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Sample records for adhd related behaviors

  1. Maternal ADHD: Parent-Child Interactions and Relations with Child Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisser, Alison R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how ADHD symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD relate to their behavior during parent-child interactions and to their children's disruptive behavior. Findings indicated that mothers' retrospective self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were related to their present negativity during parent-led play. Mothers' self-ratings of current…

  2. Media Use and ADHD-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikkelen, Sanne W. C.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons to believe that media use might be related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies into the media--ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we still do…

  3. ADHD Related Behaviors Are Associated with Brain Activation in the Reward System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, R.; Bauer, E.; Merz, C. J.; Zimmermann, M.; Reuter, M.; Plichta, M. M.; Kirsch, P.; Lesch, K. P.; Fallgatter, A. J.; Vaitl, D.; Herrmann, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest dysfunctional reward processing, with hypo-responsiveness during reward anticipation in the reward system including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In this study, we investigated the association between ADHD related behaviors and the reward system using functional…

  4. Media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikkelen, Sanne W C; Valkenburg, Patti M; Huizinga, Mariette; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-09-01

    There are several theoretical reasons to believe that media use might be related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies into the media-ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we still do not know whether children's media use and ADHD-related behaviors are related and, if so, under which conditions. To fill this gap in the literature, we first identified 6 different hypotheses that may explain why media use in general and viewing fast-paced or violent media content might be related to 1 or more ADHD-related behaviors. Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 empirical studies investigating the relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents. Our results indicated a small significant relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors (r+ = .12). Finally, we identified several specific gaps in the existing literature and presented 5 crucial directions for future research.

  5. Media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikkelen, Sanne W C; Valkenburg, Patti M; Huizinga, Mariette; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-09-01

    There are several theoretical reasons to believe that media use might be related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies into the media-ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we still do not know whether children's media use and ADHD-related behaviors are related and, if so, under which conditions. To fill this gap in the literature, we first identified 6 different hypotheses that may explain why media use in general and viewing fast-paced or violent media content might be related to 1 or more ADHD-related behaviors. Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 empirical studies investigating the relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents. Our results indicated a small significant relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors (r+ = .12). Finally, we identified several specific gaps in the existing literature and presented 5 crucial directions for future research. PMID:24999762

  6. Cross-Fostering Differentially Affects ADHD-Related Behaviors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Angela C.; DeAngeli, Nicole E.; Bucci, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Although both genetic and non-genetic factors are known to contribute to the occurrence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity/Disorder (ADHD), little is known about how they impact specific symptoms. We used a cross-fostering approach with an established animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat strain (SHR), to test the influence of genotype and maternal behavior on ADHD-related behaviors. SHRs and their normo-active genetic relative, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), were cross-fostered to an unfamiliar dam of either the same or different strain. Behavioral testing took place when the rats reached adulthood. Locomotor hyperactivity was completely dependent on the strain of the offspring. In contrast, social behavior was primarily determined by the strain of the mother, while attentional orienting behavior was influenced by both the strain of the offspring and the strain of the dam. Anxiety-related behavior was influenced by an interaction between offspring and dam strain. PMID:25647439

  7. Cross-fostering differentially affects ADHD-related behaviors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Angela C; DeAngeli, Nicole E; Bucci, David J

    2015-03-01

    Although both genetic and non-genetic factors are known to contribute to the occurrence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity/Disorder (ADHD), little is known about how they impact specific symptoms. We used a cross-fostering approach with an established animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat strain (SHR), to test the influence of genotype and maternal behavior on ADHD-related behaviors. SHRs and their normo-active genetic relative, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), were cross-fostered to an unfamiliar dam of either the same or different strain. Behavioral testing took place when the rats reached adulthood. Locomotor hyperactivity was completely dependent on the strain of the offspring. In contrast, social behavior was primarily determined by the strain of the mother, while attentional orienting behavior was influenced by both the strain of the offspring and the strain of the dam. Anxiety-related behavior was influenced by an interaction between offspring and dam strain. PMID:25647439

  8. Comparison of Behavioral Profiles for Anxiety-Related Comorbidities including ADHD and Selective Mutism in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795

  9. Parental Recall of Pre-School Behavior Related to ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Somer, Oya; Amado, Sonia; Thompson, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of Age of Onset Criterion (AOC) to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder. For this purpose, a 10-item Likert-type Parent Assessment of Pre-school Behavior Scale (PARPS), developed by the experimenters, was used to examine the presence…

  10. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  11. Behavioral models of impulsivity in relation to ADHD: Translation between clinical and preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Catharine A.; Eagle, Dawn M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2006-01-01

    Impulsivity, broadly defined as action without foresight, is a component of numerous psychiatric illnesses including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mania and substance abuse. In order to investigate the mechanisms underpinning impulsive behavior, the nature of impulsivity itself needs to be defined in operational terms that can be used as the basis for empirical investigation. Due to the range of behaviors that the term impulsivity describes, it has been suggested that impulsivity is not a unitary construct, but encompasses a variety of related phenomena that may differ in their biological basis. Through fractionating impulsivity into these component parts, it has proved possible to devise different behavioral paradigms to measure various aspects of impulsivity in both humans and laboratory animals. This review describes and evaluates some of the current behavioral models of impulsivity developed for use with rodents based on human neuropsychological tests, focusing on the five-choice serial reaction time task, the stop-signal reaction time task and delay-discounting paradigms. Furthermore, the contributions made by preclinical studies using such methodology to improve our understanding of the neural and neurochemical basis of impulsivity and ADHD are discussed, with particular reference to the involvement of both the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, and frontostriatal circuitry. PMID:16504359

  12. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  13. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  14. The association of outdoor vegetation with ADHD-related behavior among children living in an urban community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Emerging research supports potential benefits of green space on children's behavior. Methods: We evaluated the cross-sectional association of outdoor vegetation (OV) and distance to parks with ADHD-like behavior in 560 eight-year-olds from a prospective, sociodemogr...

  15. Driving Anger and Driving Behavior in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tracy L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Rosen, Lee A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Rodricks, Trisha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses whether anger in the context of driving is associated with the negative driving outcomes experienced by individuals with ADHD. Method: ADHD adults (n = 56) complete measures of driving anger, driving anger expression, angry thoughts behind the wheel, and aggressive, risky, and crash-related behavior. Results are…

  16. Structured dyadic behavior therapy processes for ADHD intervention.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David F

    2014-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present significant problems with behavioral disinhibition that often negatively affect their peer relationships. Although behavior therapies for ADHD have traditionally aimed to help parents and teachers better manage children's ADHD-related behaviors, therapy processes seldom use peer relationships to implement evidence-based behavioral principles. This article introduces Structured Dyadic Behavior Therapy as a milieu for introducing effective behavioral techniques within a socially meaningful context. Establishing collaborative behavioral goals, benchmarking, and redirection strategies are discussed to highlight how in-session dyadic processes can be used to promote more meaningful reinforcement and change for children with ADHD. Implications for improving patient care, access to care, and therapist training are also discussed.

  17. Childhood ADHD Predicts Risky Sexual Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Kate; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Smith, Bradley

    2006-01-01

    This study compared young adults (ages 18 to 26) with and without childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on self-reported risky sexual behaviors. Participants were 175 men with childhood ADHD and 111 demographically similar men without ADHD in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Childhood ADHD predicted earlier…

  18. ADHD: Behavioral, Educational, and Medication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disruptive behavior disorder which is characterized by levels of inattention (e.g., difficulty in concentrating on schoolwork), impulsivity (e.g., frequently interrupting conversations or activities), and/or overactivity (e.g., difficulty remaining seated when required to do so) that are well…

  19. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  20. Diet, ADHD & Behavior: A Quarter-Century Review [and] A Parent's Guide to Diet, ADHD & Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael F.; Schardt, David

    This report reviews 23 controlled studies of the effect of food dyes and other dietary constituents on the behavior of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or other behavioral problems. Findings indicate 17 of the 23 studies found evidence that some children's behavior significantly worsens after they consume artificial…

  1. Clinical Strategies for Integrating Medication Interventions Into Behavioral Treatment for Adolescent ADHD: The Medication Integration Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z.; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based medication decision-making, and behavior therapist leadership in coordinating medication integration. It then introduces the Medication Integration Protocol (MIP), which incorporates all three interventions into a five-task protocol: ADHD Assessment and Medication Consult; ADHD Psychoeducation and Client Acceptance; ADHD Symptoms and Family Relations; ADHD Medication and Family Decision-Making; and Medication Management and Integration Planning. The article concludes by highlighting what behavior therapists should know about best practices for medication integration across diverse settings and populations: integrating medication interventions into primary care, managing medication priorities and polypharmacy issues for adolescents with multiple diagnoses, providing ADHD medications to adolescent substance users, and the compatibility of MIP intervention strategies with everyday practice conditions. PMID:25505817

  2. Developmental Trajectories of Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social-Cognitive Problem Solving in Emerging Adolescents with Clinically Elevated ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with ADHD given their childhood social difficulties. Although childhood ADHD has been associated with increased aggression and peer relational difficulties, relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. In addition, social-cognitive problem solving has been implicated in ADHD; however, its longitudinal impact on prosocial and aggressive behavior is unclear. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (sixth grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were compared longitudinally across sixth through eighth grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, ODD symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d= −0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d= 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group, and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in sixth grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was

  3. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  4. Parental monitoring in late adolescence: relations to ADHD symptoms and longitudinal predictors.

    PubMed

    Salari, Raziye; Thorell, Lisa B

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to replicate Stattin and Kerr's (2000) study on parental monitoring and adolescents' deviant behavior, to extend their findings to ADHD symptoms, and to examine the longitudinal predictors (8-18 years) of parental knowledge and child disclosure. Results showed that conduct problems were primarily associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure, but not with parental solicitation and control. A similar pattern was observed for ADHD symptoms. However, while the relations for conduct problems were generally independent of ADHD symptoms, the relations for ADHD symptoms were primarily non-significant after controlling for conduct problems. Moreover, early behavior problems, but not insecure/disorganized attachment, were associated with parental knowledge and child disclosure in adolescence. In conclusion, child disclosure is primarily associated with deviant behavior rather than ADHD, and early child problem behavior is a more important predictor of child disclosure (implicating reciprocal relations between these two constructs) than is insecure/disorganized attachment. PMID:25602918

  5. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  6. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  7. Risky Behavior in Gambling Tasks in Individuals with ADHD – A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Evans, Ben; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. Methods PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs) in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. Results Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs), ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. Conclusion The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks are discussed

  8. ADHD and Working Memory: The Impact of Central Executive Deficits and Exceeding Storage/Rehearsal Capacity on Observed Inattentive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Inattentive behavior is considered a core and pervasive feature of ADHD; however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory deficits and inattentive behavior. The current study investigated whether inattentive behavior in children with ADHD is functionally related to the…

  9. Retrospective Ratings of ADHD Symptoms Made at Young Adulthood by Clinic-Referred Boys with ADHD-Related Problems, Their Brothers without ADHD, and Control Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Jan; Ledolter, Johannes; Kramer, John R.; Volpe, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Retrospective childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are required to diagnosis adult ADHD, but the validity of self-rated symptoms across time is questionable. Here, boys with ADHD-related problems, their brothers without ADHD, and former schoolmates rated themselves during young adulthood for ages 9, 14, and 19.…

  10. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  11. Evaluation of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Young, Susan; Bickerdike, Alison; Spain, Deborah; McCartan, Denise; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A brief cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention was designed to treat comorbid anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and self-efficacy in adults with ADHD. It was hypothesised that participants would gain knowledge about ADHD, experience a reduction in comorbid symptoms, and benefit from the supportive aspect of group…

  12. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    PubMed

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  13. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth With Learning Disabilities and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cook, Bryan G; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status, we investigated the likelihood that youth with learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are obese, physically active, and sedentary using a nationally representative sample of 45,897 youth in the United States from 10 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that youth with comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly more likely than peers without LD or ADHD to be obese; that youth with LD only, ADHD only, and comorbid LD/ADHD were significantly less likely to meet recommended levels of physical activity; and that youth with LD only were significantly more likely to exceed recommended levels of sedentary behavior. Medication status mediated outcomes for youth with ADHD. We offer school-based recommendations for improving health-related outcomes for students with LD and ADHD. PMID:24449262

  14. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms.

  15. Differential associations of early callous-unemotional, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors: multiple domains within early-starting conduct problems?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W.; Grabell, Adam S.; Alves, Martha L.; Olson, Sheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early-starting child conduct problems (CP) are linked to the development of persistent antisocial behavior. Researchers have theorized multiple pathways to CP and that CP comprise separable domains, marked by callous unemotional (CU) behavior, oppositional behavior, or ADHD symptoms. However, a lack of empirical evidence exists from studies that have examined whether there are unique correlates of these domains. Methods We examined differential correlates of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors during the preschool years to test their potentially distinct nomological networks. Multi-method data, including parent and teacher reports and observations of child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at age 3 and age 6 (N=240; 48% female). Results Dimensions of CU, oppositional and ADHD behaviors were separable within Confirmatory Factor Analyses across mother and father reports. There were differential associations between CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors and socioemotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes: CU behavior was uniquely related to lower moral regulation, guilt, and empathy. ADHD was uniquely related to lower attentional focusing and observed effortful control. Finally, CU behavior uniquely predicted increases in teacher-reported externalizing from ages 3–6 over and above covariates, and ADHD and oppositional behavior. Conclusions Consistent with theory, dimensions of CU, ADHD, and oppositional behavior demonstrated separable nomological networks representing separable facets within early-starting CP. PMID:25251938

  16. Mapping the Academic Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Altszuler, Amy R.; Morrow, Anne S.; Merrill, Brittany M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study possessed two aims: (1) to develop and validate aclinician -friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with ADHD and (2) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Method Within a sample of 324 adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnosed ADHD (age M=13.07, SD=1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, inter-rater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Results Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Conclusions Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth. PMID:24933215

  17. A Waitlist-Controlled Trial of Behavioral Parent Training For Fathers of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gangloff, Brian; Buck, Melina; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha

    2012-01-01

    Objective Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with ADHD, and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. Method The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children ages 6–12 with ADHD to the Coaching Our Acting-out Children: Heightening Essential Skills (COACHES) program or a waitlist control group. Outcomes for the study included objective observations of parent behaviors and parent ratings of child behavior. Results Results indicated that fathers in the COACHES group reduced their rates of negative talk and increased rates of praise as measured in parent-child observations, and father ratings of the intensity of problem behaviors were reduced, relative to the waitlist condition. Groups did not differ on observations of use of commands or father ratings of child behavior problems. Untreated mothers did not significantly improve on observational measures or behavioral ratings. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the COACHES parenting program for fathers of children with ADHD. Results are cast in light of the larger literature on behavioral parent training for ADHD as well as how to best work with fathers of children with ADHD in treatment contexts. PMID:22397639

  18. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  19. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  20. ADHD-like behavior in a patient with hypothalamic hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Koujyu; Yamashita, Yushiro; Yatsuga, Shuichi; Koga, Yasutoshi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) who manifested central precocious puberty (CPP) at 4 years of age. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment was started at 6 years of age and his pubertal signs were suppressed. At 9 years of age, the patient was emotionally unstable, aggressive, and antisocial. He had severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior and conduct disorder. No seizure activity was observed. GnRH analogue treatment was discontinued for 8 months from 9 years and 4 months of age due to his mother's illness. During this period sexual urges were observed. Treatment with daily methylphenidate markedly improved his behavioral problems. However, his sexual urges were not suppressed until 3 months after the GnRH analogue treatment was restarted. The present case is unique because the patient's behavioral problems were observed despite the parahypothalamic type of HH and absence of seizures. This case is also rare because behavioral problems were observed without seizures, and no ADHD cases with hamartoma have been reported previously. Recently, clinical studies have described an association between psychiatric morbidity, including ADHD, and hyperandrogenism disorders. Our patient's ADHD-like symptoms might be due to hyperandrogenism. In such cases, GnRH analogue with methylphenidate could be effective for improving ADHD-like symptoms.

  1. Preliminary Efficacy of a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Children With ADHD in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Tamkeen Ashraf; Rooney, Mary; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Tariq, Naeem

    2014-03-12

    Objective: In an effort to address the lack of evidence-based interventions for ADHD in developing South Asian countries, we examined the preliminary efficacy of a behavioral parent training program in Pakistan. Method: A quasi-experimental design was utilized. Eighty-five 4- to 12-year-old children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms participated: 55 were recruited from hospital clinics (active treatment group) and 30 were recruited from schools (waitlist control group). Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and impairment were collected. Results: Using intent-to-treat analyses, the treatment group showed significant pre-post improvement on parent-reported ODD symptoms and ADHD-related impairment. Teacher ratings showed no improvement. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of behavioral parenting training for children with ADHD in Pakistan and represents a critical first step in identifying evidence-based treatments for Pakistani children with ADHD. PMID:24621459

  2. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses showing positive effects of these interventions on child compliance, ADHD symptoms and impairments, parent-child interactions, parenting and parenting stress. These studies support categorization of behavior management treatment as a well-established, evidence-based treatment for ADHD. Factors for consideration in clinical decision-making and future directions for research are provided. PMID:25220083

  3. Behavior ratings of executive function among preschoolers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Hoffman, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003) was developed to assess executive function (EF) behaviors in children aged 2 to 5 years. We compared parent ratings of 25 preschool children with ADHD to 25 age-, sex-, and SES-matched controls from the BRIEF-P standardization sample. Children with ADHD were rated significantly higher than controls (p < .01) on all five primary scales (Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Working Memory, Plan/Organize), and on all four indices (Inhibitory Self Control, Flexibility, Emerging Metacognition, General Executive Composite). The largest effect size was on the Working Memory scale. All five BRIEF-P clinical scales were significantly intercorrelated in the control group, and seven of ten scale intercorrelations were significant in the ADHD group. Within the ADHD group, the BRIEF-P Index scores were significantly correlated with ratings on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, but only moderately correlated with an estimate of Verbal IQ. The BRIEF-P had low, non-significant correlations with performance-based measures of EF, and patterns of correlations were not significantly different than those between the BRIEF-P and non-EF measures (sensorimotor, receptive vocabulary). Similar to its predecessor, the BRIEF-P is sensitive to symptoms of ADHD, but appears to measure different elements of EF than those tapped by performance-based measures.

  4. Behavioral Approach in ADHD: Testing a Motivational Dysfunction Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Etiological models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increasingly support the role of a motivational dysfunction pathway, particularly for hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Overactive behavioral approach tendencies are implicated among these motivational accounts. However, other externalizing disorder symptoms, such as…

  5. Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Michael; Borsting, Eric; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Scheiman, Mitchell; Amster, Deborah; Coulter, Rachael; Fecho, Gregory; Gallaway, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if children with symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency (CI) without the presence of parent reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have higher scores on the academic behavior survey (ABS). Methods The Academic Behavior Survey (ABS) is a 6-item survey that evaluates parent concern about school performance and the parents' perceptions of the frequency of problem behaviors that their child may exhibit when reading or performing schoolwork (such as: difficulty completing work, avoidance, and inattention). Each item is scored on an ordinal scale from 0 (Never) to 4 (Always) with a total score ranging from 0 to 24. The survey was administered to the parents of 212 children 9-17 years old (mean age 11.8 yrs.) with symptomatic CI prior to enrolling into the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial and to 49 children with normal binocular vision (NBV) (mean age 12.5 years). The parents reported whether the child had ADHD and this information was used to divide the symptomatic CI group into the CI with parent-report of ADHD or CI with parent-report of no ADHD groups. Results Sixteen percent of the CI group and 6% of the NBV group were classified as ADHD by parental report. An analysis of covariance showed that the total ABS score for the symptomatic CI with parent-report of ADHD group (15.6) was significantly higher than the symptomatic CI with parent-report of no ADHD group (11.7, p=0.001) and the NBV group (8.7, p<0.0001). Children with CI with parent-report of no ADHD scored significantly higher on the ABS than the NBV group (p=0.036). Conclusions Children with symptomatic CI with parent-report of no ADHD scored higher on the ABS when compared to children with NBV. Children with parent-report of ADHD or related learning problems may benefit from comprehensive vision evaluation to assess for the presence of CI. PMID:19741558

  6. Exploring the Gender Gap in Referrals for Children with ADHD and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Slavec, Janine; Bernstein, Melissa; Baroni, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of the gender of children with ADHD on teachers' perceptions toward inattentive, hyperactive, or oppositional behaviors, and how these perceptions relate to teachers' ratings of children's impairment and referral recommendations. Method: Teachers read eight vignettes depicting boys and girls with…

  7. Prevention of ADHD Related Problems: A Universal Preschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Hanna; Hirsch, Oliver; König, Anika; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Roehrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Early onset of behavioral disorders is predictive of long term adverse outcomes. There are some indicated and selective early prevention programs for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this paper is to present a universal preschool…

  8. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  9. Adults with ADHD Benefit from Cognitive-Behaviorally Oriented Group Rehabilitation: A Study of 29 Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virta, Maarit; Vedenpaa, Anita; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD. Method: A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions.…

  10. Behavior and Peer Status in Children with ADHD: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Hoza, Betsy; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD experience peer problems that may place them at risk for adverse outcomes. Using a short-term longitudinal design, this study links specific behaviors to peer functioning in groups of previously unfamiliar children with ADHD. Method: The participants were 268 children with ADHD who took part in an intensive summer…

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents: Clinical Considerations and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sprich, Susan E.; Burbridge, Jennifer; Lerner, Jonathan A.; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Although ADHD in adolescents is an impairing and prevalent condition, with community prevalence estimates between 2% and 6%, psychosocial treatments for adolescents compared to younger children are relatively understudied. Our group has successfully developed an evidence base for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ADHD in medication-treated adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms. In the current paper, we describe an adaptation of this treatment to adolescents, and provide case reports on 3 adolescents who participated in an open pilot trial. The results suggest that the treatment approach was well tolerated by the adolescents and that they experienced clinical benefit. This early report of the approach in adolescents is promising and requires further efficacy testing. PMID:27616874

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for ADHD in Adolescents: Clinical Considerations and a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Sprich, Susan E.; Burbridge, Jennifer; Lerner, Jonathan A.; Safren, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Although ADHD in adolescents is an impairing and prevalent condition, with community prevalence estimates between 2% and 6%, psychosocial treatments for adolescents compared to younger children are relatively understudied. Our group has successfully developed an evidence base for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ADHD in medication-treated adults with ADHD with clinically significant symptoms. In the current paper, we describe an adaptation of this treatment to adolescents, and provide case reports on 3 adolescents who participated in an open pilot trial. The results suggest that the treatment approach was well tolerated by the adolescents and that they experienced clinical benefit. This early report of the approach in adolescents is promising and requires further efficacy testing.

  13. Reliable ratings or reading tea leaves: can parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers predict ADHD at age six?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sarah; Schneiderman, Robyn L; Rajendran, Khushmand; Marks, David J; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-05-01

    To assess the relative ability of parent, teacher, and clinician behavioral ratings of preschoolers to predict ADHD severity and diagnosis at 6 years of age. Hyperactive/inattentive preschoolers [N = 104, 75 % boys, Mean (SD) age = 4.37 (0.47) years] were followed over 2 years (mean = 26.44 months, SD = 5.66). At baseline (BL), parents and teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV and clinicians completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory for Children following a psychological testing session. At age 6, [Mean (SD) age = 6.62 (0.35) years], parents were interviewed with the K-SADS-PL; teachers completed the ADHD-RS-IV; and laboratory measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention were obtained from children. Hierarchical logistic and linear regression analyses examined which combination of BL ratings best predicted 6-year-old ADHD diagnosis and severity, respectively. At age 6, 56 (53.8 %) children met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of ADHD. BL ratings from parent/teacher/clinician, parent/teacher and parent/clinician combinations significantly predicted children who had an ADHD diagnosis at age 6. Parent and clinician, but not teacher, behavior ratings were significant independent predictors of ADHD diagnosis and severity at 6-years-old. However, only clinician reports of preschoolers' behaviors predicted laboratory measures of over-activity and inattention at follow-up. Cross-situationality is important for a diagnosis of ADHD during the preschool years. Among parents, teachers and clinicians, positive endorsements from all three informants, parent/teacher or parent/clinician appear to have prognostic value. Clinicians' ratings of preschoolers' inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are valid sources of information for predicting ADHD diagnosis and severity over time.

  14. Attention-related EEG markers in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Roland; Perroud, Nader; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Herrmann, François; Prada, Paco; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Deiber, Marie-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    ADHD status affects both bottom-up sensory processing and top-down attentional selection, impairing professional and social functioning. The objective of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of attention deficits in adult ADHD by examining the electrophysiological activities associated with bottom-up attentional cueing (temporal and spatial orienting of attention) and top-down control (conflict resolution). Continuous EEG was recorded in 21 adult ADHD patients (40.05±9.5 years) and 20 healthy adults (25.5±4 years) during performance of the Attention Network Test (ANT). We examined the cue and target-related P1, N1 and P3 components as well as the contingent negative variation (CNV) developing between cue and target. Oscillatory responses were analyzed in the alpha (8-13Hz) and beta (14-19Hz) frequency bands. ADHD patients performed similarly to controls but showed reduced P3 amplitude, larger early CNV decrementing over time, reduced preparatory activation in both alpha and beta bands, as well as flattened target-related posterior alpha and beta responses. As compared to controls, the inverted CNV pattern suggested peculiar preparatory processing in ADHD patients. The singular pattern of target-related beta response indicated increased inhibitory processes in the case of easier task resolution and more generally, the lack of association between conflict resolution speed and beta activity supported alternative executive processing in ADHD patients. Overall, the reduced activation of the functional networks devoted to bottom-up and top-down attention suggests that adult ADHD patients engage reduced cortical resources in this composite task, compatible with the cortical hypoarousal model. PMID:27178310

  15. Effects of white noise on off-task behavior and academic responding for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and headphones-only (no white noise) control conditions. Little change in academic responding occurred across conditions for all participants.

  16. Behavioral Correlates of Reaction Time Variability in Children With and Without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Tanya N.; Narad, Megan E.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective RT variability is often purported to indicate behavioral attention. This study seeks to examine whether RT variability in children with ADHD is associated with observed behavioral indicators of attention. Methods One-hundred forty-seven participants with and without ADHD completed five computerized neuropsychological tasks and an analogue math task. Linear mixed models were utilized to examine the relationship between observations of behavioral inattention during the analogue task and measures of RT variability from the neuropsychological tasks. Results Significant associations were observed between RT variability and mean duration of on-task behavior on the analogue math task. Secondary analyses indicated that on-task behavior during the math task was also related to accuracy on the neuropsychological tasks. Conclusions RT variability, especially the portion of RT variability characterized by long RTs, appears to measure a cognitive phenomenon that relates to successful on-task academic behavior across children with and without ADHD. The relationship between RT variability and on-task behavior is present across multiple neuropsychological tasks and does not appear to be moderated by age, sex, or the presence of anxiety or depression. PMID:23527648

  17. Conduct behaviors and oppositional defiant behaviors in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    There is controversy about the association among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder behaviors, and oppositional defiant behaviors. This study examines whether different subcategories of conduct behaviors co-occur in children with ADHD, and investigates the association of conduct behaviors with ADHD symptoms and oppositional defiant behavior, considering the covariant factors of parental age and educational level. A total of 441 children and adolescents with ADHD participated in this study - 342 (77.6%) boys and 99 girls (22.4%). Their mean age was 9.1 (standard deviation = 2.2) years. They came from families with 1 to 8 children. There were statistically significant correlations among different subcategories of conduct disorder (p < 0.001 for all the correlations). Oppositional behavior scores were associated with all 4 subcategories of conduct behaviors. The severity of hyperactivity/impulsivity was associated with the subcategory of "destruction of property." The inattentiveness score was associated with "aggression to people and animals." The current results do not suggest that conduct behaviors exclude oppositional defiant behaviors. The subcategories of conduct behaviors occur in a cluster rather than as a solitary behavior. Larger family size and lower educational level of the father increase the risk of aggression to people and animals in children with ADHD.

  18. Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Irene; Brammer, Whitney A.; Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are likely to be multiple mechanisms underlying parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as a key risk factor for offspring ADHD, potential explanatory factors have yet to be reliably identified. Given that parent ADHD symptoms independently predict parenting behavior and child ADHD symptoms, we tested whether individual differences in multiple dimensions of positive and negative parenting behavior (i.e., corporal punishment, inconsistent discipline, positive parenting behavior, observed negative talk, and observed praise) mediated the association between parental and offspring ADHD. We used a prospective design that featured predictors (i.e., parent ADHD symptoms) and mediators (i.e., parenting behavior) that temporally preceded the outcome (i.e., offspring ADHD symptoms). Using a well-characterized sample of 120 children with and without ADHD (ages 5–10 at Wave 1, 7–12 at Wave 2) and their biological parents, we examined multimethod (i.e., observed, self-report) measures of positive and negative parenting behavior as simultaneous mediators of the association of Wave 1 parent and Wave 2 offspring ADHD symptoms. Using a multiple mediation framework, consisting of rigorous bootstrapping procedures and controlling for parent depression, child’s baseline ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder, and child’s age, corporal punishment significantly and uniquely mediated the association of Wave 1 parent ADHD symptoms and Wave 2 offspring ADHD. We consider the role of parenting behavior in the intergenerational transmission of ADHD as well as implications of these findings for the intervention and prevention of childhood ADHD. PMID:24926775

  19. ADHD- and Medication-Related Brain Activation Effects in Concordantly Affected Parent-Child Dyads with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Casey, B. J.; Tonev, Simon T.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M.; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Spicer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological…

  20. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of assessment tools, including behavioral rating scales and objective tests such as the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), can be used to measure inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, research with school-age children has shown that the correlations between parent ratings, teacher ratings, and scores on objective measures of ADHD-characteristic behaviors are modest at best. In this study, we examined the relations between parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and CPT scores in a sample of 65 preschoolers ranging from 50 to 72 months of age. No significant associations between teacher and parent ratings of ADHD were found. Parent-ratings of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity accounted for variance in CPT omission errors but not CPT commission errors. Teacher ratings showed evidence of convergent and discriminant validity when entered simultaneously in a hierarchical regression. These tools may be measuring different aspects of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. PMID:22518069

  1. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Barkley, R A

    1997-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect-motivation-arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD should be associated with secondary impairments in these 4 executive abilities and the motor control they afford. The author reviews evidence for each of these domains of functioning and finds it to be strongest for deficits in behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation of motivation, and motor control in those with ADHD. Although the model is promising as a potential theory of self-control and ADHD, far more research is required to evaluate its merits and the many predictions it makes about ADHD. PMID:9000892

  2. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part I: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Michael J.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Findling, Robert L.; Lopez, Frank A.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature investigating changes in emotional expression (EE) as a function of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD and to differentiate emotional effects related to ADHD pharmacotherapy from emotional effects related to ADHD as a disorder. Method: English language articles published from January 1, 1988, through…

  3. Enhancing Traditional Behavioral Parent Training for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle S.; Girio, Erin; Pirvics, Lauma; Herbst, Laura; Guzzo, Jamie; Phillips, Carlie; O'Connor, Briannon

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral parent training is an efficacious treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, single-mother households are at high risk for poor outcomes during and following behavioral parent training. This study randomly assigned cohorts of 120 single mothers of children (ages 5-12 years) with ADHD to a waitlist control…

  4. Classification of Risk Status in ADHD Screening: A Comparison of Symptom Item Formats on Behavior Checklists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John D.; Ashley, Donna M.; Bramlett, Ronald K.; Murphy, John J.

    This report presents a study that examined the effects of symptom item formats on estimates of risk status across alternative attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) behavior checklists for 38 referred children. The mean age of the children was 7 years 9 months. The study focused on ADHD risk as measured by two behavior checklists which…

  5. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  6. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sharon R.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6%) and 57 boys (70.4%) between the ages of 6–12 year old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021

  7. Effects of smoking abstinence on impulsive behavior among smokers high and low in ADHD-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity, a multifaceted construct that includes inhibitory control and heightened preference for immediate reward, is central to models of drug use and abuse. Within a self-medication framework, abstinence from smoking may lead to an increase in impulsive behavior and the likelihood of relapse, particularly among persons with disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity) linked to impulsive behavior. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of smoking abstinence on multiple measures of impulsivity among a non-clinical sample of adult smokers selected for high and low levels of ADHD symptoms. Methods In a within-subjects design, participants selected for high or low levels of self-reported ADHD symptoms (N=56) completed sessions following overnight abstinence and when smoking as usual (order counterbalanced). Measures of impulsive behavior included response inhibition (i.e., stop signal task), interference control (i.e., attentional modification of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle), and impulsive choice (i.e., hypothetical delay discounting). Results As hypothesized, abstinence decreased response inhibition and PPI. Although ADHD symptoms moderated abstinence effects on impulsive choice and response inhibition, the pattern was opposite to our predictions: the low-ADHD group responded more impulsively when abstinent, whereas the high-ADHD group was relatively unaffected by abstinence. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of utilizing multiple laboratory measures to examine a multifactorial construct such as impulsive behavior and raise questions about how best to assess symptoms of ADHD and impulsivity among non-abstinent smokers. PMID:21559802

  8. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  9. The Importance of Relative Standards in ADHD Diagnoses: Evidence Based on Exact Birth Dates*

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Todd E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that diagnoses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are driven largely by subjective comparisons across children in the same grade in school. Roughly 8.4 percent of children born in the month prior to their state’s cutoff date for kindergarten eligibility – who typically become the youngest and most developmentally immature children within a grade – are diagnosed with ADHD, compared to 5.1 percent of children born in the month immediately afterward. A child’s birth date relative to the eligibility cutoff also strongly influences teachers’ assessments of whether the child exhibits ADHD symptoms but is only weakly associated with similarly measured parental assessments, suggesting that many diagnoses may be driven by teachers’ perceptions of poor behavior among the youngest children in a classroom. These perceptions have long-lasting consequences: the youngest children in fifth and eighth grades are nearly twice as likely as their older classmates to regularly use stimulants prescribed to treat ADHD. PMID:20638739

  10. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  11. Classroom Behavior of Participants with ADHD Compared with Peers: Influence of Teaching Format and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Naomi J.; Sheldrick, R. Chris; Frenette, Elizabeth C.; Rene, Kirsten M.; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine the classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with classroom peers and which teaching formats best support classroom engagement. Observations (N = 312) of second- and fourth-grade students with ADHD and their randomly selected classroom peers were conducted using a…

  12. Examining Associations among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Callie W.; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence…

  13. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  14. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  15. Voices of University Students with ADHD about Test-Taking: Behaviors, Needs, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofiesh, Nicole; Moniz, Erin; Bisagno, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the test-taking behavior, needs, and strategies of postsecondary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focus group comments from 17 university students with ADHD were analyzed. These comments formed the basis for a series of research studies that are in progress regarding test-taking and individuals…

  16. The Effect of Video Feedback on the Social Behavior of an Adolescent with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Mazur, Amy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The social functioning of adolescents with ADHD is characteristically impaired, yet almost no interventions effectively address the peer relationships of these youth. This study evaluates the preliminary effects of a video-feedback intervention on the social behavior of a 16-year-old male with ADHD-combined type in the context of a…

  17. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Integrated Home-School Behavioral Treatment for ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; Easterlin, Barbara; Zalecki, Christine; McBurnett, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school (Child Life and Attention Skills Program) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I). Method: Sixty-nine children ages 7 to 11 years were randomized to the Child Life and Attention Skills…

  18. The Role of Temperament and Personality in Problem Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This study describes temperament, personality, and problem behaviors in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) aged 6 to 14 years. It targets differences between an ADHD sample (N=54; 43 boys) and a large community sample (N=465; 393 boys) in means and variances, psychometric properties, and covariation between traits and…

  19. Medicating Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and ADHD: A State Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnheim, Veronica A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Wisconsin teachers provided information on 1,300 students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were receiving medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD/EBD students comprised approximately 26% of all EBD students. The most common medication was Ritalin, and teachers believed the medication effectively…

  20. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  1. Association of Positive and Negative Parenting Behavior with Childhood ADHD: Interactions with Offspring Monoamine Oxidase A (MAO-A) Genotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the potential interplay between genetic and environmental influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including gene-environment interaction (GxE). There is evidence that parenting behavior interacts with offspring genotype in the development of externalizing problems, but studies have largely…

  2. Behaviors that Discriminate ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Primary Symptoms, Symptoms of Comorbid Conditions, or Indicators of Functional Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether behaviors that differentiate children and adolescents with ADHD from those without are related to the primary diagnostic criteria (i.e., inattention and impulsivity--hyperactivity), symptoms of comorbid conditions, functional impairment, or a combination, and to determine whether…

  3. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments.

  4. Examining Associations Among ADHD, Homework Behavior, and Reading Comprehension: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Little, Callie W; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Previous literature has indicated an important association between reading comprehension and both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and homework habits. This investigation sought to extend previous knowledge by providing information about how ADHD and homework behavior (i.e., completing homework regularly) may jointly influence reading comprehension. Using a genetically sensitive design, this study examined the genetic and environmental influences on and between ADHD, homework behavior and reading comprehension. Participants for this study included 691 twin pairs (351 monozygotic, 340 same-sex dizygotic) from the Florida Twin Project on Behavior and Environment (FTP-BE) and 2647 twin pairs (865 monozygotic, 1782 dizygotic) from the larger Florida Twin Project on Reading (FTP-R) in Grades 3 through 7. Three separate models, each representing a different definition of ADHD (full ADHD, inattention only, and hyperactivity/impulsivity only), showed similar patterns of results; therefore, results of the full ADHD model are discussed. Overlapping genetic influences were found between ADHD, homework behavior, and reading comprehension, but no shared environmental influences among all three. However, shared environmental influences overlapped between homework behavior and reading comprehension. Although the sources of this environmental overlap are unknown, these results have implications for improving homework practices and their subsequent influence on literacy skills through homework environments. PMID:25349092

  5. Efficacy of methylphenidate and behavioral intervention on classroom behavior in children with ADHD and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Handen, B L; Lubetsky, M J; Sacco, K A

    1994-10-01

    Using a combination of an alternating treatment and double-blind placebo-controlled drug design, the independent and combined effects of two behavioral interventions and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH) in 3 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mental retardation (MR) were assessed. In this single subject design, 2 of the 3 subjects responded positively to medication as measured by increased on-task behavior. The first behavioral intervention, a token economy for on-task behavior, was ineffective for increasing either on-task behavior or work accuracy when combined with placebo. However, improvement in work accuracy was realized with implementation of a second behavioral intervention that specifically targeted accuracy independent of drug conditions. The current findings highlight both the positive effects and limitations of the two commonly used treatment modalities for ADHD. Future studies should continue to extend this area of investigative efforts to produce more data-based knowledge as to the appropriate doses of treatment, both pharmacological and behavioral, with children with both ADHD and mental retardation. PMID:7980374

  6. Efficacy of methylphenidate and behavioral intervention on classroom behavior in children with ADHD and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Handen, B L; Lubetsky, M J; Sacco, K A

    1994-10-01

    Using a combination of an alternating treatment and double-blind placebo-controlled drug design, the independent and combined effects of two behavioral interventions and two doses of methylphenidate (MPH) in 3 children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mental retardation (MR) were assessed. In this single subject design, 2 of the 3 subjects responded positively to medication as measured by increased on-task behavior. The first behavioral intervention, a token economy for on-task behavior, was ineffective for increasing either on-task behavior or work accuracy when combined with placebo. However, improvement in work accuracy was realized with implementation of a second behavioral intervention that specifically targeted accuracy independent of drug conditions. The current findings highlight both the positive effects and limitations of the two commonly used treatment modalities for ADHD. Future studies should continue to extend this area of investigative efforts to produce more data-based knowledge as to the appropriate doses of treatment, both pharmacological and behavioral, with children with both ADHD and mental retardation.

  7. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD - a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-09-07

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.

  8. ADHD and behavioral disorders: Assessment, management, and an update from DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Austerman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral disorders in pediatric patients--primarily attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--pose a clinical challenge for health care providers to accurately assess, diagnose, and treat. In 2013, updated diagnostic criteria for behavioral disorders were published, including ADHD and a new diagnostic entity: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Revised criteria for ADHD includes oldest age for occurrence of symptoms, need for symptoms to be present in more than one setting, and requirement for number of symptoms in those aged 17 and older. Assessment of ADHD relies primarily on the clinical interview, including the medical and social history, along with the aid of objective measures. The clinical course of ADHD is chronic with symptom onset occurring well before adolescence. Most patients have symptoms that continue into adolescence, and some into adulthood. Many patients with ADHD have comorbid disorders such as depression, disruptive behavior disorders, or substance abuse, which need to be addressed first in the treatment plan. Treatment of ADHD relies on a combination of psychopharmacologic, academic, and behavioral interventions, which produce response rates up to 80%. PMID:26555810

  9. A Comparison of Problem Behavior Profiles in Turkish Children with AD/HD and Non-AD/HD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an increasing number of studies describing the symptoms of ADHD among school-age children in western cultures. Yet, studies on children with ADHD living in non-western cultures are limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare problem behavior profiles of Turkish children with AD/HD and non-AD/HD children. Method:…

  10. Diagnosis of ADHD and its Behavioral, Neurologic and Genetic Roots

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity. These serve as the phenotype for ADHD. Current nomenclature implies a deficit in the cognitive construct of attention, and this has taken researchers on an extended inquiry into several potential endophenotypes underlying ADHD, in particular executive function and its subcomponents. We review this literature and then delve into the neurobiology of ADHD. This research has suggested to us that the corticostriatal system is a strong candidate system in the etiology of ADHD, in part because of the dopaminergic system, which is known to play a role in the disorder. We present this system as an important contributor to the comorbidty of ADHD with other developmental disorders, especially language disorder. PMID:25506117

  11. Behavioral Interventions for the Classroom: Implications for Students with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Ann J.; O'Leary, Susan G.

    1991-01-01

    Classroom intervention is an essential component of comprehensive treatment for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several educational interventions are reviewed. Most are based on contingency management, but some deal with modifications of the task or the classroom. Research needs, particularly for adolescents with ADHD, are…

  12. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population.

  13. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    PubMed

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. PMID:23870443

  14. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. The current study aimed to 1) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD symptomology, 2) examine sex differences in these predictors, and 3) describe the developmental trajectories of comorbid symptoms in school aged children. Methods 1,106 children and at least one parent enrolled in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were followed from 1 month of age through 6th grade. Effect size calculations, discriminant function analysis, and growth curve analyses were conducted to address the three aims. Results Children with high- versus low-ADHD symptomology at 3rd grade could be distinguished using cognitive and behavioral measures as early as 15 months (females) and 24 months (males). Sensitivity and specificity were modest at 15, 24 and 26 months. Growth curves revealed significant differences between high- and low-ADHD groups in comorbid symptoms at Kindergarten, and significantly different slopes for externalizing, social skills and academic skills ratings across elementary school. There were few gender differences on cognitive and behavioral variables within the high-ADHD group. Conclusions Cognitive and behavioral markers of ADHD symptoms are present in children prior to entry into formal schooling, but current behavioral screeners are not developmentally sensitive to these differences in infancy and toddlerhood. PMID:23848372

  15. Differences in Feedback- and Inhibition-Related Neural Activity in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibbets, Pauline; Evers, Lisbeth; Hurks, Petra; Marchetta, Natalie; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine response inhibition- and feedback-related neural activity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related functional MRI. Sixteen male adults with ADHD and 13 healthy/normal controls participated in this study and performed a modified Go/NoGo task. Behaviourally,…

  16. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:24992694

  17. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD.

  18. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  19. Rule-Governed Behavior and Self-Control in Children with ADHD: A Theoretical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Leasha M.; Kelly, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Three theoretical models of ADHD are reviewed and interpreted in light of educational and behavioral research findings specifically in respect to interventions using self-management to address a deficit in rule-governed behavior. The perspectives considered in this paper are (a) the unified theory of behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and…

  20. Gender differences in the effects of oppositional behavior on teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David A; King, Alan R

    2004-04-01

    H. Abikoff, M. Courtney, W. E. Pelham, and H. S. Koplewicz (1993) presented elementary school teachers with a videotape of a 4th-grade male child exhibiting behavior associated with either Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Comparisons with ratings generated from a control tape (same child exhibiting unremarkable behavior) suggested that oppositional tendencies inflated teacher ratings of ADHD for boys. The term "halo effect" has been used in the literature to refer to the impact of one class of behavior on the perception of another. This study replicated this procedure using identical scripts with both male and female child models. Oppositional behavior was associated with higher teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Portrayals of behavior associated with ADHD generated higher teacher ratings of oppositional conduct. This bidirectional effect differed in magnitude as a function of child gender. The boy actor exhibiting oppositional behavior received teacher ratings of hyperactivity and inattention that were roughly half of those elicited by his portrayal of ADHD itself. The girl actor portraying ADHD generated oppositional defiant ratings that were roughly two thirds of those elicited from her performance as a child with ODD. These teacher rating tendencies could contribute to higher diagnostic rates of ADHD among boys and ODD among girls. Available epidemiologic data indicate a much higher rate of ADHD among boys and prevalence differentials for ODD (girls initially lower) that disappear by adolescence. Future research will be required to determine the extent to which these teacher response sets generalize to other evaluators such as parents, physicians and mental health professionals. PMID:15164862

  1. Evaluating a Comprehensive Strategy to Improve Engagement to Group-Based Behavioral Parent Training for High-Risk Families of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Chimiklis, Alyssa; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) is an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related disruptive behavioral disorders of childhood. Despite convincing data on effectiveness, engagement to BPT, particularly for high-risk families, has been a long standing, yet understudied, issue. Data…

  2. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  3. Role of genetic factors in depression based on studies of Tourette syndrome and ADHD probands and their relatives

    SciTech Connect

    Comings, D.E.

    1995-04-24

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common, neuropsychiatric disorder which has many similarities to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS probands have a high frequency of a variety of behavioral disorders including depression. The depression may be due to a pleiotropic effect of the Gts genes, proband ascertainment bias, or a result of coping with the chronic tics. To distinguish between these hypotheses we examined the responses to 17 Diagnostic Interview Schedule questions to evaluate the 9 DSM-III-R criteria for major depressive episode in 1,080 adults consisting of TS and ADHD probands, their relatives and controls. Using a Bonferonni corrected p there was a significant progressive increase in 16 of 17 depressive symptoms and for a life time history of a major depressive episode in groups with increased genetic loading for Gts genes. Similar trends were seen in the small number of ADHD probands and their relatives. There was also a significant increase for these variables in non-proband TS relatives versus non-TS relatives, indicating the association of depression with Gts genes was not due to ascertainment bias or the inappropriate choice of controls. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that obsessive-compulsive behaviors, sex, ADHD, drug abuse, and age all showed a more significant effect on depressive symptoms than the number of tics. The presence or absence of TS in the relatives had a much greater effect on risk for depression than the presence or absence of an episode of major depression in the proband. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Gts and ADHD genes play a major role in depression. 69 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit are core symptoms in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Lopez, Régis; Vaillant, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle; El-Kaim, Alexandre; Bioulac, Stéphanie; Philip, Pierre; Boyer, Laurent; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated and compared perceptual abnormalities related to sensory gating deficit in adult patients with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (A-ADHD) and adult patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were evaluated with the Sensory Gating Inventory (SGI). We compared SGI scores between patients with A-ADHD, patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. We also assessed the relationship between SGI scores and clinical symptoms, and evaluated the ability of the SGI to detect perceptual abnormalities in A-ADHD. Seventy adult patients with ADHD reported higher SGI scores than the 70 healthy subjects and the 70 patients with schizophrenia. The inattention factor of the ASRS correlated significantly with the overall SGI score. The ROC AUC for the overall SGI score in the A-ADHD group (versus the healthy group) illustrated good performance. The findings suggest that i) perceptual abnormalities are core symptoms of adult patients with ADHD and ii) the attention of patients with A-ADHD may be involuntarily drowned by many irrelevant environmental stimuli leading to their impaired attention on relevant stimuli. They also confirm that the SGI could be a useful self-report instrument to diagnose the clinical features of A-ADHD. PMID:26416589

  5. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  6. Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

  7. Parental Functioning in Families of Children with ADHD: Evidence for Behavioral Parent Training and Importance of Clinically Meaningful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Schneider, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective/Method: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful effects of behavioral parent training on parental functioning were examined for 20 children with ADHD and their parents who had successfully completed a psychosocial treatment for ADHD. Results/Conclusion: Findings suggest that behavioral parent training resulted in…

  8. Event-related fMRI of inhibitory control in the Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of AD/HD

    PubMed Central

    Solanto, Mary V.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose To examine the neurophysiological basis for the pronounced differences in hyperactivity and impulsiveness that distinguish the Predominantly Inattentive type of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-PI) from the combined type of the disorder (ADHD-C). Methods Event-related brain responses to a go/no-go test of inhibitory control were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 11 children with ADHD-C and nine children with ADHD-PI, aged 7 to 13 years, who were matched for age, sex, and intelligence. Results There were no significant group differences in task performance. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI activated overlapping regions of right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal lobe, and left inferior parietal lobe during inhibitory control. However, the magnitude of the activation in the temporal and parietal regions, as well as in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, was greater in children with ADHD-PI than those with ADHD-C. Conversely, children with ADHD-C activated bilateral medial occipital lobe to a greater extent than children with ADHD-PI. Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that phenotypic differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-PI subtypes are associated with differential activation of regions that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD and are thought to mediate executive and attentional processes. PMID:19594667

  9. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether neurofeedback is of additional value to treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with clinical ADHD symptoms. Using a multicenter parallel-randomized controlled trial design, adolescents with ADHD symptoms were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (NFB + TAU, n = 45) or TAU-only (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified for age group (ages 12 through 16, 16 through 20, 20 through 24). Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Primary behavioral outcome measures included the ADHD-rating scale, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist all assessed pre- and post-intervention. Behavioral problems decreased equally for both groups with medium to large effect sizes, range of partial η2 = 0.08-0.31, p < 0.05. Hence, the combination of NFB + TAU was not more effective than TAU-only on the behavioral outcome measures. In addition, reported adverse effects were similar for both groups. On behavioral outcome measures, the combination of neurofeedback and TAU was as effective as TAU-only for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Considering the absence of additional behavioral effects in the current study, in combination with the limited knowledge of specific treatment effects, it is questionable whether theta/SMR neurofeedback for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice should be used. Further research is warranted to investigate possible working mechanisms and (long-term) specific treatment effects of neurofeedback.

  10. Maternal Emotions and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Relation to Boys and Girls with AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child gender on mothers' emotional responses to AD/HD, self-efficacy beliefs and perceived severity of AD/HD. Mothers (N = 118) of pre-schoolers were presented with a vignette describing a typical boy or girl with AD/HD and then completed three scales relating to their emotional response to AD/HD behaviour, their…

  11. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Behaviors Characteristic of ADHD and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Nelson, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend Hartnett, Nelson, and Rinn's (2004) study using a sample of preservice teachers in order to examine the potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. Participants included 132 preservice teachers enrolled in a comprehensive university in the South. A chi-square analysis indicated the…

  12. Effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on peer reinforcement of deviancy in children with ADHD-only, ADHD and conduct problems, and controls

    PubMed Central

    Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357

  13. On the relation of mind wandering and ADHD symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Smallwood, Jonathan; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Mind wandering seems to be a prototypical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, an important emerging distinction of mind-wandering types hinges on whether a given episode of mind wandering reflects a failure of executive control (spontaneous mind wandering) or the engagement of controlled processes for internal processing (deliberate mind wandering). Here we distinguish between spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and test the hypothesis that symptoms of ADHD are associated with the former but not the latter. We assessed ADHD symptomatology and everyday levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering in two large non-clinical samples (Ns = 1,354). In addition, to provide converging evidence, we examined rates of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering in a clinically diagnosed ADHD sample. Results provide clear evidence that spontaneous, but not deliberate, mind wandering is a central feature of ADHD symptomatology at both the clinical and non-clinical level. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding both ADHD and mind wandering.

  14. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) in children and adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lyons Usher, Amy M; Leon, Scott C; Stanford, Lisa D; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Bryant, Fred B

    2016-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) is a parent report measure designed to assess executive skills in everyday life. The present study employed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate three alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF. Given the executive functioning difficulties that commonly co-occur with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the participants included 181 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD. The results indicated that an oblique two-factor model, in which the Monitor subscale loaded on both factors (i.e., Behavioral Regulation, Metacognition) and measurement errors for the Monitor and Inhibit subscales were allowed to correlate, provided an acceptable goodness-of-fit to the data. This two-factor model is consistent with previous research indicating that the Monitor subscale reflects two dimensions (i.e., monitoring of task-related activities and monitoring of personal behavioral activities) and thus loads on multiple factors. These findings support the clinical relevance of the BRIEF in children with ADHD, as well as the multidimensional nature of executive functioning.

  15. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD.

  16. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  17. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  18. Genetic risks and ADHD symptomatology: exploring the effects of parental antisocial behaviors in an adoption-based study.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Nedelec, Joseph L; Rowland, Meghan W; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2012-04-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and alcoholism have effects on the development of ADHD symptomatologies. Analyses based on a sample of adoptees drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed that ADHD symptomatologies were elevated among adoptees who had biological mothers and fathers who had been arrested or who were alcoholics. These results suggest that part of the covariation between ADHD and antisocial behaviors may be the result of genetic factors that have general effects across a range of maladaptive outcomes.

  19. Do ADHD and executive dysfunctions, measured by the hebrew version of Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF), completely overlap?

    PubMed

    Linder, Neta; Kroyzer, Naama; Maeir, Adina; Wertman-Elad, Raya; Pollak, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    The centrality of executive function deficits (EFD) in attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well accepted albeit EFD is not synonymous with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which ADHD and EF overlap and to validate the Hebrew version of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). Parents of 178 children with and without ADHD completed the BRIEF and the ADHD-Rating Scale. Significant differences were found between groups on each scale even after controlling for the other scale. Internal consistency analysis supported the reliability of the Hebrew version of the BRIEF. We conclude that ADHD and Executive Dysfunctions do not completely overlap. PMID:20521184

  20. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. Results All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. PMID:26673612

  1. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Several forms of assessment tools, including behavioral rating scales and objective tests such as the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), can be used to measure inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, research with school-age children has shown that the correlations…

  2. ADHD and Behavioral Inhibition: A Re-Examination of the Stop-Signal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigates two recently identified threats to the construct validity of behavioral inhibition as a core deficit of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the stop-signal task: calculation of mean reaction time from go-trials presented adjacent to intermittent stop-trials, and non-reporting of the stop-signal…

  3. Cognitive and Behavioral Indicators of ADHD Symptoms Prior to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne Bernard; MacDonald, Beatriz; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the etiology of ADHD symptoms suggests that neuropsychological differences may be present as early as birth; however, the diagnosis is typically not given until school age. This study aimed to (a) identify early behavioral and cognitive markers of later significant parent and/or teacher ratings of ADHD…

  4. Heterogeneity in the Pharmacological Treatment of Children with ADHD: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Social Functioning Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lall, Ayesha S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which children with ADHD in various medication statuses (i.e., medication naive, pure stimulant, stimulant plus another medication, nonstimulants) varied on cognitive or academic, behavioral, and social functioning during a psychoeducational assessment battery. Method: Participants for this study consisted…

  5. A Waitlist-Controlled Trial of Behavioral Parent Training for Fathers of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gangloff, Brian; Buck, Melina; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha

    2012-01-01

    Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children…

  6. Sport-Based Group Therapy Program for Boys with ADHD or with Other Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; Parish-Plass, Jim

    2011-01-01

    A group of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was compared to children with other behavior and emotional problems. All the participants participated together in 20 weekly sessions for 1 academic year. The participants were assessed with three questionnaires on three different occasions: before the beginning of the group,…

  7. Neuropsychological and dimensional behavioral trait profiles in Costa Rican ADHD sib pairs: Potential intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J; Chavira, Denise A; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70-90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. PMID:25832558

  8. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  9. The Clinical Utility of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in the Diagnosis of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCandless, Stephen; O'Laughlin, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Current theories hypothesize that deficits in executive functioning (EF) are responsible for the symptoms of ADHD and that specific patterns of EF deficits may be associated with different subtypes of ADHD. The present study evaluates the validity and clinical usefulness of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, a behavior…

  10. Neuropsychological and dimensional behavioral trait profiles in Costa Rican ADHD sib pairs: Potential intermediate phenotypes for genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Viviana A; Ordóñez, Anna; Mackin, R Scott; Delucchi, Kevin; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J; Chavira, Denise A; Berrocal, Monica; Cheung, Erika; Fournier, Eduardo; Badner, Judith A; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A

    2015-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with substantial functional impairment in children and in adults. Many individuals with ADHD have clear neurocognitive deficits, including problems with visual attention, processing speed, and set shifting. ADHD is etiologically complex, and although genetic factors play a role in its development, much of the genetic contribution to ADHD remains unidentified. We conducted clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 294 individuals (269 with ADHD) from 163 families (48 multigenerational families created using genealogical reconstruction, 78 affected sib pair families, and 37 trios) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). We used principal components analysis (PCA) to group neurocognitive and behavioral variables using the subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and 15 neuropsychological measures, and created quantitative traits for heritability analyses. We identified seven cognitive and two behavioral domains. Individuals with ADHD were significantly more impaired than their unaffected siblings on most behavioral and cognitive domains. The verbal IQ domain had the highest heritability (92%), followed by auditory attention (87%), visual processing speed and problem solving (85%), and externalizing symptoms (81%). The quantitative traits identified here have high heritabilities, similar to the reported heritability of ADHD (70-90%), and may represent appropriate alternative phenotypes for genetic studies. The use of multigenerational families from a genetically isolated population may facilitate the identification of ADHD risk genes in the face of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity.

  11. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  12. Use of machine learning for behavioral distinction of autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, M; Ma, R; Haber, N; Wall, D P

    2016-02-09

    Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to rise in prevalence, together affecting >10% of today's pediatric population, the methods of diagnosis remain subjective, cumbersome and time intensive. With gaps upward of a year between initial suspicion and diagnosis, valuable time where treatments and behavioral interventions could be applied is lost as these disorders remain undetected. Methods to quickly and accurately assess risk for these, and other, developmental disorders are necessary to streamline the process of diagnosis and provide families access to much-needed therapies sooner. Using forward feature selection, as well as undersampling and 10-fold cross-validation, we trained and tested six machine learning models on complete 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale score sheets from 2925 individuals with either ASD (n=2775) or ADHD (n=150). We found that five of the 65 behaviors measured by this screening tool were sufficient to distinguish ASD from ADHD with high accuracy (area under the curve=0.965). These results support the hypotheses that (1) machine learning can be used to discern between autism and ADHD with high accuracy and (2) this distinction can be made using a small number of commonly measured behaviors. Our findings show promise for use as an electronically administered, caregiver-directed resource for preliminary risk evaluation and/or pre-clinical screening and triage that could help to speed the diagnosis of these disorders.

  13. Childhood ODD and ADHD Behavior: The Effect of Classroom Sharing, Gender, Teacher Gender and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Lubke, Gitta H; Glasner, Tina J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-07-01

    One criterion for a diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is that symptoms are present in at least two settings, and often teacher ratings are taken into account. The short Conners' Teacher Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R) is a widely used standardized instrument measuring ODD and ADHD behavior in a school setting. In the current study CTRS-R data were available for 7, 9 and 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register. Measurement invariance (MI) across student gender and teacher gender was established for three of the four scales (Oppositional Behavior, Hyperactivity and ADHD Index) of the CTRS-R. The fourth scale (ATT) showed an unacceptable model fit even without constraints on the data and revision of this scale is recommended. Gene-environment (GxE) interaction models revealed that heritability was larger for children sharing a classroom. There were some gender differences in the heritability of ODD and ADHD behavior and there was a moderating effect of teacher's gender at some of the ages. Taken together, this indicates that there was evidence for GxE interaction for classroom sharing, gender of the student and gender of the teacher.

  14. Use of machine learning for behavioral distinction of autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, M; Ma, R; Haber, N; Wall, D P

    2016-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to rise in prevalence, together affecting >10% of today's pediatric population, the methods of diagnosis remain subjective, cumbersome and time intensive. With gaps upward of a year between initial suspicion and diagnosis, valuable time where treatments and behavioral interventions could be applied is lost as these disorders remain undetected. Methods to quickly and accurately assess risk for these, and other, developmental disorders are necessary to streamline the process of diagnosis and provide families access to much-needed therapies sooner. Using forward feature selection, as well as undersampling and 10-fold cross-validation, we trained and tested six machine learning models on complete 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale score sheets from 2925 individuals with either ASD (n=2775) or ADHD (n=150). We found that five of the 65 behaviors measured by this screening tool were sufficient to distinguish ASD from ADHD with high accuracy (area under the curve=0.965). These results support the hypotheses that (1) machine learning can be used to discern between autism and ADHD with high accuracy and (2) this distinction can be made using a small number of commonly measured behaviors. Our findings show promise for use as an electronically administered, caregiver-directed resource for preliminary risk evaluation and/or pre-clinical screening and triage that could help to speed the diagnosis of these disorders. PMID:26859815

  15. Response inhibition in children with DSM-IV subtypes of AD/HD and related disruptive disorders: the role of reward.

    PubMed

    Scheres, A; Oosterlaan, J; Sergeant, J A

    2001-09-01

    The current study had four aims: (a) to replicate previous findings of slow response inhibition in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), (b) to explore whether poor response inhibition in children with AD/HD is a core problem or rather a result of an underlying problem related to reward, (c) to investigate the specificity of poor response inhibition and the role of reward in relation to AD/HD, and (d) to study whether findings would be different for three subtypes of AD/HD. In order to address these issues, a stop paradigm was administered under a reward condition and under a nonreward condition to an AD/HD group (n=24), an Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD) group (n=21), a comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD group (n=27), and a normal control (NC) group (n=41). Firstly, contrary to prediction, none of the Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD) groups differed from the NC group with respect to the speed of the inhibition process. Secondly, it was shown that children with AD/HD and children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, but not children with ODD/CD alone, slowed down more dramatically in the reward condition than normal controls. This finding was interpreted as a strategy to increase the chance of being rewarded in children with AD/HD and children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, but not in children with pure ODD/CD. Finally, analysis of AD/HD subtypes did not change the main findings of this study.

  16. Behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of auditory distractibility in children with ADHD and comorbid ODD.

    PubMed

    Oja, L; Huotilainen, M; Nikkanen, E; Oksanen-Hennah, H; Laasonen, M; Voutilainen, A; von Wendt, L; Alho, K

    2016-02-01

    Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker. In addition, novel sounds (e.g., a sound of hammer, rain, or car horn) unrelated to the task were presented from a loudspeaker behind the child. The percentage of correct responses was lower for target sounds preceded by a novel sound than for targets not preceded by such sound in the ADHD group, but not in the control group. In both groups, a biphasic positive P3a response was observed in ERPs to the novel sounds. The later part of the P3a appeared to continue longer over the frontal scalp areas in the ADHD group than in the controls presumably because a reorienting negativity (RON) ERP response following the P3a was smaller in the ADHD group than in the control group. This suggests that the children with ADHD had problems in reorienting their attention to the current task after a distracting novel sound leading to deterioration of performance in this task. The present study also indicates that children with ADHD and comorbid ODD show same kind of distractibility as found in previous studies for children with ADHD without systematic comorbid ODD.

  17. Event Rate and Event-Related Potentials in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersema, Roeljan; Van Der Meere, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; Van, Coster, Rudy; Baeyens, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has been repeatedly found that performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more impaired when a long inter-stimulus interval (ISI) is used than when a short ISI is used. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this may reflect difficulty in remaining in an optimal motor activation state…

  18. Short cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive training for adults with ADHD – a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Virta, Maarit; Salakari, Anita; Antila, Mervi; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Kaski, Markus; Vataja, Risto; Kalska, Hely; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing. PMID:20856608

  19. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Massat, Isabelle; Slama, Hichem; Kavec, Martin; Linotte, Sylvie; Mary, Alison; Baleriaux, Daniele; Metens, Thierry; Mendlewicz, Julien; Peigneux, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by 3 clusters of age-inappropriate cardinal symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These clinical/behavioural symptoms are assumed to result from disturbances within brain systems supporting executive functions including working memory (WM), which refers to the ability to transiently store and flexibly manipulate task-relevant information. Ongoing or past medications, co-morbidity and differences in task performance are potential, independent confounds in assessing the integrity of cerebral patterns in ADHD. In the present study, we recorded WM-related cerebral activity during a memory updating N-back task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in control children and never medicated, prepubescent children with ADHD but without comorbid symptoms. Despite similar updating performance than controls, children with ADHD exhibited decreased, below baseline WM-related activation levels in a widespread cortico-subcortical network encompassing bilateral occipital and inferior parietal areas, caudate nucleus, cerebellum and functionally connected brainstem nuclei. Distinctive functional connectivity patterns were also found in the ADHD in these regions, with a tighter coupling in the updating than in the control condition with a distributed WM-related cerebral network. Especially, cerebellum showed tighter coupling with activity in an area compatible with the brainstem red nucleus. These results in children with clinical core symptoms of ADHD but without comorbid affections and never treated with medication yield evidence for a core functional neuroanatomical network subtending WM-related processes in ADHD, which may participate to the pathophysiology and expression of clinical symptoms.

  20. Examining Executive Functioning in Boys with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Gordon, Michael

    This study examined executive functioning (EF) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys ages 6-12 on a parent-report measure from Barkley's model. Mothers of 40 boys (20 with ADHD-HI or ADHD-C, and 20 without ADHD) completed the ADHD Symptom Checklist (ADHD-SC4), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-P), School-Home Information Profile…

  1. ADHD-associated dopamine transporter, latrophilin and neurofibromin share a dopamine-related locomotor signature in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    van der Voet, M; Harich, B; Franke, B; Schenck, A

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with hyperactivity as one of the hallmarks. Aberrant dopamine signaling is thought to be a major theme in ADHD, but how this relates to the vast majority of ADHD candidate genes is illusive. Here we report a Drosophila dopamine-related locomotor endophenotype that is shared by pan-neuronal knockdown of orthologs of the ADHD-associated genes Dopamine transporter (DAT1) and Latrophilin (LPHN3), and of a gene causing a monogenic disorder with frequent ADHD comorbidity: Neurofibromin (NF1). The locomotor signature was not found in control models and could be ameliorated by methylphenidate, validating its relevance to symptoms of the disorder. The Drosophila ADHD endophenotype can be further exploited in high throughput to characterize the growing number of candidate genes. It represents an equally useful outcome measure for testing chemical compounds to define novel treatment options. PMID:25962619

  2. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components. PMID:21347920

  3. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components.

  4. Case Series: Evaluation of Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Medicated Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya

    2013-03-25

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Method: Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. Results: For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Conclusion: Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  5. Underarousal in Adult ADHD: How Are Peripheral and Cortical Arousal Related?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah Nicole; Strehl, Ute

    2016-07-01

    In children and adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a general slowing of spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity and a decrease of event-related potential amplitudes such as the contingent negative variation (CNV) are observed. Additionally, some studies have reported decreased skin conductance level (SCL) in this clinical population leading to the hypothesis of a peripheral hypoarousal, which may be a target of biofeedback treatment in addition to or instead of neurofeedback. To our knowledge, the relationship between SCL and CNV has not been simultaneously investigated in one experiment. Using the theoretical background of the hypoarousal model, this article aims to gain more insight into the differences and correlations of cortical (CNV) and peripheral (SCL) arousal in adults with ADHD. A sample of 23 adults with ADHD and 22 healthy controls underwent an auditory Go-NoGo task with simultaneous 22-channel EEG and SCL recordings. Reaction time (RT) and reaction time variability (RTV) were also measured to assess task performance. Significantly decreased CNV amplitude and significantly higher RTV were observed in the ADHD group, reflecting cortical underarousal and problems with sustained attention. No significant correlation between peripheral underarousal and cortical underarousal was observed in the ADHD group or the control group. The observed cortical underarousal reflected in the decreased CNV supports the notion of a reduced CNV amplitude as a possible biomarker for ADHD. However, the connection between cortical and peripheral arousal is not as clear as is suggested in previous research investigating both separately. Implications of these results for new treatment options for ADHD such as biofeedback are discussed.

  6. Extended visual glances away from the roadway are associated with ADHD- and texting-related driving performance deficits in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kingery, Kathleen M.; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A.; Antonini, Tanya N.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD = 28, non-ADHD = 33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16–17 with a valid driver’s license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 seconds) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  7. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway. PMID:25416444

  8. Multimodal behavior program for ADHD incorporating yoga and implemented by high school volunteers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Motiwala, Ashok; Vardhan, Jay; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost resource approach to ADHD therapy would be a practical approach to treating children in developing countries. Research has shown that ADHD is prevalent in all areas of the world, and yet treatment for children in more impoverished countries is still lacking. The approach taken was to combine yoga and meditation combined with multimodal behavioral therapy program for children ageing 6 to 11. The program was kept low cost by using trained high school volunteers and integrating the program within the public school. After 6 weeks of the program, 90.5% of children showed improvement as measured by their performance impairment score, a measurement of academic performance. Parent and Teacher evaluations of behavior also found improvement as 25 of the 64 children (39.1%) improved into the normal range as measured by the Vanderbilt questionnaire. Moreover, children could successfully learn both yoga and meditation from high school students irrespective of their age, ADHD type, or initial performance impairment. The results demonstrate efficacy of a multimodal behavioral program incorporating yoga and meditation. The use of high school volunteers from schools in the area demonstrates an effective low-cost and universally applicable approach. PMID:22389788

  9. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve

  10. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STRATEGIES FOR INVESTIGATING PSYCHOSTIMULANT DRUG ACTIONS AND PREFRONTAL CORTICAL FUNCTON IN ADHD AND RELATED ATTENTION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Agster, K. L.; Clark, B. D.; Gao, W-J.; Shumsky, J. S.; Wang, H-X.; Berridge, C. W.; Waterhouse, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamine-like psychostimulant drugs have been used for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions. Methylphenidate (MPH) - RitalinR, a compound that blocks reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in the brain, has been used for more than 30 years in low dose, long-term regimens to treat attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in juveniles, adolescents, and adults. These agents are now also becoming increasingly popular among healthy individuals from all walks of life (e.g. military, students) and age groups (teenagers thru senior citizens) to promote wakefulness and improve attention. While there is agreement regarding the primary biochemical action of MPH, the physiological basis for its efficacy in normal individuals and ADHD patients is lacking. Study of the behavioral and physiological actions of clinically and behaviorally relevant doses of MPH in normal animals provides an opportunity to explore the role of catecholamine transmitters in prefrontal cortical function and attentional processes as they relate to normal operation of brain circuits and ADHD pathology. The goal of ongoing studies has been to: 1) assess the effects of low dose MPH on rodent performance in a well characterized sensory-guided sustained attention task, 2) examine the effects of the same low-dose chronic MPH administration on task-related discharge of prefrontal cortical (PFC) neurons and 3) investigate the effects of NE and DA on membrane response properties and synaptic transmission in identified subsets of PFC neurons. Combinations of these approaches can be used in adolescent, adult and aged animals to identify the parameters of cell and neural circuit function that are regulated by MPH and to establish an overarching explanation of how MPH impacts PFC operations from cellular through behavioral functional domains. PMID:21901844

  12. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  13. Designing a decision support system for distinguishing ADHD from similar children behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Delavarian, Mona; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Dibajnia, Parvin; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a decision support system was designed to distinguish children with ADHD from other similar children behavioral disorders such as depression, anxiety, comorbid depression and anxiety and conduct disorder based on the signs and symptoms. Accuracy of classifying with Radial basis function and multilayer neural networks were compared. Finally, the average accuracy of the networks in classification reached to 95.50% and 96.62% by multilayer and radial basis function networks respectively. Our results indicate that a decision support system, especially RBF, may be a good preliminary assistant for psychiatrists in diagnosing high risk behavioral disorders of children.

  14. Does ADHD in Adults Affect the Relative Accuracy of Metamemory Judgments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knouse, Laura E.; Paradise, Matthew J.; Dunlosky, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Prior research suggests that individuals with ADHD overestimate their performance across domains despite performing more poorly in these domains. The authors introduce measures of accuracy from the larger realm of judgment and decision making--namely, relative accuracy and calibration--to the study of self-evaluative judgment accuracy…

  15. Relative Immaturity and ADHD: Findings from Nationwide Registers, Parent- and Self-Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halldner, Linda; Tillander, Annika; Lundholm, Cecilia; Boman, Marcus; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: We addressed if immaturity relative to peers reflected in birth month increases the likelihood of ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We linked nationwide Patient and Prescribed Drug Registers and used prospective cohort and nested case-control designs to study 6-69 year-old individuals in Sweden from July 2005 to December 2009…

  16. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  17. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  18. Predictors of Stress-Related Growth in Parents of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Triwitz, Yael Segal; Golubchik, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate stress-related growth in 71 parents of children with ADHD, compared with 80 parents of non-clinical children. Adopting Tedeschi and Calhoun's (2004) theoretical framework for predicting personal growth, the study investigated the contribution of emotional intelligence (individual characteristics), social…

  19. AD/HD Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire Completed by Children or Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Deborah; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Assessing health-related quality of life (HQOL) for children or adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to corroborate a diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes, is usually relegated to parent, teacher and physician observation of the child/adolescent. Allowing adults to act as proxy reporters for children/adolescents…

  20. Executive Functioning Deficits in Relation to Symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Wahlstedt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n = 201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of…

  1. Neuropsychological endophenotypes in ADHD with and without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, William S; Vasserman, Marsha; Vekaria, Pooja; Miles-Mason, Eavan; Hochsztein, Natanya; Bender, Heidi A

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent comorbidity in children with epilepsy. Despite similarities in behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological endophenotypes of children with developmental ADHD differ from those with ADHD in the context of epilepsy. The present study compared groups of clinically referred children with both ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C) to children with ADHD-I and ADHD-C and epilepsy on neuropsychological measures of intellectual functioning, auditory attention, working memory, and sustained attention and response inhibition. Those with ADHD and epilepsy performed more poorly on measures of intellectual function (e.g., Full-Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ) as well as auditory attention and working memory. Differences across the groups were also seen on a continuous performance test. Follow-up correlational analyses showed that variables such as seizure frequency and number of antiepilepsy medications predicted cognitive dysfunction in the epilepsy groups. Overall results suggest that the neuropsychological endophenotypes in developmental ADHD versus ADHD in epilepsy differ with seizure-related variables predicting cognitive dysfunction.

  2. EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY OF ATTENTION REGULATION DURING ILLUSORY FIGURE CATEGORIZATION TASK IN ADHD, AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, AND TYPICAL CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; Baruth, Joshua M.; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Guela E.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Williams, Emily; Klapheke, Robert; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are very common developmental disorders which share some similar symptoms of social, emotional, and attentional deficits. This study is aimed to help understand the differences and similarities of these deficits using analysis of dense-array event-related potentials (ERP) during an illusory figure recognition task. Although ADHD and ASD seem very distinct, they have been shown to share some similarities in their symptoms. Our hypothesis was that children with ASD will show less pronounced differences in ERP responses to target and non-target stimuli as compared to typical children, and to a lesser extent, ADHD. Participants were children with ASD (N=16), ADHD (N=16), and controls (N=16). EEG was collected using a 128 channel EEG system. The task involved the recognition of a specific illusory shape, in this case a square or triangle, created by three or four inducer disks. There were no between group differences in reaction time (RT) to target stimuli, but both ASD and ADHD committed more errors, specifically the ASD group had statistically higher commission error rate than controls. Post-error RT in ASD group was exhibited in a post-error speeding rather than corrective RT slowing typical for the controls. The ASD group also demonstrated an attenuated error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to ADHD and controls. The fronto-central P200, N200, and P300 were enhanced and less differentiated in response to target and non-target figures in the ASD group. The same ERP components were marked by more prolonged latencies in the ADHD group as compared to both ASD and typical controls. The findings are interpreted according to the “minicolumnar” hypothesis proposing existence of neuropathological differences in ASD and ADHD, specifically minicolumnar number/width morphometry spectrum differences. In autism, a model of local hyperconnectivity and long-range hypoconnectivity explains

  3. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  4. Simplex and multiplex stratification in ASD and ADHD families: a promising approach for identifying overlapping and unique underpinnings of ASD and ADHD?

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, Anoek M; Hartman, Catharina A; De Bruijn, Yvette G E; Van Steijn, Daphne J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2015-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorders, that frequently co-occur. This study examined whether stratification into single-incidence (SPX) and multi-incidence (MPX) is helpful in (a) parsing heterogeneity and (b) detecting overlapping and unique underpinnings of the disorders. ASD and ADHD traits were measured in 56 ASD/31 ADHD SPX families, 59 ASD/171 ADHD MPX families and 203 control families. In ASD but not ADHD, behavioral traits were less elevated in SPX than MPX unaffected relatives, suggesting that SPX-MPX stratification may thus help parse ASD, but not ADHD heterogeneity. Particularly unaffected relatives from MPX ASD/ADHD families displayed elevated trait levels of both disorders, indicating shared (multifactorial) underpinnings underlying ASD and ADHD in these families. Cross-disorder traits were highest in MPX ASD unaffected siblings.

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N = 312…

  6. The Decimal Effect: Behavioral and Neural Bases for a Novel Influence on Intertemporal Choice in Healthy Individuals and in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fassbender, C.; Houde, S.; Silver-Balbus, S.; Ballard, K.; Kim, B.; Rutledge, K.J.; Dixon, J.F.; Iosif, A.M.; Schweitzer, J.B.; McClure, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We identify a novel contextual variable that alters the evaluation of delayed rewards in healthy subjects and those diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When intertemporal choices are constructed of monetary outcomes with rounded values (e.g., $25.00), discount rates are greater than when the rewards have nonzero decimal values (e.g., $25.12). This finding is well explained within a dual system framework for temporal discounting in which preferences are constructed from separate affective and deliberative processes. Specifically, we find that round dollar values produce greater positive affect than do non-zero decimal values. This suggests that relative involvement of affective processes may underlie our observed difference in intertemporal preferences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intertemporal choices with rounded values recruit greater brain responses in the nucleus accumbens to a degree that correlates with the size of the behavioral effect across subjects. Our demonstration that a simple contextual manipulation can alter self-control in ADHD has implications for treatment of individuals with disorders of impulsivity. Overall, the decimal effect highlights mechanisms by which the properties of a reward bias perceived value and consequent preferences. PMID:24738767

  7. Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism with violence: relation with personality disorders, impulsivity, and childhood ADHD psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Supprian, Tillmann; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that disturbances in central serotonin (5-HT) function have a role in impulsive aggression, violence, and criminality. A deletion/insertion polymorphism within the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) promoter gene (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR) is thought to be associated with several psychopathological phenotypes related to disturbed impulse control, anxiety and depression. This study examined the association of the 5-HTTLPR with violent behavior in a sample of 153 male Caucasians referred for a forensic psychiatric examination. We found a significant excess of the short (s) allele and the s/s genotype in patients characterized by recurrent and overt physical violent behavior. This genetic variance explained 5% of the variance of violent behavior. When controlled for the impact of several psychopathologies related to violent behavior, this association was observed in individuals with a history of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, but not presenting with personality disorder or increased impulsiveness. In conclusion, the results (i). suggest an association between serotonergic dysfunction and violent behavior, (ii). provide evidence for an-at least partial-genetic regulation of violent behavior in a subgroup of male offenders, and (iii). suggest a significant role for 5-HT transporter functionality for violent behavior.

  8. Environmental exposure to lead, but not other neurotoxic metals, relates to core elements of ADHD in Romanian children: performance and questionnaire data.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Rodica; Petcu, Cristian; Cordeanu, Aurelia; Fabritius, Klaus; Schlumpf, Margret; Krebs, Rolf; Krämer, Ursula; Winneke, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Neurobehavioral measures of attention, and clinical features of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been studied in pediatric environmental lead research. However rarely, if ever, have performance measures of attention or executive functions and questionnaire-based quantitative ADHD-observations been studied in the same subjects. We examined associations between pediatric blood lead concentrations (PbB), as well as those of mercury (Hg), and aluminum (Al), and performance in four different attention tasks, as well as behavioral ratings from an ICD-10 (hyperactivity) and DSM-IV-coded (attention deficit) German questionnaire (FBB-ADHS). Asymptomatic, 8-12 year old children from two Romanian cities were studied, namely Bucharest and Pantelimon, a city near a metal-processing plant. Blood was analyzed for Pb, Al, and Hg. Data from 83 children were available for final analysis. We assessed attention performance by means of four tasks of the computer-based ADHD-taylored German KITAP-battery. We also received questionnaire ratings from parents and teachers covering three ADHD-dimensions. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate associations between the three neurotoxic trace metals in blood and the different ADHD features. After adjusting for eleven potentially confounding variables we found consistent borderline to significant associations between Pb, but not other metals, in blood and various performance- and questionnaire data. False alarm responses (FAR) in the KITAP subtests rather than response latencies exhibited positive associations with PbB. Questionnaire ratings for ADHD dimensions also revealed PbB-related adversity. With any two-fold increase of PbB outcome changed markedly, namely up to 35%. Restriction to children with PbBs<10mug/dl had only a marginal influence on outcome.The converging evidence from performance- and questionnaire data confirms that core elements of ADHD are adversely affected by low environmental Pb

  9. Environmental exposure to lead, but not other neurotoxic metals, relates to core elements of ADHD in Romanian children: performance and questionnaire data.

    PubMed

    Nicolescu, Rodica; Petcu, Cristian; Cordeanu, Aurelia; Fabritius, Klaus; Schlumpf, Margret; Krebs, Rolf; Krämer, Ursula; Winneke, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Neurobehavioral measures of attention, and clinical features of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been studied in pediatric environmental lead research. However rarely, if ever, have performance measures of attention or executive functions and questionnaire-based quantitative ADHD-observations been studied in the same subjects. We examined associations between pediatric blood lead concentrations (PbB), as well as those of mercury (Hg), and aluminum (Al), and performance in four different attention tasks, as well as behavioral ratings from an ICD-10 (hyperactivity) and DSM-IV-coded (attention deficit) German questionnaire (FBB-ADHS). Asymptomatic, 8-12 year old children from two Romanian cities were studied, namely Bucharest and Pantelimon, a city near a metal-processing plant. Blood was analyzed for Pb, Al, and Hg. Data from 83 children were available for final analysis. We assessed attention performance by means of four tasks of the computer-based ADHD-taylored German KITAP-battery. We also received questionnaire ratings from parents and teachers covering three ADHD-dimensions. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate associations between the three neurotoxic trace metals in blood and the different ADHD features. After adjusting for eleven potentially confounding variables we found consistent borderline to significant associations between Pb, but not other metals, in blood and various performance- and questionnaire data. False alarm responses (FAR) in the KITAP subtests rather than response latencies exhibited positive associations with PbB. Questionnaire ratings for ADHD dimensions also revealed PbB-related adversity. With any two-fold increase of PbB outcome changed markedly, namely up to 35%. Restriction to children with PbBs<10mug/dl had only a marginal influence on outcome.The converging evidence from performance- and questionnaire data confirms that core elements of ADHD are adversely affected by low environmental Pb

  10. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  11. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  12. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  13. Effects of Coexisting Disorders on Cognition and Behavior in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Dewey, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of coexisting disorders affects memory, visual-motor skills, and daily functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Eighty-four boys and 18 girls (8 to 16 years old) participate in this study. Twenty children meet criteria for ADHD alone, 42 children for ADHD plus one other disorder, and 40 children for…

  14. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Lifestyle-Related Behaviors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Lian; Xiong, Xu; Tan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with obesity in children. Lifestyle-related behaviors (external eating, screen time and physical inactivity) are well known to be associated with increased risk of obesity, but their associations with ADHD are unclear. The objectives of this study were to clarify the associations between ADHD symptoms in children and their associated lifestyle. A cross sectional study was carried out with a total of 785 primary students aged 9 to 13 years old and their parents were recruited by stratified random sampling from primary schools of China. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test was used to examine the relationships between ADHD symptoms and health related behaviors. We found that children with ADHD symptoms were likely to spend more time using a computer during school days; they were also more likely to eat while using a computer. These children were also more likely to eat while seated in a car, using a smart phone, using a computer at bedtime, and snacking before going to sleep than children without ADHD symptoms. An increased risk of obesity in children with ADHD symptoms was associated with the overuse of electronic devices, eating while using electronic devices, and delaying bedtimes to snack and use electronic devices. PMID:27658266

  16. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  17. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral…

  18. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Children with ADHD, with and without Aggressiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, Maria Jesus

    2000-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy on children with ADHD Explores whether the combination of training in self-control with training in anger management has better outcomes on two subgroups of hyperactive children, aggressive (n=16) and nonaggressive (n=16). Overall improvements were found, however improvements of…

  19. Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with ADHD in Routine Clinical Practice: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Van Der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to routine clinical care (RCC). Method: After a first phase of RCC, 94 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ages 4-12, all referred to a Dutch outpatient mental health clinic, were randomly assigned to 5 months of BPT plus concurrent…

  20. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  1. The Effect of Comorbid AD/HD and Learning Disabilities on Parent-Reported Behavioral and Academic Outcomes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.; Adams, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Data from the 2001 National Household Education Survey were examined to estimate the prevalence of comorbid AD/HD and LD among school-aged children in the United States and assess how this comorbidity was associated with selected parent-reported behavioral and academic outcomes. The observed prevalence of comorbidity coincided with estimates in…

  2. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  3. Attentional WM is not necessarily specifically related with fluid intelligence: the case of smart children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Giofrè, David; Calgaro, Giovanni; Stupiggia, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Executive functions and, in particular, Attentional (active) Working Memory (WM) have been associated with fluid intelligence. The association contrasts with the hypothesis that children with ADHD exhibit problems with WM tasks requiring controlled attention and may have a good fluid intelligence. This paper examines whether children who are intelligent but present ADHD symptoms fail in attentional WM tasks. The latter result would be problematic for theories assuming the generality of a strict relationship between intelligence and WM. To study these issues, a battery of tests was administered to a group of 58 children who all displayed symptoms of ADHD. All children were between the age of 8 and 11 years, and were described by their teachers as smart. Children were compared to a control group matched for age, schooling, and gender. The battery included a test of fluid intelligence (Raven's Coloured Matrices), and a series of visuospatial WM tasks. Results showed that children with ADHD were high in intelligence but significantly lower than the controls in WM tasks requiring high attentional control, whereas there was no difference in WM tasks requiring low attentional control. Furthermore, only high attentional control WM tasks were significantly related to Raven's performance in the control group, whereas all WM tasks were similarly related in the ADHD group. It is concluded that performance in high attentional control WM tasks may be related to fluid intelligence, but also to a specific control component that is independent of intelligence and is poor in children with ADHD.

  4. ADHD and comorbid conduct problems among adolescents: associations with self-esteem and substance use.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2011-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.

  5. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  6. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD.

  7. High sucrose consumption during pregnancy induced ADHD-like behavioral phenotypes in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Soon; Kim, Pitna; Park, Jin Hee; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Kim, Ki Chan; Cho, Kyu Suk; Ko, Mee Jung; Yang, Sung Min; Seung, Hana; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the average consumption of sugar in humans from all ages has remarkably increased, exceeding the recommended limit. Pregnancy is a critical time for the global development of offsprings who are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental factors. In this study, we investigated whether high sucrose consumption during pregnancy could affect the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like neurobehavioral outcomes in offspring mice. Pregnant mice were randomly grouped and orally administered with either water as control (Con) or 30% wt/vol sucrose diluted in water at 6 (Suc6) or 9 (Suc9) g/kg dosage per day from gestational days 6 to 15. After the weaning period, offspring mice underwent a series of behavioral testing for locomotor activity, attention, and impulsivity. Although there is no obvious difference in gross development of offspring mice such as weight gain, high sucrose-exposed offspring mice showed a significantly increased locomotor activity. Moreover, these mice exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in attention and increase in impulsivity. In the striatum, a significantly increased dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA expression was found in the Suc9 group along with dose-dependent decreases in the Drd1, Drd2 and Drd4 dopamine receptor subtypes. Furthermore, synaptosomal DAT protein expression was increased about twofold in the Suc9 group. Prenatal fructose exposure also induced hyperactive behavior in offspring mice suggesting the essential role of fructose in the dysregulated neurobehavioral development. These findings suggest prenatal sucrose consumption as a new risk factor for ADHD, which may need further attention and investigation in humans. PMID:26452319

  8. Household task demands for quiet and focused behavior facilitate performance by ADHD youth.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Camila Guimarães; Drummond, Adriana F; Miranda, Débora M; Costa, Danielle S; Mancini, Marisa C

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the associations among symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in children and adolescents' performance in household tasks and assistance provided by caregivers. Parents of children from 6 to 14 years old with ADHD (n = 67) were interviewed with the Children Helping Out: Responsibilities, Expectations, and Supports (CHORES) instrument. Significant correlations were found between symptoms of ODD and assistance in self-care tasks (r = -0.31; p = 0.01); symptoms of hyperactivity correlated with assistance in self-care (r = -0.30, p = 0.01); and family-care (r = -0.25, p = 0.04) tasks. Age was directly associated with the number of tasks performed by children and inversely related to the assistance provided by caregivers. A greater number of ODD symptoms resulted in more household assistance from caregivers. Characteristics of ODD symptoms, such as disobedience and hostility in the face of authority, may limit these children in accessing household tasks by their own initiative, requiring assistance from caregivers. PMID:27487371

  9. Objectively-Measured Impulsivity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Testing Competing Predictions from the Working Memory and Behavioral Inhibition Models of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiker, Joseph S.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of two of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes and is associated with myriad adverse outcomes. Limited research, however, is available concerning the mechanisms and processes that contribute to impulsive responding by children with ADHD. The current study tested predictions from two competing models of ADHD--working memory (WM)…

  10. Upregulated GABA Inhibitory Function in ADHD Children with Child Behavior Checklist–Dysregulation Profile: 123I-Iomazenil SPECT Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Chiba, Hiromi; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Croarkin, Paul E.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-01-01

    The child behavior checklist–dysregulation profile (CBCL–DP) refers to a pattern of elevated scores on the attention problems, aggression, and anxiety/depression subscales of the child behavior checklist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of GABA inhibitory neurons in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dysregulation assessed with a dimensional measure. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 35 children with ADHD using 123I-iomazenil, which binds with high affinity to benzodiazepine receptors. Iomazenil binding activities were assessed with respect to the presence or absence of a threshold CBCL–DP (a score ≥210 for the sum of the three subscales: Attention Problems, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression). We then attempted to identify which CBCL–DP subscale explained the most variance with respect to SPECT data, using “age,” “sex,” and “history of maltreatment” as covariates. Significantly higher iomazenil binding activity was seen in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) of ADHD children with a significant CBCL–DP. The Anxiety/Depression subscale on the CBCL had significant effects on higher iomazenil binding activity in the left superior frontal, middle frontal, and temporal regions, as well as in the PCC. The present brain SPECT findings suggest that GABAergic inhibitory neurons may play an important role in the neurobiology of the CBCL–DP, in children with ADHD. PMID:26082729

  11. Performance Monitoring Is Altered in Adult ADHD: A Familial Event-Related Potential Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Albrecht, Bjoern; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert; Brandeis, Daniel; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. Electrophysiological studies in children with ADHD provide evidence for abnormal performance monitoring processes and familial association of these processes with ADHD. It is not yet known…

  12. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  13. ADHD symptoms and attachment representations: considering the role of conduct problems, cognitive deficits and narrative responses in non-attachment-related story stems.

    PubMed

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Bohlin, Gunilla; Thorell, Lisa B

    2014-08-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. PMID:24562639

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... the family develop a plan to improve a child’s behavior. For example, parents can learn to use point ... also help parents find opportunities to praise their child for appropriate behavior. Talk therapy can help children with ADHD feel ...

  15. A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on ADHD and Comorbid Conditions: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2015-12-01

    Research investigating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-occurring disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression has surged in popularity; however, the developmental relations between ADHD and these comorbid conditions remain poorly understood. The current paper uses a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine conditions commonly comorbid with ADHD during late childhood through adolescence. First, we present evidence for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Next, we discuss emotion regulation and its associations with ADHD. The role of parenting behaviors in the development and maintenance of emotion regulation difficulties and comorbid disorders among children with ADHD is explored. An illustrative example of emotion regulation and parenting over the course of development is provided to demonstrate bidirectional relations among these constructs. We then present an integrated conceptual model of emotion regulation as a shared risk process that may lead to different comorbid conditions among children with ADHD. Implications and directions for future research are presented.

  16. Sympathetic- and Parasympathetic-Linked Cardiac Function and Prediction of Externalizing Behavior, Emotion Regulation, and Prosocial Behavior among Preschoolers Treated for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Neuhaus, Emily; Chipman, Jane; Reid, M. Jamila; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate measures of cardiac activity and reactivity as prospective biomarkers of treatment response to an empirically supported behavioral intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Cardiac preejection period (PEP), an index of sympathetic-linked cardiac activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia…

  17. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael C; Reimer, Bryan; Coughlin, Joseph F; Surman, Craig B; Aleardi, Megan; Dougherty, Meghan; Schoenfeld, Steven; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2007-01-01

    Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population. PMID:17263888

  18. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  19. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  20. Gender Differences in Consequences of ADHD Symptoms in a Community-Based Organization for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitulano, Michael L.; Fite, Paula J.; Wimsatt, Amber R.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Hatmaker, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked to disruptive behavior and disciplinary consequences; however, the variables involved in this process are largely unknown. The current study examined rule-breaking behavior as a mediator of the relation between ADHD symptoms and disciplinary actions 1 year later during after-school…

  1. Childhood Symptoms of ADHD Overrule Comorbidity in Relation to Psychosocial Outcome at Age 15: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Norén Selinus, Eva; Molero, Yasmina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larson, Tomas; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) may influence the transition from childhood to adolescence. Our aim was to study long-term psychosocial outcomes of NDPs, focusing on ADHD. Method Data was collected through a telephone interview with parents of twins at ages 9 or 12 years. NDP screen-positive children were clinically assessed at age 15; N = 450. Psychosocial outcome concerning peers, school, internalizing problems, antisocial behavior, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and impaired daily functioning was examined. Results Even after controlling for other NDP comorbidity, screen-positivity for ADHD doubled or tripled the odds of later psychosocial problems. When controlling for parental education level, the significant effect of ADHD remained only for antisocial behavior and impaired daily functioning. Conclusions Signs of NDPs as well as other psychiatric diagnoses at ages 9 or 12 years are associated with a more problematic adolescence. However, despite the presence of comorbidity, early ADHD symptoms stand out as the most important risk factor for later antisocial development and impaired daily functioning. PMID:26360378

  2. ADHD Symptoms and Peer Relations of Children in a Community Sample: Examining Associated Problems, Self-Perceptions, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Henricsson, Lisbeth; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2005-01-01

    This study examined children's peer relations in relation to gender, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associated behaviour problems, prosociality, and self-perceptions, in a community sample. Six hundred and thirty-five 12-year-old children (314 girls) provided peer nominations and rated feelings of loneliness and…

  3. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  4. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies.

  5. The role of maternal and child ADHD symptoms in shaping interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2011-04-01

    The current study investigated the influence of maternal ADHD symptoms on: (a) mothers' own social functioning; (b) their child's social functioning; and (c) parent-child interactions following a lab-based playgroup involving children and their peers. Participants were 103 biological mothers of children ages 6-10. Approximately half of the children had ADHD, and the remainder were comparison youth. After statistical control of children's ADHD diagnostic status and mothers' educational attainment, mothers' own inattentive ADHD symptoms predicted poorer self-reported social skills. Children with ADHD were reported to have more social problems by parents and teachers, as well as received fewer positive sociometric nominations from playgroup peers relative to children without ADHD. After control of child ADHD status, higher maternal inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity each predicted children having more parent-reported social problems; maternal inattention predicted children receiving more negative sociometric nominations from playgroup peers. There were interactions between maternal ADHD symptoms and children's ADHD diagnostic status in predicting some child behaviors and parent-child relationship measures. Specifically, maternal inattention was associated with decreased prosocial behavior for children without ADHD, but did not influence the prosocial behavior of children with ADHD. Maternal inattention was associated with mothers' decreased corrective feedback and, at a trend level, decreased irritability toward their children with ADHD, but there was no relationship between maternal inattention and maternal behaviors for children without ADHD. A similar pattern was observed for maternal hyperactivity/impulsivity and mothers' observed irritability towards their children. Treatment implications of findings are discussed. PMID:20931275

  6. Early Concurrent and Longitudinal Symptoms of ADHD and ODD: Relations to Different Types of Inhibitory Control and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocki, Karin C.; Nyberg, Lilianne; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate how three different types of inhibitory control--interference control within task, interference control outside task, and prepotent response inhibition--and two types of working memory--verbal and spatial--would relate to early symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  7. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  8. AD/HD and the Capture of Attention by Briefly Exposed Delay-Related Cues: Evidence from a Conditioning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; De Houwer, Jan; De Ruiter, Karen; Ajzenstzen, Michal; Holland, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: The selective attention of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to briefly exposed delay-related cues was examined in two experiments using a dot-probe conditioning paradigm. Method: Colour cues were paired with negatively (i.e., imposition of delay) and positively valenced cues (i.e., escape from or avoidance…

  9. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  10. Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Distinct or Related Disorders across Measurement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and…

  11. Brain Activation Gradients in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex Related to Persistence of ADHD in Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible role that functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia play in the persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Method: Ten male adolescents who were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood were grouped into those who continued to meet full…

  12. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  13. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low.

  14. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. PMID:26936058

  15. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  16. Designing an iPad App to Monitor and Improve Classroom Behavior for Children with ADHD: iSelfControl Feasibility and Pilot Studies

    PubMed Central

    Emmerson, Natasha; Ziv, Hadar; Collins, Penelope; Arastoo, Sara; Warschauer, Mark; Crinella, Francis; Lakes, Kimberley

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) receive approximately 80% of instruction in the general education classroom, where individualized behavioral management strategies may be difficult for teachers to consistently deliver. Mobile device apps provide promising platforms to manage behavior. This pilot study evaluated the utility of a web-based application (iSelfControl) designed to support classroom behavior management. iSelfControl prompted students every ‘Center’ (30-minutes) to self-evaluate using a universal token-economy classroom management system focused on compliance, productivity, and positive relationships. Simultaneously, the teacher evaluated each student on a separate iPad. Using Multi Level Modeling, we examined 13 days of data gathered from implementation with 5th grade students (N = 12) at a school for children with ADHD and related executive function difficulties. First, an unconditional growth model evaluated the overall amount of change in aggregated scores over time as well as the degree of systematic variation in scores within and across teacher-student dyads. Second, separate intercepts and slopes were estimated for teacher and student to estimate degree of congruency between trajectories. Finally, differences between teacher and student scores were tested at each time-point in separate models to examine unique ‘Center’ effects. 51% of the total variance in scores was attributed to differences between dyads. Trajectories of student and teacher scores remained relatively stable across seven time-points each day and did not statistically differ from each other. On any given day, students tended to evaluate their behaviors more positively (entered higher scores for themselves) compared to corresponding teacher scores. In summary, iSelfControl provides a platform for self and teacher evaluation that is an important adjunct to conventional classroom management strategies. The application captured teacher

  17. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  18. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  19. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p < .01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  20. Sleep Disturbance and Neuropsychological Function in Young Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather E.; Lam, Janet C.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, ages 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance—including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness—(all p≤0.01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p<0.01). Within the ADHD group, total parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p≤0.01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p<0.01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD, rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  1. The Relationship between ADHD Symptoms, Mood Instability, and Self-Reported Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Health-Related Quality of Life and Family Impact between Children with ADHD Treated in a General Pediatric Clinic and a Psychiatric Clinic Utilizing the PedsQL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbers, Christine A.; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Boutton, Kelly; Ransom, Daniel; Varni, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the perspective of children with ADHD and their parents being seen in a Pediatric Clinic in comparison to healthy children and children with ADHD being seen in a Psychiatric Clinic. Method: Participants were children with a physician diagnosis of ADHD ages 5-18 years and their…

  3. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  4. The human figure drawing as related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perets-Dubrovsky, Sharon; Kaveh, Michelle; Deutsh-Castel, Tsofia; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2010-06-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the human figure drawing test among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or learning disability, boys (n = 136) between the ages of 8 and 10 years, with either or both ADHD and learning disability, were included. Two drawings were used: person and house, tree and person. The drawings were analyzed using the Koppitz emotional and developmental scales. Conners teacher and parent rating scales and the Matching Familiar Figure Test were administered. High intertest reliability for the emotional scale and a significant negative correlation between the 2 scales were found. The reported anxiety and learning were significantly correlated with the cognitive score. A combination of cognitive and emotional items resulted in 67% correct classification of ADHD and learning disability. This test can be used as part of the assessment of ADHD/learning disability. PMID:20332384

  5. Advances in understanding and treating ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive behavioral developmental disorder most commonly seen in childhood and adolescence, which often extends to the adult years. Relative to a decade ago, there has been extensive research into understanding the factors underlying ADHD, leading to far more treatment options available for both adolescents and adults with this disorder. Novel stimulant formulations have made it possible to tailor treatment to the duration of efficacy required by patients, and to help mitigate the potential for abuse, misuse and diversion. Several new non-stimulant options have also emerged in the past few years. Among these, cognitive behavioral interventions have proven popular in the treatment of adult ADHD, especially within the adult population who cannot or will not use medications, along with the many medication-treated patients who continue to show residual disability. PMID:21658285

  6. ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…

  7. Assessing ADHD Symptomatic Behaviors and Functional Impairment in School Settings: Impact of Student and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Power, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine (a) the teacher-reported prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and associated impairment in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents and (b) the degree to which prevalence varied as a function of student and teacher characteristics.…

  8. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth with Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic…

  9. Elevated rates of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Hamoda, Hesham M; Luna, Laura; Rao, Sneha; McClendon, James; Rotella, Peter; Waber, Deborah; Boyer, Katherine; Faraone, Steven V; Whitney, Jane; Guild, Danielle; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe the prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with comorbid ADHD and epilepsy (ADHD+E) and to compare ADHD symptoms in mothers with (Fam+) and without (Fam−) additional relative(s) with epilepsy. Patients & methods Mothers (n = 16) of children with ADHD+E were assessed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children ADHD module and the ADHD Rating Scale IV. Information was collected on the presence (Fam+) or absence (Fam−) of first- or second-degree relatives with epilepsy in the sample. Results A total of 50% of mothers met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. ADHD was more prevalent in Fam+ mothers (80%) compared with Fam− mothers (36%; p = 0.14). Fam+ mothers had more current hyperactivity symptoms than Fam− mothers (p = 0.002), higher current ADHD severity (p = 0.02) and higher ADHD Rating Scale IV hyperactivity scores (p = 0.008). Conclusion The prevalence of ADHD in mothers of children with ADHD+E is elevated in this pilot study, suggesting that ADHD symptoms in children with epilepsy and their mothers reflects shared familial genetic or environmental risks, potentially resulting in a higher prevalence of both disorders among family members. This is a pilot study and larger controlled studies are warranted. PMID:23397446

  10. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  11. Biological and Rearing Mother Influences on Child ADHD Symptoms: Revisiting the Developmental Interface between Nature and Nurture

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Barrett, Douglas; Elam, Kit; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background Families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report more negative family relationships than families of children without ADHD. Questions remain as to the role of genetic factors underlying associations between family relationships and children’s ADHD symptoms, and the role of children’s ADHD symptoms as an evocative influence on the quality of relationships experienced within such families. Utilizing the attributes of two genetically sensitive research designs, the present study examined associations between biologically related and non-biologically related maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. The combined attributes of the study designs permit assessment of associations while controlling for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examining evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE); two relatively under examined confounds of past research in this area. Methods A cross-sectional adoption-at-conception design (Cardiff IVF Study; C-IVF) and a longitudinal adoption-at-birth design (Early Growth and Development Study; EGDS) were used. The C-IVF sample included 160 mothers and children (age 5–8 years). The EGDS sample included 320 linked sets of adopted children (age 6 years), adoptive-, and biologically-related mothers. Questionnaires were used to assess maternal ADHD symptoms, parenting practices, child impulsivity/activation, and child ADHD symptoms. A cross-rater approach was used across measures of maternal behavior (mother reports) and child ADHD symptoms (father reports). Results Significant associations were revealed between rearing mother ADHD symptoms, hostile parenting behavior, and child ADHD symptoms in both samples. Because both samples consisted of genetically-unrelated mothers and children, passive rGE was removed as a possible explanatory factor underlying these associations. Further, path analysis revealed evidence for

  12. YY162 prevents ADHD-like behavioral side effects and cytotoxicity induced by Aroclor1254 via interactive signaling between antioxidant potential, BDNF/TrkB, DAT and NET.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunsung; Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Lim, Yong Kwang; Jung, Jong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ha, Jong Ryul; Chae, Jong Seok; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) has become the primary drug of choice for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, its psychotropic effects severely hamper long-term clinical use. We evaluated the effects of YY162, which consists of terpenoid-strengthened Ginkgo biloba and ginsenoside Rg3, on the ADHD-like condition induced by Aroclor1254, because both components have been suggested to modulate oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which may be critical targets for understanding the pathogenesis of ADHD. YY162 attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in BDNF levels induced by Aroclor1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. YY162 significantly attenuated Aroclor1254-induced ADHD-like behavior and oxidative stress in ICR mice. Furthermore, YY162 attenuated reductions in p-TrkB, BDNF, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression. These attenuating effects of YY162 were comparable to those of MP. Importantly, K252a, a TrkB antagonist, counteracted the protective effects of YY162. Our results suggest that YY162 possesses significant protective activities against ADHD-like conditions with negligible behavioral side effects, and that interactive signaling between antioxidant potential and BDNF/TrkB receptor for the positive modulation of the DAT and NET is important for YY162-mediated neuroprotective activity. PMID:24394491

  13. Ramelteon for Insomnia Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Fargason, Rachel E.; Gamble, Karen; Avis, Kristin T.; Besing, Rachel C.; Jackson, Cherry W.; Cates, Marshall E.; May, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of ramelteon for insomnia in adult subjects with ADHD. Experimental Design For this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 8 mg of ramelteon was given nightly, within three hours of bedtime, to ADHD-insomnia subjects confirmed by DSM-IV-TR, ADHD-RS, MINI, and clinical interview. All subjects underwent two weeks each of ramelteon and placebo. Objective sleep measures were obtained by actigraphy. Subjective measures included: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and ADHD-RS. Principal observations Of 36 subjects entering the study, 58% met criteria for circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD), delayed sleep phase type. During ramelteon period, mid-sleep time, an indicator of circadian phase, occurred significantly earlier, by ~45 minutes compared to placebo period. An association was noted between the magnitude of the sleep phase advance and the timing of ramelteon administration in relationship to sleep start time, but did not reach statistical significance; maximal efficacy was noted 1.5 hours before bedtime. Paradoxically, ramelteon marginally, but significantly increased sleep fragmentation and ESS scores compared to the placebo state. Conclusions Ramelteon is efficacious in maintaining an earlier sleep/wake cycle in adults with ADHD and CRSD but can have paradoxical fragmenting effects on sleep and exacerbate daytime sleepiness. In the presence of a circadian rhythm disorder, the usual dosing and timing parameters for ramelteon need to be carefully considered.

  14. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care.

  15. Genetic Risks and ADHD Symptomatology: Exploring the Effects of Parental Antisocial Behaviors in an Adoption-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Nedelec, Joseph L.; Rowland, Meghan W.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research has examined the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD symptomatologies. Genetic factors are consistently shown to explain a significant proportion of variance in measures of ADHD. The current study adds to this body of research by examining whether genetic liabilities for criminality and…

  16. Parental Involvement Moderates Etiological Influences on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Behaviors in Child Twins

    PubMed Central

    Nikolas, Molly A; Klump, Kelly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although few would now contest the presence of gene x environment (GxE) effects in the development of child psychopathology, it remains unclear how these effects manifest themselves. Alternative GxE models have been proposed (i.e., diathesis-stress, differential susceptibility, bio-ecological), each of which has notably different implications for etiology. Child twin studies present a powerful tool for discriminating between these models. The current study examined whether and how parental involvement moderated etiological influences on ADHD within 500 twin pairs aged 6–11 years. Results indicated moderation of genetic and non-shared environmental contributions to ADHD by parental involvement, and moreover, suggested both differential susceptibility and bio-ecological models of GxE. Results highlight the utility of child twin samples in testing different manifestations of GxE effects. PMID:25263271

  17. Disrupted response inhibition toward facial anger cues in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Köchel, Angelika; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2014-04-01

    This event-related potential study focused on neural correlates of inhibitory affective control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sixteen boys with ADHD and 16 healthy boys underwent an emotional Go/NoGo task with pictures of facial expressions from the categories anger, sadness, happiness, and neutral. The participants were instructed to execute or withhold a motor response to specific emotions. Patients relative to controls displayed a severe impairment in response inhibition toward anger cues, which was accompanied by a reduced P300 amplitude (positive voltage deflection about 300 ms after picture onset). The control group showed a P300 differentiation of the affective categories that was absent in the ADHD group. The pronounced anger-processing deficit in ADHD patients might be linked to their interpersonal difficulties and should be addressed in psychotherapy.

  18. Familiality of Co-existing ADHD and Tic Disorders: Evidence from a Large Sibling Study

    PubMed Central

    Roessner, Veit; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Andreas; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Steven V.; Asherson, Philip; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. Aim: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general. Methods: The study is based on the International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study. The present sub-sample of 2815 individuals included ADHD-index patients with co-existing TD (ADHD+TD, n = 262) and without TD (ADHD–TD, n = 947) as well as their 1606 full siblings (n = 358 of the ADHD+TD index patients and n = 1248 of the ADHD-TD index patients). We assessed psychopathological symptoms in index patients and siblings by using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the parent and teacher Conners' long version Rating Scales (CRS). For disorder classification the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS-Interview) was applied in n = 271 children. Odds ratio with the GENMOD procedure (PROCGENMOD) was used to test if the risk for ADHD, TD, and ADHD+TD in siblings was associated with the related index patients' diagnoses. In order to get an estimate for specificity we compared the four groups for general psychopathological symptoms. Results: Co-existing ADHD+TD in index patients increased the risk of both comorbid ADHD+TD and TD in the siblings of these index patients. These effects did not extend to general psychopathology. Interpretation: Co-existence of ADHD+TD may segregate in families. The same holds true for TD (without ADHD). Hence, the segregation of TD (included in both groups) seems to be the determining factor, independent of further behavioral problems. This close relationship between ADHD and TD supports the clinical approach to carefully assess ADHD in any case

  19. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  20. Sympathetic- and Parasympathetic-linked Cardiac Function and Prediction of Externalizing Behavior, Emotion Regulation, and Prosocial Behavior among Preschoolers Treated for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Neuhaus, Emily; Chipman, Jane; Reid, M. Jamila; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate measures of cardiac activity and reactivity as prospective biomarkers of treatment response to an empirically-supported behavioral intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method Cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP), an index of sympathetic-linked cardiac activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and index of parasympathetic-linked cardiac activity, were assessed among 99 preschool children (ages 4–6 years) with ADHD both at rest and in response to behavioral challenge, before participants and their parents completed one of two versions of the Incredible Years parent and child interventions. Results Main effects of PEP activity and reactivity, and of RSA activity and reactivity were found. Although sample-wide improvements in behavior were observed at post treatment, those who exhibited lengthened cardiac PEP at rest and reduced PEP reactivity to incentives scored higher on measures of conduct problems and aggression both before and after treatment. In contrast, children who exhibited lower baseline RSA and greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on prosocial behavior before and after treatment. Finally, children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on emotion regulation before and after treatment. Conclusions We discuss these findings in terms of (a) individual differences in underlying neurobiological systems subserving appetitive (i.e., approach) motivation, emotion regulation, and social affiliation, and (b) the need to develop more intensive interventions targeting neurobiologically vulnerable children. PMID:23544677

  1. Children with ADHD in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Reid, Robert; Chmelka, Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Daly, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics or functioning of children with ADHD in residential care as compared to their non-ADHD peers. This study evaluated data on 538 children with (n = 125) and without (n = 413) ADHD in residential care to determine demographic, mental health, behavioral, and treatment (i.e., medication use) characteristics.…

  2. A Response to Reviewer Comments Regarding the Manuscript, "Rule-Governed Behavior and Self-Control in Children with ADHD: A Theoretical Interpretation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Leasha M.; Kelly, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors appreciate the opportunity to respond to the issues raised in a review of the manuscript, "Rule-Governed Behavior and Self-Control in Children with ADHD: A Theoretical Interpretation" submitted by Leasha M. Barry and Melissa A. Kelly. Many of the points brought to light in the review are indeed useful for discussion and provide…

  3. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity.

    PubMed

    Costa Dias, Taciana G; Iyer, Swathi P; Carpenter, Samuel D; Cary, Robert P; Wilson, Vanessa B; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2015-02-01

    One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7-12 years), in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in "functional" subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology.

  4. Synaptic gating and ADHD: a biological theory of comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Levy, Florence

    2004-09-01

    To derive a biologically based theory of comorbidity in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Theoretical concepts and empirical studies were reviewed to determine whether the behavioral inhibition concept provided an understanding of biological processes involved in comorbidity in ADHD. Empirical studies of ADHD have shown comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety, while studies of behavioral inhibition tend to suggest independent disruptive and anxiety traits. This paradox can be resolved by an understanding of the dynamics of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems, where reward and delay of reinforcement are determined by tonic/phasic DA relationships, resulting in impulsive 'fearless' responses when impaired. On the other hand, comorbid anxiety is related to impaired synaptic processes, which selectively gate fear (or aggressive) responses from the amygdala at the accumbens. Monosynaptic convergence between prefrontal, hippocampal, and amygdala projection neurons at the accumbens allows the operation of a synaptic gating mechanism between prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Impairment of this mechanism by lowered PFC inhibition allows greater amygdala input, and anxiety-related processes more impact, over the accumbens. In conclusion, a dual theory incorporating long-term tonic/phasic mesolimbic DA relationships and secondly impairment of PFC and hippocampal inputs to synaptic gating of anxiety at the accumbens has implications for comorbidity in ADHD, as well as for possible pharmacological interventions, utilizing either stimulant or axiolytic interventions. The use of DA partial agonists may also be of interest.

  5. Preventative treatment in an animal model of ADHD: Behavioral and biochemical effects of methylphenidate and its interactions with ovarian hormones in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Freund, Nadja; Thompson, Britta S; Meda, Shirisha; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-09-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p.o.) between P20-35 and tested during late adolescence/young adulthood (P60); half of these subjects underwent ovariectomy at P55 to determine hormonal influences. Females with 6-OHDA were depleted of PFC dopamine by 61% and demonstrated increased impulsive choice (delayed discounting) and preferences for cocaine-associated environments relative to control females. Both MPH and ovariectomy reduced impulsive choice and cocaine preferences in 6-OHDA females, but had no enduring effect in Sham females. Ovariectomy itself did not significantly affect impulsivity. Juvenile MPH interacted strongly with 6-OHDA to increase D4, D5, Alpha-1A, Alpha-2A, and 5-HT-1A mRNA receptor expression in the PFC. MPH alone effected D1 mRNA, while 6-OHDA increased BDNF; all markers were decreased by ovariectomy. Together, these data suggest that 6-OHDA changes in dopamine are not only relevant for ADHD-like behaviors, but their long-term modulation by treatment and the influence of cyclical differences in menstrual cycle. PMID:27397110

  6. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa. PMID:19110891

  7. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  8. Parental efficacy and child behavior in a community sample of children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hendricks, Kristy M; Longacre, Meghan R; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Weiss, Julia E; Titus, Linda J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and the presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Sufficient data were achieved for 2,509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n = 240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9 vs. 48.0 %, p < .001) and age 12 or over (16.3 vs. 10.3 %). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR = 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes.

  9. Parental Efficacy and Child Behavior in a Community Sample of Children with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Hendricks, Kristy M.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Weiss, Julia E.; Titus, Linda J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of ADHD youth have obtained data from the perspective of either children or parents, but not both simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent perspectives on parenting in a large community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. Methods We identified children in grades 4-6 and their parents through surveys administered to a random sample of public schools. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent associations between child and parent characteristics and presence of ADHD while controlling for covariates and clustering by school. Results Sufficient data were achieved for 2509 child/parent dyads. Ten percent of youths (n=240) had been diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with those without ADHD, those with ADHD were more commonly male (67.9% vs. 48.0%, P<.001) and age 12 or over (16.3% vs. 10.3%). After adjusting for covariates and clustering, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD were significantly more likely to report lower self-regulation (OR= 0.68, 95% CI=0.53, 0.88) and higher levels of rebelliousness (OR= 2.00, 95% CI=1.52, 2.69). Compared with parents whose children did not have ADHD, parents of children with ADHD rated their overall parental efficacy substantially lower (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.15, 0.33). However, child assessment of parenting style was similar by ADHD. Conclusions Despite the internal challenges community-based youth with ADHD face, many parents of ADHD youth exhibit valuable parental skills from the perspective of their children. Feedback of this information to parents may improve parental self-efficacy, which is known to be positively associated with improved ADHD outcomes. PMID:22886756

  10. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by this very early time period. Methods Secondary analysis of data from children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a large, nationally representative cohort of U.S. children born in 2001. Data include information from birth certificates, parent and teacher questionnaires, and in-person developmental assessments conducted with children at intervals from birth through kindergarten entry. The analytic sample included children enrolled in the ECLS-B at the 60-month assessment (N=6,550). Results Black children in the U.S. were 70% (1 - OR of .30) less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than otherwise similar White children. Hispanic children initially appeared to be under-diagnosed for ADHD. However, their disparity with Whites became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for whether a language other than English was primarily spoken in the home. Analyses of kindergarten teacher-reported classroom behavior indicated that neither Black nor Hispanic children displayed less frequent ADHD-related behaviors than Whites. Conclusions Although they are not less likely to display ADHD-related behaviors, children who are Black or being raised in households where non-English is primarily spoken are less likely than otherwise similar White children to be diagnosed with ADHD in the U.S. PMID:24456307

  11. Cyberbullying Involvement among Students with ADHD: Relation to Loneliness, Self-Efficacy and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Eden, Sigal

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is defined as an intentional online act via electronic media, to harm, embarrass and/or humiliate another person. As adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at a higher risk in being involved in bullying behaviour as perpetrators or victims, the main purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of…

  12. Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part II: Clinical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Brams, Matthew; Childress, Ann C.; Lopez, Frank A.; Manos, Michael J.; Jensen, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood, and FDA-approved medications offer an efficacious treatment option. However, case reports and anecdotal sources suggest that children can have emotional responses, both salutary and detrimental, to these agents. We have previously conducted a comprehensive literature review and…

  13. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  14. A dose-ranging study of behavioral and pharmacological treatment in social settings for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Coles, Erika K; Wymbs, Brian T; Chacko, Anil; Walker, Kathryn S; Wymbs, Frances; Garefino, Allison; Hoffman, Martin T; Waxmonsky, James G; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2014-08-01

    Placebo and three doses of methylphenidate (MPH) were crossed with 3 levels of behavioral modification (no behavioral modification, NBM; low-intensity behavioral modification, LBM; and high-intensity behavior modification, HBM) in the context of a summer treatment program (STP). Participants were 48 children with ADHD, aged 5-12. Behavior was examined in a variety of social settings (sports activities, art class, lunch) that are typical of elementary school, neighborhood, and after-school settings. Children received each behavioral condition for 3 weeks, order counterbalanced across groups. Children concurrently received in random order placebo, 0.15 mg/kg/dose, 0.3 mg/kg/dose, or 0.6 mg/kg/dose MPH, 3 times daily with dose manipulated on a daily basis in random order for each child. Both behavioral and medication treatments produced highly significant and positive effects on children's behavior. The treatment modalities also interacted significantly. Whereas there was a linear dose-response curve for medication in NBM, the dose-response curves flattened considerably in LBM and HBM. Behavior modification produced effects as large as moderate doses, and on some measures, high doses of medication. These results replicate and extend to social-recreational settings previously reported results in a classroom setting from the same sample (Fabiano et al., School Psychology Review, 36, 195-216, 2007). Results illustrate the importance of taking dosage/intensity into account when evaluating combined treatments; there were no benefits of combined treatments when the dosage of either treatment was high but combination of the low-dose treatments produced substantial incremental improvement over unimodal treatment. PMID:24429997

  15. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment.

  16. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  17. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  18. Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Functional Impairment in Clinic- and Community-Based Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lin, Yu-Ju; Shang, Chi-Yung; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 268 patients and 137 community-based children with DSM-IV ADHD, and 268 school controls, aged 6-15, this study aimed to compare the emotional/behavioral problems and functional impairment between clinic- and community-based children with ADHD. Children's ADHD-related symptoms, a wide range of emotional/behavioral problems, and…

  19. Influence of a latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) risk haplotype on event-related potential measures of cognitive response control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2013-06-01

    Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research.

  20. Fluid reasoning deficits in children with ADHD: evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Juranek, Jenifer

    2012-07-17

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in fluid reasoning, which may be related to self-regulation of cognition and behavior, and requires intact attention, working memory, and inhibition skills. No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have directly examined fluid reasoning in ADHD which is surprising given that studies demonstrate a consistent network of brain regions involved in fluid reasoning that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Twenty-two right-handed, non-medicated children (12 ADHD, 10 controls) ages 8-12 years completed a fluid reasoning task during which fMRI data were collected. The primary comparison of interest was activation during the fluid reasoning compared to the control condition. Behavioral data showed that children with ADHD tended to be less accurate with faster reaction times in the fluid reasoning condition compared to controls, and were significantly less accurate in the control condition. Controls activated more than participants with ADHD in the right intraparietal sulcus and the left lateral cerebellum in the fluid reasoning condition. Results showed hypoactivation in ADHD in regions critical for fluid reasoning. These results add to the literature suggesting a role for parietal and cerebellar regions in cognition and ADHD.

  1. Teachers' Knowledge of ADHD, Treatments for ADHD, and Treatment Acceptability: An Initial Investigation. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereb, Rebecca L.; DiPerna, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to explore the relationship among teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), knowledge of common treatments for ADHD, and acceptability of different approaches to treatment for ADHD (medication and behavior management). Relationships also were explored between these variables and…

  2. Folate metabolism gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with ADHD in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Spellicy, Catherine J; Northrup, Hope; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Dennis, Maureen; Morrison, Alanna C; Martinez, Carla A; Au, Kit Sing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation between the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and behaviors related to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in individuals with myelomeningocele. The rationale for the study was twofold: folate metabolizing genes, (e.g. MTHFR), are important not only in the etiology of neural tube defects but are also critical to cognitive function; and individuals with myelomeningocele have an elevated incidence of ADHD. Here, we tested 478 individuals with myelomeningocele for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior using the Swanson Nolan Achenbach Pelham-IV ADHD rating scale. Myelomeningocele participants in this group for whom DNAs were available were genotyped for seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene. The SNPs were evaluated for an association with manifestation of the ADHD phenotype in children with myelomeningocele. The data show that 28.7% of myelomeningocele participants exhibit rating scale elevations consistent with ADHD; of these 70.1% had scores consistent with the predominantly inattentive subtype. In addition, we also show a positive association between the SNP rs4846049 in the 3'-untranslated region of the MTHFR gene and the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype in myelomeningocele participants. These results lend further support to the finding that behavior related to ADHD is more prevalent in patients with myelomeningocele than in the general population. These data also indicate the potential importance of the MTHFR gene in the etiology of the ADHD phenotype. PMID:23227261

  3. Autism-related behavioral phenotypes in an Inbred Rat Substrain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Yang, Li; Middleton, Frank A.; Yang, Lina; Patak, Jameson; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and genetic differences among Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats from different vendors and different breeders have long been observed, but generally overlooked. In our prior work, we found that two closely related WKY substrains, the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats, differ in a small percentage of their genome which appeared to be highly enriched for autism risk genes. Although both substrains have been used widely in studies of hypertension, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression, they have not been tested for any autism-related behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, these two substrains have often been used interchangeably in previous studies; no study has systematically examined the phenotypic differences that could be attributed by their small yet potentially meaningful genetic differences. In this paper we compared these two substrains on a battery of neurobehavioral tests. Although two substrains were similar in locomotor activity, WKY/NCrl rats were significantly different from WKY/NHsd rats in the elevated plus maze test, as well as measures of social interaction and ultrasonic vocalization. These strains were also compared with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a common outbred strain, and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rat model for ADHD and hypertension, which were derived from the same ancestor strain as the WKY strains. Our behavioral findings suggest that WKY/NCrl rats may be useful as a model autism spectrum disorders due to their lower social interest, lower ultrasonic vocalization and higher anxiety levels when WKY/NHsd rats are used as the control strain. Given the small genetic difference between the two inbred substrains, future studies to identify the exact gene and sequence variants that differ between the two may be useful for identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. PMID:24780868

  4. EEG theta and beta power spectra in adolescents with ADHD versus adolescents with ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bink, M; van Boxtel, G J M; Popma, A; Bongers, I L; Denissen, A J M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2015-08-01

    Attention problems are common in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in adolescents with combined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD. However, it is unknown whether there is psychophysiological overlap and/or a difference in electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra between ADHD and comorbid ASD and ADHD (ASD + ADHD), on and off stimulant medication. To explore potential differences and overlap, measures of theta and beta power in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (n = 33) versus adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD (n = 20), categorized by stimulant medication use (57 % of the total sample), were compared. EEG measures were acquired in three conditions: (1) resting state, eyes closed (2) resting state, eyes open and (3) during an oddball task. In addition, performance on the d2 attention test was analyzed. Adolescents with ADHD displayed more absolute theta activity than adolescents with ASD + ADHD during the eyes open and task conditions, independent of stimulant medication use. In addition, only the adolescents with ADHD showed an association between diminished attention test performance and increased theta in the eyes open condition. Results of the current study suggest that although there is behavioral overlap between ADHD characteristics in adolescents with ADHD and adolescents with combined ASD + ADHD, the underlying psychophysiological mechanisms may be different. Adolescents with ASD + ADHD exhibited fewer of the EEG physiological signs usually associated with ADHD, although there was an overlap in attentional problems between the groups. This may indicate that treatments developed for ADHD work differently in some adolescents with ASD + ADHD and adolescents with ADHD only.

  5. EEG correlates of visual short-term memory as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease.

  6. EEG correlates of visual short-term memory as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Iris; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Kilian, Beate; Müller, Hermann J; Töllner, Thomas; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Engel, Rolf R; Finke, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. A reduction in visual short-term memory (vSTM) storage capacity was recently suggested as a potential neuro-cognitive endophenotype, i.e., a testable marker of an individual's liability for developing ADHD. This study aimed at identifying markers of the brain abnormalities underlying vSTM reductions in adult ADHD. We combined behavioral parameter-based assessment with electrophysiology in groups of adult ADHD patients and healthy age-matched controls. Amplitudes of ERP markers of vSTM storage capacity, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) and the P3b, were analyzed according to (i) differences between individuals with higher vs. lower storage capacity K and (ii) differences between ADHD patients and control participants. We replicated the finding of reduced storage capacity in adult ADHD. Across groups, individuals with higher relative to lower storage capacity showed a larger CDA and P3b. We further found differences between the patient and control groups in the ERPs: The CDA amplitude was attenuated in an early time window for ADHD patients compared to control participants, and was negatively correlated with ADHD patients' symptom severity ratings. Furthermore, the P3b was larger in ADHD patients relative to control participants. These electrophysiological findings indicate altered brain mechanisms underlying visual storage capacity in ADHD, which are characterized by deficient encoding and maintenance, and increased recruitment of control processes. Accordingly, (quantifiable) ERP markers of vSTM in adult ADHD bear candidacy as neuro-cognitive endophenotypes of the disease. PMID:26972967

  7. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  8. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  9. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.

  10. Working Memory and Response Inhibition as One Integral Phenotype of Adult ADHD? A Behavioral and Imaging Correlational Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecklmann, Martin; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M.; Dresler, Thomas; Heine, Monika; Boreatti-Hummer, Andrea; Romanos, Marcel; Jacob, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is an open question whether working memory (WM) and response inhibition (RI) constitute one integral phenotype in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors investigated 45 adult ADHD patients and 41 controls comparable for age, gender, intelligence, and education during a letter n-back and a stop-signal…

  11. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  12. How do ADHD children perceive their cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of anger expression in school setting?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anger is an ignored research area in children and young adolescents with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the school setting. This study compares school anger dimensions in children and young adolescents with ADHD and a control group. Methods The subjects were a clinical sample of 67 children and young adolescents with ADHD and their parents, with a sample of 91 children from the community of similar age and gender as control group. Anger was measured by the Farsi version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI). Results The scores of the two components of "Hostile Outlook" and "Positive Coping" were different between the groups. The mean scores for the Anger components did not statistically differ between the children with ADHD and ODD and ADHD without ODD, boys and girls, or different types of ADHD. Conclusion Children with ADHD do not report higher rates of experience of anger and they do not apply destructive strategies more than the control group. However, children with ADHD appear to have a more hostile outlook toward school and their coping strategy is weaker than that of the control group. PMID:20205823

  13. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  14. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  15. Abnormal Striatal BOLD Responses to Reward Anticipation and Reward Delivery in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Emi; Bado, Patricia; Tripp, Gail; Mattos, Paulo; Wickens, Jeff R.; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Alsop, Brent; Ferreira, Fernanda Meireles; Lima, Debora; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Altered reward processing has been proposed to contribute to the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanism underlying this alteration remains unclear. We hypothesize that the transfer of dopamine release from reward to reward-predicting cues, as normally observed in animal studies, may be deficient in ADHD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate striatal responses to reward-predicting cues and reward delivery in a classical conditioning paradigm. Data from 14 high-functioning and stimulant-naïve young adults with elevated lifetime symptoms of ADHD (8 males, 6 females) and 15 well-matched controls (8 males, 7 females) were included in the analyses. During reward anticipation, increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the right ventral and left dorsal striatum were observed in controls, but not in the ADHD group. The opposite pattern was observed in response to reward delivery; the ADHD group demonstrated significantly greater BOLD responses in the ventral striatum bilaterally and the left dorsal striatum relative to controls. In the ADHD group, the number of current hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms was inversely related to ventral striatal responses during reward anticipation and positively associated with responses to reward. The BOLD response patterns observed in the striatum are consistent with impaired predictive dopamine signaling in ADHD, which may explain altered reward-contingent behaviors and symptoms of ADHD. PMID:24586543

  16. Are treatment effects of neurofeedback training in children with ADHD related to the successful regulation of brain activity? A review on the learning of regulation of brain activity and a contribution to the discussion on specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zuberer, Agnieszka; Brandeis, Daniel; Drechsler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    While issues of efficacy and specificity are crucial for the future of neurofeedback training, there may be alternative designs and control analyses to circumvent the methodological and ethical problems associated with double-blind placebo studies. Surprisingly, most NF studies do not report the most immediate result of their NF training, i.e., whether or not children with ADHD gain control over their brain activity during the training sessions. For the investigation of specificity, however, it seems essential to analyze the learning and adaptation processes that take place in the course of the training and to relate improvements in self-regulated brain activity across training sessions to behavioral, neuropsychological and electrophysiological outcomes. To this aim, a review of studies on neurofeedback training with ADHD patients which include the analysis of learning across training sessions or relate training performance to outcome is presented. Methods on how to evaluate and quantify learning of EEG regulation over time are discussed. “Non-learning” has been reported in a small number of ADHD-studies, but has not been a focus of general methodological discussion so far. For this reason, selected results from the brain-computer interface (BCI) research on the so-called “brain-computer illiteracy”, the inability to gain control over one’s brain activity, are also included. It is concluded that in the discussion on specificity, more attention should be devoted to the analysis of EEG regulation performance in the course of the training and its impact on clinical outcome. It is necessary to improve the knowledge on characteristic cross-session and within-session learning trajectories in ADHD and to provide the best conditions for learning. PMID:25870550

  17. Cortical thickness differences in the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with ADHD in relation to dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; de La Peña, Mar Jiménez; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Manuel Recio; López-Arribas, Sonia; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria

    2015-09-30

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) plays a crucial role in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Concretely, recent data indicate that the 10-repeat (10R) DAT1 allele may mediate neuropsychological functioning, response to methylphenidate, and even brain function and structure in children with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the influence of 10R DAT1 on thickness of the prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with ADHD. To this end, brain magnetic resonance images were acquired from 33 patients with homozygosity for the 10R allele and 30 patients with a single copy or no copy of the allele. The prefrontal cortex of each MRI scan was automatically parceled into regions of interest (ROIs) based on Brodmann areas (BA). The two groups were matched for age, gender, IQ, ADHD subtype, symptom severity, comorbidity and medication status. However, patients with two copies of the 10R allele exhibited significantly decreased cortical thickness in right BA 46 relative to patients with one or fewer copies of the allele. No other prefrontal ROI differed significantly between the two groups. Present findings suggest that cortical thickness of right lateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46) is influenced by the presence of the DAT1 10 repeat allele in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26206710

  18. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  19. Substance Use and Delinquency among Adolescents with Childhood ADHD: The Protective Role of Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Belendiuk, Katharine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen’s activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. A sample of 242 adolescents, 142 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and prospectively followed into adolescence, and 100 without ADHD in childhood, were the focus of study. The relations between adolescent-reported outcomes (i.e. substance use and delinquency) and parenting behaviors were tested using latent variable modeling to determine both the effects of general (common) and specific (unique) parenting behaviors for participants with and without a history of ADHD. Adolescents’ report of parental knowledge was a significant correlate of delinquency and substance use above and beyond other parenting variables and the variance in common across the parenting variables. More knowledge was associated with less delinquency and substance use for all participants, but parental knowledge was more strongly associated with alcohol use for adolescents with versus without childhood ADHD. These correlational findings suggest that, despite the increased difficulty of parenting youths with ADHD histories, actions taken by parents and youth to increase parental awareness may provide some protection against behavioral transgressions known to be elevated in this population. PMID:22329747

  20. Music and Sound in Time Processing of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Luiz Rogério Jorgensen

    2015-01-01

    ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal, and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article, we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants of age 6–14 years, recruited at NANI-UNIFESP/SP, subdivided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant’s performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds, and time estimation with music. Results: (1) performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms) were statistically lower than that of control group (p < 0.05); (2) in the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7 s), ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD. PMID:26441688

  1. Adaptive changes related to medication treatment of ADHD: listening to parents of children in clinical trials of a novel nonstimulant medication.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Keith E; Buermeyer, Curtis M; Spencer, Thomas J; Barkley, Russell A

    2002-01-01

    The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have proved useful in providing a common language for diagnosing, treating, and researching the disorder. Despite the utility of current ADHD diagnostic criteria, sophisticated theoretical conceptualizations of the etiology of ADHD have described a much more complex disorder that includes a range of neuropsychological impairments (such as working memory deficits and other executive dysfunction) and underlying structural and functional neuropathology (e.g., caudate nucleus volume, frontal lobe activity). Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, the hallmark triumvirate symptoms of ADHD, may be better viewed as some of the many meaningful symptoms with roots in executive-functioning impairment. Outcomes of brain-imaging studies, public skepticism about diagnosis and treatment, and a demand for meaningful clinical outcomes of treatment point to a considerable need to broaden treatment-outcome criteria beyond the DSM-IV domains. The wide-ranging decrements in adaptive function and quality of life reported by parents of children diagnosed with ADHD further support core executive dysfunction. Emerging findings concerning medication-related improvements in adaptive functioning (e.g., social, emotional, academic), as well as the rapid search for the neuropathology that may underlie these improvements, are fueling interest in the assessment of adaptive function in clinical trials. In a series of ongoing clinical trials of a novel nonstimulant medication for ADHD, many parents reported significant improvements in the lives of their children beyond the DSM-IV criteria. These parental reports, despite their inherent sources of error, underscore the importance of including broader and more meaningful clinical outcome assessment in clinical trials. Research protocols that omit parental interviews that assess adaptive and executive function may well overlook several meaningful and consequential

  2. A Pilot Study of the Feasibility and Efficacy of the Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) Program for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Pelham, William E.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran W.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle; Girio, Erin L.; Pirvics, Lauma L.; Herbst, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) program was developed to address putative factors related to poor engagement in and outcomes following traditional behavioral parent training (BPT) for single mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Twelve single mothers of children with ADHD were enrolled in an initial…

  3. The effects of performance-based rewards on neurophysiological correlates of stimulus, error, and feedback processing in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Keri Shiels; Hawk, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Rewards have been shown to improve behavior and cognitive processes implicated in ADHD, but the information processing mechanisms by which these improvements occur remain unclear. We examined the effect of performance-based rewards on ERPs related to processing of the primary task stimuli, errors, and feedback in children with ADHD and typically developing controls. Participants completed a flanker task containing blocks with and without performance-based rewards. Children with ADHD showed reduced amplitude of ERPs associated with processing of the flanker stimuli (P3) and errors (ERN, Pe), but did not differ in feedback-processing (FRN). Rewards enhanced flanker-related P3 amplitude similarly across groups and error-related Pe amplitude differentially for children with ADHD. These findings suggest that rewards may improve cognitive deficits in children with ADHD through enhanced processing of relevant stimuli and increased error evaluation. PMID:24033316

  4. Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

  5. Acetaminophen During Pregnancy May Up Risk of ADHD in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Acetaminophen During Pregnancy May Up Risk of ADHD in Kids But only association found, and researchers ... their child will develop behavioral problems such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study suggests. Acetaminophen is generally ...

  6. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  7. Intellectual Functioning in Relation to Autism and ADHD Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidding, E.; Swaab, H.; Sonneville, L. M. J.; Engeland, H.; Sijmens-Morcus, M. E. J.; Klaassen, P. W. J.; Duijff, S. N.; Vorstman, J. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome) is associated with an increased risk of various disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between intellectual functioning and severity of ASD and ADHD…

  8. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with lifetime and current illicit substance use disorders and in-site health risk behaviors in a representative sample of Latino prison inmates

    PubMed Central

    González, Rafael A.; Vélez-Pastrana, María C.; Ruiz Varcárcel, José J.; Levin, Frances R.; Albizu-García, Carmen E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore significant childhood ADHD symptomatology, psychiatric comorbidity, rates of Substance Use Disorders (SUD), as well as their association with high-risk health behaviors and adverse health outcomes in prison. Method A randomly selected representative sample of inmates in the Puerto Rico correctional system (n = 1,179) were assessed with the Spanish language Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), the CIDI modules for lifetime/current MDD, GAD and SUD, the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS, PTSD), and self-reports of in-site high risk behaviors. Results Wald χ2 tests revealed significant associations of ADHD with MDD, GAD and PTSD, as well as increased risk for overdosing and IV drug use in prison. A Logistic Regression model adjusted for mood and anxiety comorbidity predicted lifetime SUD diagnosis (OR 2.38; CI 1.15–4.94). Discussion Our results provide evidence on the extent of the association of drug dependence and ADHD symptoms, and their over-representation among prison inmates. PMID:23212598

  9. Is There a Causal Relation between Maternal Acetaminophen Administration and ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio; Hegde, Shruti; Kechichian, Talar; Gamble, Phyllis; Rahman, Mahbubur; Stutz, Sonja J.; Anastasio, Noelle C.; Alshehri, Wael; Lei, Jun; Mori, Susumu; Kajs, Bridget; Cunningham, Kathryn A.; Saade, George; Burd, Irina; Costantine, Maged

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent epidemiological studies reported an association between maternal intake of acetaminophen (APAP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their children. However, none of these studies demonstrated causality. Our objective was to determine whether exposure to APAP during pregnancy result in hyperkinetic dysfunctions in offspring, using a murine model. Material and Methods Pregnant CD1 mice (N = 8/group) were allocated to receive by gavage either APAP (150 mg/kg/day, equivalent to the FDA-approved maximum human clinical dose), or 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group), starting on embryonic day 7 until delivery. Maternal serum APAP and alanine transaminase (ALT) concentrations were determined by ELISA and kinetic colorimetric assays, respectively. Open field locomotor activity (LMA) in the 30-day old mouse offspring was quantified using Photobeam Activity System. Mouse offspring were then sacrificed, whole brains processed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 11.7 Tesla magnet) and for neuronal quantification using Nissl stain. The association between APAP exposure and LMA in mouse offspring was analyzed using a mixed effects Poisson regression model that accounted for mouse offspring weight, gender, random selection, and testing time and day. We corrected for multiple comparisons and considered P<0.008 as statistically significant. Results Maternal serum APAP concentration peaked 30 minutes after gavage, reaching the expected mean of 117 μg/ml. Serum ALT concentrations were not different between groups. There were no significant differences in vertical (rearing), horizontal, or total locomotor activity between the two rodent offspring groups at the P level fixed to adjust for multiple testing. In addition, no differences were found in volumes of 29 brain areas of interest on MRI or in neuronal quantifications between the two groups. Conclusion This study refutes that hypothesis that prenatal exposure to APAP causes hyperkinetic

  10. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘New Forest Parenting Package’ (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with ADHD, fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control.Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior (‘Helping the Noncompliant Child’ [HNC]) in young children with ADHD. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). Results In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP

  11. The effect of child characteristics on teachers' acceptability of classroom-based behavioral strategies and psychostimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pisecco, S; Huzinec, C; Curtis, D

    2001-09-01

    Studied the effect of student characteristics on teachers' ratings of treatment acceptability for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 159) included experienced elementary school teachers who read 1 of 6 vignettes describing a child with symptoms representative of ADHD. Vignettes varied by sex and symptom-subtype classification. However, the number and specific type of symptoms described in the vignettes were consistent across all conditions. Next, teachers read a description of a daily report card (DRC), response cost technique, classroom lottery, and medication and rated their levels of agreement to the items of the Behavioral Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS). Teachers preferred the DRC to all other forms of treatment. However, there was a significant interaction between the type of treatment and sex of the student on the 3 factors (Treatment Acceptability, Treatment Effectiveness, and Timeliness) of the BIRS.

  12. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  13. Diagnosis of ADHD among Gifted Children in Relation to KEDI-WISC and T.O.V.A. Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Kim, Ji-Hye; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 106 gifted children and 71 typical children (ages 6-9) evaluated the correlation between intelligence and performance on the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A). Results found gifted children with ADHD performed better on tasks of omission error, commission error, and response sensitivity than typical children with ADHD.…

  14. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  15. A Controlled Evaluation of Behavioral Treatment with Children with ADHD Attending a Summer Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Tresco, Katy E.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2005-01-01

    Individual treatment response to behavior modification was examined in the context of a summer treatment program. Four children ages 11 to 12 and diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were examined in a BABAB design in which a comprehensive behavioral program was utilized and withdrawn across an 8-week period. Dependent measures…

  16. Music and video as distractors for boys with ADHD in the classroom: comparison with controls, individual differences, and medication effects.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Sams, Susan E; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced significant distraction, particularly for the boys with ADHD, and MPH improved the performance of boys with ADHD across distractor conditions.There were individual differences in response to the music such that some boys were adversely affected and others benefited relative to no-distractor.In a second study, music and MPH were assessed in an additional 86 boys with ADHD to examine further the music results. In the presence or absence of music, MPH improved performance relative to placebo. Similar individual differences were found as in Experiment 1.

  17. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups.

  18. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups. PMID:26251965

  19. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  20. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  1. Qualitative Treatment-Subgroup Interactions in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Adolescents with ADHD: Exploring What Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Works for Whom

    PubMed Central

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Prins, Pier J. M.; Van Mechelen, Iven; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study explored qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions within data of a RCT with two cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for adolescents with ADHD: a planning-focused (PML) and a solution-focused CBT (SFT). Qualitative interactions imply that which treatment is best differs across subgroups of patients, and are therefore most relevant for personalized medicine. Methods Adolescents with ADHD (N = 159) received either PML or SFT. Pre-, post- and three-month follow-up data were gathered on parent-rated ADHD symptoms and planning problems. Pretreatment characteristics were explored as potential qualitative moderators of pretest to follow-up treatment effects, using an innovative analyses technique (QUINT; Dusseldorp & Van Mechelen, 2014). In addition, qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions for the therapeutic changes from pre- to posttest and from post- to follow-up test were investigated. Results For the entire time span from pretest to follow-up only a quantitative interaction was found, while from posttest to follow-up qualitative interactions were found: Adolescents with less depressive symptoms but more anxiety symptoms showed more improvement when receiving PML than SFT, while for other adolescents the effects of PML and SFT were comparable. Discussion Whereas subgroups in both treatments followed different trajectories, no subgroup was found for which SFT outperformed PML in terms of the global change in symptoms from pretest to three months after treatment. This implies that, based on this exploratory study, there is no need for personalized treatment allocation with regard to the CBTs under study for adolescents with ADHD. However, for a subgroup with comorbid anxiety symptoms but low depression PML clearly appears the treatment of preference. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR2142 PMID:26977602

  2. ADHD: Is Objective Diagnosis Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynda G.

    2005-01-01

    Although attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common cognitive disorders, the usual diagnostic procedures pursued by psychiatrists, neurologists, pediatricians, and family practitioners are based largely, if not exclusively, on subjective assessments of perceived behavior. The recommended approaches to ADHD diagnosis are reviewed, first from the perspective of the various expert panels, and then from the research literature upon which those recommendations are based. The authors agree that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis, and that the assessment of subjective reports can be systematic. But they propose that objective data should also contribute to the clinical diagnosis of ADHD; and that new computerized assessment technology can generate objective cognitive data in an efficient and cost-effective way. Computerized tests can also improve the assessment of treatment response over time. PMID:21120096

  3. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  4. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  5. Educational Outcomes of a Collaborative School-Home Behavioral Intervention for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Villodas, Miguel; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; McBurnett, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated educationally relevant outcomes from a newly developed collaborative school-home intervention (Collaborative Life Skills Program [CLS]) for youth with attention and/or behavior problems. Participants included 17 girls and 40 boys in second through fifth grades (mean age = 8.1 years) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. CLS was…

  6. Parental Attributions for Success in Managing the Behavior of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study evaluated the effects of differing intensities of behavior modification and medication on parents' self-reported success in managing their child's misbehavior and the attributions parents gave for success or failure. Method: Children were randomized to receive in counterbalanced orders different levels of behavior…

  7. Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Tang, Deliang; Roen, Emily L.; Herbstman, Julie; Margolis, Amy; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Miller, Rachel L.; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread urban air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material shown previously to be neurotoxic. Objective In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems and prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for postnatal exposure. Materials and Methods Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City were followed from in utero to 9 years. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was estimated by levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- DNA adducts in maternal and cord blood collected at delivery. Postnatal exposure was estimated by the concentration of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites at ages 3 or 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised. Results High prenatal adduct exposure, measured by elevated maternal adducts was significantly associated with all Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised subscales when the raw scores were analyzed continuously (N = 233). After dichotomizing at the threshold for moderately to markedly atypical symptoms, high maternal adducts were significantly associated with the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised DSM-IV Inattentive (OR = 5.06, 95% CI [1.43, 17.93]) and DSM-IV Total (OR = 3.37, 95% CI [1.10, 10.34]) subscales. High maternal adducts were positivity associated with the DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, albeit not significant. In the smaller sample with cord adducts, the associations between outcomes and high cord adduct exposure were not statistically significant (N = 162). Conclusion The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood Attention

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sensory modulation disorder: a comparison of behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M; Schoen, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these disorders in children, clinical ADHD, SMD, and dual diagnoses were assessed. All groups had significantly more sensory, attention, activity, impulsivity, and emotional difficulties than typical children, but with distinct profiles. Inattention was greater in ADHD compared to SMD. Dual diagnoses had more sensory-related behaviors than ADHD and more attentional difficulties than SMD. SMD had more sensory issues, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, and difficulty adapting than ADHD. SMD had greater physiological/electrodermal reactivity to sensory stimuli than ADHD and typical controls. Parent-report measures identifying sensory, attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive difficulties varied in agreement with clinician's diagnoses. Evidence suggests ADHD and SMD are distinct diagnoses.

  9. Behavioral Indicators and Behaviors Related to Sexting among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Heather K.; Fetro, Joyce V.; Ogletree, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empirical studies on sexting are limited, and many sexting studies only assessed sexting behaviors. Few studies have assessed attitudes, subjective norms, or behavioral intentions related to sexting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intentions, and behaviors related to sexting…

  10. Global and local grey matter reductions in boys with ADHD combined type and ADHD inattentive type.

    PubMed

    Vilgis, Veronika; Sun, Li; Chen, Jian; Silk, Timothy J; Vance, Alasdair

    2016-08-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reliably been associated with global grey matter reductions but local alterations are largely inconsistent with perhaps the exception of the caudate nucleus. The aim of this study was to examine local and global brain volume differences between typically developing children (TD) and children with a diagnosis of ADHD. We also addressed whether these parameters would differ between children with the ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and those with the ADHD-inattentive type (ADHD-I). Using an ROI approach caudate volume differences were also examined. 79 boys between the ages of 8 and 17 participated in the study. Of those 33 met diagnostic criteria for the ADHD-C and 15 for the ADHD-I subtype. 31 boys were included in the TD group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The ADHD group had significantly lower global and local grey matter volumes within clusters in the bilateral frontal, right parietal and right temporal regions compared to TD. A significant group by age interaction was found for right caudate nucleus volume. No differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-I groups were found. Right caudate nucleus volume and age are more strongly related in ADHD than in TD consistent with previous research.

  11. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  12. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  13. Family Characteristics of Anxious ADHD Children: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Hayden O.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Method: Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. Results: ADHD families are uniformly less…

  14. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  15. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  16. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  17. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  18. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  19. Differentiating Co-Occurring Behavior Problems in Children with ADHD: Patterns of Emotional Reactivity and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This study examined whether "top-down" and "bottom-up" control processes can differentiate children with ADHD who exhibit co-occurring aggression and/or internalizing symptoms. Method: Participants included 74 children ("M" age = 10.7 years) with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  20. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pauline. S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test…

  1. The Incredible Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD Behaviors: Does It Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Andreia Fernandes; Seabra-Santos, Maria João; Gaspar, Maria Filomena; Homem, Tatiana Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based psychosocial interventions such as parent training programs are strongly recommended as first-line treatment for preschool-age children with or at-risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IY) in hyperactive and…

  2. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  3. Adolescents With ADHD: Experiences of Having an ADHD Diagnosis and Negotiations of Self-Image and Identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sheila; Hesse, Morten

    2014-02-18

    Objective: To develop an understanding of the meanings and consequences of a diagnosis of ADHD for young people during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Method: Nine youth with an ADHD diagnosis were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide on topics of management of identity and their own experiences of their difficulties relating to ADHD. Results: The meanings and consequences of the ADHD diagnosis is best understood in terms of overall identity development and social connectedness. In addition, cultural understandings of what ADHD is play a major role in negotiating the role of ADHD in identity. Conclusion: Youth with ADHD moving from childhood to adulthood need support for identity development. Health care professionals should be aware of young people's experiences of ADHD symptoms in the context of their life situations and the cultural understanding of ADHD during treatment and psychoeducation. (J. of Att. Dis. 2014; XX(X) 1-XX).

  4. Mothers whose children have ADD/ADHD discuss their children's medication use: an investigation of blogs.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N; Lang, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a frame and discourse analysis of Internet blog sites where parents (usually mothers) discuss their concerns about medication use by their children with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). This is a particularly important topic in an era characterized by powerful circulating discourses around the contentious medicalization of, and prevalent pharmaceutical treatments for, ADD/ADHD, as well as the mother blame associated with having a child diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. The findings document that the mothers see ADD/ADHD as legitimate medical diagnoses and view themselves as caretakers of children with brain and neuro-chemical anomalies affecting the behavior of their children. They favor pharmaceutical use and describe themselves as experts in the difficult and complex issues related to pharmaceuticalized parenting. At the same time their adoption of medicalization is contingent as they express specific critiques of some doctors, some types of doctors, and critically evaluate science.

  5. Parental autonomy support moderates the link between ADHD symptomatology and task perseverance.

    PubMed

    Thomassin, Kristel; Suveg, Cynthia

    2012-12-01

    The current study investigated the moderating role of mother and father autonomy support in the link between youth Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and task perseverance. ADHD symptomatology was assessed using a multi-informant composite of mother, father, and teacher ratings, and youth perseverance and parental support of autonomy were examined using a behavioral observation paradigm (i.e., difficult puzzle task). Results indicated that youth who were rated as exhibiting more symptoms of ADHD persevered less on a difficult puzzle task and that this relationship was moderated by parental level of autonomy support. In the context of high parental autonomy support, the negative relation between ADHD and perseverance became nonsignificant. Findings indicate that supporting youth autonomy may have significant implications for their development and that it would be valuable to aid parents in developing the appropriate skills necessary for them to successfully support their child's autonomy. PMID:22569768

  6. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  7. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Miller, Drew J; Derefinko, Karen J; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years. Children were predominantly male (74%) and Caucasian (86%) and in grades 3-7. Results indicated that the UPPS performed well in classifying ADHD subtypes relative to traditional diagnostic measures. In addition, analyses indicated that differences in symptoms between subtypes can be explained by specific pathways to impulsivity. Implications for the assessment of ADHD and conceptual issues are discussed. PMID:21765593

  8. Pharmaco-MEG evidence for attention related hyper-connectivity between auditory and prefrontal cortices in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Franzen, John D; Knott, Nichole L; White, Matthew L; Wetzel, Martin W; Wilson, Tony W

    2014-03-30

    The ability to attend to particular stimuli while ignoring others is crucial in goal-directed activities and has been linked with prefrontal cortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Both hyper- and hypo-activation in the DLPFC has been reported in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during many different cognitive tasks, but the network-level effects of such aberrant activity remain largely unknown. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined functional connectivity between regions of the DLPFC and the modality-specific auditory cortices during an auditory attention task in medicated and un-medicated adults with ADHD, and those without ADHD. Participants completed an attention task in two separate sessions (medicated/un-medicated), and each session consisted of two blocks (attend and no-attend). All MEG data were coregistered to structural MRI, corrected for head motion, and projected into source space. Subsequently, we computed the phase coherence (i.e., functional connectivity) between DLPFC regions and the auditory cortices. We found that un-medicated adults with ADHD exhibited greater phase coherence in the beta (14-30Hz) and gamma frequency (30-56Hz) range in attend and no-attend conditions compared to controls. Stimulant medication attenuated these differences, but did not fully eliminate them. These results suggest that aberrant bottom-up processing may engulf executive resources in ADHD.

  9. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  10. Amplitude variability over trials in hemodynamic responses in adolescents with ADHD: The role of the anterior default mode network and the non-specific role of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Eichele, T; van Wageningen, H; Plessen, K J; Stevens, M C

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance on attention and other cognitive tasks might be a cognitive endophenotype in individuals with ADHD. Despite robust IIV findings in behavioral data, only sparse data exist on how what type of brain dysfunction underlies variable response times. In this study, we asked whether ADHD IIV in reaction time on a commonly-used test of attention might be related to variation in hemodynamic responses (HRs) observed trial-to-trial. Based on previous studies linking IIV to regions within the "default mode" network (DMN), we predicted that adolescents with ADHD would have higher HR variability in the DMN compared with controls, and this in turn would be related to behavioral IIV. We also explored the influence of social anxiety on HR variability in ADHD as means to test whether higher arousal associated with high trait anxiety would affect the neural abnormalities. We assessed single-trial variability of HRs, estimated from fMRI event-related responses elicited during an auditory oddball paradigm in adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls (11-18 years old; N = 46). Adolescents with ADHD had higher HR variability compared with controls in anterior regions of the DMN. This effect was specific to ADHD and not associated with traits of age, IQ and anxiety. However, an ADHD effect of higher HR variability also appeared in a basal ganglia network, but for these brain regions the relationships of HR variability and social anxiety levels were more complex. Performance IIV correlated significantly with variability of HRs in both networks. These results suggest that assessment of trial-to-trial HR variability in ADHD provides information beyond that detectable through analysis of behavioral data and average brain activation levels, revealing specific neural correlates of a possible ADHD IIV endophenotype. PMID:27622136

  11. Measuring inappropriate medical diagnosis and treatment in survey data: The case of ADHD among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Morrill, Melinda S; Parente, Stephen T

    2010-09-01

    We exploit the discontinuity in age when children start kindergarten generated by state eligibility laws to examine whether relative age is a significant determinant of ADHD diagnosis and treatment. Using a regression discontinuity model and exact dates of birth, we find that children born just after the cutoff, who are relatively old-for-grade, have a significantly lower incidence of ADHD diagnosis and treatment compared with similar children born just before the cutoff date, who are relatively young-for-grade. Since ADHD is an underlying neurological problem where incidence rates should not change dramatically from one birth date to the next, these results suggest that age relative to peers in class, and the resulting differences in behavior, directly affects a child's probability of being diagnosed with and treated for ADHD.

  12. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with CBT in Adolescents with ADHD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared to placebo for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method 16-week randomized controlled multi-site trial of OROS-MPH + CBT versus placebo + CBT in 303 adolescents (aged 13-18), meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and SUD. Primary outcomes: (1) ADHD- clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), adolescent informant; (2) Substance- adolescent reported days of use in the past 28 days. Secondary outcome measures included parent ADHD-RS and weekly urine drug screens (UDS). Results There were no group differences on reduction in ADHD-RS scores (OROS-MPH: −19.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], −17.1 to −21.2; placebo,−21.2, 95% CI, −19.1 to −23.2) or reduction in days of substance use (OROS-MPH: −5.7 days, 95% CI, 4.0-7.4; placebo: −5.2 days, 95% CI, 3.5-7.0). Some secondary outcomes favored OROS-MPH including lower parent ADHD-RS scores at 8 (mean difference [md]=4.4, 95% CI, 0.8-7.9) and 16 weeks (md=6.9; 95% CI, 2.9-10.9) and more negative UDS in OROS-MPH (mean=3.8) compared to placebo (mean=2.8; P=0.04). Conclusions OROS-MPH did not show greater efficacy than placebo for ADHD or on reduction in substance use in adolescents concurrently receiving individual CBT for co-occurring SUD. However, OROS-MPH was relatively well tolerated and was associated with modestly greater clinical improvement on some secondary ADHD and substance outcome measures. PMID:21871372

  14. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  16. [Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): current issues].

    PubMed

    Bader, M; Perroud, N

    2012-09-19

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has prevalence between 3 and 7% in childhood and adolescence. As high as 60% of childhood cases continue to have clinically significant symptoms of ADHD as adults. Psychiatric comorbidities are often found in ADHD subjects including, in childhood, emotional, behavior and learning disorders. Psychiatric comorbidities in adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD include mood and substance use disorders. Although may one fear giving psychostimulants to ADHD patients with comorbidities, recent studies have shown the benefits of such treatment not only in the clinical but also in the educational and socioprofessional point of views. Psychotherapeutic approaches should ideally accompany pharmacological treatments.

  17. Mother-Child Communication: The Influence of ADHD Symptomatology and Executive Functioning on Paralinguistic Style.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Rints, Ami; Ethier, Nicole; Moroz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one's communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning (EF) related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits), independent laboratory tasks of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility), and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly) which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability). Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume) for both mothers and children. Mothers' paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers' and children's ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles. PMID:27559327

  18. Mother-Child Communication: The Influence of ADHD Symptomatology and Executive Functioning on Paralinguistic Style.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Rints, Ami; Ethier, Nicole; Moroz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one's communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning (EF) related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits), independent laboratory tasks of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility), and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly) which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability). Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume) for both mothers and children. Mothers' paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers' and children's ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles.

  19. Mother-Child Communication: The Influence of ADHD Symptomatology and Executive Functioning on Paralinguistic Style

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Rints, Ami; Ethier, Nicole; Moroz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Paralinguistic style, involving features of speech such as pitch and volume, is an important aspect of one’s communicative competence. However, little is known about the behavioral traits and cognitive skills that relate to these aspects of speech. This study examined the extent to which ADHD traits and executive functioning (EF) related to the paralinguistic styles of 8- to 12-year-old children and their mothers. Data was collected via parent report (ADHD traits), independent laboratory tasks of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility), and an interactive problem-solving task (completed by mothers and children jointly) which was coded for paralinguistic speech elements (i.e., pitch level/variability; volume level/variability). Dyadic data analyses revealed that elevated ADHD traits in children were associated with a more exaggerated paralinguistic style (i.e., elevated and more variable pitch/volume) for both mothers and children. Mothers’ paralinguistic style was additionally predicted by an interaction of mothers’ and children’s ADHD traits, such that mothers with elevated ADHD traits showed exaggerated paralinguistic styles particularly when their children also had elevated ADHD traits. Highlighting a cognitive mechanism, children with weaker inhibitory control showed more exaggerated paralinguistic styles. PMID:27559327

  20. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  1. Self-Regulation of Visual Attention and Facial Expression of Emotions in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhle, Hans J.; Kinkelbur, Jorg; Andes, Kerstin; Heidorn, Fridjof M.; Zeyer, Solveigh; Rautzenberg, Petra; Jansen, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test if visual focusing and mimic display as features of self-regulation in ADHD children show a curvilinear relation to rising methylphenidate (MPH) doses. To test if small dose steps of 2.5mg MPH cause significant changes in behavior. And to test the relation of these features to intellectual performance, parents' ratings, and…

  2. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  3. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  4. A Clinical Study of ADHD Symptoms with Relation to Symptoms of Learning Disorders in Schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia; Van Meerbeke, Alberto Velez; Reyes, Rodrigo Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible relationships between symptoms of ADHD and of learning disorder (LD) in a population geographically, culturally, and linguistically distinct from previous studies. Method: The authors evaluated a cross section of 834 Colombian schoolchildren for childhood neurological pathologies on the basis of a medical…

  5. Task-Related Default Mode Network Modulation and Inhibitory Control in ADHD: Effects of Motivation and Methylphenidate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Hollis, Chris; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Totman, John J.; Liotti, Mario; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including poor attention and inhibitory control, are at least partially alleviated by factors that increase engagement of attention, suggesting a hypodopaminergic reward deficit. Lapses of attention are associated with attenuated deactivation of the default…

  6. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  7. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2012-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and neurobiological basis of these deficits is less consistently observed. There is growing evidence that boys’ and girls’ brains develop and mature at different rates, suggesting that the trajectory of early anomalous brain development in ADHD may also be sex-specific. It remains unclear, however, whether earlier brain maturation observed in girls with ADHD is protective. In this review, we outline the current theory and research findings that seek to establish a unique neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD, highlighting sex differences in typical brain development and among children with ADHD. The review highlights findings from neurological, neurocognitive, and behavioral studies. Future research directions are suggested, including the need for longitudinal neuroimaging and neurobehavioral investigation beginning as early as the preschool years, and continuing through adolescence and adulthood, with consideration of identified sex differences in the development of ADHD. PMID:19072756

  8. Characterizing the ADHD Phenotype for Genetic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; Asherson, Phil; Hay, David; Levy, Florence; Swanson, Jim; Thapar, Anita; Willcutt, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The genetic study of ADHD has made considerable progress. Further developments in the field will be reliant in part on identifying the most appropriate phenotypes for genetic analysis. The use of both categorical and dimensional measures of symptoms related to ADHD has been productive. The use of multiple reporters is a valuable feature of the…

  9. Do Functional Behavioral Assessments Improve Intervention Effectiveness for Students with ADHD? A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this quantitative synthesis of single-subject research was to investigate the relative effectiveness of function-based and non-function-based behavioral interventions for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition, associations between various participant, assessment, and intervention…

  10. Do Functional Behavioral Assessments Improve Intervention Effectiveness for Students Diagnosed with ADHD? A Single-Subject Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Lee, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this quantitative synthesis of single-subject research was to investigate the relative effectiveness of function-based and non-function-based behavioral interventions for students diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In addition, associations between various participant, assessment, and intervention…

  11. [Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Budziszewska, Bogusława; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław

    2010-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder among children. There are 3 subtypes of ADHD: (1) with prevalent inattentive symptoms (2) with prevalent hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and (3) the combined subtype. It typically manifests itself before age 7 years and occurs more frequently in boys than in girls. It is diagnosed when the hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattention last long, appear at least in two environments and their intensity impairs the functioning of the child. The etiology of ADHD is not well-known but recent studies have shown that genetic factors are of big importance. Also several environmental influences that raise the risk for ADHD development have been identified. Recently, it has been postulated that the reduced activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems play a crucial role in ADHD pathogenesis. It is evidenced by the fact that drugs intensifying the noradrenergic and dopaminergic transmission are the most successful for ADHD treatment. At present, it has been also postulated that the disturbances in endocrine and immune systems are involved in the ADHD pathogenesis. Interconnections between functions of these systems and function of neurotransmitters are better recognized now and show that disturbances in their cooperation can be involved in some psychiatric disorders. In the case of ADHD, most data are related to disturbances in the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In particular, the lower level of cortisol in children with ADHD, especially in the hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD, the disturbance in the circadian rhythm of this steroid and the lack of its inhibition by the dexamethasone have been documented. Many clinical data indicate that in children with ADHD, the psychological stress evokes a weaker activation of the HPA axis than in the control group. Epidemiological and preclinical investigations have shown that the disturbance in

  12. Preservice Physical Education Teachers' Attributes Related to Teaching a Student Labeled ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Rizzo, Terry L.; So, Hosung; Chung, Dong-Hwa; Park, Sung-Je; Lei, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the association between preservice teacher-related variables [i.e., age, adapted physical education (APE) and special education (SPED) coursework, experience teaching students with disabilities and perceive competence] on measures of the "Physical Educators' Intention toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities II-Preservice…

  13. Models of Attitude-Behavior Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, P. M.; Speckart, George

    1979-01-01

    Three replications of a structural equation model for the prediction of behavior are tested, using a questionnaire assessing undergraduate students' attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and behavior. The proposed models supersede the Fishbein-Ajzen theory in their ability to reflect the dynamics of attitude-behavior relations. (Author/RD)

  14. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving.

  15. Examination-Related Anxiety in Students Diagnosed with AD/HD and the Case for an Allocation of Extra Time: Perspectives of Teachers, Mothers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This study details the perspectives of Western Australian teachers, students and mothers on the case for an allocation of extra exam time to students diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Eighteen teachers of students with AD/HD (14 high and four primary), 15 students with AD/HD (10 high and 5 primary), and their mothers…

  16. Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show performance deficits and excessive motor activity during extinction and in situations where no reinforcer can be identified, suggesting an extinction deficit in ADHD possibly linked to dopamine dysfunction. The present study examined extinction of responding previously maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD using three different extinction procedures. Delivery of electrical pulses were terminated altogether or presented independently of responding using two different current intensities. The results showed that more responses were retained in the SHR, especially during the initial transition from ICSS-maintained responding to response-independent delivery of electrical pulses with current reduced relative to that given during reinforcement. Slower extinction of previously reinforced behavior is suggested as an alternative explanation for the frequently observed increased behavioral output that has previously been interpreted as "disinhibition" of behavior in ADHD.

  17. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Behavior: Exploration of Possible Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of…

  18. The Positive Illusory Bias: Does It Explain Self-Evaluations in College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley; Best, Lori; Baker, Leigh; Van Walker, Jerry; Taylor, Nicki Wright

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the positive illusory bias explains the self-evaluations of driving and work behaviors in college students with ADHD. Method: A total of 103 students with ADHD were compared to a sample of 94 students without ADHD. Both groups completed self-reports of their specific driving and work behaviors and then rated their…

  19. Summer treatment programs for youth with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Pelham, William E

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require intensive treatments to remediate functional impairments and promote the development of adaptive skills. The summer treatment program (STP) is an exemplar of intensive treatment of ADHD. STP intervention components include a reward and response-cost point system, time-out, use of antecedent control (clear commands, establishment of rules and routines), and liberal praise and rewards for appropriate behavior. Parents also participate in parent management training programming to learn how to implement similar procedures within the home setting. There is strong evidence supporting the efficacy of the STP as an intervention for ADHD. PMID:25220085

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Profile Publications Donate My Cart About AACAP ADHD - A Guide for Families Skip breadcrumb navigation Getting Treatment Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and ...

  1. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem . About 15% to 20% of kids with ADHD ... art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous continue Alternative Treatments The only ADHD therapies ...

  2. Childhood Secondhand Smoke Exposure and ADHD-Attributable Costs to the Health and Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) have higher rates of behavioral and cognitive effects, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the costs to the health care and education systems have not been estimated. We estimate these costs for school-aged children aged 5-15. Methods: The relative risk (RR) of ADHD…

  3. Managing Students with ADHD in Out-of-Class Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalka, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Many students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) present with behavioral problems that are particularly evident in out-of-class settings (in the lunch room, on the playground, during field trips and special assemblies, etc). Barkley's (1997) technique has been known to help parents handle ADHD children's behaviors in out-of-home…

  4. ADHD & Pharmacotherapy: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, JJ; Glessner, JT; Elia, J; Hakonarson, H

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobiological disorder in children, with a prevalence of ~6–7%1,2 that has remained stable for decades2. The social and economic burden associated with patients3, families, and broader systems (healthcare/educational) is substantial, with the annual economic impact of ADHD exceed $30 billion in the US alone4. Efficacy of pharmacotherapy in treating ADHD symptoms has generally been considerable with at least ¾ of individuals benefitting from pharmacotherapy, typically in the form of stimulants5. In this review, we begin by briefly reviewing the history of pharmacotherapy in relation to ADHD, before focusing (primarily) on the state-of-the-field on themes such as biophysiology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenomics. We conclude with a summary of emerging clinical and research studies, particularly the potential role for precision therapy in matching ADHD patients and drug types. PMID:26366330

  5. Predicting aggression in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study uses structural equation modeling of latent traits to examine the extent to which family factors, cognitive factors and perceptions of rejection in mother-child relations differentially correlate with aggression at home and at school. Methods Data were collected from 476 school-age (7–15 years old) children with a diagnosis of ADHD who had previously shown different types of aggressive behavior, as well as from their parents and teachers. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the differential relationships between maternal rejection, family, cognitive factors and aggression in home and school settings. Results Family factors influenced aggression reported at home (.68) and at school (.44); maternal rejection seems to be related to aggression at home (.21). Cognitive factors influenced aggression reported at school (.-05) and at home (-.12). Conclusions Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of aggressive behavior in ADHD. Identifying key risk factors will advance the development of appropriate clinical interventions and prevention strategies and will provide information to guide the targeting of resources to those children at highest risk. PMID:24860616

  6. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning has been well-documented in individuals with ADHD. Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms of the disorder. Language problems are also common in ADHD, with accumulating evidence of pragmatic language difficulties. Pragmatic deficits are associated with social impairment in several neurodevelopmental disorders. This study systematically examined pragmatic language functioning in children with ADHD and whether social impairment in ADHD is mediated by pragmatic deficits. Method 63 children (28 ADHD; 35 typically-developing), ages 7-11 years, underwent a comprehensive assessment of pragmatic language, including parent ratings, standardized tests, and a narrative task. Parents also rated children's social skills on the Social Skills Improvement System. Results Children with ADHD had poorer pragmatic language skills relative to peers across all measures, even after controlling for general language abilities. Furthermore, pragmatic abilities as measured by parent ratings, mediated the relation between ADHD and social skills. Conclusions Pragmatic language skills are impaired in many children with ADHD and may partially account for high rates of social impairment. Implications for treatment and possible prevention of social problems in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:23682627

  7. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  8. Impact of the Impairment Criterion in the Diagnosis of Adult ADHD: 33-Year Follow-Up Study of Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannuzza, Salvatore; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Roizen, Erica R.; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua, Erin C.; Klein, Rachel G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and impairment among adults diagnosed as having ADHD in childhood (ages 6-12). Method: Clinicians blindly interviewed 121 White males; the mean age was 41 years across the sample. "DSM-IV" adult ADHD behaviors were systematically rated, and impairment resulting from symptoms was…

  9. [Differential Diagnosis of ADHD from Personality Disorders].

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Sadanobu

    2015-01-01

    The author discussed some points regarding the process of differentially diagnosing ADHD from antisocial personality disorder with antisocial behaviors, such as the use of amphetamines, theft, and violence, and borderline personality disorder with eating disorder, self-harming, overdose, and domestic violence. Firstly, the characteristics of ADHD are a lack of interest in criminal activity, cunning, cruelty, or coming from a broken home, which are frequently observed in cases of conduct disorder. The second point concerns the main anxieties and conflicts of those with ADHD and borderline personality disorder. ADHD patients usually do not have anxieties regarding sensitiveness in interpersonal relationships, which borderline patients are likely to have. The characteristic anxieties of ADHD patients usually involve self-reproach, self-deprecation, and self-hatred derived from various kinds of mistake associated with ADHD symptoms, such as a short attention span, restlessness, and impulsiveness. Finally, the author points out that we also have to be aware of the various kinds of identity problem, even in the case of patients with typical symptoms of ADHD.

  10. Severity of children's ADHD symptoms and parenting stress: a multiple mediation model of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; McNamara, Joseph P; Geffken, Gary R; Reid, Adam

    2011-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine the extent to which the perceived self-regulation deficits across behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains seen in children with ADHD explain the association between the severity of ADHD symptoms and parenting stress. Participants for this study included 80 children (mean age = 10 years, 9 months) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by a comprehensive clinical diagnostic assessment. Parents reported their own stress levels as well as the severity of their children's ADHD symptoms, aggression, emotional lability, and executive functioning difficulties. Results indicated that the severity of children's hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms but not their inattention related to parenting stress. Multiple mediational analyses indicated that the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and parenting stress was explained by children's perceived comorbid aggression levels, emotional lability, and executive functioning difficulties. No significant differences in the strength of the mediators were found. The current study provides initial data showing that the perceived impairments in children's self-regulation across emotional, cognitive, and behavioral domains are what parents report as stressful, not simply the severity of ADHD symptoms. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study and shared variance from relying solely on parent report, it will be critical for future research to replicate our findings using longitudinal and multi-informant data such as teacher reports and standardized assessments.

  11. Utility of an abbreviated questionnaire to identify individuals with ADHD at risk for functional impairments

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; Fried, Ronna; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Aleardi, Megan; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Seidman, Larry J.; Spencer, Thomas; Faneuil, Alicia R.; Holmes, Lauren; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discern whether a subset of items from the 99-item Current Behavior Scale (CBS) of behaviorally defined executive function deficits (EFDs) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can identify a group at risk for poor outcome. Methods Subjects were 200 adults with ADHD participating in a family study of ADHD in adults. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of items in the 99-item CBS. Results The one factor solution provided 8 items with factor loadings above 0.70. This abbreviated set of items was highly correlated with the 99-item CBS (0.91) and was similarly related to functional outcomes compared to the 99-item CBS (average correlation of 0.30 versus 0.32). Conclusion For adults with ADHD, a set of 8 empirically derived from the CBS similarly correlated with negative outcomes compared to the 99-item CBS, raising the possibility of utilization as a mechanism for identification of EFDs in adults with ADHD. PMID:17335849

  12. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  13. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.

  14. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. PMID:26595479

  15. Prospective Study of Adolescent Drug Use among Community Samples of ADHD and Non-ADHD Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…

  16. Blood manganese levels in relation to comorbid behavioral and emotional problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Bum-Sung; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-12-15

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to be more vulnerable to the development of other psychiatric disorders than the general population. The proposed neurotoxic mechanisms of manganese involve striatal dopamine neurotransmission, implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD. We investigated whether the adverse impact of manganese is particularly pronounced in children with ADHD. Blood manganese concentration and diagnosis of ADHD were assessed in a general population of 890 children, aged 8-11 years. The main outcome measure was the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A significant interaction was found between ADHD status and blood manganese level in predicting CBCL total problems score as well as anxiety/depression, social problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The directions of the interactions indicated that blood manganese level was more positively correlated with CBCL scores in ADHD children than in the healthy population. In ADHD children, only the fifth quintile of blood manganese concentration was significantly associated with the CBCL total problems score. ADHD children may be more vulnerable than the general school-age population to the neurotoxic effects of manganese exposure, which lead to an elevated risk of developing comorbid mental conditions.

  17. Blood manganese levels in relation to comorbid behavioral and emotional problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Bum-Sung; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-12-15

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appear to be more vulnerable to the development of other psychiatric disorders than the general population. The proposed neurotoxic mechanisms of manganese involve striatal dopamine neurotransmission, implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD. We investigated whether the adverse impact of manganese is particularly pronounced in children with ADHD. Blood manganese concentration and diagnosis of ADHD were assessed in a general population of 890 children, aged 8-11 years. The main outcome measure was the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A significant interaction was found between ADHD status and blood manganese level in predicting CBCL total problems score as well as anxiety/depression, social problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The directions of the interactions indicated that blood manganese level was more positively correlated with CBCL scores in ADHD children than in the healthy population. In ADHD children, only the fifth quintile of blood manganese concentration was significantly associated with the CBCL total problems score. ADHD children may be more vulnerable than the general school-age population to the neurotoxic effects of manganese exposure, which lead to an elevated risk of developing comorbid mental conditions. PMID:25064383

  18. Effect of Micronutrients on Behavior and Mood in Adults with ADHD: Evidence from an 8-Week Open Label Trial with Natural Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia; Taylor, Mairin; Whitehead, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula consisting mainly of minerals and vitamins in the treatment of adults with both ADHD and severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Method: 14 medication-free adults (9 men, 5 women; 18-55 years) with ADHD and SMD completed an 8-week open-label trial. Results: A minority reported…

  19. Relative Prevalence and Relations among Stereotyped and Similar Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkson, Gershon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Relative prevalence of stereotyped behaviors was studied with 246 children and adults with developmental disabilities. Two staff members completed a 54-item checklist assessing stereotyped behaviors, abnormal focused affections, compulsions, rigidity, savant skills, and defensiveness. Factor analyses produced weak evidence for a general stereotypy…

  20. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents' blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breastfeeding history was examined but dismissed.

  1. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G.; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents’ blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breast-feeding history was examined but dismissed. PMID:24462617

  2. ADHD Subtype Differences in Reinforcement Sensitivity and Visuospatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-01-01

    Both cognitive and motivational deficits are thought to give rise to the problems in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In both subtypes one of the most prominent cognitive weaknesses appears to be in visuospatial working memory (WM), which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive (CE). In children with ADHD-C, both STM and the CE seem impaired, and together with motivational impairments, give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM. In children with ADHD-I, no studies investigated these WM components and their interplay with motivational impairments. Effects of a standard (feedback only) and a high level of reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) on visuospatial WM-, STM-, and CE performance were examined in 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive-subtype), 70 children with ADHD-C, and 40 typically developing controls (aged 9-12). In both ADHD-subtypes CE and WM performance was worse than in controls. STM performance of children with ADHD-I was, in contrast to that of children with ADHD-C, not different from controls. STM and WM performance was worse in ADHD-C than in ADHD-I, whereas CE-related performance did not differ. High reinforcement improved STM and WM performance in both subtypes but not in controls. This improvement was equally pronounced in both subtypes. High reinforcement did not improve CE-related performance. Both subtypes have equally pronounced motivational deficits, which have detrimental effects on their visuospatial STM and WM performance. In contrast to children with ADHD-C, children with ADHD-I seem unimpaired on visuospatial STM; only an impaired CE and motivational impairments give rise to their deficits in visuospatial WM.

  3. Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin; English, Joseph S; McClernon, F Joseph; Dew, Rachel E; Lane, Scott D

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

  4. Comorbidity between ADHD and obesity: exploring shared mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Samuele; Morcillo Peñalver, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies suggest an association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. In this article, we systematically review and critically discuss evidence on the prevalence of ADHD in obese patients as well as the weight status of individuals with ADHD. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, PsychInfo, and ISI Web of Science (January 1980 to June 2010). We found that current evidence indicates a high prevalence of ADHD in clinical samples of patients seeking treatment for their obesity. Moreover, available studies show that individuals with ADHD have higher-than-average body mass index z scores and/or a significantly higher prevalence of obesity compared with subjects without ADHD. Three mechanisms underlying the association between ADHD and obesity have been proposed: 1) it is possible that obesity and/or factors associated with it (such as sleep-disordered breathing) manifest as ADHD-like symptoms; 2) ADHD and obesity share common biological dysfunctions; and 3) ADHD contributes to obesity. With regards to the possible clinical implications, our findings suggest that it is noteworthy to screen for ADHD in patients with obesity and to look for abnormal eating behaviors as possible contributing factors of obesity in patients with ADHD. Based on preliminary findings, appropriate treatment of ADHD may improve the weight status of individuals with both obesity and ADHD.

  5. Relations among Student Attention Behaviors, Teacher Practices, and Beginning Word Reading Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Leilani; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using "Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale" behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this…

  6. Autistic Traits in Children With and Without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kotte, Amelia; Joshi, Gagan; Fried, Ronna; Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Andrea; Woodworth, K. Yvonne; Kenworthy, Tara; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the implications of autistic traits (ATs) in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without a diagnosis of autism. METHODS: Participants were youth with (n = 242) and without (n = 227) ADHD and controls without ADHD in whom a diagnosis of autism was exclusionary. Assessment included measures of psychiatric, psychosocial, educational, and cognitive functioning. ATs were operationalized by using the withdrawn + social + thought problems T scores from the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: A positive AT profile was significantly overrepresented among ADHD children versus controls (18% vs 0.87%; P < .001). ADHD children with the AT profile were significantly more impaired than control subjects in psychopathology, interpersonal, school, family, and cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial minority of ADHD children manifests ATs, and those exhibiting ATs have greater severity of illness and dysfunction. PMID:23979086

  7. Inhibitory Functioning across ADHD Subtypes: Recent Findings, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Zachary W.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Although growing consensus supports the role of deficient behavioral inhibition as a central feature of the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD/C; Barkley 1997 "Psychol Bull" 121:65-94; Nigg 2001 "Psychol Bull" 127:571-598), little research has focused on how this finding generalizes to the primarily inattentive subtype (ADHD/I). This question holds…

  8. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  9. Potential Impact of ADHD with Stimulant Medication Label on Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batzle, Christina S.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.; DeVietti, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated how teachers rated children's Behavior, IQ, and Personality contingent on the presence or absence of an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) label. Method: Teachers from K-12 read a hypothetical description of either a male or female child with no label, an ADHD label, or an ADHD with stimulant…

  10. Not Always Hyperactive? Elevated Apathy Scores in Adolescents and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Fernando; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torralva, Teresa; Lopez, Pablo; Roca, Maria; Manes, Facundo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the presence of apathy symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD as a behavioral manifestation of underlying motivational deficits and to determine whether apathy symptoms were associated with a specific neuropsychological profile. Method: A total of 38 ADHD participants (28 of the combined subtype [ADHD/C] and 10 of…

  11. Social Skills and Self-Esteem of College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that up to 65% of children diagnosed with ADHD may continue to display general behavior problems, as well as specific symptoms of ADHD, later in life. In most of the studies, ADHD college students' self-esteem is strongly aligned with their social skills. The purpose of this study was to find directions that will assist…

  12. A Comparative Study of Sustained Attentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    PISHYAREH, Ebrahim; TEHRANI-DOOST, Mehdi; MAHMOODI-GHARAIE, Javad; KHORRAMI, Anahita; RAHMDAR, Saeid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective ADHD children have anomalous and negative behavior especially in emotionally related fields when compared to other. Evidence indicates that attention has an impact on emotional processing. The present study evaluates the effect of emotional processing on the sustained attention of children with ADHD type C. Materials & Methods Sixty participants form two equal groups (each with 30 children) of normal and ADHD children) and each subject met the required selected criterion as either a normal or an ADHD child. Both groups were aged from 6–11-years-old. All pictures were chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral–neutral. Sustained attention was evaluated based on the number and duration of total fixation and was compared between the groups with MANOVA analysis. Results The duration of sustained attention on pleasant in the pleasant-unpleasant pair was significant. Bias in duration of sustained attention on pleasant scenes in pleasant-neutral pairs is significantly different between the groups. Conclusion Such significant differences might be indicative of ADHD children deficiencies in emotional processing. It seems that the highly deep effect of emotionally unpleasant scenes to gain the focus of ADHD children’s attention is responsible for impulsiveness and abnormal processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:25767541

  13. A Cluster Analysis of Personality Style in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Arthur L.; Tzelepis, Angela; Bedway, Marquita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use hierarchical linear cluster analysis to examine the normative personality styles of adults with ADHD. Method: A total of 311 adults with ADHD completed the Millon Index of Personality Styles, which consists of 24 scales assessing motivating aims, cognitive modes, and interpersonal behaviors. Results:…

  14. Identifying, Evaluating, Diagnosing, and Treating ADHD in Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey-Jumper, Heather; Douyon, Karl; Falcone, Tatiana; Franco, Kathleen N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This literature review describes evaluation and treatment of minority youth with ADHD. Method: A search of databases for reports of ADHD in minority children was conducted. Results: Interpretation of behavior varies among parents, as does their trust in health care providers and school personnel. Parents desire to avoid stigmatization…

  15. Avoiding Repetitions Reduces ADHD Children's Management Problems in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalka, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit non-compliance that presents a significant management problem for classroom teachers. Student behavior management training programs suggest that reducing repetitions of commands improves student compliance. To examine this claim, 86 teachers of ADHD students between the…

  16. Development of a New Psychosocial Treatment for Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. Method: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week…

  17. Overcoming Executive Function Deficits with Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph; Reid, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Academic problems are common among students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One reason for academic problems is the difficulties in executive functions (EF) that are necessary for complex goal-oriented behaviors. Students with ADHD often exhibit EF deficits and as a result have difficulties with tasks that require planning,…

  18. Does soy-based infant formula cause ADHD? Update and public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Crinella, Francis M

    2012-04-01

    An earlier article hypothesized a relationship between soy-based infant formulas, manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity and symptoms of ADHD. In this update, more recent literature on ADHD, Mn and Mn neurotoxicity is reviewed, as well as the risks of Mn toxicity that may accompany ingestion of soy-based infant formula. The results of several critical studies are described, including rodent and primate models that demonstrate an association between ingestion of relatively high levels of Mn and: overactivity, disinhibition and inattention; stereotypes and disturbances of social relatedness; and alterations of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and dopamine transporter in critical brain regions. Similar deficits have been shown in children with ADHD. In addition, ADHD-like symptoms of behavioral disinhibition were found to be correlated with Mn content in tooth enamel, apparently deposited at or before the fifth gestational month. The results are discussed in terms of their weight as a risk factor in ADHD, vis-à-vis compelling evidence of genetic, epigenetic and other environmental risk factors associated with the disorder, as well as the appropriateness of additional public policy decisions regarding the safety of soy formula. PMID:22449212

  19. Future directions in ADHD etiology research.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children's development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge.

  20. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  1. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli—pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones—were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm’s standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that

  2. Child AD/HD Severity and Psychological Functioning in Relation to Divorce, Remarriage, Multiple Transitions and the Quality of Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckel, Leila; Clarke, Adam R.; Barry, Robert J.; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Both Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and divorce are very prevalent in western societies, and they may occur together. AD/HD is generally viewed as a neurobiological disorder, which has led to a commonly held belief that social-environmental factors play little role in the symptom profile of children diagnosed with the disorder.…

  3. Do Different ADHD-Related Etiological Risks Involve Specific Neuropsychological Pathways? An Analysis of Mediation Processes by Inhibitory Control and Delay Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli-Pott, Ursula; Dalir, Silke; Mingebach, Tanja; Roller, Alisa; Becker, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inhibitory control (IC) has been regarded as a neuropsychological basic deficit and as an endophenotype of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Implicated here are mediation processes between etiological factors and ADHD symptoms. We thus analyze whether and to what extent executive IC and delay aversion (DA; i.e.,…

  4. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  5. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD.

  6. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD. PMID:27501140

  7. How Many Fidgets in a Pretty Much: A Critique of Behavior Rating Scales for Identifying Students with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Maag, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Article describes behavior rating scales and the difficulties in the use of cutoff scores to identify students as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Also described are how problems with interobserver agreement hamper the validity of rating scales and the subsequent conclusions that can be drawn about students' behavior. (RJM)

  8. The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Deborah L.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3-8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal…

  9. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls.

  10. Classical conditioning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders: a test of Quay's model.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R; Hatch, J P; Borcherding, S H; Rogeness, G A

    1993-08-01

    Quay (1988) put forward a model of childhood mental disorders based on Gray's (1982) theory that there exists within the brain a behavioral inhibition system (BIS), which processes signals related to aversive or punishing stimuli. According to this model, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show lower than optimal levels of activity in this system, which leads to less responsiveness at a physiological level to signals related to punishment. Children with ADHD and controls were compared on a classical conditioning paradigm. Skin conductance and cardiac responses were measured in response to a conditioned stimulus that had been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. There were no differences between the groups, suggesting that, in terms of classical conditioning, ADHD children are equally responsive to signals related to punishment as controls. PMID:8408987

  11. Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration during Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults with and without Attention Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method: The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants…

  12. Spelling Difficulties in School-Aged Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral, Psycholinguistic, Cognitive, and Graphomotor Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Kopp, Svenny; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Writing difficulties are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the nature of these difficulties has not been well studied. Here we relate behavioral, psycholinguistic, cognitive (memory/executive), and graphomotor measures to spelling skills in school-age girls with ADHD (n = 30) and an age-matched group…

  13. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  14. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  15. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  16. Diagnosing ADHD in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Garefino, Allison C.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines adolescent-specific practical problems associated with current practice parameters for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to inform recommendations for the diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents. Specifically, issues surrounding the use of self- versus informant ratings, diagnostic threshold, and…

  17. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  18. Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Musielak, Kayla A; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated morphological differences in the corpus callosum in children ages 8 to 18 years old with nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n = 19), high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 23), predominantly inattentive ADHD (ADHD:PI; n = 23), and combined type ADHD (ADHD:C; n = 25), as well as those demonstrating typical development (n = 57). Midsagittal area of the corpus callosum and five midsagittal anterior-to-posterior corpus callosum segments were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Controlling for midsagittal brain area and age, no group differences were found for total corpus callosum area. This finding indicates that higher functioning children on the autistic spectrum do not have smaller corpus callosi as has been found in previous research with heterogeneous samples. Following segmentation of the corpus callosum, the NLD group was observed to have significantly smaller splenia compared to all other groups. Smaller splenia in the NLD group was associated with lower WASI PIQ scores but not WASI VIQ scores. Children with HFA were observed to have larger midbody areas than children with NLD and neurotypically developing children. Children with HFA and NLD demonstrated behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity similar to the ADHD groups indicating that corpus callosum differences seen in the NLD and HFA groups are not related to these behaviors. PMID:24215424

  19. Preventive interventions for ADHD: a neurodevelopmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T

    2012-07-01

    It is proposed that the time is ripe for the development of secondary preventive interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By targeting preschool children, a developmental stage during which ADHD symptoms first become evident in most children with the disorder, many of the adverse long-term consequences that typify the trajectory of ADHD may be avoided. A dynamic/interactive model of the biological and environmental factors that contribute to the emergence and persistence of ADHD throughout the lifespan is proposed. Based on this model, it is argued that environmental influences and physical exercise can be used to enhance neural growth and development, which in turn should have an enduring and long-term impact on the trajectory of ADHD. Central to this notion are 2 hypotheses: 1) environmental influences can facilitate structural and functional brain development, and 2) changes in brain structure and function are directly related to ADHD severity over the course of development and the degree to which the disorder persists or remits with time. We present experimental and correlational data supporting the first hypothesis and longitudinal data in individuals with ADHD supporting the second. The case is made for initiating such an intervention during the preschool years, when the brain is likely to be more "plastic" and perhaps susceptible to lasting modifications, and before complicating factors, such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, academic failure, and poor social and family relationships emerge, making successful treatment more difficult. Finally, we review recent studies in young children with ADHD that might fall under the umbrella of secondary prevention.

  20. ADHD and delinquency--a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    von Polier, G G; Vloet, T D; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. Until now, it has been unclear whether ADHD by itself constitutes a risk factor for later delinquency or does so only in combination with other disruptive symptoms. This article seeks to give a comprehensive account of the literature to shed light on the developmental pathway from childhood ADHD to adult criminality. Comorbid ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) are significantly related to a range of biological and environmental risk factors such as neurocognitive impairment, high parental psychopathology, poor social functioning, and other comorbid mental disorders, particularly substance abuse, that are described in this review. In addition, the results of treatment studies are presented, with a special focus on the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Although treatment programs, including medication and psychosocial treatment, can be very effective in improving the functioning of children with ADHD in the social and academic domains in the short term, there is no conclusive evidence that such treatments lower the risk for developing delinquency in adulthood. PMID:22371085

  1. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  2. Screening ADHD Problems in the Sports Behavior Checklist: Factor Structure, Convergent and Divergent Validity, and Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clendenin, Aaron A.; Businelle, Michael S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2005-01-01

    The Sports Behavior Checklist (SBC) is subjected to a principal components analysis, and subscales are correlated with subscales of the Conners' Revised Parent Form and the Social Skills Rating System. Both of these analyses are conducted to determine the construct validity of the instrument. A subsample of lower socioeconomic status individuals…

  3. Efficacy of a Function-Based Intervention in Decreasing Off-Task Behavior Exhibited by a Student with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahr, Brenna; Cushing, Danielle; Lane, Kathleen; Fox, James

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a function-based intervention implemented with a student, Shawn, who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behavioral problems, and a speech and language impairment. Shawn attended a fourth-grade classroom in a self-contained school that served students with emotional and behavioral…

  4. Do Delay Aversion and Executive Function Deficits Make Distinct Contributions to the Functional Impact of ADHD Symptoms? A Study of Early Academic Skill Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorell, Lisa B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the distinct properties of executive functioning in relation to ADHD symptoms, as well as functional outcomes associated with ADHD. In line with the dual-pathway model of ADHD, executive functioning and delay aversion were expected to show independent effects on ADHD symptoms. Furthermore, relations to early…

  5. Cultural Variations in Parental Health Beliefs, Knowledge, and Information Sources Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Gary, Faye A.; Mills, Terry L.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2007-01-01

    This study explores cultural variance in parental health beliefs, knowledge, and information sources related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Structured interviews were completed by a representative community sample of 1,615 parents, including an ADHD knowledge and perceptions survey, behavioral questionnaires, and inquiries…

  6. Cogmed Working Memory Training for Youth with ADHD: A closer examination of efficacy utilizing evidence-based criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David; Uderman, Jodi Z.; Chimiklis, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current review applied the evidence-based treatment (EBT) criteria espoused by the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (Silverman & Hinshaw, 2008) to specifically evaluate the short- and longer-term efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) as a treatment for youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method Utilizing a systematic literature search, seven studies that employed the school-age version of CWMT were identified for this review. Results The data reviewed herein suggest mixed findings regarding the benefit of CWMT for youth with ADHD. Two randomized controlled studies have demonstrated that CWMT led to improvements in neuropsychological outcomes and parent-rated ADHD symptoms relative to wait-list control and placebo treatment conditions. Another study demonstrated effects of CWMT relative to a placebo condition on an analog observation of behavior during an academic task, although this study did not find an effect of CWMT on parent-rated ADHD. Finally, an additional study utilizing an active comparison control condition did not find incremental benefits of CWMT on parent- or teacher-rated ADHD. Critical issues in interpreting existing studies include lack of alignment between demonstrated outcomes and the hypothesized model of therapeutic benefit of CWMT, issues with equivalence of control conditions, and individual differences that may moderate treatment response. Conclusions Collectively, the strengths and limitations of the studies reviewed suggest that CWMT is best defined as a Possibly Efficacious Treatment for youth with ADHD. We suggest future directions for research and conclude with clinical implications of our findings for the treatment of youth with ADHD. PMID:23668397

  7. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Carol; Serrano, Cecilia M; Castro, Diego; Leguizamón, Patricio Perez; Heisecke, Silvina L; Taragano, Fernando E

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are core features of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI) and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. PMID:24092982

  8. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandón, Tomás; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Bárbara; Carrasco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic-phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits.

  9. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandón, Tomás; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Bárbara; Carrasco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic–phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits. PMID:24723897

  10. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Ossandón, Tomás; Zamorano, Francisco; Palma, Bárbara; Carrasco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    A cardinal symptom of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the default mode network (DMN). Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN) involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN) related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic-phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produces an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits. PMID:24723897

  11. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  12. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  13. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; D’Onofrio, Brian; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born 1960–1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results ADHD medication was not associated with increased rate of substance abuse. Actually, the rate during 2009 was 31% lower among those prescribed ADHD medication in 2006, even after controlling for medication in 2009 and other covariates (hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.57–0.84). Also the longer duration of medication, the lower the rate of substance abuse. Similar risk reductions were suggested among children and when investigating the association between stimulant ADHD medication and concomitant short-term abuse. Conclusions We found no indication of increased risks of substance abuse among individuals prescribed stimulant ADHD medication; if anything, the data suggested a long-term protective effect on substance abuse. Although stimulant ADHD medication does not seem to increase the risk for substance abuse, clinicians should remain alert to the potential problem of stimulant misuse and diversion in ADHD patients. PMID:25158998

  14. Treating ADHD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    Traditional diagnosis procedures for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may lead to over-diagnosis and are fraught with complications because the target behavioral symptoms are found in a variety of other disorders. Traditional treatments consisting of powerful side effect laden psychostimulant drugs…

  15. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children.

    PubMed

    Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits.

  16. Predictors of teachers' intention to refer students with ADHD to mental health professionals: comparison of U.S. and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-yeon

    2014-12-01

    A teacher's intention to refer students to mental health professionals is important to the early identification of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevention of further problems. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to determine the strongest belief-related predictors of a teacher's intentions to refer students with ADHD symptoms to a mental health professional in the U.S. and South Korea. Perceived stigma and knowledge of ADHD were additional predictors in examining the role of culture in a teacher's perceptions of the public's stigma toward ADHD and a teachers' knowledge of ADHD. Cross-cultural differences exist. U.S. teachers' (n = 235) intentions to refer were predicted by all TPB variables (i.e., attitudes about referral, beliefs about whether important others would approve of making a referral, and perceived behavioral control in making a referral). However, among South Korean teachers (n = 144), behavioral control and perceived stigma were the only predictors. The results imply the importance of considering the cultural context in understanding a teacher's referral behaviors. PMID:24364648

  17. Scope of Semantic Activation and Innovative Thinking in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Holly A.; Shah, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show high divergent thinking on standardized laboratory measures. This study assessed innovative thinking in adults with ADHD using a realistic task and investigated a possible cognitive mechanism for ADHD-related advantages in innovative thinking. College students with and without ADHD…

  18. Learning and Motivational Characteristics of Boys with AD/HD and/or Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Moon, Sidney M.; Hall, Arlene M.; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    A study compared the academic and learning characteristics of three students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), three gifted students, and three gifted students with AD/HD. Giftedness conferred benefits related to specific talents but did not offer protection from the negative outcomes of AD/HD, such as inattention and…

  19. Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; Stupica, Brandi; Owens, Kristian; Sacks, Talia

    2012-01-01

    A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including…

  20. Transgenerational transmission of hyperactivity in a mouse model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinmin; Lee, Kevin P; Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2014-02-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adults. Genetic and environmental factors are associated with the etiology of ADHD. Among the environmental factors, exposure of the developing brain to nicotine is considered a major risk factor. Recent evidence suggests that environmental influences on the brain and behavior may be transmitted from one generation to the next. We used a prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) mouse model of ADHD to test the hypothesis that PNE-induced hyperactivity, a proxy for human ADHD phenotype, is transmitted from one generation to the next. Our data reveal transgenerational transmission of PNE-induced hyperactivity in mice via the maternal but not the paternal line of descent. We suggest that transgenerational transmission is a plausible mechanism for propagation of environmentally induced ADHD phenotypes in the population. PMID:24553919

  1. Transgenerational Transmission of Hyperactivity in a Mouse Model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinmin; Lee, Kevin P.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder affecting children and adults. Genetic and environmental factors are associated with the etiology of ADHD. Among the environmental factors, exposure of the developing brain to nicotine is considered a major risk factor. Recent evidence suggests that environmental influences on the brain and behavior may be transmitted from one generation to the next. We used a prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) mouse model of ADHD to test the hypothesis that PNE-induced hyperactivity, a proxy for human ADHD phenotype, is transmitted from one generation to the next. Our data reveal transgenerational transmission of PNE-induced hyperactivity in mice via the maternal but not the paternal line of descent. We suggest that transgenerational transmission is a plausible mechanism for propagation of environmentally induced ADHD phenotypes in the population. PMID:24553919

  2. Daily Behavior Report Cards with and without Home-Based Consequences: Improving Classroom Behavior in Low Income, African American Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurbergs, Nichole; Palcic, Jennette L.; Kelley, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Daily Behavior Report Cards (DBRC), which typically require teachers to evaluate students' daily behavior and parents to provide contingent consequences, are an effective and acceptable method for improving children's classroom behavior. The current study evaluated whether parent involvement is an essential treatment component or whether teacher…

  3. Gently restless: association of ADHD-like traits with response inhibition and interference control.

    PubMed

    Polner, Bertalan; Aichert, Désirée; Macare, Christine; Costa, Anna; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of inhibition-related functions is one of the most pronounced cognitive deficits found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compelling evidence from studies of unaffected relatives of patients with ADHD and of ADHD-like traits in healthy subjects suggest the continuous distribution of ADHD symptoms in the population. A more subtle inhibitory deficit can also be found in healthy relatives of patients and in subjects with high ADHD-like traits. Here, we examined the relationship between inhibitory performance and ADHD-like traits, for the first time, in a large sample of healthy adults by applying multiple, widely used tests of inhibition-related functions. ADHD-like traits, in general, were independently predicted by Stroop interference score and, at trend level, by go/no-go commission error rate while controlling for socio-demographic factors, verbal intelligence and neuroticism. Additionally, higher inattentive traits were related to worse Stroop performance at trend level, and higher hyperactive/impulsive traits were significantly associated with more go/no-go commission errors. ADHD-like traits were strongly related to neuroticism. The study shows that individual differences in ADHD-like traits are related to variance in fundamental inhibition-related functions over and above effects of negative affect regulation, but the relationships tend to be small. The results suggest the quasi-dimensionality of ADHD and raise further questions about the relationship between genetic factors and the deficit of inhibition-related functions in the ADHD spectrum. PMID:25209569

  4. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  5. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms.

  6. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anne E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Method Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; grades 2–6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; aged 26–59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Results Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at post-assessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically-supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at-risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child’s homework performance. Conclusions Parents at-risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention, but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  7. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, O.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  8. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  9. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  10. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  11. Delay Discounting of Reward in ADHD: Application in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vanessa B.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Musser, Erica D.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A key underlying process that may contribute to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involves alterations in reward evaluation, including assessing the relative value of immediate over delayed rewards. This study examines whether children with ADHD discount the value of delayed rewards to a greater degree than typically…

  12. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  13. ADHD and Writing Learning Disabilities: Overlapping Disorders and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; Cueli, Marisol; Loew, Stephen J.; González-Castro, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the historic evolution of ADHD research up until the present, and explain the actual theoretical models of writing in relation to ADHD and attention. Given the characterization of writing as a recursive process, and in order to show its relationship with attention disorders, examples of applicable writing models are also…

  14. ADHD: 10 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Estimates of children struggling with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary, but the Centers for Disease Control puts the number at a stunningly high 25 percent. Whatever the number, ADHD affects too many children at school, at home, and with their peers, and often persists into adulthood. The cause is as yet unknown, although genetic factors and their interaction with the environment are known to be pivotal. Ten years ago a landmark study showed that the structure of the brains of children with ADHD differs from that of unaffected children. Since that study, enhancements in imaging have given researchers a better look at key hubs in the brain and how they network-advances that could prove useful in the control and treatment of ADHD in both children and adults.

  15. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  16. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  17. Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Faraone, Stephen V; Wilens, Timothy E; Petty, Carter; Antshel, Kevin; Spencer, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosing ADHD in adults is difficult when the diagnostician cannot establish an onset prior to the DSM-IV criterion of age seven or if the number of symptoms does not achieve the DSM threshold for diagnosis. These diagnostic issues are an even larger concern for clinicians faced with adults with substance use disorders (SUD). The present study compared four groups of adults: full ADHD subjects who met all DSM-IV criteria for childhood onset ADHD, late onset ADHD subjects who met all criteria except the age at onset criterion, subthreshold ADHD subjects who did not meet full symptom criteria, and non-ADHD subjects who did not meet any of the above criteria. Diagnoses were by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Drug Use Severity Index (DUSI) was used for self-report of substance use. Cigarette and marijuana use was significantly greater in all ADHD groups relative to non-ADHD controls. Although usage rates of other drugs failed to reach significance, the ADHD groups were more likely to have used each drug (except alcohol) compared with the non-ADHD group. The late onset and full ADHD groups were more likely to have endorsed ever having a problem due to use of cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana and reported more trouble resisting use of drugs or alcohol. The full ADHD group was more likely than the other groups to have reported "getting high" as their reason for using their preferred drug. Adults with ADHD have elevated rates of substance use and related impairment. Data about late onset ADHD provides further support for the idea that the DSM-IV age at onset criterion is too stringent. In contrast, subthreshold ADHD seems to be a milder form of the disorder, or perhaps a heterogeneous group of true ADHD cases and false positives.

  18. Excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with ADHD--diagnostic and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Bioulac, Stéphanie; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Philip, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The links between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep disorders remain unclear. Specific sleep disorders are a frequent comorbid condition associated with ADHD according to a categorical approach. However, sleep disorders can also induce ADHD-like symptoms according to a dimensional approach and are thought to be the consequence of excessive daytime sleepiness. It may thus be difficult for clinicians to differentiate the diagnosis of ADHD comorbid with a sleep disorder from sleep disorders with ADHD-like symptoms. This distinction could be important for the appropriate management of patients with dual complaints of trouble maintaining attention and daytime sleepiness. This paper summarizes the main sleep disorders associated with ADHD: sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorders, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, and central disorders of hypersomnolence (aka hypersomnias). The history of presenting symptoms should be taken into account since ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder whereas ADHD symptoms comorbid with sleep disorder are not. Finally, we propose a model to clarify the links between ADHD, ADHD symptoms, and excessive daytime sleepiness induced by sleep disorders. Clinicians should therefore routinely assess, monitor, and manage the sleep problems of patients with ADHD who have both comorbidities and should search for the presence of ADHD symptoms in subjects with sleep disorders. PMID:26122671

  19. Training sensory signal-to-noise resolution in children with ADHD in a global mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, J; Sagar, R; Joseph, A A; Gazzaley, A; Merzenich, M M

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired focus on goal-relevant signals and fail to suppress goal-irrelevant distractions. To address both these issues, we developed a novel neuroplasticity-based training program that adaptively trains the resolution of challenging sensory signals and the suppression of progressively more challenging distractions. We evaluated this sensory signal-to-noise resolution training in a small sample, global mental health study in Indian children with ADHD. The children trained for 30 h over 6 months in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Training completers showed steady and significant improvements in ADHD-associated behaviors from baseline to post training relative to controls, and benefits sustained in a 6-month follow-up. Post-training cognitive assessments showed significant positive results for response inhibition and Stroop interference tests in training completers vs controls, while measures of sustained attention and short-term memory showed nonsignificant improvement trends. Further, training-driven improvements in distractor suppression correlated with the improved ADHD symptoms. This initial study suggests utility of signal-to-noise resolution training for children with ADHD; it emphasizes the need for further research on this intervention and substantially informs the design of a larger trial. PMID:27070409

  20. Feedback May Harm: Role of Feedback in Probabilistic Decision Making of Adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pollak, Yehuda; Shoham, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Inept probabilistic decision making is commonly associated with ADHD. In experimental designs aimed to model probabilistic decision making in ADHD, feedback following each choice was, in the majority of studies, part of the paradigm. This study examined whether feedback processing plays a role in the maladaptive choice behavior of subjects with ADHD by comparing feedback and no-feedback conditions. Sixty adolescents (49 males), ages 13-18, with and without ADHD, performed a descriptive probabilistic choice task in which outcomes and probabilities were explicitly provided. Subjects performed the task either with or without feedback. Under the no-feedback condition, adolescents with ADHD and controls performed similarly, whereas under the feedback condition, subjects with ADHD chose the unfavorable outcomes more frequently and risked smaller sums than controls. These finding demonstrate the crucial role of feedback in the decision making of adolescents with ADHD.

  1. Physical fatty acid deficiency signs in children with ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sinn, N

    2007-08-01

    Fatty acid deficiency symptoms (FADS) of dry hair and skin, frequent thirst and urination have been observed to be higher in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two studies investigated FADS in 7-12-year-old children; Study 1 in a general population (N=347) and Study 2 in children with ADHD symptoms (N=104). Correlations between FADS and ADHD-related symptoms were found at baseline in Study 1 but not Study 2. FADS did not improve after supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) versus placebo after 15 weeks in Study 2, and were not related to improvements in ADHD symptoms in the PUFA groups. However, FADS did improve in all groups, possibly attributable to the linoleic acid present in both the PUFA and placebo (palm oil) supplements. FADS are not a reliable selection criterion for children with ADHD who might benefit from omega-3 PUFA supplementation.

  2. Enhanced Physical Activity Improves Selected Outcomes in Children With ADHD: Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Song, MinKyoung; Lauseng, Deborah; Lee, Soohee; Nordstrom, Megan; Katch, Victor

    2016-09-01

    This review examines associations between physical activity (PA) and cognitive, behavioral, and physiological outcomes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We reviewed studies on participants ≤18 years old, published in English between January 1998 and December 2014, in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Reviews. Twenty-six studies were grouped into two categories: those that did and did not account for effects of ADHD medications. The first category showed lower levels of PA and improved cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was treated with medications. The second category showed a positive association between PA levels and cognitive and behavioral outcomes in youth whose ADHD was not treated with medications. For both categories of studies, results were inconclusive regarding physiological outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to better clarify the relationship between PA and outcomes in youth with ADHD, and particularly to understand the impact of ADHD medications on that relationship. PMID:27226208

  3. Integration of an EEG biomarker with a clinician's ADHD evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Steven M; Rugino, Thomas A; Hornig, Mady; Stein, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is the first to evaluate an assessment aid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both Class-I evidence standards of American Academy of Neurology and De Novo requirements of US Food and Drug Administration. The assessment aid involves a method to integrate an electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarker, theta/beta ratio (TBR), with a clinician's ADHD evaluation. The integration method is intended as a step to help improve certainty with criterion E (i.e., whether symptoms are better explained by another condition). Methods To evaluate the assessment aid, investigators conducted a prospective, triple-blinded, 13-site, clinical cohort study. Comprehensive clinical evaluation data were obtained from 275 children and adolescents presenting with attentional and behavioral concerns. A qualified clinician at each site performed differential diagnosis. EEG was collected by separate teams. The reference standard was consensus diagnosis by an independent, multidisciplinary team (psychiatrist, psychologist, and neurodevelopmental pediatrician), which is well-suited to evaluate criterion E in a complex clinical population. Results Of 209 patients meeting ADHD criteria per a site clinician's judgment, 93 were separately found by the multidisciplinary team to be less likely to meet criterion E, implying possible overdiagnosis by clinicians in 34% of the total clinical sample (93/275). Of those 93, 91% were also identified by EEG, showing a relatively lower TBR (85/93). Further, the integration method was in 97% agreement with the multidisciplinary team in the resolution of a clinician's uncertain cases (35/36). TBR showed statistical power specific to supporting certainty of criterion E per the multidisciplinary team (Cohen's d, 1.53). Patients with relatively lower TBR were more likely to have other conditions that could affect criterion E certainty (10 significant results; P ≤ 0.05). Integration of this information with a

  4. Unique white matter microstructural patterns in ADHD presentations-a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Svatkova, Alena; Nestrasil, Igor; Rudser, Kyle; Goldenring Fine, Jodene; Bledsoe, Jesse; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI) and combined (ADHD-C) presentations are likely distinct disorders that differ neuroanatomically, neurochemically, and neuropsychologically. However, to date, little is known about specific white matter (WM) regions differentiating ADHD presentations. This study examined differences in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 20 ADHD-PI, 18 ADHD-C, and 27 typically developed children. Voxel-wise analysis of DTI measurements in major fiber bundles was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Clusters showing diffusivity abnormalities were used as regions of interest for regression analysis between fractional anisotropy (FA) and neuropsychological outcomes. Compared to neurotypicals, ADHD-PI children showed higher FA in the anterior thalamic radiations (ATR), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and in the left corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, the ADHD-C group exhibited higher FA in the bilateral cingulum bundle (CB). In the ADHD-PI group, differences in FA in the left ILF and ATR were accompanied by axial diffusivity (AD) abnormalities. In addition, the ADHD-PI group exhibited atypical mean diffusivity in the forceps minor (FMi) and left ATR and AD differences in right CB compared to healthy subjects. Direct comparison between ADHD presentations demonstrated radial diffusivity differences in FMi. WM clusters with FA irregularities in ADHD were associated with neurobehavioral performance across groups. In conclusion, differences in WM microstructure in ADHD presentations strengthen the theory that ADHD-PI and ADHD-C are two distinct disorders. Regions with WM irregularity seen in both ADHD presentations might serve as predictors of executive and behavioral functioning across groups. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3323-3336, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27159198

  5. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-Related Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godin, Gaston; Kok, Gerjo

    1996-01-01

    The literature review discussed here located 56 studies examining 87 behaviors that predicted future health-related behaviors using the theory of planned behavior. About 41% of variance in intentions and 34% of variance in future behavior were explained by the theory. Perceived behavioral control explained 11.5% of variance in behavior above…

  6. High Loading of Polygenic Risk for ADHD in Children With Comorbid Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J.L.; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V.; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M.; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E.; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J.; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D.; McGough, James J.; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J.; Holmans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. Method Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. Results Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. Conclusions Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  7. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  8. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  9. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication and Pregnancy ADHD and Driving Organization and Time Management Managing Money Relationships & Social Skills Marriage and Partnerships ... For more information on organization, see Organizing and Time Management . 5. Career guidance . Just as women with ADHD ...

  10. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring.

  11. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Killeen, Peter R; Russell, Vivienne A; Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R; Tannock, Rosemary; Williams, Jonathan; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD. PMID:19226460

  12. Predictors of Teachers' Intention to Refer Students with ADHD to Mental Health Professionals: Comparison of U.S. and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-yeon

    2014-01-01

    A teacher's intention to refer students to mental health professionals is important to the early identification of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevention of further problems. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to determine the strongest belief-related predictors of a teacher's intentions to refer…

  13. Children's Perceptions of Their ADHD Symptoms: Positive Illusions, Attributions, and Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Malone, Molly; Varma, Angela; Markel, Clarisa; Biondic, Daniella; Tannock, Rosemary; Humphries, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) of their ADHD symptoms in terms of the positive illusory bias (PIB), their attributions for their problem behaviors, and their beliefs about whether their problem behaviors and disorder are stigmatizing. Participants were 152 9- to 14-year-old…

  14. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  15. Shared and Nonshared Symptoms in Youth-Onset Psychosis and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Bingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We compared ratings of behavior and attention problems between youth-onset psychosis and ADHD, two disorders in which attentional impairments play a key role, and examined the effect of psychostimulant use on age of onset in psychosis. Method: Parent and teacher ratings of behavioral problems and ADHD symptoms were collected using the…

  16. Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Effects on Parent-Child Interaction for Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic differences in observed parenting and child behavior and the moderating effects of ethnicity on the relationship between treatment and parent and child behavior. Method: Observations of 508 children with ADHD (ages 7-9) and their caregivers, collected during the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD, were analyzed using…

  17. Are Endophenotypes Based on Measures of Executive Functions Useful for Molecular Genetic Studies of ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Alysa E.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Nigg, Joel T.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Peart, Joanne; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Background: Behavioral genetic studies provide strong evidence that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a substantial genetic component. Yet, due to the complexity of the ADHD phenotype, questions remain as to the specific genes that contribute to this condition as well as the pathways from genes to behavior. Endophenotypes, or…

  18. Treatment Response to an Intensive Summer Treatment Program for Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Smith, Bradley H.; Evans, Steven W.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There are presently almost no empirically validated treatments for adolescents with ADHD. However, in childhood, behavioral treatments for ADHD typically include behavioral parent training, classroom interventions, and intensive child-directed interventions. Method: The present investigation examines treatment gains following an 8-week…

  19. Is Game Behavior Related to Behavior in Any Other Situation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTavish, Jeanne

    This paper begins by reviewing previous research concerning the external validity of mixed-motive games as models of international conflict, interpersonal behavior, and behavior in large-scale social dilemmas. Two further experiments are then described, both of which cast further doubt upon the usefulness of such games as models of any real-world…

  20. Training cognition in ADHD: current findings, borrowed concepts, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Kyle J; van den Bos, Wouter; McClure, Samuel M; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    With both its high prevalence and myriad of negative outcomes, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demands a careful consideration of the efficacy of its treatment options. Although the benefits of medication have a robust empirical background, nonpharmaceutical interventions evoke particular interest, as they are often viewed more favorably by parents. This review pays special attention to the use of working memory and recent cognitive training attempts in ADHD, describing its cognitive, behavioral, and biological effects in relation to current neurological theory of the disorder. While these treatments have demonstrated positive effects on some measures, there are limitations, as studies have failed to demonstrate generalization to critical measures, such as teacher-rated classroom behaviors, and have provided limited but growing evidence of functionally significant improvements in behavior. There is also a clear lack of research on the effects of training on reward systems and self-control. These limitations may be addressed by broadening the scope and procedures of the training and incorporating research concepts from other fields of study. First, it is important to consider the developmental trajectories of brain regions in individuals with the disorder, as they may relate to the effectiveness of cognitive training. Notions from behavioral economics, including delay discounting and framing (i.e., context) manipulations that influence present orientation, also have applications in the study of cognitive training in ADHD. In considering these other domains, we may find new ways to conceptualize and enhance cognitive training in ADHD and, in turn, address current limitations of interventions that fall in this category.

  1. Training cognition in ADHD: current findings, borrowed concepts, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Kyle J; van den Bos, Wouter; McClure, Samuel M; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    With both its high prevalence and myriad of negative outcomes, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demands a careful consideration of the efficacy of its treatment options. Although the benefits of medication have a robust empirical background, nonpharmaceutical interventions evoke particular interest, as they are often viewed more favorably by parents. This review pays special attention to the use of working memory and recent cognitive training attempts in ADHD, describing its cognitive, behavioral, and biological effects in relation to current neurological theory of the disorder. While these treatments have demonstrated positive effects on some measures, there are limitations, as studies have failed to demonstrate generalization to critical measures, such as teacher-rated classroom behaviors, and have provided limited but growing evidence of functionally significant improvements in behavior. There is also a clear lack of research on the effects of training on reward systems and self-control. These limitations may be addressed by broadening the scope and procedures of the training and incorporating research concepts from other fields of study. First, it is important to consider the developmental trajectories of brain regions in individuals with the disorder, as they may relate to the effectiveness of cognitive training. Notions from behavioral economics, including delay discounting and framing (i.e., context) manipulations that influence present orientation, also have applications in the study of cognitive training in ADHD. In considering these other domains, we may find new ways to conceptualize and enhance cognitive training in ADHD and, in turn, address current limitations of interventions that fall in this category. PMID:22911054

  2. Effects of Environmental Stimulation on Students Demonstrating Behaviors Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.; Miller, Faith

    2013-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often interfere with students' and their classmates' learning, and interventions targeting these behaviors may be particularly important in schools. This article reviews studies in which researchers manipulated environmental stimulation during task presentation…

  3. Behavioral Economic Factors Related to Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Greenwald, Mark K

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral economics (BE) suggests that food and activity choices are governed by costs, available alternatives, and reinforcement. This article reviews basic, translational, and intervention research using a BE framework with overweight or obese children up to age 18. We address BE concepts and methods, and discuss developmental issues, the continuum of BE intervention approaches, findings of studies focused on increasing the cost of unwanted behaviors (ie, energy-dense food intake and sedentary behavior) and decreasing the cost of desired behaviors (ie, healthy food intake and PA), and our team's recent basic behavioral studies using BE approaches with minority adolescents. PMID:27261543

  4. ADHD treatment and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Besag, Frank M C

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that ADHD is a common condition, not only in children and teenagers but also in adults. This has led to a rapid rise in the number of women of childbearing age who are being treated for this condition. Against the background of concerns about the use of medication of any kind during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it is remarkable that there is so little information available on the effects of ADHD medication on the fetus and newborn. The impulsivity associated with ADHD might lead to an increased rate of unplanned pregnancy. Although treating ADHD during pregnancy and lactation might have negative effects on the baby, suspension of treatment or inadequate treatment could also place both mother and baby at risk. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy could affect both the efficacy and the concentration of medication. Again, there is almost no guidance available. The US Food and Drug Administration has classified ADHD medications as being "pregnancy category C", implying that there is insufficient information to confirm either harm or lack of harm. From the limited information that has been published, it would appear that the risk of fetal malformation, at least with methylphenidate, is very low and that the amounts of medication excreted in breast milk and consumed by the infant are very small. Three questions that both clinicians and patients are likely to ask are the following. Should ADHD medication be stopped before, during or after pregnancy, or should it be continued throughout? Should ADHD medication doses be adjusted during the course of the pregnancy or after delivery? Should breastfeeding be encouraged or discouraged? Discontinuing ADHD treatment could put both mother and baby at risk. This has to be balanced against the possible risks to the baby of continuing treatment. Although the data remain inadequate, the risk of the latter appears to be quite small, at least for methylphenidate. However, there is

  5. Meta-Analysis of Suicide-Related Behavior Events in Patients Treated with Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Mark E.; Tauscher-Wisniewski, Sitra; Polzer, John; Zhang, Shuyu; Acharya, Nayan; Desaiah, Durisala; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Allen, Albert J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine suicide-related events in acute, double-blind, and placebo controlled trials with atomoxetine is conducted. Results conclude that the incidences of suicide were more frequent in children suffering from ADHD treated with atomoxetine as compared to those treated with placebo.

  6. The role of the thalamus in ADHD symptomatology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Teresa; Joyce, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disorder with symptoms of inattention and impulsivity that partially remit with age. A review of longitudinal studies of children and adolescents with ADHD showed that the majority will have continued cognitive and functional impairments into adulthood. The thalamus likely plays a prominent role in ADHD symptomatology, based on evidence that the thalamus generates waking-state electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms along with extensive thalamic neural circuitry connections with cortical and subcortical areas. Research demonstrates a specific abnormality in the thalamic pulvinar nucleus in ADHD populations. The thalamus can also play a role in ADHD treatment, based on solid evidence that both animals and humans can learn to self-regulate EEG oscillations. Given the underarousal and sleep disturbance commonly seen in ADHD, along with data that indicate an increased dosage of ADHD medication may improve behavioral control at a cost of lowered cognitive functioning, further investigation of the role for self-regulation through EEG training is warranted. PMID:25748775

  7. Are Teachers' Beliefs Related to Their Preferences for ADHD Interventions? Comparing Teachers in the United States and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Moore, Dennis W.; Pisecco, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their preferences for classroom interventions for behaviours consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, effectiveness, and rate of change were compared across United States and New Zealand samples.…

  8. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  9. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

  10. Promoting Family and School Success for Children With ADHD: Strengthening Relationships While Building Skills

    PubMed Central

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with ADHD typically experience significant impairment at home and school, and their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers often are strained. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD generally focus on behavior change in one environment at a time (i.e., either home or school); however, unisystemic interventions generally are not sufficient. The purpose of this article is to describe a family–school intervention for children with ADHD. In addition, program strategies and theoretical bases are discussed. PMID:22013285

  11. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives.

  12. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-12-01

    College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity. PMID:25610821

  13. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and health-related physical fitness in university students.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-12-01

    College students with a tendency toward attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to act impulsively because they cannot control their behavior. They display low academic achievement and insufficient social skills, and are at high risk for alcoholism and drug abuse. Although various intervention methods have been used to reduce ADHD tendency (e.g., improving physical fitness and participating in sports and exercise), there are few studies on the relationship between ADHD and health-related physical fitness. Accordingly, this study explored the relationship between ADHD symptoms in college students and physical fitness. We measured health-related physical fitness and ADHD in 86 male college students using a self-report rating scale. The results showed the following. First, a significant relationship was found between ADHD tendency and inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and abdominal fat. Push-ups were associated with ADHD tendency and the inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept subtests. Grip strength was significantly related to inattention/memory problems. Second, risk factors for ADHD tendency significantly increased for male college students with low muscular strength and endurance relative to those with greater muscular strength and endurance. Risk factors also significantly increased for male college students with high rates of abdominal obesity.

  14. Guilt and help from friends: variables related to healthy behavior.

    PubMed

    Birkimer, J C; Johnston, P L; Berry, M M

    1993-10-01

    American college students' self-reported status regarding 13 health-related behaviors, and several potential predictors of healthy behavior were assessed. Healthy behaviors were, at best, weakly related to being informed about or agreeing with a rule that the unhealthy alternatives were dangerous. Healthy behaviors were more strongly related to reports that guilty feelings would result from choosing the unhealthy alternatives and that friends would help with the healthy behaviors. Higher levels of reported self-control also predicted healthier behavior. PMID:8283862

  15. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  16. Relations among Functional Systems in Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Travis

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes that an organism's integrated repertoire of operant behavior has the status of a biological system, similar to other biological systems, like the nervous, cardiovascular, or immune systems. Evidence from a number of sources indicates that the distinctions between biological and behavioral events is often misleading, engendering…

  17. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ADHD: possible causes and the potential of antioxidant-targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Lopresti, Adrian L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a complex aetiology although theories associated with disturbances in dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity are most commonly cited. The importance of these catecholamines in ADHD is supported by its effective treatment utilising stimulant and non-stimulant medications that modify their activity. Recently, there has been interest in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) in ADHD and its potential to contribute to this condition. In this article, research investigating O&NS in ADHD is reviewed and its impact on catecholaminergic activity and neurological structure is discussed. Lifestyle, environmental, psychological and nutritional influences on O&NS in people with ADHD are reviewed, and evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidant-related therapies is assessed. A selection of interventions with antioxidant mechanisms is presented as potential options for the treatment of ADHD. However, further research is required to help elucidate the role of O&NS and antioxidants for the prevention and management of ADHD.

  18. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on go/no-go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8-12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD.

  19. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosch, Keri S.; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on Go/No-Go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8–12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD. PMID:26141238

  20. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on go/no-go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8-12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD. PMID:26141238