while emotional dyscontrol is more distinct but nonetheless part of the combined presentation of adult ADHD.

  5. Folate metabolism gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with ADHD in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Spellicy, Catherine J; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C; Martinez, Carla A; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3'-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype.

  6. Pharmacology and pharmacogenetics of pediatric ADHD with associated aggression: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bianca D; Barzman, Drew H

    2013-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with symptoms of aggression in children and adolescents. Clinically, this is complex because aggression can be from hyperactivity and impulsivity, or could be a distinct symptom from a comorbid diagnosis. Past research has recommended first treating the primary disorder of ADHD. Stimulants are the most common treatment for pediatric ADHD, which can be helpful in decreasing aggressive behaviors. Alpha-adrenergic agonists and atomoxetine (ATX) are non-stimulant medications for ADHD and aggression, but more research is necessary to compare these drugs to stimulants. If aggressive symptoms do not improve from treating the primary disorder, aggression can be treated separately. Risperidone, lithium, valproic acid, clonidine, and guanfacine have shown positive results in reducing aggression, but studies including children with aggression and ADHD are limited. The variability in treatment tolerability in patients has stimulated research in pharmacogenetics for ADHD. Although this field is still emerging, research has found evidence supporting a link between the response rate of methylphenidate and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and a link between the metabolism rate of atomoxetine and hepatic cytochrome 450 isozymes. Pharmacogenetics may be relevant to ADHD and associated aggression. Further research in pharmacogenetics will strive to identify patterns of genetic variations that can tailor individual treatments.

  7. Acute Stimulant Treatment and Reinforcement Increase the Speed of Information Accumulation in Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Whitney D; White, Corey N; Hawk, Larry W

    2016-10-27

    The current studies utilized drift diffusion modeling (DDM) to examine how reinforcement and stimulant medication affect cognitive task performance in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with (n = 25; 88 % male) and without ADHD (n = 33; 82 % male) completed a 2-choice discrimination task at baseline (100 trials) and again a week later under alternating reinforcement and no-reinforcement contingencies (400 trials total). In Study 2, participants with ADHD (n = 29; 72 % male) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate and completed the same task utilized in Study 1 at baseline (100 trials). Children with ADHD accumulated information at a much slower rate than controls, as evidenced by a lower drift rate. Groups were similar in nondecision time and boundary separation. Both reinforcement and stimulant medication markedly improved drift rate in children with ADHD (ds = 0.70 and 0.95 for reinforcement and methylphenidate, respectively); both treatments also reduced boundary separation (ds = 0.70 and 0.39). Reinforcement, which emphasized speeded accuracy, reduced nondecision time (d = 0.37), whereas stimulant medication increased nondecision time (d = 0.38). These studies provide initial evidence that frontline treatments for ADHD primarily impact cognitive performance in youth with ADHD by improving the speed/efficiency of information accumulation. Treatment effects on other DDM parameters may vary between treatments or interact with task parameters (number of trials, task difficulty). DDM, in conjunction with other approaches, may be helpful in clarifying the specific cognitive processes that are disrupted in ADHD, as well as the basic mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of ADHD treatments.

  8. Comorbidity of LD and ADHD: implications of DSM-5 for assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Gormley, Matthew J; Laracy, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) can co-occur for a significant minority of children with each disorder. A total of 17 studies (2001-2011) examining ADHD-LD comorbidity were reviewed, revealing a higher mean comorbidity rate (45.1%) than has been obtained previously. Higher comorbidity may be the result of including students with writing disorders, not just reading and/or math disabilities. Proposed DSM-5 criteria for both disorders will likely affect comorbidity rates; however, it is unclear whether such rates will increase or decrease. Regardless of the specific impact of DSM revisions, academic skill and/or performance deficits should be assessed for students with ADHD as part of screening, comprehensive evaluation, and treatment monitoring. Comprehensive intervention services for students with comorbid ADHD and LD will require empirically supported treatment strategies that address both disorders and that are implemented across school and home settings.

  9. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  10. (De)Constructing ADHD: Critical Guidance for Teachers and Teacher Educators. Disability Studies in Education, Volume 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status in many Western countries, yet despite considerable effort to prove its existence as a "real" disorder, ADHD still suffers from a crisis of legitimacy. Nonetheless, diagnosis and prescription of medication has grown at a phenomenal rate since the late 1980s,…

  11. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  12. Is there a difference between child self-ratings and parent proxy-ratings of the quality of life of children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Helen; Newman, Emily

    2017-03-01

    There are contemporary indicators that parent proxy-ratings and child self-ratings of a child's quality of life (QoL) are not interchangeable. This review examines dual informant studies to assess parent-child agreement on the QoL of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A systematic search of four major databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases) was completed, and related peer-reviewed journals were hand-searched. Studies which reported quantitative QoL ratings for matched parent and child dyads were screened in accordance with relevant inclusion and exclusion criteria. Key findings were extracted from thirteen relevant studies, which were rated for conformity to the recommendations of an adapted version of the STROBE statement guidelines for observational studies. In the majority of studies reviewed, children rated their QoL more highly than their parents. There was some evidence for greater agreement on the physical health domain than psychosocial domains.

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning and Attachment Representations in Early School Age as Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B

    2016-06-27

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more "at-risk" samples, these findings could also suggest that parent-child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  14. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘New Forest Parenting Package’ (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with ADHD, fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control.Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior (‘Helping the Noncompliant Child’ [HNC]) in young children with ADHD. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). Results In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP

  15. Coaching for College Students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Prevatt, Frances

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and problem solving. This paper describes ADHD coaching for college students and discusses how coaching is different from standard CBT treatment. This is followed by a review of empirical studies of the effectiveness of ADHD coaching for college students. Finally, some specific considerations and procedures used in coaching are described.

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  17. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  18. DRD4 VNTRs, observed stranger fear in preschoolers and later ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Irene; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Szekely, Eszter; Verhulst, Frank C; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-12-30

    Fear of strangers is a developmental milestone in childhood that encompasses behavioral inhibition and decreased novelty seeking. Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit fearless and impulsive behaviors, similar to those observed in children with atypically low levels of stranger fear. It is currently unknown whether these behaviors share common underlying biological mechanisms. Polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) have been implicated in the risk for developing ADHD symptoms in childhood. Here we investigate whether (1) DRD4 variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) are associated with both stranger fear and ADHD symptoms, and (2) stranger fear in preschoolers mediates the link between DRD4 VNTRs and ADHD in later childhood. Stranger fear was observed in a large sample (N=589) of 3-year-old Caucasian children and ADHD symptoms were assessed by a validated, mother-rated questionnaire at 6 years. We found evidence that longer DRD4 variants were associated with increased ADHD symptoms at 6 years, and that this relationship was partially mediated by lower levels of observed stranger fear at 3 years. Our results suggest a common underlying neurobiological mechanism in the association between low stranger fear and ADHD symptoms; variation in DRD4 may be an important contributor to this mechanism.

  19. ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Willcutt, Erik G; Salum, Giovanni A; Kieling, Christian; Rohde, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have identified significant variability in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence estimates worldwide, largely explained by methodological procedures. However, increasing rates of ADHD diagnosis and treatment throughout the past few decades have fuelled concerns about whether the true prevalence of the disorder has increased over time. Methods: We updated the two most comprehensive systematic reviews on ADHD prevalence available in the literature. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of year of study in the context of both methodological variables that determined variability in ADHD prevalence (diagnostic criteria, impairment criterion and source of information), and the geographical location of studies. Results: We identified 154 original studies and included 135 in the multivariate analysis. Methodological procedures investigated were significantly associated with heterogeneity of studies. Geographical location and year of study were not associated with variability in ADHD prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Confirming previous findings, variability in ADHD prevalence estimates is mostly explained by methodological characteristics of the studies. In the past three decades, there has been no evidence to suggest an increase in the number of children in the community who meet criteria for ADHD when standardized diagnostic procedures are followed. PMID:24464188

  20. Do stimulants improve functioning in adults with ADHD? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Surman, Craig B H; Hammerness, Paul G; Pion, Katie; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-06-01

    ADHD is prevalent in adulthood and stimulant pharmacotherapy is the primary treatment for uncomplicated presentations. ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in major life roles. Measurement of the efficacy of stimulant treatment for adult ADHD therefore should include assessment of improvement in role function. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that measured change in function with stimulant treatment in adult ADHD using measures other than global clinical impression or global assessment of function ratings. Five studies were identified that met our search criteria. Evidence of functional improvement with stimulant treatment was found with the following validated self-report measures of functional wellbeing employed across these studies: the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey; ADHD Impact Module for Adults; Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction scale-Short Form; Sheehan Disability Scale, and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. We conclude that investigations using self-report scales provide evidence that stimulant treatment translates into measurable improvement in daily function for adults with ADHD. Further investigation could better characterize the mediators and moderators of individual improvement, an important step towards the personalization of treatment for ADHD in adulthood.

  1. Genetic associations between the ADHD symptom dimensions and Cloninger's temperament dimensions in adult twins.

    PubMed

    Merwood, Andrew; Asherson, Philip; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD.

  2. Dynamical nonstationarity of resting EEGs in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

    PubMed

    Latchoumane, Charles-Francois V; Kim, In-Hye; Sohn, Hansem; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2013-01-01

    This study applied dynamical nonstationarity analysis (DNA) to the resting EEGs of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). We aimed to assess and characterize AD/HD using features based on the local and global duration of dynamical microstate. We hypothesized that AD/HD patients would have difficulties in maintaining stable cognitive states (e.g., attention deficit and impulsivity) and that they would thus exhibit EEGs with temporal dynamics distinct from normal controls, i.e., rapidly and frequently changing dynamics. To test this hypothesis, we recorded EEGs from 12 adolescent subjects with AD/HD and 11 age-matched healthy subjects in the resting state with eyes closed and eyes open. We found that AD/HD patients exhibited significantly faster changes in dynamics than controls in the right temporal region during the eyes closed condition, but slower changes in dynamics in the frontal region during the eyes open condition. AD/HD patients exhibited a disruption in the rate of change of dynamics in the frontotemporal region at rest, probably due to executive and attention processes. We suggest that the DNA using complementary local and global features based on the duration of dynamical microstates could be a useful tool for the clinical diagnosis of subjects with AD/HD.

  3. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  4. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  5. ADHD and dysgraphia: underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Landau, Yael E; Frenkel, Lior; Teicher, Mina; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S

    2007-08-01

    Multiple complaints in the domain of writing are common among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In this work we sought to characterize the writing disorder by studying dysgraphia in twenty 6th grade boys with ADHD and normal reading skills matched to 20 healthy boys who served as a comparison group. Dysgraphia, defined as deficits in spelling and handwriting, was assessed according to neuropsychological explanatory processes within 3 primary domains: linguistic processing, motor programming and motor kinematics. Children with ADHD made significantly more spelling errors, but showed a unique pattern introducing letter insertions, substitutions, transpositions and omissions. This error type, also known as graphemic buffer errors, can be explained by impaired attention aspects needed for motor planning. Kinematic manifestations of writing deficits were fast, inaccurate and an inefficient written product accompanied by higher levels of axial pen pressure. These results suggest that the spelling errors and writing deficits seen in children with ADHD and normal reading skills stem primarily from non-linguistic deficits, while linguistic factors play a secondary role. Recommendations for remediation include educational interventions, use of word processing and judicious use of psychostimulants.

  6. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  7. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  8. Comorbidity of Asthma with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Eagan, Tomas Mikal; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess how frequently drugs used to treat asthma and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients. Method: The authors used data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (n = 4,640,219). Results: Anti-asthma drugs were prescribed to 350,894 persons (7.56 % of the population), anti-ADHD…

  9. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  10. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  11. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Voeller, Kytja K S

    2004-10-01

    Approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undergoing a major change as a result of information from studies on the genetics of ADHD and the use of new neuroimaging technologies. Moreover, pharmacogenomics, although still in its infancy, will provide a basis for much more sophisticated treatment strategies for ADHD, particularly once more information is available about the genetics of ADHD. Even at this point in time, there is some pertinent information available that, although not ready for application in clinical settings, nonetheless provides a broader perspective for the clinician. In terms of etiology, ADHD is a neuropsychiatric disorder. There is a genetic basis in about 80% of the cases, involving a number of different genes, and in about 20% of the cases, ADHD is the result of an acquired insult to the brain. Some individuals likely have both genetic and acquired forms. Although medication works well in many cases of ADHD, optimal treatment of ADHD requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. The family plays a crucial role in the management of children with ADHD. Because there is often a very high degree of comorbidity between ADHD and learning disabilities, teachers also have a great deal to contribute in the day-to-day management of these children. Early recognition and treatment prevent the development of more serious psychopathology in adolescence and adulthood.

  13. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD; clinical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Kollins, S.H., Wigal, t.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Zhu, W.; Logan, J.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2009-09-09

    .10-0.56; P = .005) and differences in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} in the hypothalamic region, with controls having a mean of 0.12 vs 0.05 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.12; P = .004). Ratings of attention correlated with D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} in the accumbens (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P = .001), midbrain (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.52; P = .001), caudate (r = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.50; P = .003), and hypothalamic (r = 0.31; CI, 0.10-0.49; P = .003) regions and with DAT in the midbrain (r = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.53; P {le} .001). A reduction in dopamine synaptic markers associated with symptoms of inattention was shown in the dopamine reward pathway of participants with ADHD.

  14. Differences in Real World Executive Function between Children with Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Passarotti, Alessandra M.; Trivedi, Nidhi; Dominguez-Colman, Liza; Patel, Manharkumar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research evidence suggests that executive function (EF) is impaired in both pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear. In this study we examined EF, including cognitive and emotional control, in three pediatric groups with overlapping symptoms. Methods Sixteen children and adolescents with PBD, 17 children and adolescents with ADHD, Type Combined, and 13 children and adolescents with PBD and comorbid ADHD (PBD+ADHD) (mean age=12.70, SD=2.21) were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Parental Report (BRIEF-PR), clinical scales and neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory and executive function. Results All groups showed impairment on the Trails A and B tests. However, there were no significant group differences. On the BRIEF-PR while all three groups were impaired in General Executive Functioning and Metacognition only the two PBD groups revealed more extensive EF dysfunction, in both cognitive and emotional control domains, relative to the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD group exhibited selective deficits in cognitive domains such as working memory, planning/organization, monitoring, and metacognition. The two PBD groups showed greater impairment than the ADHD group in the domains of Inhibition, Shifting, Monitoring and Emotional Control. Furthermore, results from regression analyses suggest cognitive predictors of EF impairment in ADHD and mood predictors for inhibition in PBD. Conclusions The current results contribute new knowledge on domain-specific similarities and differences in executive dysfunction between PBD, ADHD, and the comorbid phenotype, which may inform the diagnostic process and cognitive intervention. PMID:27924149

  15. The Pressure-Activation-Stress scale in relation to ADHD and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Nilsson, K W; Lindblad, F

    2015-02-01

    The Pressure-Activation-Stress (PAS) scale is a self-report questionnaire for children concerning perceived stress. To explore behavioral and physiological correlates, we investigated if scores discriminate between a group prone to perceive high levels of stress [children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] and a healthy school sample, and if they are associated with diurnal cortisol levels. The PAS scale was filled in at home by children (11-17 years) with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 102) and non-affected comparisons (n = 146). Saliva samples were collected four times during a regular school day for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Subtypes and severity of ADHD symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD scored higher on the PAS scale than a school sample. The PAS scores were similar over ages in the ADHD group while they increased with age in the healthy group. Female sex was associated with higher stress in both groups but no gender interaction was found. No association was found between PAS scores and cortisol levels in neither group. Children in the ADHD group had a lower ratio of cortisol levels/perceived stress on all sampling occasions, built up both by the higher PAS scores and the lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD. The higher PAS scores in children with ADHD support the validity of the scale. The lack of association between PAS scores and diurnal cortisol levels is intriguing and illustrates the complexity of the stress concept. Stress-related fragility seems to accompany ADHD during childhood.

  16. ADHD Symptoms and Subtypes: Relationship between Childhood and Adolescent Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Moilanen, Irma K.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in childhood and adolescence. The results conclude the persistence of ADHD from childhood to adolescence with specific symptoms contributing to persistent ADHD.

  17. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  18. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  19. Factor structure of symptom dimensions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-12-01

    There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD.

  20. Distinctive linguistic styles in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil

    2009-10-01

    To assess whether the writing styles of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) combined type differ significantly from those of children in a nonclinical control group, writing samples from 17 children with ADHD combined type and 18 children in a nonclinical control group were compared using the language analysis program Korean Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. These writing samples, produced in response to instructions, served as dependent variables. Analysis showed that children with ADHD used fewer linguistic variables (e.g., sentences, phrases, and morphemes) than the control group. In addition, the ADHD group used fewer words reflecting cognitive processes and fewer pronouns than members of the control group. Also, the ADHD group showed a different pattern in the use of words referring to friends. This study provides preliminary descriptive data on language use among children diagnosed with a main subtype of ADHD.

  1. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist.

  2. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  3. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  4. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  5. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  6. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  7. Problematic Peer Functioning in Girls with ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD. Methods PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into ‘friendship’, ‘peer status’, ‘social skills/competence’, and ‘peer victimisation and bullying’. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review. Results All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls’ conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes

  8. The effect of academic self-concept on ADHD and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Wristers, K; Swank, P; Silva, P A; Baker, D B

    2001-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling techniques, we evaluated the effect of academic self-concept (ASC) on the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and antisocial behaviors in early adolescence. Participants (n = 445) were recruited from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Research study. Eligibility was determined by the presence of complete data for the following variables at the specified time periods: reading at age 7, teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 7, self-ratings of ASC at ages 9 and 11, and teacher reports of ADHD and antisocial behaviors at age 13. The results indicated that ASC is an important construct that directly contributes to the development of antisocial behaviors rather than to symptoms of ADHD. The results also indicated that children's early history of behavioral problems and academic performance contribute to the development of a more robust understanding of the impact of ASC on the development of disruptive behaviors in early adolescence.

  9. ADHD, Multimodal Treatment, and Longitudinal Outcome: Evidence, Paradox, and Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, L. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Given major increases in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in rates of medication for this condition, we carefully examine evidence for effects of single versus multimodal (i.e., combined medication and psychosocial/behavioral) interventions for ADHD. Our primary data source is the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA), a 14-month, randomized clinical trial in which intensive behavioral, medication, and multimodal treatment arms were contrasted with one another and with community intervention (treatment-as-usual), regarding outcome domains of ADHD symptoms, comorbidities, and core functional impairments. Although initial reports emphasized the superiority of well-monitored medication for symptomatic improvement, reanalyses and reappraisals have highlighted (a) the superiority of combination treatment for composite outcomes and for domains of functional impairment (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, parenting practices); (b) the importance of considering moderator and mediator processes underlying differential patterns of outcome, including comorbid subgroups and improvements in family discipline style during the intervention period; (c) the emergence of side effects (e.g., mild growth suppression) in youth treated with long-term medication; and (d) the diminution of medication’s initial superiority once the randomly assigned treatment phase turned into naturalistic follow-up. The key paradox is that whereas ADHD clearly responds to medication and behavioral treatment in the short term, evidence for long-term effectiveness remains elusive. We close with discussion of future directions and a call for greater understanding of relevant developmental processes in the attempt to promote optimal, generalized, and lasting treatments for this important and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:25558298

  10. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. Aims To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. Method Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Results Lower concentrations of vitamins B2, B6 and B9 were associated with the ADHD diagnosis, and B2 and B6 also with symptom severity. Smokers had lower levels of vitamins B2 and B9. Conclusions ADHD patients were overrepresented in the group with low levels of some vitamins, possibly indicative of inadequate dietary intake of these micronutrients in a subgroup of patients. It is important to identify these patients in dietary intervention trials of ADHD. Declaration of interest J.H. has received lecture honoraria as part of continuing medical education programmes sponsored by Novartis, Eli Lilly and Company, and Janssen-Cilag. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990293

  11. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one of the purposes of this study was to examine the structure of the PT in dyslexia and ADHD. The other purposes included examining the PT in relation to overall expressive language ability and in relation to several specific linguistic functions given language functioning often is affected in both dyslexia and ADHD. Participants included 50 children: 10 with dyslexia, 15 with comorbid dyslexia/ADHD, 15 with ADHD, and 10 controls. Using a 2 (dyslexia or not) X 2 (ADHD or not) MANCOVA, findings revealed PT length and shape were comparable between those with and without dyslexia. However, children with ADHD had smaller right PT lengths than those without ADHD, and right anterior ascending ramus length was related to attention problems in the total sample. In terms of linguistic functioning, presence of an extra sulcus in the left PT was related to poor expressive language ability. In those with adequate expressive language functioning, left PT length was related to phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory and rapid automatic naming (RAN). Right PT length was related to RAN and semantic processing. Further work on PT morphology in relation to ADHD and linguistic functioning is warranted. PMID:19356794

  12. Familial association and frequency of learning disabilities in ADHD sibling pair families.

    PubMed

    Del'Homme, Melissa; Kim, Tae S; Loo, Sandra K; Yang, May H; Smalley, Susan L

    2007-02-01

    In a sample of 235 families with at least two children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the frequency and familial association of learning disabilities (LD) were assessed. Familiality was examined both between sibling pairs and between parents and their children. Two methods for defining LD, a discrepancy-based and a low-achievement model, were employed to examine the occurrence of LD in this sample. The specific types of LD examined included Reading Disability (RD), Math Disability (MD), and Writing Disability (WD). The prevalence rates were highest for RD, followed by WD then MD. The two definitions of LD yielded similar prevalence rates but identified different groups of children with vastly different IQ scores. Strong familial association was demonstrated for RD both between sibling pairs and between parents and children, with weaker association for WD. There was evidence of nonrandom mating for LD among parents, but not for ADHD or for ADHD + LD. Despite the high comorbidity of ADHD and LD among parents, the presence of ADHD in the parents did not predict child LD supporting independent familial factors underlying ADHD and LD.

  13. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H S G; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

  14. Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Mackenzie, Genevieve

    2015-03-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate reading comprehension in youth with and without a prior diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first goal was to determine whether youth with and without ADHD matched in word reading ability exhibited differences in reading comprehension proficiency. The next goal was to determine whether good and poor comprehenders within the ADHD subgroup differed from each other on language and academic achievement measures. The third objective was to examine whether word recognition or oral vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of ADHD symptoms on reading comprehension performance. Youth with ADHD scored significantly lower than the comparison youth on a standardized measure of reading comprehension. Relative to good comprehenders with ADHD, poor comprehenders with ADHD exhibited weaknesses in expressive vocabulary, mathematical reasoning, written expression, and exhibited more executive function (EF) difficulties as reported by the teacher. Expressive vocabulary and word reading, but not teacher EF ratings, accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension performance and mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and reading comprehension. Implications for further research and educational practice are discussed.

  15. How do ADHD children perceive their cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of anger expression in school setting?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anger is an ignored research area in children and young adolescents with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the school setting. This study compares school anger dimensions in children and young adolescents with ADHD and a control group. Methods The subjects were a clinical sample of 67 children and young adolescents with ADHD and their parents, with a sample of 91 children from the community of similar age and gender as control group. Anger was measured by the Farsi version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI). Results The scores of the two components of "Hostile Outlook" and "Positive Coping" were different between the groups. The mean scores for the Anger components did not statistically differ between the children with ADHD and ODD and ADHD without ODD, boys and girls, or different types of ADHD. Conclusion Children with ADHD do not report higher rates of experience of anger and they do not apply destructive strategies more than the control group. However, children with ADHD appear to have a more hostile outlook toward school and their coping strategy is weaker than that of the control group. PMID:20205823

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  18. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  19. Economic impact of childhood/adolescent ADHD in a European setting: the Netherlands as a reference case.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoa H; Hodgkins, Paul; Postma, Maarten J; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M Haim; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2014-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents. This study reviews available European-based studies of ADHD-related costs and applies the findings to the Netherlands to estimate annual national costs for children/adolescents from a societal perspective. A systematic literature search was conducted for primary studies in Europe, published January 1, 1990 through April 23, 2013. Per-person cost estimates were converted to 2012 Euros and used to estimate annual national ADHD-related costs based on the Dutch 2011 census, ADHD prevalence rates, family composition, and employment rates. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The average total ADHD-related costs ranged from €9,860 to 14,483 per patient and annual national costs were between €1,041 and €1,529 million (M). The largest cost category was education (€648 M), representing 62 and 42 % of the low- and high-value overall national estimates, respectively. By comparison, ADHD patient healthcare costs ranged between €84 M (8 %) and €377 M (25 %), and social services costs were €4.3 M (0.3-0.4 %). While the majority of the costs were incurred by ADHD patients themselves, €161 M (11-15 %) was healthcare costs to family members that were attributable to having an ADHD child/adolescent. In addition, productivity losses of family members were €143-€339 M (14-22 %). Despite uncertainties because of the small number of studies identified and the wide range in the national cost estimates, our results suggest that ADHD imposes a significant economic burden on multiple public sectors in Europe. The limited number of European-based studies examining the economic burden of ADHD highlights the need for more research in this area.

  20. A Waitlist-Controlled Trial of Behavioral Parent Training For Fathers of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gangloff, Brian; Buck, Melina; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha

    2012-01-01

    Objective Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with ADHD, and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. Method The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children ages 6–12 with ADHD to the Coaching Our Acting-out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program or a waitlist control group. Outcomes for the study included objective observations of parent behaviors and parent ratings of child behavior. Results Results indicated that fathers in the COACHES group reduced their rates of negative talk and increased rates of praise as measured in parent-child observations, and father ratings of the intensity of problem behaviors were reduced, relative to the waitlist condition. Groups did not differ on observations of use of commands or father ratings of child behavior problems. Untreated mothers did not significantly improve on observational measures or behavioral ratings. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the COACHES parenting program for fathers of children with ADHD. Results are cast in light of the larger literature on behavioral parent training for ADHD as well as how to best work with fathers of children with ADHD in treatment contexts. PMID:22397639

  1. A waitlist-controlled trial of behavioral parent training for fathers of children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Pelham, William E; Cunningham, Charles E; Yu, Jihnhee; Gangloff, Brian; Buck, Melina; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha

    2012-01-01

    Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children ages 6 to 12 with ADHD to the Coaching Our Acting-out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program or a waitlist control group. Outcomes for the study included objective observations of parent behaviors and parent ratings of child behavior. Results indicated that fathers in the COACHES group reduced their rates of negative talk and increased rates of praise as measured in parent-child observations, and father ratings of the intensity of problem behaviors were reduced, relative to the waitlist condition. Groups did not differ on observations of use of commands or father ratings of child behavior problems. Untreated mothers did not significantly improve on observational measures or behavioral ratings. This study provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the COACHES parenting program for fathers of children with ADHD. Results are cast in light of the larger literature on behavioral parent training for ADHD as well as how to best work with fathers of children with ADHD in treatment contexts.

  2. Self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): medication effects and comparisons with controls.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E; King, Sara

    2007-04-01

    Examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication, and 18 non-ADHD controls. Participants completed three measures of self handicapping and also completed self-evaluations of their performance. Results showed greater self handicapping and more positive self-evaluations in children with ADHD than in controls regardless of medication condition. Findings suggest children with ADHD may use self handicapping to ameliorate the effects of experiencing high rates of academic failure.

  3. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. Method A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. Results ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. Conclusion It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk–benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment. PMID:26811680

  4. Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

  5. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    PubMed Central

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  6. Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I.

  7. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed.

  8. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Brown, Hallie R; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children's ADHD.

  9. ADHD symptoms in non-treatment seeking young adults: relationship with other forms of impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Leppink, Eric W.; Niaz, Faiza; Redden, Sarah A.; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been associated with various manifestations of impulsivity in adults, including elevated rates of other impulsive disorders, substance use, questionnaire-based impulsivity scores, and inhibitory dysregulation on neurocognitive tests. The relationship between ADHD and all these other forms of impulsivity have yet to be explored within the context of a single comprehensive study. Methods 423 young adults, who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year, were recruited using media advertisements and undertook detailed assessment including structured psychiatric interview, questionnaires, and neurocognitive tests. Participants with ADHD symptoms were identified using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and were compared to controls using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results ADHD symptoms were found in 20.3% of the sample, but only 7.3% of these subjects had ever received a formal diagnosis. ADHD symptoms were associated with significantly lower quality of life, lower self-esteem, higher emotional dysregulation, higher impulsivity-compulsivity questionnaire scores, more problematic internet use, greater occurrence of psychiatric disorders, and impaired stop-signal reaction times. Of these variables, stop-signal reaction times and Barratt attentional impulsiveness were the strongest predictors of group classification. Conclusions ADHD symptoms are common and under-diagnosed in young adults who gamble, and are most strongly linked with certain other types of impulsivity (questionnaire- and cognitive-based measures) and with emotional dysregulation, suggesting that these are each important considerations in understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also potential treatment targets. It is necessary to question whether treatment for adult ADHD could be enhanced by considering self-esteem, emotional reactivity, and impaired inhibitory control as specific treatment targets

  10. Understanding the relationships between breastfeeding, malocclusion, ADHD, sleep-disordered breathing and traumatic dental injuries.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders that present at young age, may occasionally be associated with physical problems and disorders. Among them exists a group of oral-pharyngeal conditions with considerable clinical morbidity. Previous research that identified absence or short duration of breastfeeding in ADHD children has been reviewed. Essential nutritional factors in breast milk can affect brain development and regulate the manifestation of ADHD symptoms. Low ferritin levels caused by insufficient breastfeeding may contribute to ADHD susceptibility because of the role of iron in dopaminergic activity. Insufficient breast feeding and subsequently excessive bottle-feeding may lead to increased rates of non-nutritive sucking habits, such as pacifier use and thumb-sucking, all of which are associated with the risk of development of malocclusions. Malocclusion refers to an unacceptable deviation from the ideal relationship of the upper and lower teeth and necessitates orthodontic treatment. Sleep-disordered breathing in children may present with neurocognitive symptoms that resemble ADHD and abnormal craniofacial developments, as well as malocclusions, have been cited as part of the syndrome. Obesity, which is an outcome of insufficient breastfeeding, is a shared comorbidity of ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing. The risk of traumatic dental injury is higher in children with ADHD and presence of malocclusions further increases the likelihood of dental injuries. In this review, certain oral-pharyngeal conditions relating to ADHD have been reviewed and links among them have been highlighted in a tentative explanatory model. More research that will provide increased awareness and clinical implications is needed.

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the early years: diagnostic issues and educational relevance.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for.

  12. Adolescents' ADHD symptoms and adjustment: The role of attachment and rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Oshri, Assaf; Eshkol, Varda; Pilowsky, Tammy

    2014-03-01

    The associations between attachment style, ADHD symptoms, and social adjustments were examined in a community sample of adolescents. Five hundred and eight junior high school students completed questionnaires pertaining to attachment style, ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity), and rejection sensitivity, and were rated by homeroom teachers on social adjustment. Analyses supported a 3-profile pattern of attachment styles: secure, dismissing, and preoccupied. The 3 attachment profiles showed differential risk on adolescents' social adjustment, as well as on ADHD symptoms. The secure profile showed the most adaptive outcomes on all of the examined adjustment outcomes, compared with the other 2 profiles. In contrast, the preoccupied attachment profile showed the highest levels of ADHD problems, angry and anxious expectations, while displaying a similar level of maladjustment to the dismissing profile. In addition, structural equation modeling was used and supported a model that tested an indirect link between attachment security and adolescent adjustment via an ADHD latent factor. Findings suggest that clinicians and educators should pay attention to relational patterns (attachment styles) in adolescence, as these may serve as a developmental precursor for ADHD and a range of adjustment problems in school.

  13. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  14. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties.

  15. ADHD severity as it relates to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Rosleen; Dovi, Allison T; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning.

  16. Classroom Management and the ADHD Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colberg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the academic needs of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be taxing on teachers and students. This research highlights classroom management strategies that general education teachers might include in their teaching to support the academic growth students with ADHD, while continuing to support all students in…

  17. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  18. The Relationship between ADHD and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orendorff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that is often identified when a child first enters school. About 2% of boys and girls in our population are diagnosed with the disorder (Kaufmann, 2000). Although ADHD is the most frequent reason that children are referred to a mental health professional, the diagnosis of ADHD…

  19. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  20. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  1. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  2. Agomelatine Treatment with Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…

  3. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  4. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  5. Metamemory Development in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An aspect of metacognition, metamemory (knowledge and awareness of one's memory) was investigated across time in preschool children with ADHD (n = 31) and a sample of age, sex, socioeconomic and IQ-matched typically developing children (n = 31). Only children with stable ADHD diagnoses were included. Participants were assessed on a variety of…

  6. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  7. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  8. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  10. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Marraccini, Marisa E; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; Munro, Bailey A; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez; Kuhar, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and characteristics such as sex, race, use of illicit drugs, and academic performance are associated with misuse of stimulant medications. Results also indicate that individuals both with and without ADHD are more likely to misuse short-acting agents

  11. Sleep in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review of naturalistic and stimulant intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood. Multiple clinical and research reports suggest extensive sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, however, current data is contradictory. This paper reviewed 47 research studies (13 stimulant intervention and 34 naturalistic) on ADHD that were published since 1980. The main objectives of this review were to provide pediatric clinicians and researchers a clear and concise summary of published sleep data in children with ADHD, to provide a more accurate description of the current knowledge of the relationship between sleep and ADHD, and to provide current information on the effect of stimulant medication on sleep. Twenty-five of the reviewed studies used subjective reports of sleep, six were actigraphic studies, and 16 were overnight polysomnographic sleep studies (two of which also included Multiple Sleep Latency Tests). All participants were between the age of 3 and 19, and 60% were male. The results indicate high rates of parental reports of sleep disturbances in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD, however, the majority of these findings have not been confirmed by objective sleep data. Although, agreement among objective studies is not absolute, the data suggest increased nighttime activity, reduced rapid eye movement sleep, and significant daytime somnolence in unmedicated children with ADHD when compared to controls. Data also suggest a possible increased prevalence of periodic limb movements in sleep in children with ADHD, however, little differences in sleep-disordered breathing. The limited number of studies, small and heterogeneous samples, and other methodological limitations make definite results difficult to determine. Future research will need to further clarify the relationship between sleep and ADHD and the effects of stimulants on sleep of children with ADHD.

  12. ADHD & Pharmacotherapy: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, JJ; Glessner, JT; Elia, J; Hakonarson, H

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobiological disorder in children, with a prevalence of ~6–7%1,2 that has remained stable for decades2. The social and economic burden associated with patients3, families, and broader systems (healthcare/educational) is substantial, with the annual economic impact of ADHD exceed $30 billion in the US alone4. Efficacy of pharmacotherapy in treating ADHD symptoms has generally been considerable with at least ¾ of individuals benefitting from pharmacotherapy, typically in the form of stimulants5. In this review, we begin by briefly reviewing the history of pharmacotherapy in relation to ADHD, before focusing (primarily) on the state-of-the-field on themes such as biophysiology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenomics. We conclude with a summary of emerging clinical and research studies, particularly the potential role for precision therapy in matching ADHD patients and drug types. PMID:26366330

  13. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  14. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  15. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  16. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  17. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  18. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  19. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  20. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  1. Treatment Outcomes in Anxious Youth with and without Comorbid ADHD in the CAMS.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Ollendick, Thomas H; Ginsburg, Golda; Sherrill, Joel; Kendall, Philip C; Walkup, John; Sakolsky, Dara J; Piacentini, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), independent of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), on acute treatment response, remission rates and maintenance of gains at 6-month follow-up in anxious youth (ages 7-17, 76% Caucasian, 52% female) who received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) alone, pharmacotherapy alone, the combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy or placebo pill in the Child/Adolescent Multimodal Study. Treatment response was defined as independent evaluator rated meaningful improvement in anxiety. Remission was operationalized as the absence of targeted anxiety disorders. ADHD and ODD were examined as moderators of outcomes at a diagnostic level. In the CBT group only, an ADHD diagnosis predicted poorer immediate treatment response and remission rates. However, these associations were not obtained for the pharmacotherapy groups. Participants with comorbid ODD were not less likely to achieve acute treatment response and remission rates than their counterparts across treatment conditions. Due to small sample size of the comorbid subgroups, our analyses must be considered preliminary. Nevertheless, our initial findings suggest further exploration of the separate roles of ADHD and ODD are worth pursuing, as they may be differentially associated with treatment outcomes in anxious youth treated with CBT but not youth treated with pharmacotherapy. If confirmed, findings may indicate that anxious youth with comorbid ADHD are less likely to benefit from CBT strategies alone and raise the possibility that these youth need adjunctive pharmacotherapy or psychosocial interventions.

  2. Youth Views on Communication About ADHD and Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Sayner, Robyn; Thomas, Kathleen; Mann, Larry; Sage, Adam; Sulzer, Sandra H; Sandler, Adrian D

    2017-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) communication with their pediatric providers, their reported adherence to their ADHD medications, and their desired location for an ADHD educational program. Youth ages 7 through 17 with an ADHD diagnosis were recruited. A research associate interviewed the youth. Parents completed demographic questionnaires. Seventy families participated. One-third of the youth wanted more discussion about ADHD with their providers during visits. The average youth had over eight questions about ADHD and its treatment. Most youth wanted to learn about ADHD at their provider's office. Non-white and older youth were significantly more likely to be less adherent to their ADHD medications. Youth want their providers to engage them more during visits. Providers should take advantage of this interest to engage youth more in discussions regarding ADHD and its treatment during pediatric ADHD visits.

  3. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test…

  4. ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is diagnosed and treated more often in males than in females. Research on gender differences suggests that girls may be consistently underidentified and underdiagnosed because of differences in the expression of the disorder among boys and girls. One aim of the present study was to assess in a clinical sample of medication naïve boys and girls with ADHD, whether there were significant gender x diagnosis interactions in co-existing symptom severity and executive function (EF) impairment. The second aim was to delineate specific symptom ratings and measures of EF that were most important in distinguishing ADHD from healthy controls (HC) of the same gender. Methods Thirty-seven females with ADHD, 43 males with ADHD, 18 HC females and 32 HC males between 8 and 17 years were included. Co-existing symptoms were assessed with self-report scales and parent ratings. EF was assessed with parent ratings of executive skills in everyday situations (BRIEF), and neuropsychological tests. The three measurement domains (co-existing symptoms, BRIEF, neuropsychological EF tests) were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and random forest classification. Results ANOVAs revealed only one significant diagnosis x gender interaction, with higher rates of self-reported anxiety symptoms in females with ADHD. Random forest classification indicated that co-existing symptom ratings was substantially better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in females (93% accuracy) than in males (86% accuracy). The most important distinguishing variable was self-reported anxiety in females, and parent ratings of rule breaking in males. Parent ratings of EF skills were better in distinguishing subjects with ADHD from HC in males (96% accuracy) than in females (92% accuracy). Neuropsychological EF tests had only a modest ability to categorize subjects as ADHD or HC in males (73% accuracy) and females (79% accuracy). Conclusions Our findings emphasize the combination of

  5. Assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the BASC and BRIEF.

    PubMed

    Jarratt, Kelly Pizzitola; Riccio, Cynthia A; Siekierski, Becky M

    2005-01-01

    There has been an overwhelming increase in the number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). School and clinical psychologists play an important role in the assessment of a child's emotional and behavioral difficulties, including problems with attention. Various assessment measures, including behavioral rating forms such as the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), are often used in the assessment of a child's behavior. The purpose of this article is to provide more knowledge to psychologists regarding the assessment of ADHD in children using the BASC and BRIEF. Results from this study indicated that the BASC and BRIEF scales appear to be measuring similar, but different, constructs pertaining to behaviors associated with ADHD, as well as similar study skills and learning problems. These findings suggest that children diagnosed with ADHD are rated lower on adaptive skills when compared to children with no diagnosis on the BASC. Use of the BASC and BRIEF in ADHD assessment appears promising and may generate additional areas in need of intervention.

  6. The effects of risk factors on EEG and seizure in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ayşe; Aksoy, Erhan; Deda, Gülhis

    2017-03-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly seen developmental disorders in childhood. Its etiology, however, is not well known even though bio-psycho-social reasons have been thought to play a big role. The aims of this retrospective study are to identify the risk factors of ADHD in patients diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, analyze the relationship between clinical symptoms and risk factors to which they were exposed and determine their effects on prospective electrophysiological findings. Longitudinal cohort study of all children with ADHD treated at Ankara University Medical University during 2007-2012, with follow-up to ascertain risk factors and seizure and EEG abnormalities outcome. Multinominal univariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations. Epileptiform discharges were found in 32 (22.9%) of the 140 ADHD patients. Of these, 71.9% had focal epileptiform discharges and 28.1% had generalized epileptiform discharges. The focal epileptiform discharges were most prevalent from the rolandic area. Among the 140 patients, 20 (14.3%) had a previous history of seizure, and all twenty had epileptiform discharges on EEG whereas none of the patients who had normal EEG had a seizure history. The rates of epileptiform discharges were significantly related to gestational age and asphyxia (RR: 1.8, 95% CI 0.3, 9.3; RR: 9.6, 95% CI 2.3, 40, respectively), whereas the rates of epilepsy were related to asphyxia but not gestational age. History of asphyxia and prematurity do seem to increase the risk of EEG abnormality in patients with ADHD. Modification of these environmental risk factors by evidence-based prevention programs may help to decrease the burden of ADHD.

  7. Response-Time Variability Is Related to Parent Ratings of Inattention, Hyperactivity, and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Martin, Cristina Dominguez; Mairena, Maria Angeles; Di Martino, Adriana; Wang, Jing; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Isquith, Peter K.; Gioia, Gerard; Petkova, Eva; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with ADHD are often characterized as inconsistent across many contexts. ADHD is also associated with deficits in executive function. We examined the relationships between response time (RT) variability on five brief computer tasks to parents' ratings of ADHD-related features and executive function in a group of children with…

  8. Executive Cognitive Dysfunction and ADHD in Cocaine Dependence: Searching for a Common Cognitive Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Ometto, Mariella; dos Santos, Bernardo; Nicastri, Sergio; Busatto, Geraldo F.; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI) present executive cognitive function (ECF) deficits, but the impact of psychiatric comorbidities such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on neuropsychological functioning is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if CDI with ADHD (CDI + ADHD) would have a distinct pattern of executive functioning when compared with CDI without ADHD (CDI). Methods: We evaluated 101 adults, including 69 cocaine-dependent subjects (divided in CDI and CDI + ADHD) and 32 controls. ECF domains were assessed with Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were used for diagnosis and previous ADHD symptoms (in the childhood) were retrospectively assessed by the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Results: There were no significant differences between CDI + ADHD, CDI, and controls in estimated intellectual quotient (IQ), socioeconomic background, education (in years), and pre-morbid IQ (p > 0.05). SCWT and WCST scores did not differ across groups (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, CDI and CDI + ADHD performed more poorly than controls in total score of the FAB (p < 0.05). Also, CDI + ADHD did worse than CDI on DF (F = 4.756, p = 0.011), DB (F = 8.037, p = 0.001), Conceptualization/FAB (F = 4.635, p = 0.012), and Mental flexibility/FAB (F = 3.678, p = 0.029). We did not find correlations between cocaine-use variables and neuropsychological functioning, but previous ADHD symptoms assessed by WURS were negatively associated with DF (p = 0.016) and with the total score of the FAB (p = 0.017). Conclusion: CDI + ADHD presented more pronounced executive alterations than CDI and CDI exhibited poorer cognitive functioning than controls. Pre-existing ADHD symptoms may have a significant negative impact on

  9. Maturational delay in ADHD: evidence from CPT

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Itai; Slobodin, Ortal; Aboud, Merav; Melamed, Julia; Cassuto, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    While data from behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain studies suggested that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to a developmental lag that reduces with age, other studies have proposed that ADHD represents a deviant brain function. The present study used a cross-sectional approach to examine whether ADHD children show a developmental delay in cognitive performance measured by continuous performance test (CPT). We thus, compared six age groups of ADHD children (N = 559) and their unaffected peers (N = 365), aged 6–11, in four parameters of MOXO-CPT performance: Attention, Timing, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity. Results have shown that despite improvement in CPT performance with age, ADHD children continued to demonstrate impaired performance as compared to controls. In most parameters, CPT performance of ADHD children matched that of 1–3 years younger normal controls, with a delay most prominent in older children. However, in the Hyperactivity parameter, ADHD children's performance resembled that of much younger healthy children, with almost no evidence for a developmental catch up. This study suggests that while some cognitive functions develop slower but normally, other functions (e.g., inhibitory control) show a different trajectory. PMID:24298243

  10. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling.

  11. Dispositional Trait Types of ADHD in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated a novel person-centered approach to parsing ADHD heterogeneity using dispositional traits. Method Participants were one hundred nine 3- to 6-year-olds, and their primary caregivers and day care providers/teachers who completed a multi-informant diagnostic procedure with longitudinal follow-up. Results Based on latent profile analysis, young children with ADHD could be divided into low control, high surgency, and high negative affect subgroups. The low control and high surgency groups exhibited increased parent- and teacher-rated hyperactive-impulsive and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. Although the low control group exhibited the worst response inhibition, the high surgency group exhibited the worst working memory. Furthermore, the high surgency group exhibited high aggression and increasing levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity and ODD symptoms over time. Conclusion A subgroup of young children with ADHD with high surgency may be at particular risk for comorbid psychopathology and longitudinal worsening of symptoms. PMID:23239785

  12. Integrated pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Horst, Robert O; Hendren, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    This article is a review of what is currently known about optimal treatments for patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins with a description of assessment techniques and the differential diagnosis, which includes learning disorders, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. The high rate of comorbidity in patients with ADHD and the impact of comorbidity on treatment decisions are also discussed. Detailed descriptions of various pharmacologic treatments are provided, including a description of the role of combination pharmacotherapy and the integration of nonpharmacologic therapy. A decision-making model for selecting the most appropriate pharmacologic therapy versus combining pharmacotherapy with psychosocial interventions is described. The advantages and disadvantages of various pharmacologic agents--including long-acting stimulants and atomoxetine--are examined. Particular attention is paid to the recent Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, which includes a comparison of long-term pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy, or a combination thereof, as well as an evaluation of the role of community-based therapy (i.e., treatment as usual). This article focuses on children and adolescents, because most of the research on ADHD has been conducted in this age group. However, a brief section on adults is also provided.

  13. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback as a treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Anna-Maria; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Furdea, Adrian; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Gevensleben, Holger; Freitag, Christine M.; Fuchsenberger, Yvonne; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Strehl, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP) and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus). The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS), to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG) or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG). In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7–10 years, took part. Changes in parents’ ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents’ and teachers’ ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens’ self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents’ ratings. In teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training. The performance in the computer based attention test improved significantly. Within-group comparisons after 12 sessions of NIRS-, EEG- and EMG-training revealed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in the NIRS-group and a trend for EEG- and EMG-groups. No significant differences for symptom reduction were found between the groups. Despite the limitations of small groups and the comparison of a completed with two uncompleted interventions, the results of this pilot study are promising. NIRS-neurofeedback could be a time-effective treatment for ADHD and an

  15. Inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: evidence of a separate entity?

    PubMed

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J P; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-11-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test whether ADHD+ODD is a more severe from of ADHD in terms of neurocognitive performance. In Experiment 1, inhibition abilities were measured using the Stop Task. In Experiment 2, reinforcement sensitivity and temporal information processing abilities were measured using a Timing Task with both a reward and penalty condition. Compared to controls, children with ADHD-only demonstrated impaired inhibitory control, showed more time underestimations, and showed performance deterioration in the face of reward and penalty. Children with ADHD+ODD performed in-between children with ADHD-only and controls in terms of inhibitory controls and the tendency to underestimate time, but were more impaired than controls and children with ADHD-only in terms of timing variability. In the face of reward and penalty children with ADHD+ODD improved their performance compared to a neutral condition, in contrast to children with ADHD-only. In the face of reward, the performance improvement in the ADHD+ODD group was disproportionally larger than that of controls. Taken together the findings suggest that, in terms of neurocognitive functioning, comorbid ADHD+ODD is a substantial different entity than ADHD-only.

  16. Self-management as a strategy to improve the classroom behavior of adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, E S; DuPaul, G J; Bradley-Klug, K L

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the application of a self-management strategy for improving the classroom behavior of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on the work of Rhode, Morgan, and Young (1983), the intervention focuses on teaching students to systematically rate their own behavior according to the rating of their teacher. Although, historically, self-management strategies based on cognitive control have not been found to be effective for students with ADHD, strategies based on contingency management have not been widely reported in the literature. A description of the intervention and two case study illustrations are provided. Potential limitations and implications for research in using this strategy are discussed.

  17. Correcting delayed circadian phase with bright light therapy predicts improvement in ADHD symptoms: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fargason, Rachel E; Fobian, Aaron D; Hablitz, Lauren M; Paul, Jodi R; White, Brittny A; Cropsey, Karen L; Gamble, Karen L

    2017-03-06

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments. In addition to standard of care, participants with ADHD diagnosis underwent 1 week of baseline assessment followed by 2-weeks of 30-min morning 10,000-lux BLT beginning 3 h after mid-sleep time. Participants minimized overhead light after 4 p.m., wore an actigraphy watch, and recorded BLT time on daily sleep logs. Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) was assessed at baseline and after 2-week treatment. ADHD symptoms were measured by the ADHD-Rating Scales (ADHD-RS). BLT significantly advanced the phase of DLMO by 31 min [mean time (SEM), 20:36 (0:21) advanced to 20:05 (0:20)] and mid-sleep time by 57 min [4:37 (0:22) advanced to 3:40 (0:16); paired t-tests, p = 0.002 and 0.004, respectively). Phase advances (in DLMO or mid-sleep time) were significantly correlated with decreased ADHD-RS total scores (p = 0.027 and 0.044) and Hyperactive-Impulsive sub-scores (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively). Actigraphy analysis for a subset of 8 participants with significant DLMO phase advance revealed no significant changes in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, or percent wake during sleep interval. This is the first successful use of BLT for advancing melatonin phase and improving ADHD symptoms in adults. BLT may be a complementary treatment for both delayed sleep timing and ADHD symptoms in adults.

  18. Materials Organization, Planning, and Homework Completion in Middle School Students with ADHD: Impact on Academic Performance.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Girio, Erin L; Becker, Stephen P; Vaughn, Aaron J; Altaye, Mekibib

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the homework functioning of middle school students with ADHD to determine what aspects are most predictive of school grades and the best source (e.g., parents or teachers) for obtaining this information. Students with ADHD in grades 5-8 (N = 57) and their parents and teachers completed the Children's Organization Skills Scales (COSS) to measure materials organization, planning, and time-management, and parents completed the Homework Problems Checklist (HPC) to examine homework completion and homework materials management behaviors. Regression analyses revealed that parent-rated homework materials management and teacher-rated memory and materials management were the best predictors of school grades. These findings suggest that organization of materials is a critical component of the homework completion process for students with ADHD and an important target for intervention. Teachers were the best source of information regarding materials organization and planning, whereas parents were a valuable source of information for specific homework materials management problems.

  19. Maternal Executive Functioning and Scaffolding in Families of Children with and without Parent-Reported ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Thomas, Sharon R; Woods, Kelsey E; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2017-03-30

    Parental scaffolding robustly predicts child developmental outcomes, including improved self-regulation and peer relationships and fewer externalizing behaviors. However, few studies have examined parental characteristics associated with a parent's ability to scaffold. Executive functioning (EF) may be an important individual difference factor associated with maternal scaffolding that has yet to be examined empirically. Scaffolding may be particularly important for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms due to their core difficulties with inattention, disorganization, EF, and self-regulation, their need for greater parental structure, and higher-than-average rates of parental EF deficits. Yet, little research has examined child ADHD in relation to parental scaffolding. This cross-sectional study examined: (1) the association between maternal EF (as measured by the Hotel Test, Barkley's Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale, and Digit Span) and observed scaffolding, (2) the association between parent-reported child ADHD/DBD symptoms and scaffolding, and (3) the interaction between child ADHD/DBD symptoms and maternal EF in predicting scaffolding. In a sample of 84 mothers and their 5-10 year-old biological children (62% male) with and without parent-reported ADHD, we found that maternal EF, as measured by Digit Span and the Hotel Test, predicted observed maternal scaffolding. However, child ADHD/DBD symptoms did not significantly predict maternal scaffolding controlling for child age, maternal education, and maternal EF, nor did the interaction of maternal EF and parent-reported child ADHD/DBD symptoms. Working memory and task shifting may be key components of parental EF that could be targeted in interventions to improve parental scaffolding.

  20. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... child’s diet?Should I limit my child’s screen time (TV, computer, video games)? ResourcesAmerican Psychiatric Association, Help With ADHDNational Alliance on Mental Illness, Not Just a Childhood Disorder: How ADHD ...

  2. ADHD: A Crash-Free Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigout-Hues, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Richard Restak asserts in "The New Brain" (Rodale Books, 2003) that "ADD/ADHD isn't so much a disorder as it is a cognitive style." With this in mind, and through much trial and error, the author of this article, a second-grade teacher at Hood-Case Elementary School in Alvin, Texas, provides suggestions to keep in mind when one has ADHD children…

  3. Preventive interventions for ADHD: a neurodevelopmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T

    2012-07-01

    It is proposed that the time is ripe for the development of secondary preventive interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By targeting preschool children, a developmental stage during which ADHD symptoms first become evident in most children with the disorder, many of the adverse long-term consequences that typify the trajectory of ADHD may be avoided. A dynamic/interactive model of the biological and environmental factors that contribute to the emergence and persistence of ADHD throughout the lifespan is proposed. Based on this model, it is argued that environmental influences and physical exercise can be used to enhance neural growth and development, which in turn should have an enduring and long-term impact on the trajectory of ADHD. Central to this notion are 2 hypotheses: 1) environmental influences can facilitate structural and functional brain development, and 2) changes in brain structure and function are directly related to ADHD severity over the course of development and the degree to which the disorder persists or remits with time. We present experimental and correlational data supporting the first hypothesis and longitudinal data in individuals with ADHD supporting the second. The case is made for initiating such an intervention during the preschool years, when the brain is likely to be more "plastic" and perhaps susceptible to lasting modifications, and before complicating factors, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, academic failure, and poor social and family relationships emerge, making successful treatment more difficult. Finally, we review recent studies in young children with ADHD that might fall under the umbrella of secondary prevention.

  4. ADHD and delinquency--a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood.

  5. Pharmacotherapy of inattention and ADHD in adolescents.

    PubMed

    McBurnett, Keith; Swetye, Michael; Muhr, Heather; Hendren, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the current use of stimulants in adolescents. The evidence base for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents is meager compared with that of ADHD in children, and much recent research of older populations with ADHD has been directed toward adults rather than adolescents. The structure of psychosocial treatment of ADHD differs across developmental ranges. For example, in children, treatment of ADHD uses direct behavior modification via parents and teachers. Treatment approaches then change toward contracting in adolescents (acknowledging the emerging independence common at this age) and toward self-management and coaching in adults. Medication for ADHD, however, does not substantially differ across developmental epochs. In supplementation of data, specifically on adolescence, much of our understanding of treating adolescents comes from upward or downward extension of the child and adult data. Symptomatic treatment (treatment for inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsive behavior) has always been a parallel approach to diagnostic and developmentally specific selection of treatment based on an incomplete literature. In recognition, this article assumes that inference from children or adults to adolescents, in the absence of adolescent-specific data, is commonplace and often confirmed with clinical experience. Such inferences, in the face of literature gaps, in no way obviate the need for continued research focused on adolescence.

  6. Two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD: the value of planning skills.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Bianca E; Geurts, Hilde M; Prins, Pier J M; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents with ADHD have planning problems, often affecting school- and social functioning. Evidence-based treatments for adolescents with ADHD are scarce and treatment drop-out rates are substantial. The effectiveness of two new, individual, short-term cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) was investigated: One with an aim on improving planning skills and one solution-focused treatment (SFT) without such an aim. Motivational Interviewing elements were added to both treatments to enhance treatment compliance. In a multi-center randomized clinical trial, 159 adolescents (12-17 years) with ADHD were randomly assigned to one of both treatments. Pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up data were gathered on five domains: Parent-rated ADHD, planning problems and executive functioning (primary outcomes), neuropsychological measures of planning, comorbid symptoms, general functioning, and teacher measures. Attrition was low in both treatments (5%). Adolescents improved significantly between pre- and post-test with large effect sizes on all domains. Improvements remained stable or continued to improve from post-test to follow-up, also when controlling for medication use. Marginally significant differences were found in favor of the planning-focused treatment: parents and therapists evaluated this treatment more positively than SFT and the planning-focused treatment showed more reduction of parent-rated planning problems. Two new CBTs with integrated motivational components were feasible and attrition was low. ADHD symptoms and co-existing problems of the adolescents improved from pre-test to 3 months after treatment. As the planning-focused treatment was evaluated more positive and had marginal additional beneficial effects to SFT, especially planning-focused CBT seems promising to fill the gap in available treatments for adolescents with ADHD.

  7. Toward a better understanding of ADHD: LPHN3 gene variants and the susceptibility to develop ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    During the past 15 years, an impressive amount of genetic information has become available in the research field of psychiatry, particularly as it relates to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the classical clinical approach to ADHD has minimally affected and not significantly been improved by this genetic revolution. It is difficult to predict how long it will take for genetic findings to alter the way clinicians treat patients with ADHD. New medications or treatment protocols may take years to become routine clinical practice. However, when taken together, recent successes in genomics, pharmacogenomics, and genetic epidemiology have the potential (1) to prevent comorbid consequences of ADHD, (2) to individualize therapies for patients with ADHD, and (3) to define new epidemiological policies to aid with the impact of ADHD on society. Here, we present an overview of how genetic research may affect and improve the quality of life of patients with ADHD: as an example, we use the discovery of LPHN3, a new gene in which variants have recently been shown to be associated with ADHD. PMID:21432600

  8. Perception of Nonverbal Social Cues by Regular Education, ADHD, and ADHD/LD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Peterson, Andrea D.; Webster, Raymond E.; Bolen, Larry M.; Brown, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    Study examined ability of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) children with and without learning disability to perceive nonverbal social cues. ADHD/LD children demonstrated significant difficulty in comparison to their peers in effectively perceiving paralanguage cues. This group also showed significant improvement on the Postures and…

  9. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  10. Spelling errors among children with ADHD symptoms: the role of working memory.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Mirandola, Chiara; Esposito, Stefania Sara; Capodieci, Agnese

    2014-09-01

    Research has shown that children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may present a series of academic difficulties, including spelling errors. Given that correct spelling is supported by the phonological component of working memory (PWM), the present study examined whether or not the spelling difficulties of children with ADHD are emphasized when children's PWM is overloaded. A group of 19 children with ADHD symptoms (between 8 and 11 years of age), and a group of typically developing children matched for age, schooling, gender, rated intellectual abilities, and socioeconomic status, were administered two dictation texts: one under typical conditions and one under a pre-load condition that required the participants to remember a series of digits while writing. The results confirmed that children with ADHD symptoms have spelling difficulties, produce a higher percentages of errors compared to the control group children, and that these difficulties are enhanced under a higher load of PWM. An analysis of errors showed that this holds true, especially for phonological errors. The increased errors in the PWM condition was not due to a tradeoff between working memory and writing, as children with ADHD also performed more poorly in the PWM task. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. Relationship of self-mutilative behaviour with history of childhood trauma and adult ADHD symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2017-04-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of self-mutilative behaviour (SMB) with the severity of childhood trauma and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 188 inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (Adult ADHD Scale). Among inpatients with AUD those who have a history of SMB constituted the SMB group (n = 57, 30.3%), and those without a history of SMB constituted the group without SMB (n = 131, 69.7%). Risk of high ADHD risk was 2.5 times higher among those with SMB. Adult ADHD Scale and CTQ-28 scores were also higher in the group with SMB. In the first backward logistic regression model, the severity of ADHD symptoms predicted the presence of SMB, together with the severity of childhood trauma, whereas in the second model, physical neglect and inattentive (IN) dimension of ADHD predicted the presence of SMB. These findings suggest that the higher severity of physical neglect and adult IN dimension of ADHD may be related to SMB among inpatients with AUD.

  12. Influence of striatal dopamine transporter availability on the response to methylphenidate in adult patients with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Krause, Johanna; la Fougere, Christian; Krause, Klaus-Henning; Ackenheil, Manfred; Dresel, Stefan H

    2005-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether availability of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) may have an influence on the response of adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on methylphenidate (MPH). In 18 non-smoking and non-medicated adult patients with ADHD, availability of DAT was measured with [(99m)Tc] TRODAT-1 SPECT. Then, the patients received methylphenidate (MPH), individually titrated up to 60 mg per day. Ten weeks later, clinical improvement was rated by Clinical Global Impressions scale. In all, 6 patients were classified as non-responders, and 12 responded to MPH. From the non-responders, 5 presented with a DAT availability below that of normal controls of the same age, whereas in the group of responders all patients had elevated DAT availability. There was a significant negative correlation between values for global clinical improvement and striatal DAT availability. In conclusion, ADHD patients with low DAT availability seem not to respond to therapy with MPH.

  13. Child impact on family functioning: a multivariate analysis in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Fleck, Katja; Jacob, Christian; Philipsen, Alexandra; Matthies, Swantje; Graf, Erika; Hennighausen, Klaus; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Weyers, Peter; Warnke, Andreas; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; von Gontard, Alexander; Hänig, Susan; Freitag, Christine; Sobanski, Esther; Schumacher-Stien, Martina; Poustka, Luise; Bliznak, Lucia; Becker, Katja; Holtmann, Martin; Colla, Michael; Gentschow, Laura; Kappel, Viola; Jaite, Charlotte; Jans, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    ADHD seriously impacts family functioning, even the more in families with simultaneous parental and child ADHD. The aim of the study was to examine associations between family impact of child ADHD and child, mother and family characteristics in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by ADHD. One hundred and forty-four mother-child pairs were assessed (children: mean age 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 73.6 % male). Family impact of child ADHD was rated by mothers using the Family Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with child and maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics such as employment, partnership status and number of children as predictors and FIQ subscores as criteria. Rates of variance explained by family variables were 49 % for negative feelings towards the child, 37 % for impact on partnership, 31 % for impact on social life and 27 % for impact on finances (p < .001, respectively). Pearson correlations with family impact were especially strong for child externalizing symptoms, maternal ADHD and co-morbid symptoms of the mother. The strongest independent predictor was oppositional defiant child behaviour. In ADHD multiplex families, mothers' perception of the impact of an ADHD child on its family can be explained to a substantial degree by child psychopathology, maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics. Although a cross-sectional design does not allow for causal interpretations, the findings of this study offer important targets for the treatment of ADHD in a family context pointing to the need for assessing and treating parental mental health and co-morbid symptoms besides ADHD core symptoms.

  14. Prediction of childhood ADHD symptoms to quality of life in young adults: adult ADHD and anxiety/depression as mediators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Nien; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-10-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may persist, co-occur with anxiety and depression (ANX/DEP), and influence quality of life (QoL) in later life. However, the information about whether these persistent ADHD and ANX/DEP mediate the influence of childhood ADHD on adverse QoL in adulthood is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether adult ADHD symptoms and/or ANX/DEP mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL. We assessed 1382 young men aged 19-30 years in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires for retrospective recall of ADHD symptoms at ages 6-12, and assessment of current ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms, and QoL. We conducted mediation analyses and compared the values of mediation ratio (PM) by adding mediators (adult ADHD and ANX/DEP), individually and simultaneously into a regression model with childhood ADHD as an independent variable and QoL as a dependent variable. Our results showed that both adult ADHD and ANX/DEP symptoms significantly mediated the association between childhood ADHD and QoL (PM=0.71 for ANX/DEP, PM=0.78 for adult ADHD symptoms, and PM=0.91 for both). The significance of negative correlations between childhood ADHD and four domains of adult QoL disappeared after adding these two mediators in the model. Our findings suggested that the strong relationship between childhood ADHD and adult life quality can be explained by the presence of persistent ADHD symptoms and co-occurring ANX/DEP. These two mediators are recommended to be included in the assessment and intervention for ADHD to offset the potential adverse life quality outcome in ADHD.

  15. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  16. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Several forms of assessment tools, including behavioral rating scales and objective tests such as the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), can be used to measure inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, research with school-age children has shown that the correlations…

  17. Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposure and ADHD-Attributable Costs to the Health and Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) have higher rates of behavioral and cognitive effects, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the costs to the health care and education systems have not been estimated. We estimate these costs for school-aged children aged 5-15. Methods: The relative risk (RR) of ADHD…

  18. Effects of Child Gender and Symptom Type on Referrals for ADHD by Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciutto, Mark J.; Nolfi, Cara J.; Bluhm, Carla

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effects of child gender and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom type on elementary school teachers' referral decisions. Participants (N =199) read a profile of a fictional child's academic record and rated the likelihood of referring the child for an evaluation. The profiles varied by…

  19. Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amon, Krestina L.; Campbell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated "The Journey to Wild Divine" as a biofeedback management tool teaching breathing and relaxation skills to children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The children played the game by manipulating their heart rate using breathing techniques taught in the game, measured through three finger sensors. Parents…

  20. Exploring the Gender Gap in Referrals for Children with ADHD and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Slavec, Janine; Bernstein, Melissa; Baroni, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of the gender of children with ADHD on teachers' perceptions toward inattentive, hyperactive, or oppositional behaviors, and how these perceptions relate to teachers' ratings of children's impairment and referral recommendations. Method: Teachers read eight vignettes depicting boys and girls with…

  1. Effects of Methylphenidate on Quality of Life in Children with Both Developmental Coordination Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapper, Boudien C. T.; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) gives a more complete picture of day-to-day functioning and treatment effects than behavioural rating alone. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the combined diagnoses of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and…

  2. ADHD in Schools: Prevalence, Multi-Professional Involvements and School Training Needs in an LEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Linda; Pumfrey, Peter; Wakefield, Peter; Quill, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    As part of research undertaken by the first author, a survey of schools was carried out in one local education authority (LEA) in order to gather information about pupils diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All mainstream and special schools and pupil referral units were approached and a response rate of 94% was…

  3. Self-Regulation of Visual Attention and Facial Expression of Emotions in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhle, Hans J.; Kinkelbur, Jorg; Andes, Kerstin; Heidorn, Fridjof M.; Zeyer, Solveigh; Rautzenberg, Petra; Jansen, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test if visual focusing and mimic display as features of self-regulation in ADHD children show a curvilinear relation to rising methylphenidate (MPH) doses. To test if small dose steps of 2.5mg MPH cause significant changes in behavior. And to test the relation of these features to intellectual performance, parents' ratings, and…

  4. Can Children with ADHD Be Motivated to Reduce Bias in Self-Reports of Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Vaughn, Aaron; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Murray-Close, Dianna; McCabe, George

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose in the current study was to examine whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison children, if adequately motivated, are able to purposefully match their teachers' ratings of competence in multiple domains and whether any reductions in self-perceptual bias normalize self-views in…

  5. CBCL Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Profile and ADHD: Comorbidity and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; McCracken, James T.; Dang, Jeffery; Clark, Shaunna; Nelson, Stanley F.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    The pediatric bipolar disorder profile of the Child Behavior checklist is used to differentiate patterns of comorbidity and to search for quantitative trait loci in multiple affected ADHD sibling pairs. The CBCL-PBD profiling identified 8 percent of individuals with severe psychopathology and increased rates of oppositional defiant, conduct and…

  6. Association of ADHD, Tics, and Anxiety with Dopamine Transporter ("DAT1") Genotype in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disturbance to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder, and anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism located in the…

  7. Modulation of Response Timing in ADHD, Effects of Reinforcement Valence and Magnitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance…

  8. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  9. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups.

  10. Educational Outcomes of a Collaborative School–Home Behavioral Intervention for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Villodas, Miguel; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated educationally relevant outcomes from a newly developed collaborative school–home intervention (Collaborative Life Skills Program [CLS]) for youth with attention and/or behavior problems. Participants included 17 girls and 40 boys in second through fifth grades (mean age = 8.1 years) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. CLS was implemented by 10 school-based mental health professionals at their schools and included 3 integrated components over 12 weeks: group behavioral parent training, classroom behavioral intervention, and a child social and independence skills group. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, organizational skills, and homework problems, and teacher-rated academic skills, report card grades, academic achievement, and classroom observations of student engagement were measured before and after treatment. Significant pre–post improvement was found for all measures, with large effect sizes for ADHD symptoms, organizational skills, and homework problems, and medium to large effects for teacher-rated academic skills, report card grades, academic achievement, and student engagement. Improvements in organizational skills mediated the relationship between improvement in ADHD symptoms and academic skills. Significant improvement in both ratings and objective measures (achievement testing, report cards, classroom observations) suggests that improvement exceeded what might be accounted for by expectancy or passage of time. Findings support the focus of CLS on both ADHD symptom reduction and organizational skill improvement and support the feasibility of a model which utilizes school-based mental health professionals as providers. PMID:23506023

  11. Prevalence of ADHD Diagnosis and Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use in Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Jeffrey P.; Scheurich, Neil E.; Ranseen, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of medical students. Methods: An anonymous survey was administered to 388 medical students (84.0% return rate) across all 4 years of education at a public medical college. Results: Eighteen medical…

  12. Educational outcomes of a collaborative school-home behavioral intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pfiffner, Linda J; Villodas, Miguel; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; McBurnett, Keith

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated educationally relevant outcomes from a newly developed collaborative school-home intervention (Collaborative Life Skills Program [CLS]) for youth with attention and/or behavior problems. Participants included 17 girls and 40 boys in second through fifth grades (mean age = 8.1 years) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. CLS was implemented by 10 school-based mental health professionals at their schools and included 3 integrated components over 12 weeks: group behavioral parent training, classroom behavioral intervention, and a child social and independence skills group. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, organizational skills, and homework problems, and teacher-rated academic skills, report card grades, academic achievement, and classroom observations of student engagement were measured before and after treatment. Significant pre-post improvement was found for all measures, with large effect sizes for ADHD symptoms, organizational skills, and homework problems, and medium to large effects for teacher-rated academic skills, report card grades, academic achievement, and student engagement. Improvements in organizational skills mediated the relationship between improvement in ADHD symptoms and academic skills. Significant improvement in both ratings and objective measures (achievement testing, report cards, classroom observations) suggests that improvement exceeded what might be accounted for by expectancy or passage of time. Findings support the focus of CLS on both ADHD symptom reduction and organizational skill improvement and support the feasibility of a model which utilizes school-based mental health professionals as providers.

  13. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Lee, Young Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. Methods A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student’s ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. Results The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms. PMID:26562777

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  15. Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efron, Daryl; Sciberras, Emma; Hassell, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can have a major impact on students' functioning at school--academically and socially. This study examined parental perceptions of schools in relation to their understanding of ADHD, information provided and general support. Parents of consecutive children with ADHD seen at the Centre for Community…

  16. Time Estimation Abilities of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Baker, Leigh; Garrett, Lori; Yelland, Sherry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the time estimation abilities of college students with ADHD on a novel, complex task that approximated academically oriented activities. Method: Totally 20 college students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 20 non-ADHD students. Both groups completed a task, and scores were obtained for time to complete the task, errors…

  17. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  18. ADHD: Misconceptions and the Four Rules of Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutscher, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just about hyperactive people who have short attention spans. ADHD is a disorder that involves difficult problems on a wide range of "executive dysfunction," a wide range of co-occuring conditions, and family problems. People need to recognize that ADHD is not just…

  19. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  20. Training Clinics as a Resource for Multimodal Treatment of ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Yaakoba-Richmond, Rakefet

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder of childhood. The extensive research on ADHD indicates that both assessment and treatment of ADHD is best accomplished through the involvement of multiple informants. By establishing a supervisory relationship with a university-based training clinic, child…

  1. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  2. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls ADHD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... therapy is the recommended first line treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in young children, and should be tried ...

  3. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  4. Understanding ADHD: A Practical Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.

    This book is intended as a practical guide for parents and teachers in managing children or students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specific strategies and techniques are presented that will facilitate learning for individuals with ADHD in both the home and school environment. Chapters include: "ADHD at Home and in the…

  5. Impulsivity in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity is the cardinal symptom of ADHD. It is estimated that ADHD is present in eighteen percent of children and in four percent of adults. The present study repeats and extends a previous study (Gray, Breier, Foorman, & Fletcher, 2002) that measured impulsivity in adolescents with and without ADHD, which found higher false alarm rates…

  6. The Problem with ADHD: Researchers' Constructions and Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajo, Bora; Cohen, David

    2013-01-01

    An enduring controversy over the nature of ADHD complicates parents' decisions regarding children likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Using a fallibilist perspective, this review examines how researchers construe ADHD and acknowledge the controversy. From a systematic literature search of empirical reports using parents of ADHD-diagnosed…

  7. Time out of Mind: Temporal Perspective in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, Maria G.; Wiberg, Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation. Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with courses…

  9. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  10. Teachers' Perceptions of Young Children with ADHD in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yonghee

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Korean early childhood teachers' understanding of behavioural characteristics of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), difficulties about and concerns for children with ADHD, the kinds of support for which teachers looked, experiences teachers had with the parents of children with ADHD, and…

  11. ADHD and Poor Motor Performance from a Family Genetic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliers, Ellen; Vermeulen, Sita; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Altink, Marieke; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Rommelse, Nanda; Faraone, Stephen; Sergeant, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from a genetics study of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their affected or unaffected siblings finds that ADHD-affected children had significantly more motor problems than their unaffected siblings. It is concluded that there is a common basis between ADHD and motor problems that may be due to…

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  13. Autistic Traits in a Population-Based ADHD Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Volk, Heather E.; Todd, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most diagnostic nomenclatures do not allow for the concurrent diagnosis of autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinic-based studies suggest autistic symptoms are common in children with ADHD, but such studies are prone to referral bias. This study assesses whether children with ADHD selected from the general…

  14. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  15. Personality Characteristics Associated with Persistent ADHD in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the personality characteristics associated with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a longitudinal sample of youth, with a particular focus on differences between those with and without persisting ADHD symptoms. Participants with ADHD (n = 90) were initially evaluated when they were 7-11 years old, and…

  16. Family Characteristics of Anxious ADHD Children: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Hayden O.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Method: Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. Results: ADHD families are uniformly less…

  17. What Can ADHD without Comorbidity Teach Us about Comorbidity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J.; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age,…

  18. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  19. College Students with ADHD: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; O'Dell, Sean M.; Varejao, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 2 to 8% of the college population reports clinically significant levels of ADHD symptomatology and at least 25% of college students with disabilities are diagnosed with ADHD. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted with findings consistently indicating academic deficits associated with ADHD in college students. It is…

  20. Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Children with Comorbid Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Sallee, F. Randy; Gilbert, Donald L.; Dunn, David W.; McCracken, James T.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Budman, Cathy L.; Ricardi, Randall K.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Allen, Albert J.; Milton, Denai R.; Feldman, Peter D.; Kelsey, Douglas K.; Geller, Daniel A.; Linder, Steven L.; Lewis, Donald W.; Winner, Paul K.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Mintz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: Subjects (7-17 years old) with ADHD ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV") and TS were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 56) or atomoxetine…

  1. Differences in Perceived Mental Effort Required and Discomfort during a Working Memory Task between Individuals At-risk And Not At-risk for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Eastwood, John D.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The avoidance of mental effort is a symptom criterion for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but the experience of mental effort has received relatively little attention in the empirical study of individuals at-risk for ADHD. We explored a novel method to assess the experience of effort and discomfort during a working memory task in a sample of young adults at-risk and not at-risk for ADHD. Method: A sample of 235 undergraduate students (Mean age = 21.02, 86 males) were included in this study. Based on an ADHD-screener (ASRS), 136 participants met criteria for the ADHD-risk group and 99 were in the non-ADHD risk group. Results: Individuals at-risk for ADHD reported higher mental effort and discomfort than individuals not at-risk for ADHD, even when performance on the working memory task was comparable or statistically controlled. Mental effort required and discomfort were more strongly correlated for at-risk compared to not at-risk participants. Individuals at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger correlation between mental effort required and actual accuracy, but individuals not at-risk for ADHD displayed a stronger association between perceived accuracy and actual accuracy for the hardest experimental conditions. The most intense moment of effort required predicted retrospective discomfort ratings of the task in the ADHD-risk group, but not in the non-risk group. Conclusion: The subjective experience of in the moment mental effort is an important and viable construct that should be more carefully defined and measured. In particular, the experience of effort required (or how taxing a task is) differentiated between individuals at-risk and individuals not at-risk for ADHD in the present study. Whereas previous ADHD research has explored effort exerted, the present work demonstrated that investigating the experience of being mentally taxed might provide a productive line of investigation that could be used to advance our understanding of the

  2. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  3. A behavioral neuroenergetics theory of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Peter R; Russell, Vivienne A; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Energetic insufficiency in neurons due to inadequate lactate supply is implicated in several neuropathologies, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By formalizing the mechanism and implications of such constraints on function, the behavioral Neuroenergetics Theory (NeT) predicts the results of many neuropsychological tasks involving individuals with ADHD and kindred dysfunctions, and entails many novel predictions. The associated diffusion model predicts that response times will follow a mixture of Wald distributions from the attentive state, and ex-Wald distributions after attentional lapses. It is inferred from the model that ADHD participants can bring only 75-85% of the neurocognitive energy to bear on tasks, and allocate only about 85% of the cognitive resources of comparison groups. Parameters derived from the model in specific tasks predict performance in other tasks, and in clinical conditions often associated with ADHD. The primary action of therapeutic stimulants is to increase norepinephrine in active regions of the brain. This activates glial adrenoceptors, increasing the release of lactate from astrocytes to fuel depleted neurons. The theory is aligned with other approaches and integrated with more general theories of ADHD. Therapeutic implications are explored.

  4. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli—pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones—were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm’s standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that

  5. Reduced Working Memory Mediates the Link between Early Institutional Rearing and Symptoms of ADHD at 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Tibu, Florin; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    Children who are raised in institutions show severe delays across multiple domains of development and high levels of psychopathology, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low performance in executive functions (EFs) are also common in institutionally reared children and often do not remediate following improvements in the caregiving environment. ADHD symptomatology also remains elevated even after children are removed from institutional care and placed in families. We investigate whether poor EF is a mechanism explaining elevated rates of ADHD in children reared in institutional settings in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). In the current study, we examine the potentially mediating role of poor EF in the association between institutionalization and symptoms of ADHD at age 12 years. A total of 107 children were assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) on working memory, set-shifting and planning. We also obtained concurrent teacher reports on their levels of ADHD symptoms (inattention and impulsivity separately). Institutionalization strongly predicted elevations in symptoms of inattention and impulsivity at age 12 years (ps < 0.01). Indices of working memory and planning were also associated with ADHD after controlling for potential confounders (ps < 0.03). Mediation analyses revealed that poor working memory performance mediated the link between exposure to early institutionalization and higher scores of both inattention and impulsivity. These results replicate and extend the findings that we reported in the BEIP sample at age 8 years. Together, they suggest that compromised working memory is a key mechanism that continues to explain the strikingly high levels of ADHD in late childhood among children institutionalized in early life. Interventions targeting working memory may help to prevent ADHD among children exposed to institutional care. PMID:27933019

  6. Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Victoria; Servera, Mateu; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Cardo, Esther; Moreno, Inmaculada

    2013-09-01

    The present study is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of Neurofeedback compared to standard pharmacological intervention in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The final sample consisted of 23 children with ADHD (11 boys and 12 girls, 7-14 years old). Participants carried out 40 theta/beta training sessions or received methylphenidate. Behavioral rating scales were completed by fathers, mothers, and teachers at pre-, post-treatment, two-, and six-month naturalistic follow-up. In both groups, similar significant reductions were reported in ADHD functional impairment by parents; and in primary ADHD symptoms by parents and teachers. However, significant academic performance improvements were only detected in the Neurofeedback group. Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of Neurofeedback, and contribute to enlarge the range of non-pharmacological ADHD intervention choices. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial with a six-month follow-up that compares Neurofeedback and stimulant medication in ADHD.

  7. Omega—3 fatty acid and ADHD: Blood level analysis and meta-analytic extension of supplementation trials

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, Elizabeth; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the value of Omega—3 (n—3) fatty acid supplementation for treatment of ADHD remains high. No prior meta-analysis has examined whether ADHD is associated with alterations in blood lipid levels and meta-analyses of supplementation have reached conflicting conclusions. Methods We report two new meta-analyses. Study 1 examined blood levels of Omega—3 fatty acids in relation to ADHD. Study 2 examined a larger sample of randomized intervention trials than previously reported. Results Study 1 included 9 studies (n = 586) and found lower overall blood levels of n—3 in individuals with ADHD versus controls (g = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.26–0.59; p < .001). Study 2 included 16 studies (n = 1408) and found that n—3 supplementation improved ADHD composite symptoms; using the best available rating and reporter (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.15–0.37; p < .001). Supplementation showed reliable effects on hyperactivity by parent and teacher report, but reliable effects for inattention only by parent report. Conclusions Omega—3 levels are reduced in children with ADHD. Dietary supplementation appears to create modest improvements in symptoms. There is sufficient evidence to consider Omega—3 fatty acids as a possible supplement to established therapies. However it remains unclear whether such intervention should be confined to children with below normal blood levels. PMID:25181335

  8. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years) execute a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%), an unrepeated novel sound (33%) or no auditory stimulation (33%). Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control. PMID:26779082

  9. Response acquisition with delayed reinforcement in a rodent model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hand, Dennis J; Fox, Andrew T; Reilly, Mark P

    2006-12-15

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been shown to exhibit behavioral characteristics analogous to those exhibited by humans diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was conducted to further evaluate the validity of the SHR model of ADHD by characterizing learning of a novel response under conditions of delayed reinforcement. Seven experimentally naïve SHRs and a control group of seven normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to a contingency where one lever press initiated pellet delivery after a 15-s, resetting delay. Rats in both groups acquired lever pressing, and the pattern of acquisition was well described with a three-parameter, sigmoidal equation. Response acquisition was retarded in the SHRs; they took longer to acquire the behavior, exhibited lower response rates and earned fewer reinforcers over the course of the experiment. When reinforcer delivery was made immediate in a subsequent condition, the SHRs exhibited higher response rates than the WKY, suggesting that the lower rates of responding seen in the SHRs were due to the reinforcer delay. The results replicate previous research on response acquisition with delayed reinforcement and provide further validation of the SHR strain as a model of ADHD. Like humans diagnosed with ADHD, the SHRs appear to be hypersensitive to delayed consequences, which in the present context, interfered with learning a novel behavior.

  10. Children with ADHD Symptoms Show Decreased Activity in Ventral Striatum during the Anticipation of Reward, Irrespective of ADHD Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hulst, Branko M.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Bos, Dienke J.; Rijks, Yvonne; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Durston, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to…

  11. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD? For More Information Share Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... organized? Have you wondered whether you might have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Our society has become more aware of ...

  12. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  13. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  14. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  15. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  16. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a multicenter parallel-randomized controlled trial design, adolescents with ADHD symptoms were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (NFB + TAU, n = 45) or TAU-only (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified for age group (ages 12 through 16, 16 through 20, 20 through 24). Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Primary behavioral outcome measures included the ADHD-rating scale, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist all assessed pre- and post-intervention. Behavioral problems decreased equally for both groups with medium to large effect sizes, range of partial η2 = 0.08-0.31, p < 0.05. Hence, the combination of NFB + TAU was not more effective than TAU-only on the behavioral outcome measures. In addition, reported adverse effects were similar for both groups. On behavioral outcome measures, the combination of neurofeedback and TAU was as effective as TAU-only for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Considering the absence of additional behavioral effects in the current study, in combination with the limited knowledge of specific treatment effects, it is questionable whether theta/SMR neurofeedback for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice should be used. Further research is warranted to investigate possible working mechanisms and (long-term) specific treatment effects of neurofeedback.

  17. Latest trends in ADHD drug prescribing patterns in children in the UK: prevalence, incidence and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Beau-Lejdstrom, Raphaelle; Douglas, Ian; Evans, Stephen J W; Smeeth, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug prescribing in children under 16 years old in the UK between 1992 and 2013. Methods All patients under 16 registered in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a minimum of 1 year of observation time and who received at least one prescription of any ADHD drug between 1 January 1992 and 31 December 2013.Trends in prevalence and incidence of use of ADHD drugs in children were calculated between 1995 and 2013 and persistence in new users was estimated. Results The prevalence of ADHD drug use in children under 16 increased 34-fold overall, rising from 1.5 95% CI (1.1 to 2.0) per 10 000 children in 1995 to 50.7 95% CI (49.2 to 52.1) per 10 000 children in 2008 then stabilising to 51.1 95% CI (49.7 to 52.6) per 10 000 children in 2013. The rate of new users increased eightfold reaching 10.2 95% CI (9.5 to 10.9) per 10 000 children in 2007 then decreasing to 9.1 95% CI (8.5 to 9.7) per 10 000 children in 2013. Although prevalence and incidence increased rather steeply after 1995, this trend seems to halt from 2008 onwards. We identified that 77%, 95% CI (76% to 78%) of children were still under treatment after 1 year and 60% 95% CI (59% to 61%) after 2 years. Conclusions There was a marked increase in ADHD drug use among children in the UK from 1992 until around 2008, with stable levels of use since then. UK children show relatively long persistence of treatment with ADHD medications compared to other countries. PMID:27297009

  18. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive behavioral developmental disorder most commonly seen in childhood and adolescence, which often extends to the adult years. Relative to a decade ago, there has been extensive research into understanding the factors underlying ADHD, leading to far more treatment options available for both adolescents and adults with this disorder. Novel stimulant formulations have made it possible to tailor treatment to the duration of efficacy required by patients, and to help mitigate the potential for abuse, misuse and diversion. Several new non-stimulant options have also emerged in the past few years. Among these, cognitive behavioral interventions have proven popular in the treatment of adult ADHD, especially within the adult population who cannot or will not use medications, along with the many medication-treated patients who continue to show residual disability. PMID:21658285

  19. Objective diagnosis of ADHD using IMUs.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Niamh; Florentino-Liano, Blanca; Carballo, Juan J; Baca-García, Enrique; Rodríguez, Antonio Artés

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes the use of miniature wireless inertial sensors as an objective tool for the diagnosis of ADHD. The sensors, consisting of both accelerometers and gyroscopes to measure linear and rotational movement, respectively, are used to characterize the motion of subjects in the setting of a psychiatric consultancy. A support vector machine is used to classify a group of subjects as either ADHD or non-ADHD and a classification accuracy of greater than 95% has been achieved. Separate analyses of the motion data recorded during various activities throughout the visit to the psychiatric consultancy show that motion recorded during a continuous performance test (a forced concentration task) provides a better classification performance than that recorded during "free time".

  20. Use of EEG to Diagnose ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Loo, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has, historically, played a focal role in the assessment of neural function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review here the most recent developments in the utility of EEG in the diagnosis of ADHD, with emphasis on the most commonly used and emerging EEG metrics and their reliability in diagnostic classification. Considering the clinical heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of information available from the EEG signals, we suggest that considerable benefits are to be gained from multivariate analyses and a focus towards understanding of the neural generators of EEG. We conclude that while EEG cannot currently be used as a diagnostic tool, vast developments in analytical and technological tools in its domain anticipate future progress in its utility in the clinical setting. PMID:25234074

  1. Cogmed Working Memory Training for Youth with ADHD: A closer examination of efficacy utilizing evidence-based criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David; Uderman, Jodi Z.; Chimiklis, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current review applied the evidence-based treatment (EBT) criteria espoused by the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (Silverman & Hinshaw, 2008) to specifically evaluate the short- and longer-term efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) as a treatment for youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method Utilizing a systematic literature search, seven studies that employed the school-age version of CWMT were identified for this review. Results The data reviewed herein suggest mixed findings regarding the benefit of CWMT for youth with ADHD. Two randomized controlled studies have demonstrated that CWMT led to improvements in neuropsychological outcomes and parent-rated ADHD symptoms relative to wait-list control and placebo treatment conditions. Another study demonstrated effects of CWMT relative to a placebo condition on an analog observation of behavior during an academic task, although this study did not find an effect of CWMT on parent-rated ADHD. Finally, an additional study utilizing an active comparison control condition did not find incremental benefits of CWMT on parent- or teacher-rated ADHD. Critical issues in interpreting existing studies include lack of alignment between demonstrated outcomes and the hypothesized model of therapeutic benefit of CWMT, issues with equivalence of control conditions, and individual differences that may moderate treatment response. Conclusions Collectively, the strengths and limitations of the studies reviewed suggest that CWMT is best defined as a Possibly Efficacious Treatment for youth with ADHD. We suggest future directions for research and conclude with clinical implications of our findings for the treatment of youth with ADHD. PMID:23668397

  2. Cogmed Working Memory Training for youth with ADHD: a closer examination of efficacy utilizing evidence-based criteria.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anil; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David; Uderman, Jodi Z; Chimiklis, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    The current review applied the evidence-based treatment criteria espoused by the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (Silverman & Hinshaw, 2008 ) to specifically evaluate the short-term and longer term efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) as a treatment for youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Utilizing a systematic literature search, 7 studies that employed the school-age version of CWMT were identified for this review. The data reviewed herein suggest mixed findings regarding the benefit of CWMT for youth with ADHD. Two randomized controlled studies have demonstrated that CWMT led to improvements in neuropsychological outcomes and parent-rated ADHD symptoms relative to wait-list control and placebo treatment conditions. Another study demonstrated effects of CWMT relative to a placebo condition on an analog observation of behavior during an academic task, although this study did not find an effect of CWMT on parent-rated ADHD. Finally, an additional study utilizing an active comparison control condition did not find incremental benefits of CWMT on parent- or teacher-rated ADHD. Critical issues in interpreting existing studies include lack of alignment between demonstrated outcomes and the hypothesized model of therapeutic benefit of CWMT, issues with equivalence of control conditions, and individual differences that may moderate treatment response. Collectively, the strengths and limitations of the studies reviewed suggest that CWMT is best defined as a Possibly Efficacious Treatment for youth with ADHD. We suggest future directions for research and conclude with clinical implications of our findings for the treatment of youth with ADHD.

  3. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--molecular and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Migdalska, Anna; Nawara, Magdalena; Bal, Jerzy; Mazurczak, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, affecting approximately 5-10% of children. ADHD is considered to be a multifactorial disorder because both genetic and environmental components may contribute to its progress. The etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unknown, however family, twin and adoption studies have suggested that genetic factors are very important in its etiopathogenesis. The research of genetic basis of ADHD consists of linkage analysis, candidate gene approach and association studies. These analyses and also investigations on animal models of disease suggest that mutations in genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and adrenergic systems are likely to be responsible for ADHD.

  4. Abnormal brainstem auditory response in young females with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Claesdotter-Hybbinette, Emma; Safdarzadeh-Haghighi, Maryam; Råstam, Maria; Lindvall, Magnus

    2015-10-30

    Studies have shown that the auditory brainstem response (ABR) is often affected in neurodevelopmental disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate possible differences in ABR between young females with ADHD compared to control subjects. This study focuses on young females, age 7-17 with ADHD, comparing the ABR of 43 young females with ADHD to 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Young females with ADHD have a significantly different ABR in a region between cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex as well as in the thalamic region compared to control subjects. These data indicate specific differences in ABR between girls with ADHD compared to female controls.

  5. The proposed changes for DSM-5 for SLD and ADHD: international perspectives--Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States.

    PubMed

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cavendish, Wendy; Cornoldi, Cesare; Fawcett, Angela J; Grünke, Matthias; Hung, Li-Yu; Jiménez, Juan E; Karande, Sunil; van Kraayenoord, Christina E; Lucangeli, Daniela; Margalit, Malka; Montague, Marjorie; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Sideridis, Georgios; Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Vio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an international perspective of the proposed changes to the DSM-5 for learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) across ten countries: Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We provide perspectives of the present situation for youth with LD and youth with ADHD and describe the legislation, prevalence rates, and educational systems that serve students with disabilities in the respective countries. We also present a discussion of the expected impact of the proposed changes for the diagnosis of LD and ADHD in each country.

  6. Oxidative Stress and ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nidhin; Zhang-James, Yanli; Perl, Andras; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To clarify the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in ADHD. Method We examined the association of ADHD and oxidative stress by applying random effects meta-analysis to studies of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in medication naive patients with ADHD and controls. Results Six studies of a total of 231 ADHD patients and 207 controls met our selection criteria. The association between ADHD and antioxidant status was not significant. We found a significant association between ADHD and oxidative stress that could not be accounted for by publication bias. The significant association lost significance after correcting for intrastudy clustering. No one observation accounted for the positive result. Conclusion These results are preliminary given the small number of studies. They suggest that patients with ADHD have normal levels of antioxidant production, but that their response to oxidative stress is insufficient, leading to oxidative damage. PMID:24232168

  7. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD.

  8. RD, ADHD, and their comorbidity from a dual route perspective.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Christien G W; Licht, Robert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve further insight into the comorbidity of reading disorder (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), lexical processing and rapid naming were studied in RD and ADHD. The Dual Route Cascaded model postulates that lexical processing contains two parallel processes: lexical route processing and sublexical route processing. An orthographic decision task and a phonological decision task were used to measure lexical and sublexical route processing, respectively. In addition, a rapid naming task was used to compare 27 children with RD, 18 children with ADHD, 20 children with ADHD+RD, and 29 controls. RD and ADHD shared impairments in accuracy of orthographic and phonological decision making as well as in rapid naming, which suggest that RD and ADHD may be overlapping disorders that share deficits in both lexical route and sublexical route processing. RD was dissociated from ADHD by being slower in both orthographical and phonological decision making that indicates unique deficits in RD on lexical and sublexical speed.

  9. Childhood ODD and ADHD Behavior: The Effect of Classroom Sharing, Gender, Teacher Gender and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Lubke, Gitta H; Glasner, Tina J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-07-01

    One criterion for a diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is that symptoms are present in at least two settings, and often teacher ratings are taken into account. The short Conners' Teacher Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R) is a widely used standardized instrument measuring ODD and ADHD behavior in a school setting. In the current study CTRS-R data were available for 7, 9 and 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register. Measurement invariance (MI) across student gender and teacher gender was established for three of the four scales (Oppositional Behavior, Hyperactivity and ADHD Index) of the CTRS-R. The fourth scale (ATT) showed an unacceptable model fit even without constraints on the data and revision of this scale is recommended. Gene-environment (GxE) interaction models revealed that heritability was larger for children sharing a classroom. There were some gender differences in the heritability of ODD and ADHD behavior and there was a moderating effect of teacher's gender at some of the ages. Taken together, this indicates that there was evidence for GxE interaction for classroom sharing, gender of the student and gender of the teacher.

  10. South African Foundation Phase Teachers’ Perceptions of ADHD at Private and Public Schools

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Anwynne; Amod, Zaytoon; Seabi, Joseph; Vorster, Adri

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated foundation phase teachers’ perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The teachers’ views on the aetiology, appropriate interventions and incidence rates of ADHD were examined. A total of 130 foundation phase teachers from mainstream private and public schools completed a self-developed questionnaire that had been piloted by the researchers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data, specifically to determine whether there were differences in responses between public and private school teachers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions. It was found that the teachers had a limited understanding of ADHD, in terms of what it is as well as the aetiology. In addition, it emerged that medication was the preferred method of intervention despite the participants’ awareness of alternative intervention methods. A comparison of the private and public school teachers’ results indicated no significant difference in their perceptions regarding the aetiology, interventions or incidence rates of ADHD. PMID:25768242

  11. Social Self Control, Externalizing Behavior, and Peer Liking Among Children with ADHD-CT: A Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul J; Vaughn, Aaron J; Epstein, Jeffery N; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the role of externalizing behavior as a mediator of the relation between social self-control and peer liking among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined Type (ADHD-CT). A model was proposed whereby externalizing behavior would fully statistically account for the direct relation of social self-control to peer liking. One hundred seventy two children ages 7.0-9.9 years with ADHD-CT were rated by their teachers regarding their social self-control and by their parents and teachers regarding their rates of externalizing behavior. Same-sex classmates provided ratings of overall liking. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to assess the proposed model. Results supported the proposed model of externalizing behavior as fully statistically accounting for the relation of social self-control to peer liking. This study demonstrated the crucial role that externalizing behaviors play in the social impairment commonly seen among children with ADHD-CT.

  12. Co-development of ADHD and externalizing behavior from childhood to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ralf, Kuja-Halkola; Paul, Lichtenstein; Brian, M D'Onofrio; Henrik, Larsson

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with externalizing disorders, but a clear understanding of the etiologic underpinnings is hampered by the limited understanding of the co-development of the traits from childhood into early adulthood. Methods Using a birth cohort of 2600 twins, the Swedish Twin study of Child and Adolescent Development study, assessed at ages 8-9, 13-14, 16-17 and 19-20, we investigated the co-development of ADHD and externalizing behavior from childhood to adulthood. The analyses examined ADHD-like and externalizing traits, as rated by twins and their parents using the Attention Problems scale and Externalizing scale of the Child Behavior Checklist, and estimated cross-lagged effects (one trait at one time-point predicting the other at the next). The covariation between the traits were decomposed into stable (effects carried over from the prior time-points) and innovative (new effects for each time-point) sources; each source was further decomposed into additive genetics, shared and non-shared environment. Results The analysis suggested that externalizing traits in middle childhood (age 8-9) predicted ADHD-like traits in early adolescence (age 13-14), whereas the reverse association was non-significant. In contrast, ADHD-like traits in mid-adolescence (age 16-17) predicted externalizing traits in early adulthood (age 19-20). The correlation between ADHD-like and externalizing traits increased over time. At all time-points innovative sources contributed substantially to maintained comorbidity. Genetic effects explained 67% of the covariation at each time-point; importantly, nearly 50% of these effects were innovative. Conclusions This study challenges the belief that ADHD generally precedes externalizing behaviors; rather, change in the etiologic factors across the development is the rule. The effects were due to both new genetic and environmental factors emerging up to young adulthood. Clinicians and

  13. Clinical significance of tics and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; DeVincent, Carla J

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the clinical significance of co-occurring tics and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as indicators of a more complex symptomatology in children with and without pervasive developmental disorder. Parents and teachers completed a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-referenced rating scale for 3- to 5- (n = 182/135) and 6- to 12- (n = 301/191) year-old children with pervasive developmental disorder and clinic controls, respectively. The percentage of children with tic behaviors varied with age: preschoolers (25%, 44%) versus elementary schoolchildren (60%, 66%) (parent and teacher ratings, respectively). For many psychiatric symptoms, screening prevalence rates were highest for the ADHD + tics group and lowest for the group with symptoms of neither, but the pattern of group differences varied by age group and informant. In general, there were few differences between the ADHD only and tics only groups. The pattern of ADHD/tic group differences was similar for both children with and without pervasive developmental disorder. We concluded that these findings support the notion that the co-occurrence of ADHD and tics is an indicator of a more complex psychiatric symptomatology in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

  14. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    PubMed

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  15. ADHD Subtype Differences in Reinforcement Sensitivity and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-01-01

    Both cognitive and motivational deficits are thought to give rise to the problems in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both subtypes one of the most prominent cognitive weaknesses appears to be in visuospatial working memory (WM), which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive (CE). In children with ADHD-C, both STM and the CE seem impaired, and together with motivational impairments, give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM. In children with ADHD-I, no studies investigated these WM components and their interplay with motivational impairments. Effects of a standard (feedback only) and a high level of reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) on visuospatial WM-, STM-, and CE performance were examined in 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive-subtype), 70 children with ADHD-C, and 40 typically developing controls (aged 9-12). In both ADHD-subtypes CE and WM performance was worse than in controls. STM performance of children with ADHD-I was, in contrast to that of children with ADHD-C, not different from controls. STM and WM performance was worse in ADHD-C than in ADHD-I, whereas CE-related performance did not differ. High reinforcement improved STM and WM performance in both subtypes but not in controls. This improvement was equally pronounced in both subtypes. High reinforcement did not improve CE-related performance. Both subtypes have equally pronounced motivational deficits, which have detrimental effects on their visuospatial STM and WM performance. In contrast to children with ADHD-C, children with ADHD-I seem unimpaired on visuospatial STM; only an impaired CE and motivational impairments give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM.

  16. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  17. Rejection Sensitivity and Social Outcomes of Young Adult Men with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…

  18. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  19. Ability of College Students to Simulate ADHD on Objective Measures of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booksh, Randee Lee; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Gouvier, William Drew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ability of college students to simulate ADHD symptoms on objective and self-report measures and the relationship between knowledge of ADHD and ability to simulate ADHD. Method: Undergraduate students were assigned to a control or a simulated ADHD malingering condition and compared with a clinical AD/HD group.…

  20. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  1. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  2. ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom?

    PubMed

    Daley, D; Birchwood, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and academic performance. First, the relationship at different developmental stages is examined, focusing on pre-schoolers, children, adolescents and adults. Second, the review examines the factors underpinning the relationship between ADHD and academic underperformance: the literature suggests that it is the symptoms of ADHD and underlying cognitive deficits not co-morbid conduct problems that are at the root of academic impairment. The review concludes with an overview of the literature examining strategies that are directed towards remediating the academic impairment of individuals with ADHD.

  3. Neurotrophic factor-related gene polymorphisms and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) score in a high-risk male population.

    PubMed

    Conner, Alex C; Kissling, Christian; Hodges, Edward; Hünnerkopf, Regina; Clement, R Marc; Dudley, Edward; Freitag, Christine M; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; Thome, Johannes

    2008-12-05

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely under-reported but nevertheless common condition with a clear heritable component. Several genes have been proposed to play a role in the childhood onset of this neurodevelopmental disorder; however, association studies of persistence of ADHD into adulthood have rarely been performed. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are known to be involved in several aspects of neuronal development and neural plasticity in adults. They have also been linked, particularly through brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) interaction with dopamine transport, to the pathophysiology of ADHD. This study compares the genotypes of six different single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes within the neurotrophin system and their possible association with adult ADHD score in 143 high-risk male subjects referred to a forensic psychiatric unit. The genes included NTF3, NTRK2 (TrkB), NTRK3 (TrkC), BDNF, and p75(NTR). While none of the SNPs showed significant association with ADHD symptoms, one polymorphism within the exon of NTF3 (rs6332) showed a trend toward an association between the A-allele and increased scores using both the retrospective childhood analysis Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS-k) (P = 0.05) and the adult ADHD assessment Wender-Reimherr interview (P = 0.03). This SNP is a silent mutation which might be in linkage disequilibrium with a functional risk variant for ADHD. As the association was only suggestive, however, this finding needs replication in a larger study with higher power.

  4. Are Teachers' Beliefs Related to Their Preferences for ADHD Interventions? Comparing Teachers in the United States and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Moore, Dennis W.; Pisecco, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their preferences for classroom interventions for behaviours consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, effectiveness, and rate of change were compared across United States and New Zealand samples. Beliefs…

  5. Could the 'Mediterranean' Diet Help Prevent ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... good" fats -- may be less likely to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a small study suggests. Research on 120 ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diets Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  6. Treating ADHD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    Traditional diagnosis procedures for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may lead to over-diagnosis and are fraught with complications because the target behavioral symptoms are found in a variety of other disorders. Traditional treatments consisting of powerful side effect laden psychostimulant drugs…

  7. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  8. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Killeen, Peter R; Russell, Vivienne A; Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R; Tannock, Rosemary; Williams, Jonathan; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD. PMID:19226460

  9. The Kids behind the Label: Understanding ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Educators are confronted every day with local, state, and federal mandates; large class sizes; lack of resources; high-stakes tests; and diversity of all kinds. Throw into that mix a youngster with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and it's no wonder that teachers are frustrated and at a loss for what to do. Professionals define ADHD…

  10. Applying a Psychoeducational Perspective to ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Ann Marie; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Norm; Drabman, Ronald S.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines whether various cognitive abilities are associated with symptoms of ADHD. Cognitive ability is conceptualized using Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory as measured using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability (3rd ed.). This article also examines whether test session behavior mediates the association between cognitive…

  11. Selected Perspectives on ADD and ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Offers an overview of ADD and ADHD, their causes and long-term prognoses, including the complexities of the conditions, the incomplete knowledge about them, and the difficulties of diagnosis during early childhood. Summarizes assessment and treatment options and concludes that the conditions have so many secondary effects that designing an…

  12. ADHD: Behavioral, Educational, and Medication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disruptive behavior disorder which is characterized by levels of inattention (e.g., difficulty in concentrating on schoolwork), impulsivity (e.g., frequently interrupting conversations or activities), and/or overactivity (e.g., difficulty remaining seated when required to do so) that are well…

  13. ADHD, Science and the Common Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a response is made to the assertion that discourses surrounding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are dominated by those who choose to frame such difficulties within a biomedical paradigm, and that valid alternative explanations are often marginalised as a result. It is suggested, however, that if such a discontinuity…

  14. ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…

  15. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion…

  16. Substance Use in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Mary; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Yoon, Yesel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The college years represent a developmental transition during which the initiation and escalation of heavy drinking set the stage for lifelong difficulties with alcohol and other drugs. Evidence from studies of adolescents and young adults with ADHD suggests that college students with the disorder may be uniquely vulnerable to alcohol-…

  17. Fading Memories: Retrospective Recall Inaccuracies in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carlin J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examines the recall accuracy of childhood ADHD symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood by youth and their parents, compared with reports obtained during childhood. Method: Participants (N = 94) are initially evaluated when they are aged between 7 and 11 and reassessed when they are aged between 16 and 22…

  18. Building Bridges with Students Who Have ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    "Baxter pushed me away every moment that we worked together, He was rude, sarcastic, and often downright mean. He got up and walked away every time I asked him to do something he didn't want to, which was ... everything." That's how Lisa Medoff describes the 4th grade boy whom she tutored twice a week to help him manage his ADHD. Despite…

  19. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  20. Combined psychophysiological assessment of ADHD: a pilot study of Bayesian probability approach illustrated by appraisal of ADHD in female college students.

    PubMed

    Robeva, Raina; Penberthy, Jennifer Kim; Loboschefski, Tim; Cox, Daniel; Kovatchev, Boris

    2004-03-01

    Manifestations of ADHD are observed at both psychological and physiological levels and assessed via various psychometric, EEG, and imaging tests. However, no test is 100% accurate in its assessment of ADHD. This study introduces a stochastic assessment combining psychometric tests with previously reported (Consistency Index) and newly developed (Alpha Blockade Index) EEG-based physiological markers of ADHD. The assessment utilizes classical Bayesian inference to refine after each step the probability of ADHD of each individual. In a pilot study involving six college females with ADHD and six matched controls, the assessment achieved correct classification for all ADHD and non-ADHD participants. In comparison, the classification of ADHD versus non-ADHD participants was < 85% for any one of the tests separately. The procedure significantly improved the score separation between ADHD versus non-ADHD groups. The final average probabilities for ADHD were 76% for the ADHD group and 8% for the control group. These probabilities correlated (r = .87) with the Brown ADD scale and (r = .84) with the ADHD-Symptom Inventory used for the screening of the participants. We conclude that, although each separate test was not completely accurate, a combination of several tests classified correctly all ADHD and all non-ADHD participants. The application of the proposed assessment is not limited to the specific tests used in this study--the assessment represents a general paradigm capable of accommodating a variety of ADHD tests into a single diagnostic assessment.

  1. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  2. Alcohol use longitudinally predicts adjustment and impairment in college students with ADHD: The role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Kipperman, Kristen L; Molitor, Stephen J; Eddy, Laura D

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether alcohol consumption longitudinally predicts the adjustment, overall functioning, and grade point average (GPA) of college students with ADHD and to determine whether self-report of executive functioning (EF) mediates these relationships. Sixty-two college students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD completed ratings at the beginning and end of the school year. Regression analyses revealed that alcohol consumption rated at the beginning of the year significantly predicted self-report of adjustment and overall impairment at the end of the year, above and beyond ADHD symptoms and baseline levels of adjustment/impairment but did not predict GPA. Exploratory multiple mediator analyses suggest that alcohol use impacts impairment primarily through EF deficits in self-motivation. EF deficits in the motivation to refrain from pursuing immediately rewarding behaviors in order to work toward long-term goals appear to be particularly important in understanding why college students with ADHD who consume alcohol have a higher likelihood of experiencing significant negative outcomes. The implications of these findings for the prevention of the negative functional outcomes often experienced by college students with ADHD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL™.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents.

  4. Decreased Left Caudate Volume Is Associated with Increased Severity of Autistic-Like Symptoms in a Cohort of ADHD Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Groen, Wouter; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of ASD ratings were analysed by studying the relationship between ASD ratings and grey matter volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom count and total brain volume. ASD ratings were significantly elevated in participants with ADHD relative to controls and unaffected siblings. For the entire group (participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and TD controls), mixed effect models revealed that the left caudate nucleus volume was negatively correlated with ASD ratings (t = 2.83; P = 0.005). The current findings are consistent with the role of the caudate nucleus in executive function, including the selection of goals based on the evaluation of action outcomes and the use of social reward to update reward representations. There is a specific volumetric profile associated with subclinical ASD-like symptoms in participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus being of critical importance in predicting the level of ASD-like symptoms in all three groups. PMID:27806078

  5. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association are currently unknown. To address this question we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms. Methods A large multi-site sample of 424 carefully diagnosed ADHD cases and 564 unaffected siblings and controls aged 6 to 18 years performed a broad neuropsychological test battery, including a Go/No-Go Task, a warned 4-choice Reaction Time task, the Maudsley Index of Childhood Delay Aversion, and Digit span backwards. Neuropsychological variables were aggregated as indices of processing speed, response variability, executive functions, choice impulsivity and the influence of energetic and/or motivational factors. EL and ADHD symptoms were regressed on each neuropsychological variable in separate analyses controlling for age, gender and IQ, and, in subsequent regression analyses, for ADHD and EL symptoms respectively. Results Neuropsychological variables significantly predicted ADHD and EL symptoms with moderate to low regression coefficients. However, the association between neuropsychological parameters on EL disappeared entirely when the effect of ADHD symptoms was taken into account, revealing that the association between the neuropsychological performance measures and EL is completely mediated statistically by variations in ADHD symptoms. Conversely, neuropsychological effects on ADHD symptoms remained after EL symptom severity was taken into account. Conclusions The neuropsychological parameters examined here predict ADHD more strongly than EL. They cannot explain EL symptoms beyond what is already accounted for by ADHD symptom severity. The association between EL and ADHD

  6. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  7. Serotonin transporter polymorphism moderates the effects of caregiver intrusiveness on ADHD symptoms among institutionalized preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Joana; Belsky, Jay; Mesquita, Ana; Soares, Isabel

    2017-03-01

    Research consistently chronicles a variety of mental health difficulties that plague institutionally reared children, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), even if not all institutionalized children evince such problems. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene × environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the effect of the quality of institutional care-most notably, caregiver intrusiveness-on ADHD symptoms is moderated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. One hundred and twenty-seven institutionalized preschoolers were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist. Caregiver-rated attention problems and hyperactivity were unrelated to both 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and caregiver intrusiveness. A significant GXE effect, independent of age at placement or duration of institutionalization, emerged, however, consistent with the differential-susceptibility hypothesis: s/s homozygotes manifest the most and least ADHD symptoms when they experienced, respectively, more and less intrusive caregiving. These results provide new insight into the reasons why some institutionalized children, but not others, exhibit ADHD symptoms.

  8. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD.

  9. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  10. Parent Adherence in Two Behavioral Treatment Strategies for the Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Mary; Hinshaw, Stephen; McBurnett, Keith; Pfiffner, Linda

    2016-11-03

    We examined the effects of parent adherence on child outcomes in two treatment strategies for the Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-I): behavioral parent training adapted for ADHD-I (Parent-Focused Therapy [PFT]) and a multicomponent intervention that combined PFT, a child life skills group, and a classroom intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills Program [CLAS]). In a 2-site randomized controlled trial, 199 children (7-11 years of age) were randomized to PFT (n = 74), CLAS (n = 74), or treatment as usual (n = 51). Parent adherence was rated separately by parents and clinicians. Child outcomes included ADHD-I symptoms and parent- and teacher- rated impairment social, organizational, and home impairment. Results from multiple regression analyses utilizing a composite of parent and clinician ratings showed that parent adherence predicted improvement in all 3 parent-rated child impairment outcomes and no teacher-rated outcomes in the PFT treatment group. Adherence ratings did not predict any parent- or teacher-rated outcomes in the CLAS treatment group and did not predict ADHD symptom change in either treatment condition. These findings suggest that when parents are solely responsible for teaching and reinforcing new child skills and behaviors (as in PFT), their adherence to the assigned intervention may be especially important for improvement at home. It may be less critical in multicomponent interventions, like CLAS, where the responsibility for teaching new child skills is shared among parents, teachers, and child group clinicians. Parent adherence does not appear to impact child improvement in the school setting.

  11. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guan-nan; Wang, Yu-feng; Yang, Li; Niu, Wen-yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44) or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45). Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual), attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively). Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after intervention (33.7±5.4 vs 45.1±7.9, P=0.008). Greater improvements in parents’ knowledge about ADHD and many components of the TPB model were observed in the intervention group, especially increased intention to adhere to medication, compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion This psychoeducation program had a positive impact on both medication adherence and clinical symptoms of ADHD children. It could be considered as a potential beneficial supplement to clinical practice. PMID

  12. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  13. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kooij, J J Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N = 494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study's limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  14. Synaptic gating and ADHD: a biological theory of comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Levy, Florence

    2004-09-01

    To derive a biologically based theory of comorbidity in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Theoretical concepts and empirical studies were reviewed to determine whether the behavioral inhibition concept provided an understanding of biological processes involved in comorbidity in ADHD. Empirical studies of ADHD have shown comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety, while studies of behavioral inhibition tend to suggest independent disruptive and anxiety traits. This paradox can be resolved by an understanding of the dynamics of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems, where reward and delay of reinforcement are determined by tonic/phasic DA relationships, resulting in impulsive 'fearless' responses when impaired. On the other hand, comorbid anxiety is related to impaired synaptic processes, which selectively gate fear (or aggressive) responses from the amygdala at the accumbens. Monosynaptic convergence between prefrontal, hippocampal, and amygdala projection neurons at the accumbens allows the operation of a synaptic gating mechanism between prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Impairment of this mechanism by lowered PFC inhibition allows greater amygdala input, and anxiety-related processes more impact, over the accumbens. In conclusion, a dual theory incorporating long-term tonic/phasic mesolimbic DA relationships and secondly impairment of PFC and hippocampal inputs to synaptic gating of anxiety at the accumbens has implications for comorbidity in ADHD, as well as for possible pharmacological interventions, utilizing either stimulant or axiolytic interventions. The use of DA partial agonists may also be of interest.

  15. ADHD and marijuana use expectancies in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Harty, Seth C.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined mean level differences in marijuana expectancies and the differential associations between expectancies and marijuana use for individuals with and without a history of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Background Substance use expectancies are a widely studied risk factor for alcohol and other drug use. The relations between marijuana use expectancies and self-reported marijuana use have not been examined in young adults with ADHD, a population shown to be at risk for marijuana use. Method Participants were 306 (190 ADHD and 116 nonADHD) young adults (M age = 20.06, SD = 2.03) from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) who provided data about marijuana use and marijuana use expectancies. Results Individuals in the ADHD group reported lower levels of social enhancement, tension reduction, and cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies compared to individuals in the nonADHD group. Positive and negative marijuana use expectancies were associated with marijuana use frequency in the whole sample and statistically significant ADHD group by expectancy interactions were found. Sexual enhancement expectancies were more strongly associated with marijuana use frequency among individuals with ADHD histories while cognitive behavioral impairment expectancies were more strongly associated with marijuana use frequency among individuals without ADHD. Conclusions Marijuana use expectancies may be acquired, and operate differently, for individuals with and without ADHD histories. Although future research is needed to test this speculation, these differences may be associated with ADHD-related difficulties in higher order cognitive processes that affect the encoding and utilization of expectations regarding marijuana’s effects. PMID:26548364

  16. Working toward a neurobiological account of ADHD: commentary on Gail Tripp and Jeff Wickens, dopamine transfer deficit.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan

    2008-07-01

    The dopamine transfer deficit model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is compared and contrasted with the existing dynamic developmental theory and the extended temporal difference (TD) model. The first two both identify learning deficits as a key problem in ADHD, but this mechanism would seem at least as likely to cause other neurodevelopmental disorders. Learning deficits also do not provide a natural account of ADHD performance worsening in longer trials, nor of stimulant action, nor of the high rate of test-retest inconsistency. The extended TD model is based on the quite different premise that there are very many underlying causes for the disorder, and computational simulation of it has supported the existence of two subtypes that involve no dopamine transfer deficit, as well as several subtypes that do. The three models have markedly different ways of accounting for key aspects of ADHD, including intra-individual variability, stimulant effects, and extinction deficits. The most important shortcoming of all the models is their limited treatment of state-regulation processes, which are very important in ADHD; this is partially addressed by the extended TD model's proposed dopamine appetite.

  17. Lifetime criminality among boys with ADHD: a prospective follow-up study into adulthood using official arrest records

    PubMed Central

    Mannuzza, Salvatore; Klein, Rachel G.; Moulton, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and later criminality. White boys (n = 207, ages 6–12) with ADHD, free of conduct disorder, were assessed at ages 18 and 25 by clinicians who were blind to childhood status. A non-ADHD group served as comparisons. Lifetime arrest records were obtained when subjects were 38 years old for subjects who resided in New York State throughout the follow-up interval (93 probands, 93 comparisons). Significantly more ADHD probands than comparisons had been arrested (47% vs. 24%), convicted (42% vs. 14%), and incarcerated (15% vs. 1%). Rates of felonies and aggressive offenses also were significantly higher among probands. Importantly, the development of an antisocial or substance use disorder in adolescence completely explained the increased risk for subsequent criminality. Results suggest that even in the absence of comorbid conduct disorder in childhood, ADHD increases the risk for developing antisocial and substance use disorders in adolescence, which, in turn, increases the risk for criminal behavior in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:18707766

  18. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  19. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed.

  20. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688