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Sample records for adhd-combined type adhd-c

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetric Analysis of the Putamen in Children with ADHD: Combined Type versus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Tasha McMahon; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Gregory, Amanda Louise; Murphy, Jennifer Mary; Lancaster, Jack Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Volumetric differences in the putamen of boys with ADHD combined subtype with psychopathic traits and controls are investigated. Method: The putamen in 24 archival magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 boys in residential treatment with symptoms of ADHD and psychopathic traits and 12 community control boys are analyzed using Display…

  2. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  3. Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I.

  4. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  5. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. Results All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. PMID:26673612

  6. Motor Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulardins, Juliana B.; Marques, Juliana C. Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B.; Nascimento, Roseane O.; Oliveira, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the motor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Method: The case group consisted of 34 treatment-naive, male patients, aged 7-11 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, without comorbidities (except oppositional defiant disorder). The…

  7. Executive Functioning in Children with Asperger Syndrome, ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Predominately Inattentive Type, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control,…

  8. Executive functioning in children with Asperger syndrome, ADHD-combined type, ADHD-predominately inattentive type, and controls.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Butcher, Brianne

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychological and behavioral rating measures of executive functions (EF) in children with two subtypes of ADHD, Asperger syndrome (AS), and controls. Relative to the control group, the clinical groups experienced more difficulty in EF. The AS group showed the most difficulty in emotional control, behavioral regulation, fluid reasoning, and planning compared to the ADHD groups. Number of symptoms of ADHD or AS was found to be significantly related to ratings of difficulty with behavior regulation, metacognition, and general behavioral regulation across the sample. These findings indicate that children with AS or ADHD may have a differing EF profile and thus, may respond differentially to interventions.

  9. Family Psychiatric History Evidence on the Nosological Relations of DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes: New Data and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stawicki, Julie Ann; Nigg, Joel T.; Von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Background: A key issue in the nosology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has concerned whether the DSM-IV combined (ADHD-C) and primarily inattentive (ADHD-PI) subtypes are in fact distinct disorders, or instead are fairly closely related, perhaps differing only in severity. Pertinent to this question, but in short supply, are…

  10. Basic number processing deficits in ADHD: a broad examination of elementary and complex number processing skills in 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-C.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-09-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with ADHD-combined type and matched children without ADHD (of any type) without concomitant dyscalculia and/or dyslexia. Overall, group differences were not significant regarding overlearned and explicitly trained simple and complex calculation skills. More basic number processing skills are - for instance - the ability to compare one-digit numbers according to their magnitude (so-called magnitude comparison), to count or to transcode numbers, i.e. to write down an Arabic number '21' in verbal dictation. Significant differences favouring control children in basic number processing skills were obtained in a number comparison task and in a dot enumeration task. Importantly, our results cannot be explained by group differences regarding specific working memory and executive function components. Thus, number processing skills and in particular the processing of numerical magnitude should be investigated in children diagnosed with ADHD even when no comorbid learning disabilities are reported.

  11. Cerebellar Gray Matter Density in Females with ADHD Combined Type: A Cross-Sectional Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; De la Torre, Lazaro Barajas; Prado Alcantara, Hugo; Martinez Garcia, Reyna Beatriz; Avila Acosta, David; Fernandez Bouzas, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background: MRI studies have shown a decreased cerebellum volume in individuals with ADHD. However, most of these studies were conducted with male children, many of whom were medicated with stimulants. As such, unmedicated, non-White girls are underrepresented in such MRI studies. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the density…

  12. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  13. Rejection Sensitivity and Social Outcomes of Young Adult Men with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…

  14. Evidence for Specificity of ERP Abnormalities during Response Inhibition in ADHD Children: A Comparison with Reading Disorder Children without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liotti, Mario; Pliszka, Steven R.; Higgins, Kellie; Perez, Ricardo, III; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Executive function and working memory deficits are not only present in ADHD, but also in reading disorder (RD). Here, high-density ERPs were recorded during the Stop Signal Task in 53 children and adolescents: An ADHD-combined type group, a group with RD, and a healthy control group. The ADHD-C group displayed unique abnormalities of the frontal…

  15. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  16. Balance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hsun-Ying; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Yang, Ai-Lun; Su, Chia-Ting

    2014-06-01

    The balance ability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) has not been fully examined, particularly dynamic sitting balance. Moreover, the findings of some published studies are contradictory. We examined the static and dynamic sitting balance ability in 20 children with ADHD-C (mean age: 9 years 3 months; 18 boys, 2 girls) and 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-, and IQ-matched healthy and typically developing controls (mean age: 9 years 2 months; 18 boys, 2 girls). The balance subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) were used to compare the two groups, and a mechanical horseback riding test was recorded using a motion-capture system. Compared with the controls, children with ADHD-C had less-consistent patterns of movement, more deviation of movement area, and less-effective balance strategies during mechanical horseback riding. In addition, their performance on the balance subtests of the MABC and BOTMP were not as well as those of the controls. Our findings suggest that balance ability skill levels in children with ADHD-C were generally not as high as those of the controls in various aspects, including static and dynamic balance.

  17. Deficit in response inhibition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): impact of motivation?

    PubMed

    Desman, Christiane; Petermann, Franz; Hampel, Petra

    2008-11-01

    To date, neuropsychological and psycho-physiological studies have revealed inconsistent results regarding an executive or motivational deficit explaining the response inhibition deficit in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research on differentiating neuropsychological processes in ADHD subtypes is still scarce. Therefore, the motivational impact on response inhibition among boys with ADHD was examined in this study. In the first study, 19 boys with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects performed a modified Go/No-Go task with the following experimental conditions: neutral, auditory feedback, reward, response cost, and reward/response cost. Performance and physiological data (heart rate and skin conductance responses) were recorded. In a second study with the modified Go/No-Go task, data for six children with ADHD-C, six with ADHD-inattentive subtype (ADHD-I), and six healthy control subjects were compared. Neither of the two studies revealed group by condition interactions. In study 1, boys with ADHD-C generally made more commissions and omissions compared to the control group. However, feedback significantly improved the response inhibition in all children. The heart rate of all children was increased in the two conditions of reward and reward/response cost. Study 2 revealed that children with ADHD-I responded more slowly and showed increased reaction time variability compared to both other groups. The present study supports an executive rather than a motivational deficit in the response inhibition among children with ADHD-C, though further results also indicate the role of auditory feedback on response inhibition. Additionally, the findings support the differentiation of ADHD-C and ADHD-I, suggesting that ADHD-I children are characterized by a sluggish cognitive tempo.

  18. Differences in paper-and-pencil versus computerized line bisection according to ADHD subtype and hand-use.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Mei Hsin Suzanne; Hamm, Jeff P; Waldie, Karen E

    2008-03-01

    Two versions of the line bisection task, paper-and-pencil and computerized, were administered to non-medicated children (5-12 years) with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fifteen children were classified with ADHD-Inattentive type (ADHD-I), 15 were classified with ADHD-Combined or Hyperactive-Impulsive type (ADHD-C), and 15 children served as controls. During the paper-and-pencil task, and irrespective of hand-use, participants with ADHD-C bisected lines with a right bias, whereas participants with ADHD-I showed a leftwards bias. Interestingly, during the computerized version, an opposite pattern of hemineglect was observed with a leftwards bias for participants with ADHD-C and a rightwards bias for participants with ADHD-I. These findings suggest that different task demands are associated with the paper-and-pencil and computerized tasks. The findings also suggest that the two subtypes differ according to their cognitive profile, and possibly differ as to their underlying neural impairment.

  19. Effects of Methylphenidate on Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Erin B.; Klorman, Rafael; Thatcher, Joan E.; Borgstedt, Agneta D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Nineteen ADHD/inattentive (ADHD/I) and 22 ADHD/combined (ADHD/C) 6- to 12-year-old children entered a 6-week, double-blind trial of placebo and methylphenidate in divided doses (0.94 [plus or minus] 0.02 mg/kg/day = 33.06 [plus…

  20. Differentiating between comorbidity and symptom overlap in ADHD and early onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Udal, Anne H; Egeland, Jens; Oygarden, Bjørg; Malt, Ulrik F; Lövdahl, Hans; Pripp, Are H; Groholt, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Reported rates of comorbidity between early onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a wide range, perhaps due to developmental issues and differences in interpretation of overlapping symptoms. We compared questionnaire-based and neuropsychological measures of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity, in children/adolescents with ADHD combined subtype (ADHD-C; n26), concurrent ADHD-C and BD (n15), BD (n25) with Controls (n69). Sub-analyses were performed on BD with and without inattention symptoms. The two ADHD-C groups displayed neuropsychological impairments that were not found in the BD group in spite of subjective and questionnaire-rated inattention. The findings caution against over-diagnosis of ADHD in BD.

  1. Executive Functioning in Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BAHÇİVAN SAYDAM, Reyhan; AYVAŞIK, H. Belgin; ALYANAK, Behiye

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to evaluate executive functions (EF), such as inhibition, planning, working memory, and set shifting, in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing three ADHD subtype groups (ADHD-Inattentive, ADHD-Combined, and ADHD-Comorbid) and a normal control group. Methods Participants included 147 children. In total, 111 children were assigned to the ADHD groups of the study. Each child was matched according to the WISC-R Full-Scale IQ-score, sex, and age and was grouped as follows: ADHD-Inattentive group (ADHD-I; n=37), ADHD-Combined (ADHD-C; n=37), ADHD-Comorbid group (ADHD-Comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder; n=37), and control group (n=36). The tests used to assess the children were Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised; Tower of London test; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Stroop Color-Word Test, and verbal fluency test. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA between subjects for all dependent variables. Results Children in the ADHD-I group had significantly better performances in verbal working memory and verbal category shifting than children in the ADHD-C group. There was no significant difference between the ADHD-I and ADHD-C groups in terms of inhibition, set shifting, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, and planning. The ADHD-Comorbid group displayed more severe impairments in EF measures than the ADHD-C group; however, the severity was not statistically significant. EF performances of children in the control group were similar to children in the ADHD-I group but better than children in the ADHD-C and ADHD-Comorbid groups. Conclusion The outcome of the study indicated that subjects in the ADHD-Comorbid and ADHD-C groups had more severe EF deficits than subjects in the ADHD-I and control groups.

  2. Family Adversity in DSM-IV ADHD Combined and Inattentive Subtypes and Associated Disruptive Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Carla A.; Nigg, Joel T.; Stawicki, Julie Ann; Rappley, Marsha D.; von Eye, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between a family adversity index and DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and associated behavior problems. The relationship of family adversity to symptoms and subtypes of ADHD was examined. Method: Parents and 206 children aged 7-13 completed diagnostic interviews and…

  3. Structural and Functional Abnormalities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Focus on Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chenyang; Liu, Yuhong; Wu, Kai; Gao, Yu; Li, Xiaobo

    2017-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent because of the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In this study, we propose to utilize a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data from 32 children with ADHD-C and 32 group-matched controls were involved. Network-based statistic analysis of the rs-fMRI data revealed a disconnected functional network between the sgACC and multiple regions in the occipital lobe and cerebellum, whereas the DTI data showed disrupted white matter integrity in the subgenual cingulum bundle (sgCB). Post hoc region of interest (ROI)-based analyses showed significantly increased fluctuation of the spontaneous brain activity in the sgACC and higher radial diffusivity in the sgCB in the ADHD group. Both the rs-fMRI and DTI ROI-based measures were significantly correlated with clinical measures that examine behavioral capacities of attention and inhibitory control. Findings of this study suggest that functional alterations in the sgACC and white matter under development in the sgCB may impact each other, and together contribute to impaired attention and inhibitory control function in children with ADHD.

  4. ADHD-200 Global Competition: diagnosing ADHD using personal characteristic data can outperform resting state fMRI measurements.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew R G; Sidhu, Gagan S; Greiner, Russell; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Bastani, Meysam; Silverstone, Peter H; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Dursun, Serdar M

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging-based diagnostics could potentially assist clinicians to make more accurate diagnoses resulting in faster, more effective treatment. We participated in the 2011 ADHD-200 Global Competition which involved analyzing a large dataset of 973 participants including Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and healthy controls. Each participant's data included a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as well as personal characteristic and diagnostic data. The goal was to learn a machine learning classifier that used a participant's resting state fMRI scan to diagnose (classify) that individual into one of three categories: healthy control, ADHD combined (ADHD-C) type, or ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) type. We used participants' personal characteristic data (site of data collection, age, gender, handedness, performance IQ, verbal IQ, and full scale IQ), without any fMRI data, as input to a logistic classifier to generate diagnostic predictions. Surprisingly, this approach achieved the highest diagnostic accuracy (62.52%) as well as the highest score (124 of 195) of any of the 21 teams participating in the competition. These results demonstrate the importance of accounting for differences in age, gender, and other personal characteristics in imaging diagnostics research. We discuss further implications of these results for fMRI-based diagnosis as well as fMRI-based clinical research. We also document our tests with a variety of imaging-based diagnostic methods, none of which performed as well as the logistic classifier using only personal characteristic data.

  5. Response inhibition and academic abilities in typically developing children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

    2010-11-01

    Research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) generally utilizes clinical samples or children with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Findings indicated that children with ADHD experience academic underachievement and poor performance on measures of response inhibition (RI). Less is known, about the neuropsychological profile of typically developing children with ADHD. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) determine if academic skills and RI were impaired in typically developing children with ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD-C) and (2) determine to what extent RI may predict academic abilities. Children with ADHD-C did not differ on any academic domain from controls. Children with ADHD-C performed more poorly than controls on RI measures. Regression analyses suggest that Written Expression ability was significantly influenced by RI. No other academic domain was related to RI. Results suggest that children with ADHD-C may experience impairments in RI despite adequate academic functioning. Impaired RI is not solely responsible for difficulties found in academic skills in ADHD-C.

  6. Multiclass Classification for the Differential Diagnosis on the ADHD Subtypes Using Recursive Feature Elimination and Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine: Structural MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Muhammad Naveed Iqbal; Min, Beomjun; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Boreom

    2016-01-01

    The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM) and basic extreme learning machine (ELM) for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset. The data consisted of three types, namely, typically developing (TDC), ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I), and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). We carried out feature selection by using standard SVM-based recursive feature elimination (RFE-SVM) that enabled us to achieve good classification accuracy (60.78%). In this study, we found the RFE-SVM feature selection approach in combination with H-ELM to effectively enable the acquisition of high multiclass classification accuracy rates for structural neuroimaging data. In addition, we found that the most important features for classification were the surface area of the superior frontal lobe, and the cortical thickness, volume, and mean surface area of the whole cortex. PMID:27500640

  7. Multiclass Classification for the Differential Diagnosis on the ADHD Subtypes Using Recursive Feature Elimination and Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine: Structural MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Naveed Iqbal; Min, Beomjun; Jo, Hang Joon; Lee, Boreom

    2016-01-01

    The classification of neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of certain brain diseases is one of the main research goals of the neuroscience and clinical communities. In this study, we performed multiclass classification using a hierarchical extreme learning machine (H-ELM) classifier. We compared the performance of this classifier with that of a support vector machine (SVM) and basic extreme learning machine (ELM) for cortical MRI data from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. We used 159 structural MRI images of children from the publicly available ADHD-200 MRI dataset. The data consisted of three types, namely, typically developing (TDC), ADHD-inattentive (ADHD-I), and ADHD-combined (ADHD-C). We carried out feature selection by using standard SVM-based recursive feature elimination (RFE-SVM) that enabled us to achieve good classification accuracy (60.78%). In this study, we found the RFE-SVM feature selection approach in combination with H-ELM to effectively enable the acquisition of high multiclass classification accuracy rates for structural neuroimaging data. In addition, we found that the most important features for classification were the surface area of the superior frontal lobe, and the cortical thickness, volume, and mean surface area of the whole cortex.

  8. Sex differences between the combined and inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an EEG perspective.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Franca E; Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated sex differences between the EEGs of Combined and Inattentive types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) within boys and girls aged 8-12 years. Subject groups included 80 AD/HD Combined type (40 boys and 40 girls), 80 AD/HD Inattentive type (40 boys and 40 girls) and 80 controls (40 boys and 40 girls). An eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded and Fourier transformed to provide estimates for absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands, as well as total power and the theta/beta ratio. The boy AD/HD groups, compared with boy controls, had greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, reduced absolute and relative alpha, and reduced absolute and relative beta. The girl AD/HD groups, compared with girl controls, had greater absolute delta, greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, greater total power, and reduced relative delta and relative beta. Between AD/HD types, Combined type boys had globally greater absolute and relative theta, greater theta/beta ratio, and less relative alpha than Inattentive type boys. While topographical differences emerged, there were no significant global differences between AD/HD types in girls. That is, EEG differences between AD/HD types are dissimilar in boys and girls. Different EEG maturational patterns between boys and girls also obscure AD/HD-related EEG abnormalities. These results have important implications for our understanding of AD/HD in girls. Ignoring such sex differences may have compromised the value of previous AD/HD investigations, and these sex differences should be recognised in future research.

  9. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  10. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  11. Microstructural Abnormalities in the Combined and Inattentive Subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Du; Ma, Jun; Du, Xiaoxia; Shen, Guohua; Jin, Xingming; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that there are specific white matter abnormalities in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the results of these studies are not consistent, and one of the most important factors that affects the inconsistency of previous studies maybe the ADHD subtype. Different ADHD subtypes may have some overlapping microstructural damage, but they may also have unique microstructural abnormalities. The objective of this study was to investigate the microstructural abnormalities associated with two subtypes of ADHD: combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive (ADHD-I). Twenty-eight children with ADHD-C, 28 children with ADHD-I and 28 healthy children participated in this study. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were used to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to provide specific information regarding abnormal brain areas. Our results demonstrated that ADHD-I is related to abnormalities in the temporo-occipital areas, while the combined subtype (ADHD-C) is related to abnormalities in the frontal-subcortical circuit, the fronto-limbic pathway, and the temporo-occipital areas. Moreover, an abnormality in the motor circuit may represent the main difference between the ADHD-I and ADHD-C subtypes. PMID:25363043

  12. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  13. Differential perinatal risk factors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by subtype.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Oh, Seung Min; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2014-11-30

    We compared the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) combined subtype (ADHD-C) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) in terms of genetic, perinatal, and developmental risk factors as well as clinical and neuropsychological characteristics. A total of 147 children diagnosed with ADHD between the ages of 6 and 15 years participated in this study. The parents of the children completed the structured diagnostic interview, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Children's Behavior Checklist, and structured questionnaires on perinatal risk factors, and the children underwent a neuropsychological test and were genotyped. A total of 502 children without ADHD were recruited from the community as a healthy control group. The ADHD-C children showed more severe externalizing symptoms, showed more deficits in a continuous performance test, and were more likely to have comorbid disorders. Maternal stress during pregnancy, postpartum depression, and changes in the primary caretaker during first 3 years were significantly associated with both ADHD-I and ADHD-C. The ADHD-I group was less likely to have received regular prenatal check-ups and more likely to have had postnatal medical illness than the ADHD-C group. There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the serotonin transporter -linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms between ADHD-I and ADHD-C groups. This study shows that the inattentive subtype of ADHD is different from the combined subtype in many parameters including severity of symptoms, comorbidity, neuropsychological characteristics, and environmental risk factors.

  14. Motor skills development in children with inattentive versus combined subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vasserman, Marsha; Bender, H Allison; Macallister, William S

    2014-01-01

    The relations between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and motor skills are well documented, with research indicating both early and lifelong motor deficits in children with this disorder. Despite neuroanatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, which may predict differential rates of motor impairment between ADHD subtypes, evaluation of motor skill deficits in children with different presentations are limited in scope and equivocal in findings. The present investigation evaluated early motor development history and objectively measured motor skills in children with ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). One hundred and one children with ADHD-I (n = 53) and ADHD-C (n = 48) were included. Variables included Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), history of motor delays, and utilization of early intervention services, as well as objectively measured motor impairment as assessed via tasks of fine-motor coordination. No between-group differences were found for FSIQ, but differences in age emerged, with the ADHD-I group being older. No differences in early motor delays were observed, though a considerably higher percentage of children with ADHD-C demonstrated early difficulties. Surprisingly, although children and adolescents with ADHD-C reported more frequent utilization of early intervention services, those with ADHD-I exhibited greater levels of current motor impairment on objective tasks. Given the over-representation of older children in the ADHD-I group, data were reanalyzed after excluding participants older than 10 years of age. Although the between-group differences were no longer significant, more than twice the number of parents of children with ADHD-C reported early motor delays, as compared with the ADHD-I group. Overall, children with ADHD-I were more likely to exhibit current objectively measured motor impairment, possibly due to later identification, less intervention, and/or different neurodevelopmental substrates

  15. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  16. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  17. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity. ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron ...

  18. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  19. Histocompatibility Typing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-28

    Oslo, New York, NY Norway Maryline Sasportes, Institute de Recherches Susan Hsu, Johns Hopkins University, sur Les Maladies du iang, Paris, France...from PLT cells primed initially series of critical values obtained from with lymphoblastoid cells were highly Harter’s tables ( Harter 1960). Critical...M. L., Wink. Harter , H. L (1960) Critical tables for Duncan’s R. & Bach, F. H. (1975) HLA-LD Typing: new multiple range test. Biometrics 16. A rapid

  20. Comparison of neuropsychological performances and behavioral patterns of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and severe mood dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Uran, Pınar; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the similarities and differences in neuropsychological test performance, demographic features and behavioral patterns of children and adolescents with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined type (ADHD-C), and the severe mood dysregulation (SMD). Study includes 112 children: 67 with ADHD-C, 24 with SMD and 21 healthy controls. These groups were identified by using the schedule for affective disorders, and schizophrenia for the school-age children-present and lifetime version (KSADS-PL) and the K-SADS-PL-SMD Module. Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale-revised long form (CPRS-R:L and CTRS-R:L) and neuropsychological tests were administered to the research groups. ADHD-C group's performances in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test TBAG form and Controlled Oral Word Association Test were significantly poorer than the control group's performances (p < 0.05). Performance of the SMD group was only descriptively intermediate between performances of the ADHD-C and control group. In the "Oppositional", "Hyperactivity", "Social Problems", "Impulsive", "Emotional Lability" and "Conners' Global Index" subscales of CPRS-R:L, the average scores of the SMD group were significantly higher than the ADHD-C and control group's average scores (p < 0.05). ADHD-C group (but not SMD) could be significantly differentiated from healthy controls with the neuropsychological tests used. SMD group could be differentiated from the ADHD-C and healthy control groups with CPRS-R:L; i.e., ADHD-C versus SMD could be differentiated at the behavioral level only.

  1. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  2. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  3. Frequency of Reading, Math, and Writing Disabilities in Children with Clinical Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2006-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) are common in clinical disorders, but no study has compared the relative prevalence in referred children with different diagnoses. Our sample comprised 949 children (6 to 16 years). LD percentages were highest for bipolar disorder (79%), ADHD combined type (71%), autism (67%), ADHD inattentive type (66%), and spina…

  4. Explosive, Oppositional, and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Autism Compared to Other Clinical Disorders and Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Aggarwal, Richa; Baker, Courtney; Mathapati, Santoshkumar; Anderson, Robert; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Maternal ratings of explosiveness, opposition, and aggression were analyzed in 1609 children 6-16 years of age. Behavior problems were common in autism, ADHD-Combined type, and depression, whereas children with ADHD-Inattentive type, anxiety disorder, and acquired brain injury did not differ from typical controls. More than 40% of children with…

  5. Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Type 2 diabetes Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent ... your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of ...

  6. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, ... in children, teenagers or young adults. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin ...

  7. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  8. Petrov type of linearly perturbed type-D spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Bernardo; Dotti, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    We show that a spacetime satisfying the linearized vacuum Einstein equations around a type-D background is generically of type I, and that the splittings of the principal null directions (PNDs) and of the degenerate eigenvalue of the Weyl tensor are non-analytic functions of the perturbation parameter of the metric. This provides a gauge-invariant characterization of the effect of the perturbation on the underlying geometry, without appealing to differential curvature invariants. This is of particular interest for the Schwarzschild solution, for which there are no signatures of the even perturbations on the algebraic curvature invariants. We also show that, unlike the general case, the unstable even modes of the Schwarzschild naked singularity deform the Weyl tensor into a type-II one.

  9. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  10. Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

  11. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  12. The Effect of Video Feedback on the Social Behavior of an Adolescent with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Mazur, Amy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The social functioning of adolescents with ADHD is characteristically impaired, yet almost no interventions effectively address the peer relationships of these youth. This study evaluates the preliminary effects of a video-feedback intervention on the social behavior of a 16-year-old male with ADHD-combined type in the context of a…

  13. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  14. Striatal Sensitivity during Reward Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry; yet, existing evidence is limited, and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using…

  15. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  16. ADHD Symptom Severity following Participation in a Pilot, 10-Week, Manualized, Family-Based Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, David F.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined the effectiveness of a pilot, manualized 10-week intervention of family skills training for ADHD-related symptoms. The intervention combined behavioral parent training and child focused behavioral activation therapy. Participants were families with children ages 7-10 diagnosed with ADHD-Combined Type. This pilot…

  17. Advances in Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  18. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  19. Different Types of Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America February 24, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  20. Unlocking Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  1. Types of Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth > For Teens > Types of Anesthesia A A ... I Get? en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  2. Types of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... the exercises even count in all three categories! Fitness types and tips Confused about the types of ... injuries. Some ways to increase flexibility are ballet, yoga, martial arts, or pilates (say: puh-LAH-teez) . ...

  3. Types of Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Arrhythmia The four main types of arrhythmia are premature ( ... exercise, or too much caffeine or nicotine. Supraventricular Arrhythmias Supraventricular arrhythmias are tachycardias (fast heart rates) that ...

  4. Types of chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  5. Types of OI

    MedlinePlus

    ... OI Type II who can breathe without a respirator and those with severe OI Type III may ... appropriate timing of rodding surgery; scoliosis monitoring; respiratory function monitoring; the need to develop strategies to cope ...

  6. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  7. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  8. Types of Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth > For Teens > Types of Anesthesia Print A ... I Get? en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  9. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like ... may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  10. Types of Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  11. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  12. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  13. Prospective Follow-Up of Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into Early Adulthood: Continuing Impairment Includes Elevated Risk for Suicide Attempts and Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Zalecki, Christine; Huggins, Suzanne Perrigue; Montenegro-Nevado, Adriana J.; Schrodek, Emily; Swanson, Erika N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We performed a 10-year prospective follow-up of a childhood-ascertained (6-12 years), ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 140: combined type [ADHD-C] n = 93; inattentive type [ADHD-I] n = 47) plus a matched comparison group (N = 88). Girls were recruited from…

  14. R type anion channel

    PubMed Central

    Diatloff, Eugene; Peyronnet, Rémi; Colcombet, Jean; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Plant genomes code for channels involved in the transport of cations, anions and uncharged molecules through membranes. Although the molecular identity of channels for cations and uncharged molecules has progressed rapidly in the recent years, the molecular identity of anion channels has lagged behind. Electrophysiological studies have identified S-type (slow) and R-type (rapid) anion channels. In this brief review, we summarize the proposed functions of the R-type anion channels which, like the S-type, were first characterized by electrophysiology over 20 years ago, but unlike the S-type, have still yet to be cloned. We show that the R-type channel can play multiple roles. PMID:21051946

  15. Type 2 and type 3 burst theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the theory of type 3 bursts is reviewed by dividing the problem into the exciting agency, radiation source, and propagation of radiation between the source and the observer. In-situ measurements indicate that the excitors are electron streams of energy about 40 keV which are continuously relaxing. An investigation of neutralization of an electron stream indicates that n sub s is much less than 100,000 n sub e, where n sub s is the stream density and n sub e the coronal electron density. In situ observations are consistent with this result. An analysis of propagation of electrons in the current sheets of coronal streamers shows that such propagation at heights greater than 1 solar radius is impossible. The mechanisms for radiation are reviewed; it is shown that fundamental radiation at high frequencies (approximately 100 MHz) is highly beamed in the radial direction and that near the earth second harmonic radiation must be dominant. Because of beaming of the fundamental at high frequencies, it can often be quite weak near the limb so that the second harmonic is dominant. In considering propagation to the observer, the results of scattering of radiation are discussed. The present state of the theory of type 2 bursts is reviewed in the same manner as type 3 bursts.

  16. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  17. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  18. Types of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bone marrow have at least one certain chromosome abnormality that is only seen in MDS or leukemia. The number of blasts in the bone marrow is less than 5%. Because this type ... this type of MDS, the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells are normal except ...

  19. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  20. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  1. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  2. Griscelli syndrome type-3

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bela J.; Jagati, Ashish K.; Katrodiya, Nilesh K.; Patel, Sonal M.

    2016-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder of pigmentary dilution of skin, silver gray hair, variable immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. GS type 3 is characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunological and neurological manifestation. Prognosis is very good in type 3 GS and usually require no active intervention, as opposed to type 1 and 2 where early diagnosis and treatment plays a crucial role in patient's survival. The characteristic phenotypic appearance, especially the pigment dilution of the patient's hair, is emphasized here. PMID:27990386

  3. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  4. Types of Vasculitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... other signs develop that point to arteritis. Mostly Medium Vessel Vasculitis These types of vasculitis usually, but not always, affect the body’s medium-sized blood vessels. Buerger's Disease Buerger's disease , also ...

  5. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  6. Types of Crude Oil

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The petroleum industry often classifies these types by geographical source, but the classification scheme here is more useful in a spill cleanup scenario. It indicates general toxicity, physical state, and changes caused by time and weathering.

  7. Type I diabetes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of glucose in the blood, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas secrete the hormone insulin. Type I diabetes occurs when these cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system.

  8. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  9. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). ...

  10. Type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells.

  11. Facts about Type 2

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  12. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  13. Type E botulism.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2010-11-01

    There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, "muktuk" has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian "rakfisk" prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet "faseikh", in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish "kapchunka", in Iran from eating "ashbal" an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with "izushi" a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.

  14. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies.

  15. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Turkish Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Onder; Basay, Burge Kabukcu; Buber, Ahmet; Basay, Omer; Alacam, Huseyin; Bacanlı, Ali; Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. Methods Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study. All subjects were evaluated using a complete neuropsychological battery, Child Behavior Checklist, the Teacher's Report Form (TRF) and the DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale-teacher and parent forms. Results The GG genotype was significantly more frequent in the patients with ADHD than in the TD controls, and the GG genotype was also significantly more frequent in the ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) subtype patients than in the TDs. However, there were no significant associations of the BDNF polymorphism with the ADHD subtypes or neurocognitive profiles of the patients. The teacher-assessed hyperactivity and inattention symptom count and the total score were higher, and the appropriately behaving subtest score of the TRF was lower in the GG genotypes than in the GA and AA (i.e., the A-containing) genotypes. Conclusion We found a positive association between the BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism and ADHD, and this association was observed specifically in the ADHD-C subtype and not the ADHD-predominantly inattentive subtype. Our findings support that the Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Furthermore Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF gene may be more closely associated with hyperactivity rather than inattention. PMID:27757130

  16. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  17. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro da Silva, Ana Luísa; Vaz da Silva, Manuel Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference proposed a classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), aiming for a better delineation of each subtype. Although the exact pathophysiology of type 4 CRS is not completely understood, the mechanisms involved are probably multifactorial. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is a major connector in the development and progression of type 4 CRS. Giving its complexity, poor prognosis and increasing incidence, type 4 CRS is becoming a significant public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly predisposed to cardiac dysfunction, due to the high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, but the contribution of risk factors specific to chronic kidney disease should also be taken into account. Much remains to be elucidated about type 4 CRS: despite progress over the last decade, there are still significant questions regarding its pathophysiology and there is as yet no specific therapy. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide potential targets for intervention. The present review will provide a brief description of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, biomarkers and management strategies of type 4 CRS, and the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors presumably involved in its development will be particularly highlighted.

  18. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  19. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  20. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    PubMed Central

    Asthagiri, Ashok R; Parry, Dilys M; Butman, John A; Kim, H Jeffrey; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an autosomal-dominant multiple neoplasia syndrome that results from mutations in the NF2 tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q. It has a frequency of one in 25 000 livebirths and nearly 100% penetrance by 60 years of age. Half of patients inherit a germline mutation from an affected parent and the remainder acquire a de novo mutation for neurofibromatosis type 2. Patients develop nervous system tumours (schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, astrocytomas, and neurofibromas), peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmological lesions (cataracts, epiretinal membranes, and retinal hamartomas), and cutaneous lesions (skin tumours). Optimum treatment is multidisciplinary because of the complexities associated with management of the multiple, progressive, and protean lesions associated with the disorder. We review the molecular pathogenesis, genetics, clinical findings, and management strategies for neurofibromatosis type 2. PMID:19476995

  1. Types of quantum information

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2007-12-15

    Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of 'classical information.' Various examples (some updating earlier work) are given of theorems which relate different incompatible kinds of information, and thus have no counterparts in classical information theory.

  2. Other Types Of LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Mochizuki, Akihiro

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TUNABLE BIREFRINGENCE LCDs * Nematic Device with Homogeneous Alignment * Nematic Device with Homeotropic Alignment * ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED BIREFRINGENCE EFFECT LCDs WITH A COMPENSATING CELL OR POLYMER LAYERS * Super Homeotropic LCDs * Black and White STN LCDs * Optical mode interference * Guest-host mode * Double-layered STN * Retardation film compensated STN * DUAL FREQUENCY ADDRESSING LCDs * Application for DSM LCDs * Application for TN LCDs * PI-CELL * CHOLESTERIC-NEMATIC PHASE CHANGE LCDs * Storage Mode LCDs * Stabilized Hysteresis Mode LCDs * THERMALLY ADDRESSED LCDs (CHOLESTERIC) * BISTABLE LCD * WIDE VIEWING ANGLE TN LCDs USING RETARDATION SHEETS * Type 1 Cells * Type 2 Cells * REFERENCES

  3. Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    1992-01-01

    Spectral calculations show that a model based on the thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon/oxygen white dwarf provides excellent agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae. Identification of suitable evolutionary progenitors remains a severe problem. General problems with estimation of supernova rates are outlined and the origin of Type Ia supernovae from double degenerate systems are discussed in the context of new rates of explosion per H band luminosity, the lack of observed candidates, and the likely presence of H in the vicinity of some SN Ia events. Re-examination of the problems of triggering Type Ia by accretion of hydrogen from a companion shows that there may be an avenue involving cataclysmic variables, especially if extreme hibernation occurs. Novae may channel accreting white dwarfs to a unique locus in accretion rate/mass space. Systems that undergo secular evolution to higher mass transfer rates could lead to just the conditions necessary for a Type Ia explosion. Tests involving fluorescence or absorption in a surrounding circumstellar medium and the detection of hydrogen stripped from a companion, which should appear at low velocity inside the white dwarf ejecta, are suggested. Possible observational confirmation of the former is described.

  4. Types of CMT

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... get involved? Contact Us Get Our Emails About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Types Of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) ...

  5. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  6. Types of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model of insight that is distinct from any theory or philosophy. Six types of insight are described: associative, aggregate, discrete process, ontogenetic process, phylogenetic process, and transcendent process. The model offers counselors a method for the enhancement of empathy and the development of client insight…

  7. Compiling with Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    ogy and Theoretical Computer Science 1993, Bombay, New York, 1993. Springer-Verlag. Extended abstract. [17] E. Biagioni . Sequence types for functional...FOX-95-06. [18] E. Biagioni , R. Harper, P. Lee, and B. Milnes. Signatures for a network protocol stack: A systems application of Standard ML. In ACM

  8. Chromomycosis: Subcutaneous cystic type.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S N; Bhise, P R; Sony, P R

    2000-01-01

    A 38-year -old male farmer presented with a solitary, asymptomatic, cystic lesion on the palm since last four years. He underwent excision of this cyst two times during this period but the lesion recurred near the same site. The histopathology and the microbiological examination led to the diagnosis of the rare subcutaneous cystic type of chromomycosis.

  9. [C4 type photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Drozak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Romanowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis includes several anatomical and biochemical modifications that allow plants to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. The photorespiratory pathway is repressed in C4 plants, since the rates of photosynthesis and biomass production are increased. This is an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures and dryness. C4 plants contain two distinct types of photosynthetic cells, mesophyll and bundle sheath. The processes of assimilation and reduction of CO2 are separated spatiality and catayzed by two different enzymes. Only the bundle sheath chloroplasts perform the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle with the help of the Rubisco enzyme present exclusively in this cell type. The primary CO2 fixation occurs in mesophyll cells through the action of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The light-dependent reactions of the photosynthesis occur exclusively in the latter cell type. These differences in photochemistry lead to distinct redox profiles in both types of cells. C4 plants are divided into three biochemical subtypes on the basis of differences in the mechanisms of decarboxylation of the C4 acids. C4 plants will provide the main source of food for humans and animals in the nearest decade.

  10. Teaching to the Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Before she became an art teacher, the author relates that she worked at a graphic design agency and there she learned to fully appreciate typefaces and how they influence messages. In the years that she taught middle school art, the author has incorporated some basics of type design into her graphics unit, along with calligraphy, printmaking, and…

  11. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  12. Blood Typing--Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, W. T., Jr.

    This instructional packet deals with the study of hematology. It is recommended for all high school students of biology. A general understanding of antigen-antibody reactions is necessary before attempting this learning activity. Behavioral objectives place emphasis on the techniques of and understanding of blood typing. The equipment and…

  13. Cell types, circuits, computation.

    PubMed

    Azeredo da Silveira, Rava; Roska, Botond

    2011-10-01

    How does the connectivity of a neuronal circuit, together with the individual properties of the cell types that take part in it, result in a given computation? We examine this question in the context of retinal circuits. We suggest that the retina can be viewed as a parallel assemblage of many small computational devices, highly stereotypical and task-specific circuits afferent to a given ganglion cell type, and we discuss some rules that govern computation in these devices. Multi-device processing in retina poses conceptual problems when it is contrasted with cortical processing. We lay out open questions both on processing in retinal circuits and on implications for cortical processing of retinal inputs.

  14. Conditional Belief Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    hypothetical knowledge , conditional probability, counterfactuals REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...spaces are closely related to the sphere models of counterfactual conditionals and to models of hypothetical knowledge . 3 Approved for public release...hypothetical knowledge . Keywords: Conditional probability; Type spaces; Hypothetical knowledge ; Counterfactuals JEL Classification: C70; C72; D80; D82

  15. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  16. P Cygni type profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peraiah, A.; Srinivasa Rao, M.

    The authors present a series of P Cygni type profiles of spectral lines computed by employing different velocity laws of expansion in a spherically symmetric atmosphere. A comparison has been made with those of Beals classification. They have employed the line transfer equation in comoving frame in certain test cases, to obtain the source function which is being used to calculate the profiles observed at infinity.

  17. Types of Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Morreale, Francesca Ester; Walden, Helen

    2016-03-24

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitination requires the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzymes), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). This SnapShot highlights the main types of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which can be classified in three families depending on the presence of characteristic domains and on the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer to the substrate protein.

  18. Tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S

    1999-01-01

    Tension-type headaches, the most prevalent form of headache, are differentiated as being either episodic or chronic. The episodic form is a physiologic response to stress, anxiety, depression, emotional conflicts, fatigue, or repressed hostility. Treatment focuses on the use of over-the-counter or prescribed simple analgesics for pain relief. Successful treatment of the chronic form depends on recognition of depression or persistent anxiety states. Primary care physicians can effectively manage most of these patients with nonhabituating anxiolytic or antidepressant medications; however, referrals for psychotherapy may be required in some cases. When tension-type headaches occur in children and adolescents, the physician must explore the patient's family and social relationships as well as school performance. In addition to nonhabituating drug therapies, family counseling and biofeedback may be helpful. In coexisting migraine and tension-type headaches, nonhabituating analgesics may be used for the relief of acute pain; the use of ergotamine and triptans should be restricted to relief of the hard or sick headache. Tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors are the gold standards for prophylaxis, although the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be indicated in less severe cases. Several forms of biofeedback have also proved effective. Nonetheless, some patients with this form of headache may require psychiatric treatment for severe depression.

  19. Macular telangiectasia type 2

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Peter Charbel; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Heeren, Tjebo F.C.; Peto, Tunde; Holz, Frank G.; Scholl, Hendrik P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venules, retinal pigment plaques, foveal atrophy, and neovascular complexes. Fluorescein angiography shows telangiectatic capillaries predominantly temporal to the foveola in the early phase and a diffuse hyperfluorescence in the late phase. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) may reveal disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment border, hyporeflective cavities at the level of the inner or outer retina, and atrophy of the retina in later stages. Macular telangiectasia type 2 shows a unique depletion of the macular pigment in the central retina and recent therapeutic trials showed that such depleted areas cannot re-accumulate lutein and zeaxanthin after oral supplementation. There have been various therapeutic approaches with limited or no efficacy. Recent clinical trials with compounds that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have established the role of VEGF in the pathophysiology of the disease, but have not shown significant efficacy, at least for the nonneovascular disease stages. Recent progress in structure–function correlation may help to develop surrogate outcome measures for future clinical trials. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on macular telangiectasia type 2, including the epidemiology, the genetics, the clinical findings, the staging and the differential diagnosis of the disease. Findings using retinal imaging are discussed, including fluorescein angiography, OCT, adaptive optics imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus autofluorescence, as are the findings using visual

  20. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  1. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  2. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  3. Encoding Ownership Types in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Noble, James

    Ownership types systems organise the heap into a hierarchy which can be used to support encapsulation properties, effects, and invariants. Ownership types have many applications including parallelisation, concurrency, memory management, and security. In this paper, we show that several flavours and extensions of ownership types can be entirely encoded using the standard Java type system.

  4. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  5. Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Legras, B; Maugendre, D; Allannic, H; Cloarec, L

    1993-02-28

    Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 117 diabetic patients and 53 controls. Patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the type of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and the existence or not of vascular complication (macro- or micro-angiopathy). Results showed that TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in type 1 (P < 0.0001) and type 2 (P < 0.001) diabetic patients than in the control group. The plasma TBARS concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients did not differ significantly. Among the patients with vascular disease, type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy had significantly higher TBARS concentrations than patients with no vascular complication (P < 0.05). Whichever the type of diabetes, there was no correlation between TBARS concentrations and glycaemic control: glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.

  6. Neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Kevin P.; Korf, Bruce R.; Theos, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3500 people. Significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of NF1 have been made in the last decade. While no medical therapies are currently available, trials are ongoing to discover and test medical treatments for the various manifestations of NF1, primarily plexiform neurofibromas, learning disabilities, and optic pathway gliomas. Additionally, mutational analysis has become available on a clinical basis and is useful for diagnostic confirmation in individuals who do not fulfill diagnostic criteria or when prenatal diagnosis is desired. There are several disorders which may share overlapping features with NF1; in 2007, a disorder with cutaneous findings similar to NF1 was described. This paper addresses the dermatologist's role in diagnosis and management of NF1 and describes the variety of cutaneous and extracutaneous findings in NF1 to which the dermatologist may be exposed. PMID:19539839

  7. Quantifying Anderson's fault types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Ce??le??rier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ?? and ?? to new quantities named A?? and A??. In their simple forms, A?? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?? ranges from 0?? to 60??, 60?? to 120??, and 120?? to 180??, respectively. After scaling, A?? and A?? agree to within 2% (or 1??), a difference of little practical significance, although A?? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A?? ranging from -3 to +3 and A?? from -180?? to +180??. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A?? and A?? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    PubMed

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework.

  9. Distinctive linguistic styles in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil

    2009-10-01

    To assess whether the writing styles of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) combined type differ significantly from those of children in a nonclinical control group, writing samples from 17 children with ADHD combined type and 18 children in a nonclinical control group were compared using the language analysis program Korean Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. These writing samples, produced in response to instructions, served as dependent variables. Analysis showed that children with ADHD used fewer linguistic variables (e.g., sentences, phrases, and morphemes) than the control group. In addition, the ADHD group used fewer words reflecting cognitive processes and fewer pronouns than members of the control group. Also, the ADHD group showed a different pattern in the use of words referring to friends. This study provides preliminary descriptive data on language use among children diagnosed with a main subtype of ADHD.

  10. Pediatric obesity & type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dea, Tara L

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on (a) identifying obesity and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, (b) differentiating between pediatric type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and (c) treating pediatric type 2 diabetes. Obesity has significant implications on a child's health, including an increased risk for insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in children, characterized by insulin resistance and relative pancreatic b-cell failure due to the increased demand for insulin production, has now reached epidemic proportions. Longitudinal research on pediatric type 2 diabetes, however, is lacking because this epidemic is relatively new. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children is focused on lifestyle modification with weight management/increased physical activity, and pharmacological management through oral medication or insulin therapy. Because children with type 2 diabetes are at risk for developing diabetes-related complications earlier in life, they need to be closely monitored for comorbidities.

  11. 3. View of collapsed structure (type A) next to type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of collapsed structure (type A) next to type B structure, facing east-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding Pregnancy Articles Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  13. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  14. Variable venturi type carburetor

    SciTech Connect

    Tahata, M.

    1986-09-02

    A variable venturi type carburetor is described comprising a carburetor body provided with a suction passage therein for flow of air through the passage, a slide valve supported by the body for slidable movement across the suction passage to serve as a variable venturi, a butterfly throttle valve pivotably supported by the carburetor body downstream of the slide valve, interlocking means connecting the slide valve and the butterfly throttle valve together for operating in correspondence with one another, operating means connected to one of the valves for operating the same by application of an external force thereto. A low-speed fuel nozzle opens into the suction passage in the vicinity of the butterfly throttle valve, an intermediate and a high speed main fuel nozzle opens into the suction passage opposite the slide valve, and a low and intermediate-speed primary fuel nozzle opens into the suction passage between the slide valve and the butterfly throttle valve. The slide valve includes a bottom portion having a front side surface facing upstream in the suction passage and a rear side surface facing downstream in the suction passage, the front and rear side surfaces having lower edges which are located in the same horizontal plane, the rear side surface being provided with an inverted cutaway.

  15. Types of radical hysterectomies

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F; Plesca, M; Bordea, CI; Moga, MA; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The treatment for cervical cancer is a complex, multidisciplinary issue, which applies according to the stage of the disease. The surgical elective treatment of cervical cancer is represented by the radical abdominal hysterectomy. In time, many surgeons perfected this surgical technique; the ones who stood up for this idea were Thoma Ionescu and Ernst Wertheim. There are many varieties of radical hysterectomies performed by using the abdominal method and some of them through vaginal and mixed way. Each method employed has advantages and disadvantages. At present, there are three classifications of radical hysterectomies which are used for the simplification of the surgical protocols: Piver-Rutledge-Smith classification which is the oldest, GCG-EORTC classification and Querlow and Morrow classification. The last is the most evolved and recent classification; its techniques can be adapted for conservative operations and for different types of surgical approaches: abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic or robotic. Abbreviations: GCG-EORTC = Gynecologic Cancer Group of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer; LEEP = loop electrosurgical excision procedure; I.O.B. = Institute of Oncology Bucharest; PRS = Piver-Rutledge-Smith PMID:25408722

  16. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  17. Tornado type wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ch.-T.

    1984-06-05

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  18. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include but are not limited to: age blood type medical urgency waiting time geographic distance between donor ... factors include tissue match between donor and candidate; blood type; blood antibody levels; length of time spent on ...

  19. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  20. Sharpen Your Skills: Large Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knisely, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    Three short articles about large type transcribing are provided for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. The first article explains section IV-B-2 of the National Braille Association Manual for Large Type Transcribing. The second article presents the results of a survey on the kinds of typewriters, types of…

  1. Sharpen Your Skills: Large Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knisely, Phillis; Wickham, Marian

    1984-01-01

    Three short articles about large type transcribing are provided for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. The first article lists general suggestions for simple typewriter maintenance. The second article reviews the guidelines for typing fractions in large type for mathematics exercises. The third article describes a…

  2. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  3. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    PubMed

    Wraith, J E; Jones, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase a-L-Iduronidase leading to accumulation of the GAGs, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulphate, The disease spectrum includes a disorder with severe involvement and CNS disease Hurler disease (HPS I H) a chronic disease without CNS disease Scheie disease (HPS I S5) and the intermediate Hurler/Scheie disease(HPS I HIS).The urine GAGs pattern. confirmed by Iduronidase enzyme assay is diagnostic. Over 200 mutations exist. Genotype / phenotype correlation is poor but two nonsense mutations results in Hurler disease.The skeletal disease dysostosis multiplex (DM) is seen in severe variants of MPS I. The hypoplastic odontoid putting these patients at high risk of cervical cord damage. MPS IH (Hurler Disease) affected infants develop a spinal 'gibbus' deformity, persistent nasal discharge, middle ear effusions and frequent upper respiratory infection. They have "coarse", facial features, and an enlarged tongue. . Progressive upper airway disease leads to obstructive sleep apnoea. Corneal clouding and cognitive impairment appears, growth ceases. Joint stiffness and contractures limit mobility. Cardiac disease is universal. Death occurs before 10 years. SCHEIE patients are diagnosed as teenagers with hepatomegaly, joint contractures, cardiac valve abnormalities and corneal clouding . Prolonged survival with considerable disability without cognitive impairment is usual. MPS IH/S Hurler/Scheie. is diagnosed by 6.5 years, with variable skeletal and visceral manifestations without cognitive involvement. Joint stiffness, corneal clouding, , umbilical hernia, abnormal facies, hepatomegaly, joint contractures, and cervical myelopathy occur. Patients die in their 20s .Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) the standard treatment of MPS IH for 30 years is unpredictable .When performed before 2 years it can stabilize cognitive impairment. Hepatosplenomegaly, urine GAGs excretion, upper

  4. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  5. A Type System For Certified Runtime Type Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE DEC 2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Type System For Certified Runtime Type Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Advanced Research

  6. Spectral types for early-type stars observed by Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.

    1978-01-01

    MK spectral types are presented for 246 early-type stars observed with the S-019 ultraviolet stellar astronomy experiment on Skylab. K-line types are also given where applicable, and various peculiar stars are identified. The peculiar stars include five silicon stars, a shell star, a helium-rich star, a silicon-strontium star, a chromium-europium star, and two marginal metallic-line stars.

  7. Typing is writing: Linguistic properties modulate typing execution.

    PubMed

    Pinet, Svetlana; Ziegler, Johannes C; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Typing is becoming our preferred way of writing. Perhaps because of the relative recency of this change, very few studies have investigated typing from a psycholinguistic perspective. In addition, and despite obvious similarities between typing and handwriting, typing research has remained rather disconnected from handwriting research. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by evaluating how typing is affected by a number of psycholinguistic variables defined at the word, syllable, and letter levels. In a writing-to-dictation task, we assessed typing performance by measuring response accuracy, onset latencies - an index of response preparation and initiation - and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) - an index of response execution processes. The lexical and sublexical factors revealed a composite pattern of effects. Lexical frequency improved response latencies and accuracy, while bigram frequency speeded up IKIs. Sound-spelling consistency improved latencies, but had an inhibitory effect on IKI. IKIs were also longer at syllable boundaries. Together, our findings can be fit within a framework for typed production that combines the previously developed theories of spelling and typing execution. At their interface, we highlight the need for an intermediate hierarchical stage, perhaps in the form of a graphemic buffer for typing.

  8. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    general to different types if we perform the β-reduction step first or eliminate the iterator first. Crary and Weirich [1] propose another method for...lu must have identical domain and range. 8 One possibility is to follow the approach outlined by Crary and Weirich in [1] for quantified types; since...and suggestions on improving the presenta- tion. References [1] K. Crary and S. Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In Proc. 1999 ACM SIGPLAN

  9. Physical Symptom Reporting in Type A and Type B Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiken, Lewis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined developmental origins of one coronary-prone component of Type A pattern, tendency to suppress attention to physical symptoms. Studied symptom-reporting behavior of 85 children between ages of 5 and 14. Type A children underreported variety of symptoms, independent of gender and age; missed less school following surgery; and were…

  10. Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    a normal form which does not have a (saturated) application of a constructor of Ω in its head. Crary and Weirich [1999] propose the use of deBruijn...intensional type analysis” [Crary and Weirich 1999, Section 4.1]. For example polymorphic and existential types such as ∀α :Ω.Typerec α of . . . are not...a type-preserving compiler. 4.1 Analyzable Elements at the Type Level Following the ideas of Crary, Weirich , and Morrisett [1998], the run-time anal

  11. p-Type Transparent Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-25

    semiconductor surface heavily doped ...successfully doped both n-type and p-type. 2.1.3 CuInO2 CuInO2 is a particularly interesting transparent conductor because it has been successfully doped ...integra- tion. CuInO2 is doped n-type by the replacement of In 3+ with Sn4+, and p-type by the replacement of In3+ with Ca2+. Neither n-CuInO2 nor p-CuInO2

  12. Pneumococcal Disease: Types of Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Related Pages Global Pneumococcal Vaccination World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Types of Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  13. DIORAMA Location Type User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, James Russell

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this report is to present the current design and implementation of the DIORAMA location type object (LocationType) and to provide examples and use cases. The LocationType object is included in the diorama-app package in the diorama::types namespace. Abstractly, the object is intended to capture the full time history of the location of an object or reference point. For example, a location may be speci ed as a near-Earth orbit in terms of a two-line element set, in which case the location type is capable of propagating the orbit both forward and backward in time to provide a location for any given time. Alternatively, the location may be speci ed as a xed set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude), in which case the geodetic location of the object is expected to remain constant for all time. From an implementation perspective, the location type is de ned as a union of multiple independent objects defi ned in the DIORAMA tle library. Types presently included in the union are listed and described in subsections below, and all conversions or transformation between these location types are handled by utilities provided by the tle library with the exception of the \\special-values" location type.

  14. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    PubMed

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  15. Spectral Types of Field and Cluster O-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Sidney

    2004-10-01

    The recent catalog of spectral types of Galactic O-type stars by Maíz-Apellániz et al. is used to study the differences between the frequencies of various subtypes of O-type stars in the field, in OB associations, and among runaway stars. At a high level of statistical significance, the data show that O stars in clusters and associations have earlier types (and, hence, presumably larger masses or younger ages) than those that are situated in the general field. Furthermore, it is found that the distribution of spectral subtypes among runaway O stars is indistinguishable from that among field stars and differs significantly from that of the O-type stars that are situated in clusters and associations. The difference is in the sense that runaway O stars, on average, have later subtypes than do those that are still located in clusters and associations.

  16. AN INFRARED COMPARISON OF TYPE-1 AND TYPE-2 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiner, Kyle D.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Lacy, Mark; Armus, Lee; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa; Sajina, Anna; Ridgway, Susan E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.ed E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: asajina@haverford.ed

    2009-11-20

    We model the optical to far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of six type-1 and six type-2 quasars selected in the mid-infrared. The objects in our sample are matched in mid-IR luminosity and selected based on their Spitzer IRAC colors. We obtained new targeted Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations and used archival photometry to examine the optical to far-IR SEDs. We investigate whether the observed differences between samples are consistent with orientation-based unification schemes. The type-1 objects show significant emission at 3 mum. They do not show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and have less far-IR emission on average when compared to the type-2 objects. The SEDs of the type-2 objects show a wide assortment of silicate features, ranging from weak emission to deep silicate absorption. Some also show strong PAH features. In comparison, silicate is only seen in emission in the type-1 objects. This is consistent with some of the type-2's being reddened by a foreground screen of cooler dust, perhaps in the host galaxy itself. We investigate the active galactic nucleus contribution to the far-IR emission and find it to be significant. We also estimate the star formation rate (SFR) for each of the objects by integrating the modeled far-IR flux and compare this with the SFR found from PAH emission. We find that the type-2 quasars have a higher average SFR than the type-1 quasars based on both methods, though this could be due to differences in bolometric luminosities of the objects. While we find pronounced differences between the two types of objects, none of them are inconsistent with orientation-based unification schemes.

  17. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  18. Mapping School Types in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and range of school types in England is increasing rapidly in response to a neoliberal policy agenda aiming to expand choice of provision as a mechanism for raising educational standards. In this paper, I seek to undertake a mapping of these school types in order to describe and explain what is happening. I capture this busy terrain…

  19. Heterosexuality and Sex-Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, Elizabeth R.

    Previous research (Bem, 1976) has shown that sex-typed and androgynous persons differ in their behavior in a variety of situations. The present paper describes four studies of the relationship of sex-typing to sexual socialization and to heterosexual attitudes and behavior. This program of research indicates that persons do differ in their sexual…

  20. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  1. Phonation Types in Amerindian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.; Ladefoged, Peter

    This paper lays out techniques for investing different types of phonation from acoustic data. Nearly all the world's languages distinguish between voiced and voiceless phonation. Many languages use other phonation types, such as the breathy voice--also described as speaking while sighing. Another kind of voice quality, one frequently found in…

  2. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  3. Nonlinear equations of 'variable type'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, N. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ianenko, N. N.

    In this monograph, new scientific results related to the theory of equations of 'variable type' are presented. Equations of 'variable type' are equations for which the original type is not preserved within the entire domain of coefficient definition. This part of the theory of differential equations with partial derivatives has been developed intensively in connection with the requirements of mechanics. The relations between equations of the considered type and the problems of mathematical physics are explored, taking into account quasi-linear equations, and models of mathematical physics which lead to equations of 'variable type'. Such models are related to transonic flows, problems involving a separation of the boundary layer, gasdynamics and the van der Waals equation, shock wave phenomena, and a combustion model with a turbulent diffusion flame. Attention is also given to nonlinear parabolic equations, and nonlinear partial differential equations of the third order.

  4. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    and tags, and defining an interpre- tation function to map between the two, is related to the ideas proposed by Crary and Weirich for the language LX...Science, 1995. 11 [2] K. Crary and S. Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In Proc. 1999 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming, pages...233–248. ACM Press, Sept. 1999. [3] K. Crary, S. Weirich , and G. Morrisett. Intensional polymorphism in type-erasure semantics. In Proc. 1998 ACM

  5. Theory of Type 3 and Type 2 Solar Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    2000-01-01

    The main features of some current theories of type III and type II bursts are outlined. Among the most common solar radio bursts, type III bursts are produced at frequencies of 10 kHz to a few GHz when electron beams are ejected from solar active regions, entering the corona and solar wind at typical speeds of 0.1c. These beams provide energy to generate Langmuir waves via a streaming instability. In the current stochastic-growth theory, Langmuir waves grow in clumps associated with random low-frequency density fluctuations, leading to the observed spiky waves. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions then lead to secondary emission of observable radio waves near the fundamental and harmonic of the plasma frequency. Subsequent scattering processes modify the dynamic radio spectra, while back-reaction of Langmuir waves on the beam causes it to fluctuate about a state of marginal stability. Theories based on these ideas can account for the observed properties of type III bursts, including the in situ waves and the dynamic spectra of the radiation. Type 11 bursts are associated with shock waves propagating through the corona and interplanetary space and radiating from roughly 30 kHz to 1 GHz. Their basic emission mechanisms are believed to be similar to those of type III events and radiation from Earth's foreshock. However, several sub-classes of type II bursts may exist with different source regions and detailed characteristics. Theoretical models for type II bursts are briefly reviewed, focusing on a model with emission from a foreshock region upstream of the shock for which observational evidence has just been reported.

  6. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  7. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  8. Definitions of histocompatibility typing terms.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eduardo; Heslop, Helen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Taves, Cynthia; Wagenknecht, Dawn R; Eisenbrey, A Bradley; Fischer, Gottfried; Poulton, Kay; Wacker, Kara; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Noreen, Harriet; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    Histocompatibility testing for stem cell and solid organ transplantation has become increasingly complex as newly discovered HLA alleles are described. HLA typing assignments reported by laboratories are used by physicians and donor registries for matching donors and recipients. To communicate effectively, a common language for histocompatibility terms should be established. In early 2010, representatives from Clinical, Registry, and Histocompatibility organizations joined together as the Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group to define a consensual language for laboratories, physicians, and registries to communicate histocompatibility typing information. The Working Group defined terms for HLA typing resolution, HLA matching, and a format for reporting HLA assignments. In addition, definitions of verification typing and extended typing were addressed. The original draft of the Definitions of Histocompatibility Typing Terms was disseminated to colleagues from each organization to gain feedback and create a collaborative document. Commentary gathered during this 90-day review period were discussed and implemented for preparation of this report. Histocompatibility testing continues to evolve; thus, the definitions agreed on today probably will require refinement and perhaps additional terminology in the future.

  9. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    PubMed Central

    Druelle, Johan; Sellin, Caroline I; Waku-Kouomou, Diane; Horvat, Branka; Wild, Fabian T

    2008-01-01

    Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt). Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL) by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13) differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene). While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system. PMID:18241351

  10. Type-1.5 superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Menghini, Mariela; Nishio, T; Chen, Q H; Silhanek, A V; Dao, V H; Chibotaru, L F; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J

    2009-03-20

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel superconducting state in high quality two-component MgB2 single crystalline superconductors where a unique combination of both type-1 (lambda{1}/xi{1}<1/sqrt[2]) and type-2 (lambda{2}/xi{2}>1/sqrt[2]) superconductor conditions is realized for the two components of the order parameter. This condition leads to a vortex-vortex interaction attractive at long distances and repulsive at short distances, which stabilizes unconventional stripe- and gossamerlike vortex patterns that we have visualized in this type-1.5 superconductor using Bitter decoration and also reproduced in numerical simulations.

  11. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Tools & Publications Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors World Health Organization (WHO) Updates Official Classification of Tumors ... Central Nervous System On May 9, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an official reclassification of ...

  12. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections Recommend ... infection, but can also cause severe illnesses like meningitis (an infection of the covering of the brain ...

  13. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... considered, plays a key role in diabetes care. Connecting with other people living with diabetes that understand ... affected by diabetes to find that support. Our Family Link program connects parents of children with type ...

  14. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  15. Types of Arrhythmia in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Arrhythmia in Children Updated:Dec 21,2016 There are ... put in. Checklist for Parents of Children with Arrhythmias Learn CPR and emergency procedures Parents of all ...

  16. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  17. Definitions and Types of Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy Pain Management Recommendations References April 15, 2017 Definitions and Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is ... there are many mechanisms involved in nociception. More definitions ... Classifying Pain Pain can be "acute" or "chronic." ...

  18. Sarcoid type reaction: medical hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Patterson, J W; Wollina, U; Lotti, T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoid-type reactions could not always be clearly distinct from the independent disease sarcoidosis. Particular attention should be paid to paraneoplastic type of sarcoid reaction which until recent literature was characterized as 1) sarcoidosis associated with tumor disease or 2) sarcoidosis classified and presented as paraneoplastic disease. The analogy between sarcoidosis and paraneoplastic type of sarcoid reaction are the pure epithelioid cell granulomas. The role of molecular mimicry in paraneoplastic type of reaction is probably significant but not yet fully proven and understood. Future studies on this issue should be directed to identify the genetic defects (regarding the inflammasome and those recently established at EOS and Blau Syndrome) as well as screening programs for early detection of cancers, with a view to optimization of the subsequent therapy.

  19. A new type of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, K; Tsuruta, T; Taki, N; Tsunoda, I; Ozawa, H; Hasegawa, T; Sillence, D

    1986-01-01

    A new type of neonatal death dwarfism, resembling the achondrogenesis syndromes on clinical examination but presenting distinctive radiographic and microscopic features has been described. It presents another, new form of achondrogenesis.

  20. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  1. Mycobacterium abscessus multispacer sequence typing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus group includes antibiotic-resistant, opportunistic mycobacteria that are responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks of cutaneous, pulmonary and disseminated infections. However, because of their close genetic relationships, accurate discrimination between the various strains of these mycobacteria remains difficult. In this report, we describe the development of a multispacer sequence typing (MST) analysis for the simultaneous identification and typing of M. abscessus mycobacteria. We also compared MST with the reference multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) typing method. Results Based on the M. abscessus CIP104536T genome, eight intergenic spacers were selected, PCR amplified and sequenced in 21 M. abscessus isolates and analysed in 48 available M. abscessus genomes. MST and MLSA grouped 37 M. abscessus organisms into 12 and nine types, respectively; four formerly “M. bolletii” organisms and M. abscessus M139 into three and four types, respectively; and 27 formerly “M. massiliense” organisms grouped into nine and five types, respectively. The Hunter-Gaston index was off 0.912 for MST and of 0.903 for MLSA. The MST-derived tree was similar to that based on MLSA and rpoB gene sequencing and yielded three main clusters comprising each the type strain of the respective M. abscessus sub-species. Two isolates exhibited discordant MLSA- and rpoB gene sequence-derived position, one isolate exhibited discordant MST- and rpoB gene sequence-derived position and one isolate exhibited discordant MST- and MLSA-derived position. MST spacer n°2 sequencing alone allowed for the accurate identification of the different isolates at the sub-species level. Conclusions MST is a new sequencing-based approach for both identifying and genotyping M. abscessus mycobacteria that clearly differentiates formerly “M. massiliense” organisms from other M. abscessus subsp. bolletii organisms. PMID:23294800

  2. Integrable oscillator type and Schrödinger type dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2017-02-01

    A PT-symmetric dimer is a two-site nonlinear oscillator dimer or a two-site nonlinear Schrödinger dimer where one site loses and the other site gains energy at the same rate. We present a wide class of integrable oscillator type dimers whose Hamiltonian is of arbitrary even order. Further, we also present a wide class of integrable nonlinear Schrödinger type dimers where again the Hamiltonian is of arbitrary even order. Finally, we consider a recently discussed complex dimer model and point out a few integrable cases in that model.

  3. Weather types and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Klaić, Z B

    2001-06-01

    Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents.

  4. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  5. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  6. [Type I interferonopathies].

    PubMed

    Munoz, J; Marque, M; Dandurand, M; Meunier, L; Crow, Y-J; Bessis, D

    2015-11-01

    Type I interferonopathies are a group of Mendelian disorders characterized by a common physiopathology: the up-regulation of type I interferons. To date, interferonopathies include Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, familial chilblain lupus, spondyenchondromatosis, PRoteasome-associated auto-inflammatory syndrome (PRAAS) and Singleton-Merten syndrome. These diseases present phenotypic overlap including cutaneous features like chilblain lupus, that can be inaugural or present within the first months of life. This novel set of inborn errors of immunity is evolving rapidly, with recognition of new diseases and genes. Recent and improved understanding of the physiopathology of overexpression of type I interferons has allowed the development of targeted therapies, currently being evaluated, like Janus-kinases or reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

  7. Models for Type I supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Taam, R.E.

    1980-06-17

    Two rather disjoint scenarios for Type I supernovae are presented. One is based upon mass accretion by a white dwarf in a binary system. The second involves a star having some 8 to 10 times the mass of the sun which may or may not be a solitary star. Despite the apparent dissimilarities in the models it may be that each occurs to some extent in nature for they both share the possibility of producing substantial quantities of /sup 56/Ni and explosions in stars devoid of hydrogen envelopes. These are believed to be two properties that must be shared by any viable Type I model.

  8. Multiple Strongly Typed Evaluation Phases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    is precisehy te purpose of the unusual (check-) const rcts of Static-IL listed in Section 4 2.3: the\\ take pe -chccKec I programs (in the form of ERTs...et al. [ Schooler 841 takes a very attractive approach to this: where possible, they do type checking before runtime; if a type cannot be determined... need more. so, as with funtype, we take the maximum. Also note that subexpressions el and e2 are implicitly inside an eval; hence the "n+1"s. Count( (el

  9. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  10. Ladder-Type Circuits Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Ladder-type circuits where a given unit is repeated infinitely many times are dealt with in many textbooks on electromagnetism as examples of filter circuits. Determining the impedance of such circuits seems to be regarded as simple, which may be due to the fact that the invariance of the infinite system under the operation of adding one more unit…

  11. [Obesity and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Toplak, Hermann; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Wascher, Thomas C; Schindler, Karin; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are nowadays summarized as "diabesity". That is due to the fact that obesity is frequently preceding and the most important risk factor in the increase of Type 2 Diabetes. The body mass index (BMI) is a crude measure of body fatness. Even normal weight persons can have lack in muscles (sarcopenia), which leads to the recommendation to measure waist und body fatness (e.g. BIA). Lifestyle management including nutrition and physical activity are important for diabetes prevention. In the therapy of Type 2 Diabetes body weight is increasingly used as secondary target. Also the choice of the anti-diabetic medication and concomitant medications is increasingly influenced by body weight. The significance of anti-obesity medications in the therapy of type 2 diabetes will have to be clarified by future studies. Bariatric surgery is at present indicated with a BMI above BMI > 35 kg/m(2) and can lead at least to partial diabetes remission but has to be part of a lifelong care concept.

  12. Skilled Finger Movements in Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    Six skilled typists were studied while they transcribed English text. The typists showed stable patterns of performance, but with significant individual differences among themselves. Inter-keypress latencies for two-finger digraphs (typed by two fingers on the same hand) were particularly variable among typists. Two typists showed large…

  13. Algebraic invariants for homotopy types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, David

    1999-11-01

    We define a sequence of purely algebraic invariants - namely, classes in the Quillen cohomology of the [Pi]-algebra [pi][low asterisk]X - for distinguishing between different homotopy types of spaces. Another sequence of such cohomology classes allows one to decide whether a given abstract [Pi]-algebra can be realized as the homotopy [Pi]-algebra of a space.

  14. Dependent Types in Practical Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-06

    process, and a great deal of evidence in practice has demonstrated that the use of a type system in a programming language can effectively detect program...6.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 7 Effects 117 7.1 Exceptions... effectively enable the programmer to catch numerous program errors at compile- time. However, there are also various occasions in which many common

  15. Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Lars-Eric; Carlsson, Lena; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Liu, Jing-Xia; Österlund, Catharina; Stål, Per; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150 years ago. It took, however, another 100 years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umeå University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei. PMID:26179023

  16. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  17. Rijke-Type Thermoacoustic Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability can appear in any thermal device when the unsteady heat transfer is favourably coupled with the fluctuations of acoustic pressure. In this paper, we present a project type of physical measuring and modelling task; the aim of our project is to help our students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics. Our paper…

  18. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  19. Bacteriophage typing of Shigella sonnei.

    PubMed

    Pruneda, R C; Farmer, J J

    1977-01-01

    A bacteriophage-typing schema was developed for differentiating strains of Shigella sonnei. Sixty-seven bacteriophages were obtained from other collections, and 36 bacteriophages were isolated from sewage. From these 103 bacteriophages, a provisional set of 12 was chosen by computer analysis as being the most sensitive in differentiating strains of S. sonnei isolated in the United States. The provisional schema was used to type 265 strains from different geographical areas. It divided them into 87 different lysis patterns, and all 265 strains were typable. Smooth and rough colonial variants of the same strain had different lysis patterns, so the technique was standardized to type rough colonies only. Reproducibility was difficult to obtain until all conditions were carefully standardized. Changes in results were noted even on different lot numbers of Trypticase soy agar, which was defined as the standard medium. So that the medium would not be a variable, 100 pounds (ca 453.5 kg) of the same lot number was purchased. Bacteriophage typing was very useful in differentiating strains, and work should continue on establishing a standarized schema.

  20. Typing for human platelet alloantigens.

    PubMed

    Juji, T; Saji, H; Satake, M; Tokunaga, K

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies to platelet alloantigens, and sometimes to isoantigens, induce severe clinical problems such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and refractoriness to platelet transfusions (PTR). For example, NAIT affects approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is essential, therefore, to screen pregnant women for platelet antibodies in order to save babies' lives. Almost 40 years ago, two platelet alloantigen systems were discovered using relatively simple methods, namely the platelet agglutination test and the complement fixation test. However, these methods were not sensitive enough to identify all antibodies in mothers and patients, even in those with severe clinical problems. Tremendous effort has been devoted to establish more sensitive and reliable methods. In recent years, excellent new serological and immunochemical methods have been established and several new platelet antigen systems have been discovered. Simultaneously, newly developed molecular genetic techniques have been introduced for the typing and analysis of human platelet alloantigen systems. These methods allow DNA typing for cases in which serological typing is not available. In this article, the history of studies on human platelet alloantigen systems and isoantigens, the nomenclature of platelet alloantigen systems and their alleles, the present status of antibody detection and typing techniques and, finally, ethnic variations in platelet antigen profiles are reviewed.

  1. Type V hyperlipoproteinaemia in neonates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G N; Knight, A J; Craig, I H; Bresson, J L

    1987-09-01

    A boy investigated for neonatal jaundice was noted to have lipaemic serum and was subsequently shown to have type V hyperlipoproteinaemia. Dietary treatment was maintained for five years and he followed a typical clinical course. Circumstantial evidence suggested an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.

  2. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    neurological exam was normal. Recompression with 100% oxygen produced relief within fifteen minutes. Follow up revealed no recurrence . Case 2 A twenty-seven...Follow up revealed no recurrence . Both cases pose an intriguing question. Should headache always be considered Type II DCS? DCS has a wide range of...with the supporting basis for this alternative view. The background for this paper is based on orthodontic and osteopathic medicine. For years

  3. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  4. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  5. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  6. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  7. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  8. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  9. Jovian type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    Radio bursts have been observed in the Voyager plasma wave data from Jupiter that bear a striking resemblance to solar type III radio bursts. The emissions lie in the frequency range near 10 kHz, have durations of a minute or so, and occur in a set of periodically spaced bursts. The spacing between primary bursts is typically 15 min, but the bursts may have additional components which recur on time scales of about 3 min. The similarity with solar type III radio bursts suggests a source mechanism involving the movement of energetic electrons through a density gradient in the plasma surrounding Jupiter. The periodicity of bursts suggests Io may be involved in the generation of waves, since the timing is similar to the Alfven wave travel time from one hemisphere to the other through the Io torus.

  10. A Wolter type I LAMAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

  11. Modern Graywacke-Type Sands.

    PubMed

    Hollister, C D; Heezen, B C

    1964-12-18

    A preliminary study of more than 100 deep-sea cores from abyssal plains has revealed two examples of recent muddy sands of the graywacke type which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution sands have a well-sorted framework of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution that is also typical of ancient graywackes. The matrix is considered to be primary.

  12. IMPROVED TYPE OF FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.O.

    1961-01-24

    A radiator-type fuel block assembly is described. It has a hexagonal body of neutron fissionable material having a plurality of longitudinal equal- spaced coolant channels therein aligned in rows parallel to each face of the hexagonal body. Each of these coolant channels is hexagonally shaped with the corners rounded and enlarged and the assembly has a maximum temperature isothermal line around each channel which is approximately straight and equidistant between adjacent channels.

  13. Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis of cesioflammea type*

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Leal, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is a rare syndrome, defined as the simultaneous presence of vascular nevus and melanocytic nevus in the same patient. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman presented with dermal melanosis and extensive vascular nevus, which match the typical manifestations of phakomatosis pigmetovascularis of cesioflammea type, according to Happle's classification. The rare occurrence of this genodermatosis and the clinical exuberance of the skin lesions motivated this case report. PMID:28300894

  14. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  15. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions spastic paraplegia type 2 spastic paraplegia type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Spastic paraplegia type 2 is part of a group of genetic disorders ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2 (PHA2) is caused by problems that affect regulation ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: neurofibromatosis type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions neurofibromatosis type 2 neurofibromatosis type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a disorder characterized by the growth of ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: atelosteogenesis type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions atelosteogenesis type 2 atelosteogenesis type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Atelosteogenesis type 2 is a severe disorder of cartilage and bone ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 is a disorder involving abnormalities in skeletal development ...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky....

  3. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky....

  4. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions spastic paraplegia type 4 spastic paraplegia type 4 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spastic paraplegia type 4 is part of a group of ...

  5. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers,...

  6. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers,...

  7. Structure and function of collagen types

    SciTech Connect

    Mayne, R.; Burgeson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Classical Collagens: Types I, II, and III; Type IV Collagen; Type IX Collagen; and Analysis of Collagen Structure by Molecular Biology Techniques.

  8. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  9. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers,...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 8

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hereditary spastic paraplegias are divided into two types: pure and complex. The pure types involve only the nerves and muscles controlling ... the body. Spastic paraplegia type 8 is a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. Like all hereditary spastic paraplegias, ...

  11. A Data Type for Efficient Representation of Other Data Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A self-organizing, monomorphic data type denoted a sequence has been conceived to address certain concerns that arise in programming parallel computers. A sequence in the present sense can be regarded abstractly as a vector, set, bag, queue, or other construct. Heretofore, in programming a parallel computer, it has been necessary for the programmer to state explicitly, at the outset, what parts of the program and the underlying data structures must be represented in parallel form. Not only is this requirement not optimal from the perspective of implementation; it entails an additional requirement that the programmer have intimate understanding of the underlying parallel structure. The present sequence data type overcomes both the implementation and parallel structure obstacles. In so doing, the sequence data type provides unified means by which the programmer can represent a data structure for natural and automatic decomposition to a parallel computing architecture. Sequences exhibit the behavioral and structural characteristics of vectors, but the underlying representations are automatically synthesized from combinations of programmers advice and execution use metrics. Sequences can vary bidirectionally between sparseness and density, making them excellent choices for many kinds of algorithms. The novelty and benefit of this behavior lies in the fact that it can relieve programmers of the details of implementations. The creation of a sequence enables decoupling of a conceptual representation from an implementation. The underlying representation of a sequence is a hybrid of representations composed of vectors, linked lists, connected blocks, and hash tables. The internal structure of a sequence can automatically change from time to time on the basis of how it is being used. Those portions of a sequence where elements have not been added or removed can be as efficient as vectors. As elements are inserted and removed in a given portion, then different methods are

  12. The role of inattention on academics, fluid reasoning, and visual-spatial functioning in two subtypes of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether subtype differences and the role of inattention in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominately inattentive type (ADHD-PI) and controls on measures of achievement, problem solving, and visual-spatial abilities are present. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the relation between ADHD symptoms and performance on visual-spatial-motor tasks. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI and controls, all aged 8 to 16 years old, were compared on tests of achievement, fluid reasoning, and visual-motor skills. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI performed significantly poorer on the mathematics calculation, written expression, fluid reasoning, and visual-motor tests compared with the controls. Inattention, but not hyperactivity or impulsivity, was found to significantly predict performance on these measures. The role of inattention on these tasks is important for understanding why children with both subtypes of ADHD experience significant academic problems even when performing in the average range on achievement tests.

  13. Myopia in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Garty, B Z; Laor, A; Danon, Y L

    1996-05-01

    We studied the prevalence of myopia in 17-year-old Israeli military recruits with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Twenty-four percent of the youngsters with neurofibromatosis had myopia, compared to 19% of the controls; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.03). The recruits with NF1 had a slightly lower IQ, fewer years of education, and lower height and weight than the controls. Thus, these factors, which have been reported to be associated with myopia, did not significantly influence the high prevalence of myopia in the neurofibromatosis subjects. A high prevalence of myopia seems to be an additional feature of NF1.

  14. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  15. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  16. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-10-20

    An explanation is given of the low value of R lambda triple bond A lambda/E(B - V), the ratio of absolute to selective extinction deduced from Type Ia supernova observations. The idea involves scattering by dust clouds located in the circumstellar environment, or at the highest velocity shells of the supernova ejecta. The scattered light tends to reduce the effective R lambda in the optical, but has an opposite effect in the ultraviolet. The presence of circumstellar dust can be tested by ultraviolet to near infrared observations and by multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SNe Ia.

  17. [Zinc and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Fukunaka, Ayako; Fujitani, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic β cells contain the highest amount of zinc among cells within the human body, and hence, the relationship between zinc and diabetes has been a topic of great interest. While many studies demonstrating possible involvement of zinc deficiency in diabetes have been reported, precise mechanisms how zinc regulates glucose metabolism are still far from understood. Recent studies revealed that zinc can transmit signals that are driven by a variety of zinc transporters in a tissue and cell-type specific manner and deficiency in some zinc transporters may cause human diseases. Here, we review the role of zinc in metabolism particularly focusing on the emerging role of zinc transporters in diabetes.

  18. SOHC type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, N.; Iwata, T.; Oikawa, T.

    1989-01-10

    An SOHC type internal combustion engine is described comprising a cylinder head which has a combustion chamber defined therein, a camshaft carried thereon, an ignition plug mounting hole opening to a center portion of a top surface of the combustion chamber and a protecting cylinder formed therein with an ignition plug insertion hole. The journal for the camshaft has a diameter larger than a path of rotation of a lobe of a cam on the camshaft and is supported by a bearing hole formed in a camshaft receiving wall which is provided on the cylinder head. The protecting cylinder and the camshaft receiving wall are formed in a single piece.

  19. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  20. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  1. [New insulin types in type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jordi

    2015-07-20

    Since its discovery almost a century ago, insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although progress in the synthesis of new formulations has been remarkable, the physiological profile of insulin is still different from that observed with preparations available nowadays. In the last decade, the introduction into clinical practice of insulin analogues has allowed significantly improvement in glycemic control and has facilitated the spread of basal/bolus patterns, the most physiological ones until now. Despite the benefits of basal analogues, glycemia often varies considerably when used as a single daily injection and this is why new molecules have been further investigated. Improvement has been achieved especially in terms of duration and rate of hypoglycemia, the main limiting factor of intensive therapy. This article reviews the available data concerning the new basal insulin analogues, degludec, pegylated lispro and glargine U300, and new formulations currently under development.

  2. Personality types in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Wallick, M M; Cambre, K M

    1999-07-01

    Based on Swiss physician-scholar Carl G. Jung's theory of psychological types proposed in the 1920s, Kathleen Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) three decades later. They applied Jung's dynamic theory to determine how persons take in information, make decisions, and communicate thoughts and feelings. Medical students were of special interest to their research and much has been written since then about the use of the MBTI in medicine. In this study, results of MBTIs administered to 1797 freshmen students at Louisiana State University School of Medicine--New Orleans from 1988 to 1998 are compared with those reported by the MBTI developers and others over the years and throughout the United States. Findings indicate some noteworthy shifts in the psychological profile of medical students over time and among schools that may be due to changes in the delivery of health care, the increase in technology in the practice of medicine, and the dramatic increase of women in medicine.

  3. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2014-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens.

  4. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3561 - Type 95.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3561 Type 95. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Dark...

  10. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  11. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  12. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  13. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  14. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  15. 47 CFR 22.357 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emission types. 22.357 Section 22.357... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.357 Emission types. Any authorized station in the Public Mobile Services may transmit emissions of any type(s) that comply with the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  17. Accounting Students' Performance and Personality Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nourayi, Mahmoud M.; Cherry, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    Completion of the Myers Briggs Type Inventory by 103 accounting majors revealed no significant differences among personality types in achievement, except that sensing types perform better in accounting in general. Results seem to belie the suggestion that accounting attracts introverts and that the intuitive type is best suited to accounting in…

  18. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  19. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  20. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  1. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  2. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of...

  3. 14 CFR 21.41 - Type certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type certificate. 21.41 Section 21.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.41 Type certificate. Each type certificate...

  4. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of...

  5. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  6. The origin and evolution of cell types.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Musser, Jacob M; Baker, Clare V H; Bergman, Aviv; Cepko, Connie; Erwin, Douglas H; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Schlosser, Gerhard; Widder, Stefanie; Laubichler, Manfred D; Wagner, Günter P

    2016-12-01

    Cell types are the basic building blocks of multicellular organisms and are extensively diversified in animals. Despite recent advances in characterizing cell types, classification schemes remain ambiguous. We propose an evolutionary definition of a cell type that allows cell types to be delineated and compared within and between species. Key to cell type identity are evolutionary changes in the 'core regulatory complex' (CoRC) of transcription factors, that make emergent sister cell types distinct, enable their independent evolution and regulate cell type-specific traits termed apomeres. We discuss the distinction between developmental and evolutionary lineages, and present a roadmap for future research.

  7. MOUSE TRANSGENIC LINES THAT SELECTIVELY LABEL TYPE I, TYPE IIA AND TYPES IIX+B SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Chakkalakal, Joe V.; Kuang, Shihuan; Buffelli, Mario; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers vary in contractile and metabolic properties. Four main fiber types are present in mammalian trunk and limb muscles; they are called I, IIA, IIX and IIB, ranging from slowest- to fastest-contracting. Individual muscles contain stereotyped proportions of two or more fiber types. Fiber type is determined by a combination of nerve-dependent and –independent influences, leading to formation of “homogeneous motor units” in which all branches of a single motor neuron form synapses on fibers of a single type. Fiber type composition of muscles can be altered in adulthood by multiple factors including exercise, denervation, hormones and aging. To facilitate analysis of muscle development, plasticity and innervation, we generated transgenic mouse lines in which Type I, Type IIA, and Type IIX+B fibers can be selectively labeled with distinguishable fluorophores. We demonstrate their use for motor unit reconstruction and live imaging of nerve-dependent alterations in fiber type. PMID:21898764

  8. Quantum games as quantum types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  9. Student selection and preference types.

    PubMed

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else.

  10. Prevention of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wherrett, Diane K.; Daneman, Denis

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Prevention of loss of β cells in type 1 diabetes is a major goal of current research. Knowledge of the genetic susceptibility, the increasing ability to predict who may be at risk, the recognition of the potential clinical impact of residual insulin secretion after diagnosis and the development of new immunomodulatory agents have supported an increasing number of clinical trials to prevent β cell loss. Interventions can be targeted at three stages: prior to the development of autoimmunity – primary prevention, after autoimmunity is recognized – secondary prevention or after diagnosis when significant numbers of β cells remain- tertiary prevention. Thus far a number of agents show promise when given shortly after diagnosis but no interventions prior to diagnosis have shown benefit. Knowledge in this area has grown quickly in recent years and will continue to grow rapidly with a number of international collaborative efforts underway. PMID:19944292

  11. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Claeys, J.; Mennekens, N.; Ruiter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  12. Carnitine and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Randall L

    2009-09-01

    Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that "lipid over supply" causes or worsens insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms involving the accumulation of intracellular lipids in multiple tissues. In particular, the accumulation of fatty acyl CoA derivatives/metabolites in muscle inhibits both insulin signaling and glucose oxidation. Therefore agents that ameliorate the accumulation of fatty acyl CoA derivatives and/or their metabolites would be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of insulin resistance and T2D. Hyperinsulemic/euglycemic clamp studies in humans and carnitine supplementation studies in rodents provide "proof-of-concept" that carnitine is effective at improving insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and in reversing abnormalities of fuel metabolism associated with T2D. Carefully controlled clinical trials are warranted to determine the efficacy dietary carnitine supplementation as an adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  14. Nanomechanics of Type I Collagen.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sameer; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Schieber, Jay D

    2016-07-12

    Type I collagen is the predominant collagen in mature tendons and ligaments, where it gives them their load-bearing mechanical properties. Fibrils of type I collagen are formed by the packing of polypeptide triple helices. Higher-order structures like fibril bundles and fibers are assembled from fibrils in the presence of other collagenous molecules and noncollagenous molecules. Curiously, however, experiments show that fibrils/fibril bundles are less resistant to axial stress compared to their constituent triple helices-the Young's moduli of fibrils/fibril bundles are an order-of-magnitude smaller than the Young's moduli of triple helices. Given the sensitivity of the Young's moduli of triple helices to solvation environment, a plausible explanation is that the packing of triple helices into fibrils perhaps reduces the Young's modulus of an individual triple helix, which results in fibrils having smaller Young's moduli. We find, however, from molecular dynamics and accelerated conformational sampling simulations that the Young's modulus of the buried core of the fibril is of the same order as that of a triple helix in aqueous phase. These simulations, therefore, suggest that the lower Young's moduli of fibrils/fibril bundles cannot be attributed to the specific packing of triple helices in the fibril core. It is not the fibril core that yields initially to axial stress. Rather, it must be the portion of the fibril exposed to the solvent and/or the fibril-fibril interface that bears the initial strain. Overall, this work provides estimates of Young's moduli and persistence lengths at two levels of collagen's structural assembly, which are necessary to quantitatively investigate the response of various biological factors on collagen mechanics, including congenital mutations, posttranslational modifications and ligand binding, and also engineer new collagen-based materials.

  15. A Type-S radiation thermometer for steel mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, G. Raymond

    2003-04-01

    The need for standardization in infrared radiation thermometry has never been more significant than now, particularly in the US Steel industry. The situation must be similar to that faced by thermocouple users and makers in the last century. The technology is mature and the applications well understood by pyrometry and instrumentation specialists. Yet, neither is well understood by the majority of mill engineers. Selection of optimum devices for various mill applications requires specialized knowledge. The steel companies have trimmed staff to the point that vendors are becoming the default technology specialists. Yet the companies have no means to evaluate the competence of competing vendors and their devices. They thus default to devices & practices believed adequate instead of proven optimums. One solution is to develop a comprehensive set of standards, similar to those for thermocouples. These would include terminology, used in device specifications, along with recommended practices for use of certain device types in specific mill conditions and finally recommended practices for ancillary equipment & utilities, installation, commissioning, maintenance and periodic calibration verification.

  16. PCR for capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Falla, T J; Crook, D W; Brophy, L N; Maskell, D; Kroll, J S; Moxon, E R

    1994-01-01

    A PCR method for the unequivocal assignment of Haemophilus influenzae capsular type (types a to f) was developed. PCR primers were designed from capsule type-specific DNA sequences cloned from the capsular gene cluster of each of the six capsular types. PCR product was amplified only from the capsular type for which the primers were designed. Product was confirmed by using either an internal oligonucleotide or restriction endonuclease digestion. A total of 172 H. influenzae strains of known capsular type (determined genetically) comprising all capsular types and noncapsulate strains were tested by PCR capsular typing. In all cases the PCR capsular type corresponded to the capsular genotype determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cap region. When used in conjunction with PCR primers derived from the capsular gene bexA, capsulate, noncapsulate, and capsule-deficient type b mutant strains could be differentiated. PCR capsular typing overcomes the problems of cross-reaction and autoagglutination associated with the serotyping of H. influenzae strains. The rapid and unequivocal capsular typing method that is described will be particularly important for typing invasive H. influenzae strains isolated from recipients of H. influenzae type b vaccine. Images PMID:7814470

  17. Ignimbrite types and ignimbrite problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, George P. L.

    1983-09-01

    A spectrum of ignimbrite emplacement types exists, ranging from the "conventional" high-aspect ratio (H.A.R.I.) type, emplaced relatively quietly and passively in valleys, to the low-aspect ratio (L.A.R.I.) type, emplaced cataclysmically. Features of the L.A.R.I., such as a remarkable ability to scale mountains and cross open water and a strong fines-depletion of part of their deposits, stem from a high flow velocity which may result from an extremely high magma discharge rate. Being less rare than large-volume H.A.R.I. eruptions covering the same area, L.A.R.I. eruptions are a much more immediate volcanic hazard. Being thin and inconspicuous, a L.A.R.I. may easily be overlooked when determining the past record of a volcano. Another ignimbrite spectrum depends on variations in particle viscosity during emplacement and extends from the low-grade (water-cooled?) ignimbrite which is totally non-welded even if >50 m thick, to the high-grade (superheated?) one which is densely welded even if <50 m thick. Problems of air-cooling and water-cooling of ash flows need to be tackled, and it may be necessary to recognize strongly cooled ash flows which were emplaced in part at <100°C. One problem of ignimbrite eruptions is the origin of the extensive associated ash fall, comparable in volume to the ignimbrite. This ash may be: (a) pre-ignimbrite Plinian pumice; (b) co-ignimbrite ash, containing material lost from both the eruptive column and ash flow; (c) phreatoplinian, due to the entry of significant amounts of water into the vent; (d) phreatoplinian co-ignimbrite, due to explosions at rootless vents where ash flows enter water from land. Another problem is the origin of associated well-sorted and sometimes wavy-bedded deposits. These deposits may be from: (a) base surges, related to either the collapsing column or entry of water to the vent; (b) base surges, due to explosions at rootless vents where ash flows enter water from land; (c) fines depletion in, and deposition

  18. The Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU) as an indicator of motor function problems in boys with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Stray, Liv Larsen; Stray, Torstein; Iversen, Synnøve; Ruud, Anne; Ellertsen, Bjørn; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2009-01-01

    Background The paper presents the Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU), as a tool for identifying typical motor function problems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study investigated motor functions in boys diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD, F.90.0). HKD corresponds to the ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) diagnosis in the DSM-IV. The paper addresses the ability of the instrument to discriminate between non-medicated boys with HKD and a control group consisting of normal non-referred boys without any clinical significant ADHD symptoms. Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 years and recently diagnosed as HKD F90.0, were compared with 27 controls, all boys in the same age range, on 17 MFNU subtests, and with a 'Total score' parameter. Results On the individual subtests 80–96% (median 88%) of the ADHD group showed 'moderate' to 'severe' problems, compared to 0–44% (median 14.8%) within the control group. The percentage of 'severe problems' ranged from 44–84%, (median 64%) in the ADHD group, and 0–44% (median 0%) in the control group. The highly significant differences found between the groups on all subtests, and on the Total score scores, indicated that the MFNU had a high discriminative power when children with ADHD and normal controls were compared. The Total score parameter seemed to be a meaningful discriminator of a common underlying factor of the 17 subtests used in the study. Conclusion The study confirms our clinical findings that the MFNU measures a consistent pattern of motor function problems in children with HKD, and that these problems are rarely represented in individuals without ADHD. Further research is needed to investigate to what extent the MFNU taps motor problems that are truly specific to ADHD, in contrast to motor problems common to children with DCD or other clinical problems. PMID:19450246

  19. Methylphenidate normalizes elevated dopamine transporter densities in an animal model of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type, but not to the same extent in one of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive type.

    PubMed

    Roessner, V; Sagvolden, T; Dasbanerjee, T; Middleton, F A; Faraone, S V; Walaas, S I; Becker, A; Rothenberger, A; Bock, N

    2010-06-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/NCrl) is a validated model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined subtype, whereas a recently identified substrain of the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY/NCrl) is a model of ADHD inattentive subtype. In this study, we first examined the expression of genes involved in dopamine signaling and metabolism in the dorsal striatum and ventral mesencephalon of these two rat strains, as well as three reference control strains (WKY/NHsd, WK/HanTac, and SD/NTac) using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Next, striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density was determined by ligand binding assay in the two ADHD-like strains at different developmental stages and after methylphenidate treatment. In adult rats, the mRNA expression of DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase was elevated in SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl rats compared to control strains, with differences between SHR/NCrl and WKY/NCrl rats also evident. During normal development, changes of striatal DAT densities occurred in both strains with lower densities in WKY/NCrl compared to SHR/NCrl after day 25. Two-weeks methylphenidate treatment during different developmental stages was associated with decreased striatal DAT density in both rat strains compared to the non-treated rats with more pronounced effects followed prepubertal treatment. These results suggest differences in the pathophysiology of the combined versus the predominantly inattentive animal model of ADHD. Finally, treatment with methylphenidate might reduce elevated DAT levels more effectively in the combined subtype especially when applied before puberty.

  20. Novel type of micromachined retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundvall, Axel; Lindstroem, Tomas; Nikolajeff, Fredrik K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the manufacturing of a novel type of retroreflecting sheeting material. The geometry presented has high reflection efficiency even at large incident angles, and it can be manufactured at low cost through polymer replication techniques. The paper consists of two parts. A theoretical section outlining the design parameters and their impact on the optical performance, and secondly, an experimental part comprising both manufacturing and optical evaluation for a candidate retroreflecting sheet material in traffic control devices. Experimental data show that the retroreflecting properties are promising. The retroreflector consists of a front layer of densely packed spherical microlenses, a back surface of densely packed spherical micromirrors, and a transparent spacer layer with a thickness equal or not equal to the focal length of the lens. The master structures for the lens and mirror sides of the retroreflector were produced by thermal reflow of photoresist pads on silicon wafers. The silicon master structures were transferred into metallic counterparts by electroforming. The casting of the retroreflector was then done in a cavity being limited by the respective mould inserts for the lens and mirror sides.

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

    PubMed

    Beukes, E; Dent, D M; De Villiers, J C; Miller, J L

    1985-08-17

    During the 13-year period 1970-1983 only 7 cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I) were seen at Groote Schuur Hospital, suggesting that the associated gene is rare in this area. Only 1 of these patients was black. Endocrine associations were as follows: hyperparathyroidism--6 cases, pituitary hypersecretion--6 cases (3 each involving growth hormone and prolactin), and pancreatic hypersecretion--3 cases (2 of gastrinoma and 1 of insulinoma). The presenting features were predictably diverse and depended on the component which manifested first. There was little difficulty in reaching a diagnosis on routine investigation. All patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent a 3 1/2-gland parathyroidectomy as the first treatment procedure, normocalcaemia being achieved in 5 cases, but persistent hypercalcaemia in the 6th suggested a supernumerary gland. A pituitary adenoma was removed in 4 cases, but persistent prolactinaemia necessitated bromocriptine therapy in 3. Successful distal pancreatectomy was undertaken in a patient with insulinoma and a patient with gastrinoma, and a further patient with gastrinoma awaits surgery. The overall prognosis in cases of MEN I appears to depend on the most aggressive component, often the pancreatic lesion; our patients have run a surprisingly benign course with only 1 late death, from hypertensive heart disease.

  2. Botulinum toxin type B micromechanosensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W.; Montana, Vedrana; Chapman, Edwin R.; Mohideen, U.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types A, B, E, and F are toxic to humans; early and rapid detection is essential for adequate medical treatment. Presently available tests for detection of BoNTs, although sensitive, require hours to days. We report a BoNT-B sensor whose properties allow detection of BoNT-B within minutes. The technique relies on the detection of an agarose bead detachment from the tip of a micromachined cantilever resulting from BoNT-B action on its substratum, the synaptic protein synaptobrevin 2, attached to the beads. The mechanical resonance frequency of the cantilever is monitored for the detection. To suspend the bead off the cantilever we use synaptobrevin's molecular interaction with another synaptic protein, syntaxin 1A, that was deposited onto the cantilever tip. Additionally, this bead detachment technique is general and can be used in any displacement reaction, such as in receptor-ligand pairs, where the introduction of one chemical leads to the displacement of another. The technique is of broad interest and will find uses outside toxicology. PMID:14573702

  3. Membrane-type Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guancong

    Resonant-base membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) are investigated with experiments and simulations. Three exotic phenomena, including negative effective mass density, negative effective bulk modulus, and total absorption are demonstrated. As a start, a single-membrane resonator, which consists of a tightened piece of elastic membrane with a relatively rigid weight attached to the center, is studied in detail. It is shown that due to the anti-resonance, such structure is capable of totally reflecting low-frequency airborne sound. With the help of the simulations, we further reveal that the anti-resonance results in extremely large effective mass density, further explaining the large transmission loss. By establishing coupling between two MAMs via a sealed section of air, we discovered that the system displays clear monopolar resonance. Consequently, negativity in effective bulk modulus is achieved. The third kind of MAM is intended to be a perfect absorber for low-frequency sound. The task is accomplished by using asymmetric rigid platelets. We show that the eigenmodes' displacement profiles have large curvatures around the platelets' perimeters, implying highly concentrated elastic bending energy. Also, the broken symmetry introduces rotational freedom into our MAM. Consequently, the eigenmodes' coupling to far-field radiation is effectively reduced, thereby giving rise to strong absorption.

  4. Capacitor-type micrometeoroid detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Griffis, D. P.; Bryan, S. R.; Kinard, W.

    1986-01-01

    The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor micrometeroid detector consists of a thin dielectric capacitor fabricated on a silicon wafer. In operation, the device is charged to a voltage level sufficiently near breakdown that micrometeoroid impacts will cause dielectric deformation or heating and subsequent arc-over at the point of impact. Each detector is capable of recording multiple impacts because of the self-healing characteristics of the device. Support instrumentation requirements consist of a voltage source and pulse counters that monitor the pulse of recharging current following every impact. An investigation has been conducted in which 0.5 to 5 micron diameter carbonized iron spheres traveling at velocities of 4 to 10 Km/sec were impacted on to detectors with either a dielectric thickness of 0.4 or 1.0 micron. This study demonstrated that an ion microprobe tuned to sufficiently high resolution can detect Fe remaining on the detector after the impact. Furthermore, it is also possible to resolve Fe ion images free of mass interferences from Si, for example, giving its spatial distribution after impact. Specifically this technique has shown that significant amounts of impacting particles remain in the crater and near it which can be analyzed for isotopic content. Further testing and calibration could lead to quantitive analysis. This study has shown that the capacitor type micrometeroid detector is capable of not only time and flux measurements but can also be used for isotopic analysis.

  5. [The new types of addiction].

    PubMed

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  6. Diversity in Type Ibn supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Valenti, Stefano; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Iptf, Pessto

    2015-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe Ibn) are rare explosions of massive stars whose spectra exhibit narrow helium emission lines but no hydrogen lines. The narrow lines are thought to indicate interaction between the SN ejecta and circumstellar material from previous episodes of mass loss. Only a handful of SNe Ibn have been observed, and even fewer have been caught near the time of explosion. However, in the single case where a SN Ibn had multiple observations during the rising phase (iPTF13beo), its light curve exhibited a double peak. Here we present well-sampled multi-band photometry and spectroscopy of another SN Ibn, iPTF14aki, combining data from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT), and the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). We compare this object to other published and previously unpublised SNe Ibn and find that not all such events have a double-peaked light curve. We also discuss constraints on prior episodes of mass loss and the properties of the group as a whole.

  7. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-04-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN-2) is a rare hereditary cancer syndrome with autosomal dominant trait of inheritance. The most characteristic feature of this syndrome is a complete penetrance of medullary thyroid cancer. On the basis of differences in variable expression of pheochromocytomas, hyperparathyroidism, and other clinical features, MEN-2 is divided into three clinical variants, referred to as MEN-2A, MEN-2B and familial medullary thyroid cancer. In the most frequent variant, MEN-2A syndrome, apart from thyroid carcinoma, this syndrome includes also unilateral or bilateral pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. In less common MEN-2B, medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma occur together with complex nervous and skeletal abnormalities. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is a variant of MEN-2 in which individuals affected develop only this neoplasm without other manifestations of MEN-2. It is well known that MEN-2 is caused by mutations of different codons of the RET proto-oncogene. The identification of mutations associated with this syndrome has led to genetic testing to identify patients at risk for MEN-2. There is a significant genotype-phenotype correlation, which allows a more individualised approach to the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy. In this paper, we review the current views on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of MEN-2.

  8. New types of lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kahwa, I.A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Three new types of lanthanide (Ln) complexes, namely, the first examples of homodinuclear macrocyclic lanthanide complexes, novel binary and ternary gaseous polyatomic lanthanide oxides and new lanthanide oxalato complexes are described in chapters one, two and three respectively. The homodinuclear complexes are 2:2 condensation products of 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and triethylenetetramine templated by Ln(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Ln(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 3/. The complexes are dimorphic, and are off-white (the more stable form) when they are obtained from dilute solutions and orange if they arise from more concentrated reactants. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS), electronic absorption and IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry along with preliminary spectroscopic studies using electron paramagnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility and luminescence. The orange complexes exhibit more antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, low Ln/sup 3 +/magnetic moments and multi-exponential luminescence decay kinetics, whereas the off-white complexes show single exponential luminescence decay and free ion magnetic moments. At low temperatures and in presence of excess triethylenetetramine, solvated light lanthanide mononuclear complexes of a 1:1 acyclic Schiff base acetal were isolated and the structure of one of these was confirmed by single crystal x-ray diffraction crystallography.

  9. Critical Differences between the Type-A Prone and Type-A Personalitites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1984-01-01

    Type-A Prone and Type-A personalities were assessed on the basis of the Cassel Type-A Personality Assessment Profile. Statistical data analysis indicated differences in positive lifestyle, blood pressure, and self-control and no differences in negative lifestyle, pulse rate, or peripheral temperature. Type-A Prone and Type-A norm profiles were…

  10. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Type 2 Diabetes Adequate treatment of pre-diabetes and diabetes ... and is worth the effort. What is Type 2 Diabetes? be treated promptly because elevated blood sugars ...

  11. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  12. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be considered with caution What is the life expectancy of someone with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type? Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type does not affect life expectancy. Do you have questions? Would you like more ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is called MPS IV type A (MPS IVA), and when it is caused by mutations in ... Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of ...

  14. Types of Faculty Scholars in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Braxton, John M.; Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes three empirically derived types of faculty scholars in community colleges: Immersed Scholars, Scholars of Dissemination, and Scholars of Pedagogical Knowledge. This chapter discusses these types and offers a recommendation.

  15. Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs (Thiazolidinediones)

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  16. 46 CFR 160.038-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-2 Type. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage of pyrotechnic distress signals,...

  17. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in Military...

  18. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in Military...

  19. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  20. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  1. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... pre-diabetes have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, and for ...

  2. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in Military...

  3. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  4. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  5. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  6. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  7. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  8. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  9. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  10. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  11. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  12. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  13. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  14. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  15. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  16. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  17. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  18. A Pilot Study of Personality Type Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Used the Myers Briggs Type Indicator to measure personality type changes in three developmentally disabled adolescents before and after token economy treatment was conducted in a half-way house. (Author/DB)

  19. 7 CFR 29.3071 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  20. Autoimmune diseases associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Arti

    2008-01-01

    Associations of autoimmune diseases with neurofibromatosis type 1 have been rarely described. In the present report, we describe two patients of neurofibromatosis type 1 having an association with vitiligo in one, and alopecia areata and autoimmune thyroiditis in another. The associations of neurofibromatosis type 1 with vitiligo, alopecia areata, and autoimmune thyroiditis have not been reported earlier. Whether these associations reflect a causal relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1 or are coincidental needs to be settled.

  1. Corrosion Protection by Calcite-Type Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    CORROSION PROTECTION BY CALCITE -TYPE COATINGS OCTOBER, 1989 Prepared by: OCEAN CITY RESEARCH CORPORATION Tennessee Avenue & Beach Thorofare Ocean...REPORT DATE OCT 1989 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Corrosion Protection by Calcite -Type Coatings 5a. CONTRACT... calcite -type coatings to segregated seawater ballast tanks. If perfected, a calcite coating approach could substantially reduce the cost of corrosion

  2. Entablature: fracture types and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, A. E. S.; Blake, S.; Tuffen, H.

    2014-05-01

    Entablature is the term used to describe zones or tiers of irregular jointing in basaltic lava flows. It is thought to form when water from rivers dammed by the lava inundates the lava flow surface, and during lava-meltwater interaction in subglacial settings. A number of different fracture types are described in entablature outcrops from the Búrfell lava and older lava flows in Þjórsárdalur, southwest Iceland. These are: striae-bearing, column-bounding fractures and pseudopillow fracture systems that themselves consist of two different fracture types—master fractures with dimpled surface textures and subsidiary fractures with curved striae. The interaction of pseudopillow fracture systems and columnar jointing in the entablature produces the chevron fracture patterns that are commonly observed in entablature. Cube-jointing is a more densely fractured version of entablature, which likely forms when more coolant enters the hot lava. The entablature tiers display closely spaced striae and dendritic crystal shapes which indicate rapid cooling. Master fracture surfaces show a thin band with an evolved composition at the fracture surface; mineral textures in this band also show evidence of quenching of this material. This is interpreted as gas-driven filter pressing of late-stage residual melt that is drawn into an area of low pressure immediately preceding or during master fracture formation by ductile extensional fracture of hot, partially crystallised lava. This melt is then quenched by an influx of water and/or steam when the master fracture fully opens. Our findings suggest that master fractures are the main conduit for coolant entering the lava flow during entablature formation.

  3. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Douglas Scott

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of ~ 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for γ-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of ~ 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches ~60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  4. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Falchetti, Alberto; Monte, Francesca Del; Sala, Silvia Carbonell; Gozzini, Alessia; Luzi, Ettore; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours) within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions) is recommended. PMID:17014705

  5. Syncytial-Type Cell Plates

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, Marisa; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Cell wall formation in the syncytial endosperm of Arabidopsis was studied by using high-pressure-frozen/freeze-substituted developing seeds and immunocytochemical techniques. The endosperm cellularization process begins at the late globular embryo stage with the synchronous organization of small clusters of oppositely oriented microtubules (∼10 microtubules in each set) into phragmoplast-like structures termed mini-phragmoplasts between both sister and nonsister nuclei. These mini-phragmoplasts produce a novel kind of cell plate, the syncytial-type cell plate, from Golgi-derived vesicles ∼63 nm in diameter, which fuse by way of hourglass-shaped intermediates into wide (∼45 nm in diameter) tubules. These wide tubules quickly become coated and surrounded by a ribosome-excluding matrix; as they grow, they branch and fuse with each other to form wide tubular networks. The mini-phragmoplasts formed between a given pair of nuclei produce aligned tubular networks that grow centrifugally until they merge into a coherent wide tubular network with the mini-phragmoplasts positioned along the network margins. The individual wide tubular networks expand laterally until they meet and eventually fuse with each other at the sites of the future cell corners. Transformation of the wide tubular networks into noncoated, thin (∼27 nm in diameter) tubular networks begins at multiple sites and coincides with the appearance of clathrin-coated budding structures. After fusion with the syncytial cell wall, the thin tubular networks are converted into fenestrated sheets and cell walls. Immunolabeling experiments show that the cell plates and cell walls of the endosperm differ from those of the embryo and maternal tissue in two features: their xyloglucans lack terminal fucose residues on the side chain, and callose persists in the cell walls after the cell plates fuse with the parental plasma membrane. The lack of terminal fucose residues on xyloglucans suggests that these cell wall

  6. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P. A.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2011-12-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s-1) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22+10 - 6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as -5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a "carbon blobs" hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  7. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in...

  12. Automatic Keypress Activation in Skilled Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Martina

    2004-01-01

    The assumption that letters automatically activate corresponding keypresses in skilled typing was investigated. Participants responded to the color of letters (congruent condition: responding finger was the one usually used to type the letter). Participants skilled in typing showed a congruency effect: unskilled participants did not (Experiment…

  13. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984]...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984]...

  15. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  16. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    DOEpatents

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  17. Effects of silo type on ensiling alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various silo types are used on dairy farms, but there is uncertainty as to how silo type affects losses and silage quality. The objective of this study was to compare three silo types, filled with alfalfa from the same fields and emptied simultaneously, relative to filling rates, dry matter (DM) los...

  18. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  19. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types; finally, it shows how a novel kind of dynamic type check can detect compatibility among entire families of classes.

  20. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  1. TypingSuite: Integrated Software for Presenting Stimuli, and Collecting and Analyzing Typing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Erin L.; Marchand, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Research into typing patterns has broad applications in both psycholinguistics and biometrics (i.e., improving security of computer access via each user's unique typing patterns). We present a new software package, TypingSuite, which can be used for presenting visual and auditory stimuli, collecting typing data, and summarizing and analyzing the…

  2. CONCEPT IDENTIFICATION AS A FUNCTION OF INSTRUCTIONS, LABELS, SEQUENCE, CONCEPT TYPE, AND TEST ITEM TYPE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LYNCH, DANIEL O.

    THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONS, TYPE OF LABEL, TYPE OF CONCEPT, AND SEQUENCE OF CONCEPTS BY TYPE UPON CONCEPT IDENTIFICATION WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY. PERFORMANCE WAS ANALYZED IN TERMS OF FOUR TYPES OF TEST ITEMS. INSTRUCTION, FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT TO BE ATTAINED AND THE CONCEPT NATURE, WAS FOUND TO FACILITATE CONCEPT IDENTIFICATION…

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Gross, S J; Cohen, D J; Tiller, G R; Shanske, A L; Bombard, A T; Marion, R W

    1996-12-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder consisting of craniosynostosis, a flattened midface with a beaked nose and ocular proptosis, and broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes. Recently, based on clinical findings, the disorder has been divided into three subtypes: type 1, characterized by mild expression; type 2, in which clover leaf skull deformity and multiple congenital anomalies are present at birth; and type 3, which is similar to type 2, but lacks the presence of the clover leaf skull at birth. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings of clover leaf skull deformity, ocular hypertelorism, and varus deformity of the great toe led to the prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type 2. We believe this is the second prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome, and the first time type 2 has been definitely identified in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  4. Type A behaviour pattern: a concept revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M I

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the type A behaviour pattern is a risk factor in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Type A people have been characterized as hard-driving, competitive, aggressive and hurried. A number of investigators have attempted to correlate these facets of type A behaviour with increased risks of CAD. However, there have been conflicting results, primarily owing to differences in methods and CAD outcomes and inconsistencies associated with measuring the type A behaviour pattern. As a result, researchers have begun to focus on subcomponents of the type A behaviour pattern, particularly hostility and anger, that appear to be more reliable predictors of CAD outcome. A reconceptualization of the type A behaviour pattern is required. PMID:3815195

  5. Type Ibn Supernovae: Not a Single Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet diverse class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. However, unlike the more common Type IIn supernovae, whose interaction with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material has been shown to generate a wide variety of light curve shapes, we find that light curves of Type Ibn supernovae are more homogeneous and faster evolving. Spectroscopically, we find that Type Ibn supernovae divide cleanly into two classes, only one of which resembles the archetypal Type Ibn SN 2006jc. We explore various photometric and spectroscopic parameter spaces in order to characterize these two classes. We consider the possibility that not all objects classified as Type Ibn have the same physical origin.

  6. A Quantitative Model of Expert Transcription Typing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-08

    monitoring the accuracy of the typing...the deterioration of typing rate that occurs as the text is modified from normal prose to non -language or random...letters...for] non -alphabetical keys. (p. 6) Rumelhart and Norman also do not attempt to make zero-parameter quantitative predictions of typing...Salthouse’s two-choice reaction time task was somewhat non - standard: Stimuli were uppercase and lowercase versions of the letters L and R, and responses

  7. A Type System for Certified Binaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Pfenning 1999; Crary et al. 1999; Walker 2000; Crary and Weirich 2000; Trifonov et al. 2000] has produced many specialized, increasingly complex type systems...definitions subsume and generalize earlier systems for intensional type analysis [Harper and Morrisett 1995; Crary and Weirich 1999; Trifonov et al. 2000]. We...generalize the Typerec operator used in intensional type analysis [Harper and Morrisett 1995; Crary and Weirich 1999; Trifonov et al. 2000]. Figure 2 gives a

  8. Are there two types of quasars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, B. C.; Morrison, P.; Sartori, L.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of quasars are postulated: type I, the vast majority of quasars, which are highly luminous and cosmologically distant, as shown by their redshifts; type II, a dwarf branch, that are products of a few remarkable explosions in nearby galaxies. It is shown that this hypothesis is consistent with redshift statistics and suggests a possible interpretation of such objects as BL Lac and OJ 287.

  9. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  10. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  11. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  12. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  13. Legendre transformations and Clairaut-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Merzlikin, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    It is noted that the Legendre transformations in the standard formulation of quantum field theory have the form of functional Clairaut-type equations. It is shown that in presence of composite fields the Clairaut-type form holds after loop corrections are taken into account. A new solution to the functional Clairaut-type equation appearing in field theories with composite fields is found.

  14. [Transforming growth factor of beta-type].

    PubMed

    Stoĭka, R S

    1988-01-01

    Recent data about the structure and properties of the beta-type transforming growth factor as well as evidence about its influence on different target cells are presented. The regulatory action of the factor is shown to depend mainly on the type of tested cells, conditions of their culturing and the presence of other bioregulators of cell proliferation in the medium. The prospects of the beta-type transforming growth factor use in practice are considered.

  15. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  16. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jakes, Adam Daniel; Baynes, Kevin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-03-17

    We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.

  17. Types of habitat in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-04-01

    From a biological point of view, all environments in the Universe can be categorized into one of three types: uninhabitable, uninhabited habitat or inhabited habitat. This paper describes and defines different habitat types in the Universe with a special focus on environments not usually encountered on the Earth, but which might be common on other planetary bodies. They include uninhabited habitats, subtypes of which are sterile habitats and organic-free habitats. Examples of the different types of environments are provided with reference to the Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. These habitat types are used to identify testable hypotheses on the abundance of different habitats and the distribution of life in the Universe.

  18. Chronic spinal muscular atrophy of facioscapulohumeral type.

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, T; Toyokura, Y

    1976-01-01

    Chronic spinal muscular atrophy of FSH type affecting a mother and her son and daughter is reported. The relevant literature is reviewed and the relation between this conditon and Kugelberg-Welander (K-W) disease is discussed. Chronic spinal muscular atrophy of FSH type is considered to be a different entity from the eponymous K-W disease. Each type of muscular dystrophy, e.g. limb-girdle, FSH, distal, ocular, or oculopharyngeal type, has its counterpart of nuclear origin. A classification of the chronic spinal muscular atrophies is suggested following the classification of muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:957378

  19. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to award continuation grants to successful Biodiesel Fuel Education Program applicants. A...

  20. Craniopharyngiomas : Radiological Differentiation of Two Types

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Elcin; Bell, W. Robert; Burger, Peter C.; Sung, Heejong; Yousem, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine imaging features that may separate adamantinomatous and papillary variants of craniopharyngiomas given that tumors with adamantinomatous signature features are associated with higher recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality. We specifically reviewed calcification on CT, T1 bright signal intensity, and cystic change on T2 weighted images for differentiating these two types. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the MRI and CT studies in 38 consecutive patients with pathologically proven craniopharyngiomas between January 2004 and February 2014 for the presence of calcification on CT scans, bright signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and cystic change on T2 weighted images. Results Of the 38 craniopharyngiomas, 30 were adamantinomatous type and 8 were papillary type. On CT scans, calcification was present in 25 of 38 tumors. All calcified tumors were adamantinomatous type. Twenty four of 38 tumors had bright signal intensity on T1 weighted images. Of these 24 tumors, 22 (91.7%) were adamantinomatous and 2 were papillary type. Cystic change on T2 weighted images was noted in 37 of 38 tumors; only 1 tumor with papillary type did not show cystic change. Conclusion T1 bright signal intensity and calcification on CT scans uniformly favor the adamantinomatous type over papillary type of craniopharyngioma in children. However, these findings are more variable in adults where calcification and T1 bright signal intensity occur in 70.6% and 58.8% respectively of adult adamantinomatous types of craniopharyngiomas. PMID:27651864

  1. Is type-D personality trait(s) or state? An examination of type-D temporal stability in older Israeli adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Ada H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type D personality was suggested as a marker of poorer prognosis for patients of cardiovascular disease. It is defined by having a score of 10 or more on both sub-scales of the DS14 questionnaire, Social Inhibition (SI) and Negative Affectivity (NA). As Type D was designed to predict risk, its temporal stability is of prime importance. Methods. Participants in the current study were 285 community volunteers, who completed the DS14, and other personality scales, at a mean interval of six years. Results. The prevalence of Type D did not change. The component traits of Type D showed rank order stability. Type D caseness temporal stability was improved by using the sub-scales product as a criterion. Logistic hierarchical regression predicting Type D classification from Time1 demonstrated that the best predictors were Time1 scores on NA and SI, with the character trait of Cooperation, and the alexithymia score adding some predictive power. Conclusions. The temporal stability of the component traits, and of the prevalence of Type D were excellent. Temporal stability of Type D caseness may be improved by using a product threshold, rather than the current rule. Research is required in order to formulate the optimal timing for Type D measurement for predictive purposes.

  2. Yawning in morning and evening types.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Iole; Giganti, Fiorenza; Salzarulo, Piero

    2007-06-08

    Yawning occurs more frequently in the early morning and in the late evening, close to sleep onset and after the awakening, and it might be linked to sleep propensity. We aimed to study yawning and its temporal distribution in morning and evening subjects who display different sleep-wake and sleepiness rhythms. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 evening-types and 8 morning-types, matched for age and gender) have been selected and instructed to keep their habitual sleep schedules and to signal every yawning occurrence for three consecutive days. Results show that evening-types yawn more frequently than morning-types, particularly during morning hours. Yawning frequency decreases across daytime in evening-types reaching its lowest level in the early evening and increases thereafter. Instead, in morning-types, yawning frequency remains quite low during daytime and increases in the evening. Moreover, both morning and evening types show a progressive increase of yawning frequency in the hours preceding sleep onset, whereas they differ after the awakening. Evening-types show a higher yawning frequency that remains quite stable in the hours following the awakening, while morning-types display a decline in yawning frequency. Our findings show that the temporal distribution of yawning frequency differs between chronotypes, supporting the hypothesis that differences in sleep-wake rhythm affect yawning, which could represent a behavioural sign of sleep propensity.

  3. Decameter Type III-Like Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Starting from 1960s Type III-like bursts (Type III bursts with high drift rates) in a wide frequency range from 300 to 950MHz have been observed. These new bursts observed at certain frequency being compared to the usual Type III bursts at the same frequency show similar behaviour but feature frequency drift 2-6 times higher than the normal bursts. In this paper we report the first observations of Type III-like bursts in decameter range, carried out during summer campaigns 2002 - 2004 at UTR-2 radio telescope. The circular polarization of the bursts was measured by the radio telescope URAN-2 in 2004. The observed bursts are analyzed and compared with usual Type III bursts in the decameter range. From the analysis of over 1100 Type III-like bursts, their main parameters have been found. Characteristic feature of the observed bursts is similar to Type III-like bursts at other frequencies, i.e. measured drift rates (5-10 MHz/s) of this bursts are few times larger than that for usual Type III bursts, and their durations (1-2 s) are few times smaller than that for usual Type III bursts in this frequency band.

  4. Two types of classification in female alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Traber, Rafael; Würmle, Othmar; Modestin, Jiri

    2009-10-01

    Two types of alcoholism with distinct clinical features and mode of inheritance have been identified in male alcoholics. The relevant studies, however, have given consistent results in men but not in women. The current study tested the hypothesis that the type I and II classification is also valid in women. A sample of 103 hospitalised alcohol-dependent women were given face-to-face structured interviews considering four different classification criteria sets devised for differentiation of alcoholism type I and II and type A and B along with SCID I and II. The two types of classification could be replicated with three of the four criteria sets, 73 women being allocated to the larger cluster C1, and 30 women to a smaller cluster C2. Comparing the patients from both clusters with each other, eight variables were identified which excellently discriminate between the groups. The two types of classification for alcoholism could also be found in a female sample. A type II of female alcohol-dependent patient was identified, characterized by parental alcoholism and paternal and patient's tendency for violent behavior. Type I lacks these characteristics. Early identification of the type II female alcoholic may be clinically important.

  5. Cantilever-type Thermal Microactuators Fabricated by SOI-MUMPs with U-type and I-type Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Takahiro; Ochiai, Kuniyuki; Osada, Kazuki; Muro, Hideo

    Recently, the micro fluid systems have been extensively studied, where microactuators such as micro valves fabricated by MEMS technology are essential for realizing these systems. In this paper thermal microactuators with U-type and I-type shapes fabricated by SOI-MUMPs technology have been investigated for optimizing their configurations.

  6. 7 CFR 52.3182 - Varietal types of dried prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Types, Sizes, Grades § 52.3182 Varietal types of dried prunes. (a) Type I. French; or Robe; or a mixture of French and Robe. (b) Type II. Italian. (c) Type III. Imperial; or Sugar; or a mixture of...

  7. Ionic currents underlying difference in light response between type A and type B photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, K T

    2006-05-01

    In Hermissenda crassicornis, the memory of light associated with turbulence is stored as changes in intrinsic and synaptic currents in both type A and type B photoreceptors. These photoreceptor types exhibit qualitatively different responses to light and current injection, and these differences shape the spatiotemporal firing patterns that control behavior. Thus the objective of the study was to identify the mechanisms underlying these differences. The approach was to develop a type B model that reproduced characteristics of type B photoreceptors recorded in vitro, and then to create a type A model by modifying a select number of ionic currents. Comparison of type A models with characteristics of type A photoreceptors recorded in vitro revealed that type A and type B photoreceptors have five main differences, three that have been characterized experimentally and two that constitute hypotheses to be tested with experiments in the future. The three differences between type A and type B photoreceptors previously characterized include the inward rectifier current, the fast sodium current, and conductance of calcium-dependent and transient potassium channels. Two additional changes were required to produce a type A photoreceptor model. The very fast firing frequency observed during the first second after light onset required a faster time constant of activation of the delayed rectifier. The fast spike adaptation required a fast, noninactivating calcium-dependent potassium current. Because these differences between type A and type B photoreceptors have not been confirmed in comparative experiments, they constitute hypotheses to be tested with future experiments.

  8. Virulence gene typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a complement in epidemiological typing.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzian, Forough L; Karami, Nahid; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Ahrén, Christina

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has widely spread to all parts of the world. For surveillance and effective infection control molecular typing is required. We have evaluated the utility of virulence gene determination as a complementary tool for epidemiological typing of MRSA in relation to spa-typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We assessed 63 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates detected in the West part of Sweden for 30 virulence factor genes (VF) and agr allele variations by serial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. These isolates belonged to sequence types (ST) 8, 80, 45 and 30 as classified by multilocus sequence typing. The isolates in each spa-type and PFGE-type were examined over an extended time-period and constituted a varying number of PFGE-subtypes (5-14) and spa-types (3-11) within four major PFGE types. Each ST had a unique VF profile. For isolates within a major PFGE type showing high diversity both in PFGE subtypes and spa the VF profile varied as well in contrast to those with low diversity where no alterations were seen. Thus, the accuracy of each typing method does not only vary by the method per se but is rather dependent on the genetic repertoire of the typed strains and genes evaluated. For strains demonstrating high diversity VF typing may be a useful complement in the epidemiological investigations, and may highlight the accurate discriminatory power of spa or PFGE typing.

  9. Type-D personality and body image in men: the role of exercise status.

    PubMed

    Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 'Distressed' or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.

  10. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Albers, Peter H; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper B; Kristensen, Dorte E; Vind, Birgitte F; Baba, Otto; Nøhr, Jane; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue composed of different fiber types. Studies suggest that insulin-mediated glucose metabolism is different between muscle fiber types. We hypothesized that differences are due to fiber type-specific expression/regulation of insulin signaling elements and/or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared with type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4, hexokinase II, glycogen synthase (GS), and pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDH-E1α) and a lower protein content of Akt2, TBC1 domain family member 4 (TBC1D4), and TBC1D1. In type I fibers compared with type II fibers, the phosphorylation response to insulin was similar (TBC1D4, TBC1D1, and GS) or decreased (Akt and PDH-E1α). Phosphorylation responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS, and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I muscle fibers compared with type II fibers have a higher glucose-handling capacity but a similar sensitivity for phosphoregulation by insulin.

  11. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and how exposure might affect cancer risk. UV Radiation (Sun) Ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes from the sun and ...

  12. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer. PMID:28123516

  13. Potato Types: Their Characteristics and Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlista, Alexander D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents material for a talk and demonstration about the relationship of potato types to their different uses by consumers and processors. Includes background information for the instructor and discussions to accompany classroom exercises. Discusses the history of the potato, potato types and external characteristics, and internal characteristics…

  14. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A A What's in this article? ... pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, ...

  15. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A A What's in this article? ... pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, ...

  16. Personality Type and Clinical Supervision Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Clingerman, Tamara L.; Gilbride, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated personality type of supervisors and supervisees and interventions chosen by supervisors for 78 supervisory dyads from 9 different counselor education programs. Gender effects were also investigated. Results indicated that interventions were not influenced by supervisor personality type as measured by the…

  17. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer.

  18. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  19. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  20. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  1. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  2. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type, which releases a buoyant load under hydrostatic pressure. (b) All hydraulic releases given an...

  3. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type. 160.053-2 Section 160.053-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type. 160.053-2 Section 160.053-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  6. Fits, pyridoxine, and hyperprolinaemia type II.

    PubMed

    Walker, V; Mills, G A; Peters, S A; Merton, W L

    2000-03-01

    The rare inherited disorder hyperprolinaemia type II presents with fits in childhood, usually precipitated by infection. A diagnosis of hyperprolinaemia type II and vitamin B(6) deficiency was made in a well nourished child with fits. It is thought that pyridoxine deficiency was implicated in her fits and was the result of inactivation of the vitamin by the proline metabolite, pyrroline-5-carboxylate.

  7. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  8. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  9. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  10. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  11. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  12. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  13. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property...

  14. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property...

  16. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property...

  17. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property...

  18. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  19. 7 CFR 51.2853 - One type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... type. One type means that the onions are within the same general color category. Metric...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... round type shall not be mixed with those of the long type in the same container....

  1. Intravenous pamidronate in osteogenesis imperfecta type VII.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Cyclical intravenous treatment with pamidronate is widely used to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I, III, and IV, which are due to dominant mutations affecting collagen type I alpha chains. There is no information about the effects of pamidronate in children with OI type VII, an autosomal-recessive form of OI caused by a mutation in the cartilage-associated protein gene. In this retrospective single-center study, we compared the effects of pamidronate in four girls with OI type VII (age range 3.9-12.7 years) to those in eight girls with OI types caused by collagen type I mutations who were matched for age and disease severity. During 3 years of pamidronate therapy, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density increased and lumbar vertebral bodies improved in shape in patients with OI type VII. Other outcomes such as fracture rates and mobility scores did not show statistically significant changes in this small study cohort. There were no significant side effects noted during the time of follow-up. Thus, intravenous treatment with pamidronate seems to be safe and of some benefit in patients with OI type VII.

  2. Management of type A dissection with malperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Patel, Himanshu J.; Williams, David M.; Dasika, Narasimham L.

    2016-01-01

    Malperfusion is a common lethal complication of acute aortic dissection following rupture, for which the optimal management strategy has yet to be clearly established. The objective of this study was to reassess the management of acute type A aortic dissection (Type A-AAD) with malperfusion. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of all patients with Type A-AAD with malperfusion at the University of Michigan and compared the results from patients that directly underwent open surgical repair versus those who had percutaneous reperfusion prior to open surgical repair. Based on the results, we developed a patient care protocol for the treatment of all patients with acute type A dissection. We later re-analyzed the long-term outcomes for patients using the protocol. The present study demonstrated that, although the outcomes for patients with acute type A aortic dissection with malperfusion syndrome treated with initial percutaneous reperfusion and delayed open surgical intervention are not as good as the results for patients with uncomplicated Type A-AAD that undergo immediate surgical repair, their outcomes continue the long-term outcomes of the former group are superior. To outdo patients with acute type A aortic dissection with malperfusion syndrome treated with immediate open surgical intervention. In conclusion, at the University of Michigan we continue to use our patient care protocol to treat patients with Type A-AAD. PMID:27563540

  3. Forest type mapping with satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, A. G., Jr.; Bryant, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Computer classification of data from Landsat, an earth-orbiting satellite, has resulted in measurements and maps of forest types for two New Hampshire counties. The acreages of hardwood and softwood types and total forested areas compare favorably with Forest Service figures for the same areas. These techniques have advantages for field application, particularly in states having forest taxation laws based on general productivity.

  4. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  5. 48 CFR 3437.670 - Contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract type. 3437.670... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 3437.670 Contract type. Award-term contracting may be used for performance-based contracts and task orders that...

  6. Cultural Variations in Sex-Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.

    1984-01-01

    Results of Personal Attributes Questionnaire administered to Fijian secondary and university students showed: (1) no sex differences in sex-typing patterns; (2) same-sex-typing as much less marked than in the United States; (3) minor variations among Fijian ethnic groups; and (4) university students as more similar than secondary students to U.S.…

  7. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not…

  8. Cyanoacrylate glue for type iii lad perforation.

    PubMed

    Trehan, V K; Nigam, Arima

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation especially type III is a rare and catastrophic complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. It mandates emergency open heart surgery if hemostasis is not achieved promptly. We report a case of type III left anterior descending artery (LAD) perforation which was managed successfully with cyanoacrylate glue.

  9. Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool for Cyclospora cayetanensis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yaqiong; Roellig, Dawn M.; Li, Na; Tang, Kevin; Frace, Michael; Ortega, Ynes; Arrowood, Michael J.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Wang, Lin; Moss, Delynn M.; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Because the lack of typing tools for Cyclospora cayetanensis has hampered outbreak investigations, we sequenced its genome and developed a genotyping tool. We observed 2 to 10 geographically segregated sequence types at each of 5 selected loci. This new tool could be useful for case linkage and infection/contamination source tracking. PMID:27433881

  10. Type of Message and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John; Smith-Bandy, Kerry

    A study compared people's reactions to different types of assertions concerning social issues. For purposes of the study, assertion was defined as having three components: a reference to the issue itself, an attribute having evaluative implications and a verb phrase linking the issue with the attribute. Eight types of messages were composed…

  11. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  12. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  13. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project types. 2903.6 Section 2903.6 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to... predetermined project period with a statement of intention to provide additional support at a future...

  14. 46 CFR 160.021-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type. 160.021-2 Section 160.021-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.021-2 Type. (a) Hand red flare...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarry-Horn, Jill L.; Evans, Barbara J.; Kerrigan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and adolescents has been increasing at an alarming rate. Early recognition and intervention can delay the onset of type 2 DM and prevent the long-term complications. School nurses have an essential role in implementing the American Diabetes Association (ADA)…

  16. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type. 160.077-4 Section 160.077-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A...

  17. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  18. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  19. 46 CFR 160.037-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type. 160.037-2 Section 160.037-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-2 Type. (a) Hand orange...

  20. 46 CFR 160.037-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type. 160.037-2 Section 160.037-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-2 Type. (a) Hand orange...

  1. 46 CFR 160.037-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type. 160.037-2 Section 160.037-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-2 Type. (a) Hand orange...

  2. 46 CFR 160.037-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type. 160.037-2 Section 160.037-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-2 Type. (a) Hand orange...

  3. Learning to Type with One Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Melody J.

    1974-01-01

    Trying to teach a one-handed person to type in the same fashion as a two-handed person is a mistake. Each handicapped person has to adapt to his own capabilities. The writer outlines the stages she went through in learning to type with one hand. (Author/KP)

  4. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi.

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, F; Llovet, T; Echeita, M A; Coll, P; Aladueña, A; Usera, M A; Prats, G

    1996-01-01

    The efficiencies of different tests for epidemiological markers--phage typing, ribotyping, IS200 typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--were evaluated for strains from sporadic cases of typhoid fever and a well-defined outbreak. Ribotyping and PFGE proved to be the most discriminating. Both detected two different patterns among outbreak-associated strains. PMID:8897193

  5. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between thinking styles and personality types by having 600 undergraduate students from the University of Hong Kong respond to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS). Reports that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. (CMK)

  6. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J. ); Pedemonte, B.M. )

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  7. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  8. Characterization of six type A strains of Clostridium botulinum that contain type B toxin gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kirma, Nameer; Ferreira, Joseph L; Baumstark, Barbara R

    2004-02-16

    Six Clostridium botulinum isolates exhibiting type A toxicity as measured by the mouse bioassay were found to contain both type A and type B neurotoxin DNA sequences. The six strains were divided into three groups based on the DNA sequence of the type B neurotoxin gene. Members of each group exhibited 100% sequence identity over the 3876 bp type B toxin open reading frame. The type B toxin sequence of all groups differed at more than 60 positions when compared to the BGB control strain.

  9. Type II endometrial cancers: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora D.; Thomas, Eliz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma ranks 3rd in India among gynecological malignancies. Endometrial cancer (EC) can be classified into two distinct groups – type I and type II, based on histology, which differs in molecular, clinical and histopathological profiles. Type II is nonestrogen dependent, nonendometrioid, more aggressive and carries poor prognosis. Although type II cancers contribute only about 10% of EC incidence, they present at advanced age and cause approximately 50% recurrence and deaths with a low 5-year, overall survival rate. Type II EC are also characterized by genetic alterations in p53, human epidermal growth factor-2/neu, p16 and E-cadherin. Materials and Methods: Endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from endometrial biopsies and hysterectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, from January 2007 to June 2012 were included in the study. Clinicopathological analysis of the 84 cases of EC was done with emphasis on morphology. p53 immunostaining was performed in two cases of serous carcinoma. Results: Out of a total of 84 cases of EC, ten cases were of type II (11.9%). Out of which, eight were serous carcinoma (9.5%) and two clear cell (2.4%). p53 immunostain was strongly positive in the serous papillary carcinomas. The age of the patients ranged from 45 to 75 years. Myometrial invasion was more than half. Treatment was hysterectomy followed by aggressive chemotherapy. Conclusion: Of the type II EC, serous carcinoma is the most common type. Clinical presentation and prognosis differs in comparison to type I EC, thus the recognition of this type of EC is pivotal. PMID:27499593

  10. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Type Competition and the Potential for Type Replacement Post-Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Joseph E.; Jiang, Mengzhu; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V.; Walter, Stephen D.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Coutlée, François; Richardson, Harriet; Burchell, Ann N.; Koushik, Anita; Mayrand, Marie Hélène; Villa, Luisa L.; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Millions of women have been vaccinated with one of two first-generation human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Both vaccines remain in use and target two oncogenic types (HPVs 16 and 18); however, if these types naturally compete with others that are not targeted, type replacement may occur following reductions in the circulating prevalence of targeted types. To explore the potential for type replacement, we evaluated natural HPV type competition in unvaccinated females. Methods Valid HPV DNA typing information was available from five epidemiological studies conducted in Canada and Brazil (n = 14,685; enrollment across studies took place between1993 and 2010), which used similar consensus-primer PCR assays, capable of detecting up to 40 HPV types. A total of 38,088 cervicovaginal specimens were available for inclusion in our analyses evaluating HPV type-type interactions involving vaccine-targeted types (6, 11, 16, and 18), and infection with each of the other HPV types. Results Across the studies, the average age of participants ranged from 21.0 to 43.7 years. HPV16 was the most common type (prevalence range: 1.0% to 13.8%), and in general HPV types were more likely to be detected as part of a multiple infection than as single infections. In our analyses focusing on each of the vaccine-targeted HPV types separately, many significant positive associations were observed (particularly involving HPV16); however, we did not observe any statistically significant negative associations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that natural HPV type competition does not exist, and that type replacement is unlikely to occur in vaccinated populations. PMID:28005904

  11. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. PMID:25855554

  12. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  13. [Chronic nicotinamide overload and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Li, Da; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Sun, Wu-Ping; Liu, Xing-Xing; Lun, Yong-Zhi

    2010-02-25

    Type 2 diabetes is a major global health problem. It is generally accepted that type 2 diabetes is the result of gene-environmental interaction. However, the mechanism underlying the interaction is unclear. Diet change is known to play an important role in type 2 diabetes. The fact that the global high prevalence of type 2 diabetes has occurred following the spread of food fortification worldwide suggests a possible involvement of excess niacin intake. Our recent study found that nicotinamide overload and low nicotinamide detoxification may induce oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance. Based on the relevant facts, this review briefly summarized the relationship between the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the nicotinamide metabolism changes induced by excess niacin intake, aldehyde oxidase inhibitors, liver diseases and functional defects of skin. We speculate that the gene-environmental interaction in type 2 diabetes may be a reflection of the outcome of the association of chronic nicotinamide overload-induced toxicity and the relatively low detoxification/excretion capacity of the body. Reducing the content of niacin in foods may be a promising strategy for the control of type 2 diabetes.

  14. The five functions of psychological type.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2016-04-01

    From the mid-1930s to the end of his life, Jung complained that most readers misunderstood the main point of his book Psychological Types. He viewed being a type as one-sided and problematic for a variety of reasons. His symbol-based solution to the 'type problem' involved developing a transcendent function to become the new dominant function of consciousness. However, this function has not featured in the popular use of his typology and Isabel Briggs Myers believed that the one-sidedness of Jung's eight types could be balanced by the auxiliary function. This has led to the transcendent function being widely ignored, and to a developmental philosophy that encourages a degree of one-sidedness. This divergence of popular type theory and analytical psychology is the result of various factors, such as Jung describing typology as containing four functions, and a letter in 1950 where Jung apparently supported Myers' version of type theory. This hinders the application of analytical psychology to normal psychology, and particularly individual and cultural development. If we refer to Jung's typology as containing five functions not four, this more accurately represents both the content of the book Psychological Types and the primary value Jung saw in typology.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  16. Typing Skills of Physicians in Training

    PubMed Central

    Kalava, Arun; Ravindranath, Sapna; Bronshteyn, Inessa; Munjal, Ripudaman S.; SchianodiCola, Joseph; Yarmush, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increasing use of electronic health records in hospitals across the United States. The speed and accuracy of residents in documenting electronic health records has been insufficiently addressed. Methods We studied resident typing skills at New York Methodist Hospital. Participating residents typed a standard 100-word alphanumerical paragraph of a patient's medical history. Typing skills were assessed by calculating the net words per minute (WPM). Typing skills were categorized as follows: (1) fewer than 26 net WPM as very slow; (2) 26 to 35 net WPM as slow; (3) 35 to 45 net WPM as intermediate; and (4) greater than 45 net WPM as fast. Residents were further categorized into (1) American medical graduates; (2) American international medical graduates; and (3) non-American international medical graduates. Results A total of 104 of 280 residents (37%) participated in the study. There was equal representation from various specialties, backgrounds, and all postgraduate levels of training. The median typing speed was 30.4 net WPM. Typing skills were very slow (34 of 104, 33%), slow (28 of 104, 27%), intermediate (29 of 104, 28%), and fast (13 of 104, 12%) among the residents. Typing skills of non-American international medical graduates (mean net WPM of 25.9) were significantly slower than those of American medical graduates (mean net WPM of 35.9) and American international medical graduates (mean net WPM of 33.5). Conclusions Most residents (60%, 62 of 104) who participated in the study at our institute lacked typing skills. As the use of electronic health records increases, a lack of typing skills may impact residents' time for learning and patient care. PMID:24701328

  17. Strategies for improving patient safety: linking task type to error type.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the connection between task type (skill based, rule based and knowledge based) and human error. Using real-life examples, each task type and error type is described in detail. Understanding how task type contributes to medical error enhances the ability of nurses to make meaningful changes in health care systems. Through error wisdom, nurses and other health care providers can more successfully navigate health care delivery and ultimately provide safer care to patients.

  18. Aptamer-based sandwich-type biosensors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ho Bin; Gu, Man Bock

    2017-01-01

    Sandwich-type biosensor platforms have drawn lots of attentions due to its superior features, compared to other platforms, in terms of its stable and reproducible responses and easy enhancement in the detection sensitivity. The sandwich-type assays can be developed by utilizing a pair of receptors, which bind to the different sites of the same target. In this mini-review paper, the sandwich-type biosensors using either pairs of aptamers or aptamer-antibody pairs are reviewed in terms of its targets and platforms, the schematic designs, and their analytical performance.

  19. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  20. Kato type operators and Weyl's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggal, B. P.; Djordjevic, S. V.; Kubrusly, Carlos

    2005-09-01

    A Banach space operator T satisfies Weyl's theorem if and only if T or T* has SVEP at all complex numbers [lambda] in the complement of the Weyl spectrum of T and T is Kato type at all [lambda] which are isolated eigenvalues of T of finite algebraic multiplicity. If T* (respectively, T) has SVEP and T is Kato type at all [lambda] which are isolated eigenvalues of T of finite algebraic multiplicity (respectively, T is Kato type at all [lambda][set membership, variant]iso[sigma](T)), then T satisfies a-Weyl's theorem (respectively, T* satisfies a-Weyl's theorem).

  1. Type material in the NCBI Taxonomy Database.

    PubMed

    Federhen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Type material is the taxonomic device that ties formal names to the physical specimens that serve as exemplars for the species. For the prokaryotes these are strains submitted to the culture collections; for the eukaryotes they are specimens submitted to museums or herbaria. The NCBI Taxonomy Database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) now includes annotation of type material that we use to flag sequences from type in GenBank and in Genomes. This has important implications for many NCBI resources, some of which are outlined below.

  2. Properties of Special Types of Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report discusses the general performance characteristics of three special classes of radiators: those with flat plate water tubes, fin and tube types, and types that whistle in an air stream. Curves and tables show the performance of representative radiators of each class and compare the flat plate and whistling types. Empirical equations are given for estimating the performance of flat plate radiators of various dimensions. This report also contains a brief discussion, with curves, showing the effect of yawing on the properties of a radiator.

  3. Type material in the NCBI Taxonomy Database

    PubMed Central

    Federhen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Type material is the taxonomic device that ties formal names to the physical specimens that serve as exemplars for the species. For the prokaryotes these are strains submitted to the culture collections; for the eukaryotes they are specimens submitted to museums or herbaria. The NCBI Taxonomy Database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) now includes annotation of type material that we use to flag sequences from type in GenBank and in Genomes. This has important implications for many NCBI resources, some of which are outlined below. PMID:25398905

  4. Coronal and interplanetary Type 2 radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, H. V.

    1987-09-01

    Several observations suggest that the disturbances which generate coronal (meter wavelength) type II radio bursts are not driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A new analysis using a large sample of metric radio bursts and associated soft X-ray events provides further support for the original hypothesis that type II-producing disturbances are blast waves generated at the time of impulsive energy release in flares. Interplanetary (IP) shocks, however, are closely associated with CMEs. The shocks responsible for IP type II events (observed at kilometer wavelengths) are associated with the most energetic CMEs.

  5. [Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD)].

    PubMed

    Concha L, Luciana; Durruty A, Pilar; García de Los Ríos A, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is presently a well-defined clinical entity, characterized by a debut with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis similar to the presenting form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). However, it appears in subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) phenotype. This situation is caused by an acute, reversible dysfunction of the beta cell in individuals with insulin resistance. Once the acute stage subsides, patients behave as having a DM2 and do not require insulin treatment. They should be kept on a diet and oral hypoglycemic drugs due to their susceptibility to have recurrent acute ketotic decompensations.

  6. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  7. Neural-type robotics-an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chande, A.; De Claris, N.; Newcomb, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Neural-type robotics is the field of robotics where intelligence and control functions are carried out by neural-type signal processors, the latter being electronic microsystems that emulate biological neural systems. Areas of application include intelligent industrial and medical robots for varying environments and prosthetic robotic devices, such as artificial organs, for the handicapped. This paper gives an overview of the field including the structure of generic neural-type systems, a review of the rather limited past accomplishments, a survey of the present undertakings, many of which are just under initiation, and a look at the very promising future with its vast implications. 14 references.

  8. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  9. Charting improvements in US registry HLA typing ambiguity using a typing resolution score.

    PubMed

    Paunić, Vanja; Gragert, Loren; Schneider, Joel; Müller, Carlheinz; Maiers, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Unrelated stem cell registries have been collecting HLA typing of volunteer bone marrow donors for over 25years. Donor selection for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is based primarily on matching the alleles of donors and patients at five polymorphic HLA loci. As HLA typing technologies have continually advanced since the beginnings of stem cell transplantation, registries have accrued typings of varied HLA typing ambiguity. We present a new typing resolution score (TRS), based on the likelihood of self-match, that allows the systematic comparison of HLA typings across different methods, data sets and populations. We apply the TRS to chart improvement in HLA typing within the Be The Match Registry of the United States from the initiation of DNA-based HLA typing to the current state of high-resolution typing using next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, we present a publicly available online tool for evaluation of any given HLA typing. This TRS objectively evaluates HLA typing methods and can help define standards for acceptable recruitment HLA typing.

  10. TypingSuite: integrated software for presenting stimuli, and collecting and analyzing typing data.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Erin L; Marchand, Yannick

    2015-04-01

    Research into typing patterns has broad applications in both psycholinguistics and biometrics (i.e., improving security of computer access via each user's unique typing patterns). We present a new software package, TypingSuite, which can be used for presenting visual and auditory stimuli, collecting typing data, and summarizing and analyzing the data. TypingSuite is a Java-based software package that is platform-independent and open-source. To validate TypingSuite as a beneficial tool for researchers who are interested in keystroke dynamics, two studies were conducted. First, a behavioural experiment based on single word typing was conducted that replicated two well-known findings in typing research, namely the lexicality and frequency effects. The results confirmed that words are typed faster than pseudowords and that high frequency words are typed faster than low frequency words. Second, in regard to biometrics, it was also shown that typing data from the same user are more similar than data from different users. Because TypingSuite allows its users to easily implement an experiment and to collect and analyze data within a single software package, it holds promise for being a valuable educational and research tool in language-related sciences such as psycholinguistics and natural language processing.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a group of related conditions called otopalatodigital spectrum disorders, which also includes otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 , ... 1 is usually the mildest of the otopalatodigital spectrum disorders. People with this condition usually have characteristic ...

  12. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a) Unicellular expanded polyvinyl chloride-acetate copolymer or synthetic rubber modified polyvinyl...

  13. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a) Unicellular expanded polyvinyl chloride-acetate copolymer or synthetic rubber modified polyvinyl...

  14. Fast Food Combos Make Type A Lunches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stashower, Gloria

    1974-01-01

    Clark County school district in Las Vegas, Nevada, has combination lunches available for high school students that meet Type A nutrition requirements but which resemble the commercial fast food menus teenagers prefer. (MLF)

  15. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 11

    MedlinePlus

    ... the peripheral nervous system, which consists of nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and ... with this type of spastic paraplegia, the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain ( ...

  17. Foundation for Ichthyosis & Related Skin Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who is FIRST? Discover all the benefits of connecting with the Foundation for Ichthyosis and Related Skin Types (FIRST). Listen to what affected families, individual patients, and the medical community have to ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3558 - Type 35.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign..., Kentucky-Tennessee-Indiana One Sucker, or Dark Air-cured One Sucker, including the upper...

  19. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4: a review.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Anna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Goh, Ching Yan; Cruz, Dinna N; Granata, Antonio; Vescovo, Girogio; Ronco, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    There is a bidirectional and complex relationship between the heart and kidneys. This interaction is physical, chemical as well as biological and is also reflected in a strong connection between renal and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS type 4) is characterized by primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to an impairment of cardiac function, with ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The incidence of CKD is increasing, and CRS type 4 is becoming a major public health problem associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we briefly review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CRS type 4, the role of biomarkers in its early identification, and its management.

  20. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  1. A Session Type System with Subject Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Keigo; Yuen, Shoji; Agusa, Kiyoshi

    Distributed applications and services have become pervasive in our society due to the widespread use of internet and mobile devices. There are urgent demands to efficiently ensure safety and correctness of such software. A session-type system is a framework to statically check whether communication descriptions conform to certain protocols. They are shown to be effective yet simple enough to fit in harmony with existing programming languages. In the original session type system, the subject reduction property does not hold. This paper establishes a conservative extension of the original session type system with the subject reduction property. Finally, it is also shown that our typing rule properly extends the set of typeable processes.

  2. ADPKD: Prototype of Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4

    PubMed Central

    Virzì, Grazia Maria; Corradi, Valentina; Panagiotou, Anthi; Gastaldon, Fiorella; Cruz, Dinna N.; de Cal, Massimo; Clementi, Maurizio; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) is characterized by a condition of primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) that leads to an impairment of the cardiac function, ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Clinically, it is very difficult to distinguish between CRS type 2 (Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome) and CRS type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) because often it is not clear whether the primary cause of the syndrome depends on the heart or the kidney. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a genetic disease that causes CKD, could be viewed as an ideal prototype of CRS type 4 because it is certain that the primary cause of cardiorenal syndrome is the kidney disease. In this paper, we will briefly review the epidemiology of ADPKD, conventional and novel biomarkers which may be useful in following the disease process, and prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21234092

  3. What is a Nonvocational Typing Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Alan C.

    1975-01-01

    Nonvocational typing courses consist of efforts in the same four goal areas (machine, production, technical information and language skills) as the vocational courses, but the ratios are different and the nonvocational course is shorter in length. (BP)

  4. Ethnicity, type 2 diabetes & migrant Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Abate, Nicola; Chandalia, Manisha

    2007-03-01

    The rapid increase of diabetes prevalence in the US population and across all westernized world has been associated with environmental changes that promote obesity. However, studies conducted in various ethnic groups within the US population have pointed out differences in susceptibility to diabetes within the same environmental pressure. Of particular interest is the growing evidence that Asian Indians, i.e., persons originating from the Indian Subcontinent, are at uniquely heightened risk for type 2 diabetes when compared to other populations. The elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for the heterogeneous relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes in various ethnic groups, and particularly in Asian Indians, may give important contributions to better understand the complex mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 diabetes. This review examines epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of the interaction between environment and ethnic predisposition to type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians migrated to the US.

  5. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  6. 46 CFR 162.017-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-2 Type. This specification covers the design and construction of pressure-vacuum relief valves intended for use in...

  7. 46 CFR 162.017-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-2 Type. This specification covers the design and construction of pressure-vacuum relief...

  8. 46 CFR 162.017-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-2 Type. This specification covers the design and construction of pressure-vacuum relief valves intended for use in...

  9. 46 CFR 162.017-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-2 Type. This specification covers the design and construction of pressure-vacuum relief...

  10. 46 CFR 162.017-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT General Provisions; Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-2 Type. This specification covers the design and construction of pressure-vacuum relief...

  11. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation.

  12. A case of achondrogenesis type I.

    PubMed

    Bökesoy, I; Aydin, E; Gazilerli, S

    1984-01-01

    A case of achondrogenesis type I was observed in a stillborn infant of consanguineous parents. Additional abnormalities included cleft palate, corneal clouding, ear deformities, aplastic testes, and anal atresia. Radiological and histological findings are evaluated for the differential diagnosis.

  13. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Anderson, J. P.

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  14. What Are the Types of Genetic Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of genetic tests? What are the types of genetic tests? Genetic testing can provide information about a ... paternity). For more information about the uses of genetic testing: A Brief Primer on Genetic Testing , which ...

  15. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Krypton and a monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an adsorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  16. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Krypton and monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an absorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  17. [Acatalasemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz; Káplár, Miklós

    2015-03-08

    The catalase enzyme decomposes the toxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. Hydrogen peroxide is a highly reactive small molecule and its excessive concentration may cause significant damages to proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and lipids. Acatalasemia refers to inherited deficiency of the catalase enzyme. In this review the authors discuss the possible role of the human catalase enzyme, the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide, and the phenomenon of hydrogen peroxide paradox. In addition, they review data obtained from Hungarian acatalasemic patients indicating an increased frequency of type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in female patients, and an early onset of type 2 diabetes in these patients. There are 10 catalase gene variants which appear to be responsible for decreased blood catalase activity in acatalasemic patients with type 2 diabetes. It is assumed that low levels of blood catalase may cause an increased concentration of hydrogen peroxide which may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Mucopolysaccharide & Related Diseases, Inc. The MPS Society (UK) GeneReviews (1 link) Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I ClinicalTrials.gov ( ... Hurler, Hurler-Scheie and Scheie syndromes in the UK. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2008 Sep 16;3: ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 31

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominant MalaCards: spastic paraplegia 31 National Health Service (UK) Orphanet: Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia type 31 Orphanet: ... and Advocacy Resources (5 links) Contact a Family (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Hereditary Spastic ...

  20. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; Trepte, Chip; Vaughan, Mark; Colarco, Peter; da Silva, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  1. 7 CFR 29.6045 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6045 Type. A division of a class of tobacco having certain...

  2. From Exponential to Polynomial-Time Security Typing via Principal Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Sebastian; Sands, David

    Hunt and Sands (POPL'06) studied a flow sensitive type (FST) system for multi-level security, parametric in the choice of lattice of security levels. Choosing the powerset of program variables as the security lattice yields a system which was shown to be equivalent to Amtoft and Banerjee's Hoare-style independence logic (SAS'04). Moreover, using the powerset lattice, it was shown how to derive a principal type from which all other types (for all choices of lattice) can be simply derived.Both of these earlier works gave "algorithmic" formulations of the type system/program logic, but both algorithms are of exponential complexity due to the iterative typing of While loops. Later work by Hunt and Sands (ESOP'08) adapted the FST system to provide an erasure type system which determines whether some input is correctly erased at a designated time. This type system is inherently exponential, requiring a double typing of the erasure-labelled input command. In this paper we start by developing the FST work in two key ways: (1) We specialise the FST system to a form which only derives principal types; the resulting type system has a simple algorithmic reading, yielding principal security types in polynomial time. (2) We show how the FST system can be simply extended to check for various degrees of termination sensitivity (the original FST system is completely termination insensitive, while the erasure type system is fully termination sensitive). We go on to demonstrate the power of these techniques by combining them to develop a type system which is shown to correctly implement erasure typing in polynomial time. Principality is used in an essential way to reduce type derivation size from exponential to linear.

  3. Phenotypic Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Bacha, Fida; Gungor, Neslihan; Arslanian, Silva

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Some obese youth with a clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes have evidence of islet cell autoimmunity with positive autoantibodies. In this study, we investigated the differences in insulin sensitivity and secretion between autoantibody-negative (Ab−) and -positive (Ab+) youth with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes in comparison with control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Sixteen Ab− and 26 Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and 39 obese control youth underwent evaluation of insulin sensitivity (3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry), first- and second-phase insulin secretion (2-h hyperglycemic clamp), body composition and abdominal adiposity (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scan, respectively), and glucose disposition index (first-phase insulin secretion × insulin sensitivity). RESULTS— Insulin-stimulated total, oxidative, and nonoxidative glucose disposal, and suppression of fat oxidation during hyperinsulinemia were significantly lower in Ab− compared with Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic and control subjects with no difference between the latter two. First- and second-phase insulin secretion and C-peptide were lower in Ab+ compared with Ab− type 2 diabetes. Glucose disposition index was not different between the Ab− and Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, but both were significantly lower than that in control subjects. Systolic blood pressure and alanine aminotransferase were higher in Ab− versus Ab+ clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, whereas the frequency of ketonuria at diagnosis was higher in Ab+ versus Ab− patients. CONCLUSIONS— Islet-cell Ab− clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic youth are characterized by severe insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, whereas Ab+ youth have severe insulin deficiency and β-cell failure. The former group has additional features of insulin

  4. [Cell therapy for type I diabete].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, I B

    2009-01-01

    Cell therapy is a modern and promising approach to type I diabetes mellitus treatment. Nowadays a wide range of cells is used in laboratory experiments and clinical studies, including allogeneic and xenogeneic cells of Langergance islets, bone marrow cells, haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and cord blood stem cells. Any type of the cells named could correct the status of the patients to a certain extent. However, full recovery after cell therapy has not been achieved yet.

  5. Typology of State Types: Persistence and Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    developed in this paper, a more tailored policy to each type of state might be applied. Such nuances cannot be captured by broader categorizations such as...DRDC-RDDC-2014-P105 1 Typology of State Types : Persistence and Transition Peter Tikuisis Defence Research and Development Canada David...Additionally, changes in legitimacy most often led state transitions into or out of fragility. Implications of intervention policy for transitioning

  6. Basic structure and types of scientific papers.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2008-07-01

    The basic structure of a scientific paper is summarised by the acronym IMRAD. Many types of papers are published in medical journals. These include original articles, case reports, technical notes, pictorial essays, reviews, commentaries and editorials. Authors should be aware that each type of paper is specific in nature, serve a distinct purpose, and is judged by different criteria. Authors submitting their work in the most appropriate format will be able to maximise their material and enhance the chances of manuscript acceptance.

  7. Diabetes in young: Beyond type 1

    PubMed Central

    Virmani, Anju; Kulkarni, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Although majority of diabetes in children is type1 diabetes, childhood type2 diabetes prevalence is rapidly increasing due to changing lifestyle. Most patients can be definitely grouped into either of the two but some present diagnostic difficulty due to overlapping and non specific clinical features and laboratory findings. MODY and several other diseases affecting the pancreas also result in childhood diabetes. Treatment of diabetes in children presents unique challenges and primary prevention is of prime importance. PMID:23565393

  8. Multiwavelength studies of early type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A. C.; Perez, M. R.; Altner, B.

    1990-01-01

    New IUE spectra of the southern galaxies NGC 1326 and NGC 1808 are presented from an in-progress program to study early-type galaxies, and these are compared with four archival spectra. The targets were selected on the basis of their IRAS emission, peculiarities in their dust structure as revealed from CCD frames, and the presence of HI from 21-cm data. The signature of early spectral-type stars is correlated with UV extinction and IR excess.

  9. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible.

  10. Intrafusal muscle fibre types in frog spindles.

    PubMed

    Diwan, F H; Ito, F

    1989-04-01

    Muscle spindles from bullfrog semitendinosus, iliofibularis and sartorius muscles were examined with light and electron microscopy. Four types of intrafusal muscle fibre were identified according to their diameter, central nucleation and reticular zone arrangement: a large nuclear bag fibre, a medium nuclear bag fibre, and two types of small nuclear chain fibres with and without a reticular zone, respectively. It is suggested that they are comparable to the nuclear bag1, bag2 and chain fibres in mammalian muscle spindles.

  11. Innate-type and acquired-type allergy regulated by IL-33.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kazufumi

    2014-05-01

    We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells) and acquired (Th2 cells) allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.

  12. Turbulence in Type Ia Supernovae Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Type Ia supernovae are among the most energetic explosions in the known universe, releasing 10^51 ergs of kinetic energy in their ejecta, with 0.7 solar masses of radioactive Ni-56 synthesized during the explosion. The discovery of the Phillips relation enabled the use of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) as standardizable cosmological candles, and has ushered in a new era of astronomy leading to the discovery of the acceleration of the universe, leading to the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics. The nature of the Type Ia progenitors, as well as their precise explosion mechanism, remains a subject of active investigation, both observationally as well as theoretically. It is known that the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae are near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs in binary systems, though competing models suggest the companion is either a red giant or main sequence star (the so-called ``single-degenerate channel'') or another white dwarf (the ``double-degenerate channel''). In this talk, I will present recent results of three -dimensional models of the single-degenerate channel of Type Ia supernovae. I will also discuss prospects for modeling the double-degenerate channel of Type Ia supernovae, which have recently enjoyed increased favor from observers and theorists.

  13. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    The overall aim of this Ph.D. project was to clarify what the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type represents with regard to the skin's reaction to UVR. Fitzpatrick skin type is used as an expression of the constitutive UV-sensitivity. It has been used for guiding dose-levels in phototherapy and is an important risk factor for skin cancer. The subjective Fitzpatrick skin type and the measured skin type PPF (pigment protection factor, calculated based on a skin reflectance measurement, predicts the UV-dose (SED) to give 1 MED) were investigated parallelly in relation to the clinically determined dose to erythema (MED) and/or pigmentation (MMD) to determine which one related best. PPF is an established method for assessing UV-sensitivity by predicting SED to MED. UV-dose to MED and/or MMD was determined after single UV-exposure to Solar Simulator on nates (n= 84) and after single and multiple (5, 6 or 12) UV-exposures (n = 24-62) on the back to four UV-sources (nUVB, Solar, bUVA and UVA1). SED to MMD was also related to wavelength. MED was only determined after a single and four UV-exposures to narrowband UVB (nUVB) and Solar Simulator (Solar). Volunteers with a broad range of constitutive pigmentation (skin types I-V) were included. Equal MMD doses (predetermined after a single UV-exposure) were used at the multiple exposures. The absolute increase in pigmentation after 6 and 12 UV-exposures, where steady-state pigmentation was reached, was independent of skin type and therefore could not enter into the calculations. But it proved that the MMD determinations after single exposure were correct and could be used at multiple UV-exposures. In contrary to what we expected, our results indicate that people may refer to the constitutive pigmentation, when they reply to the question of Fitzpatrick skin type. This applied to both erythema and pigmentation response as both dose to MED and MMD showed a better correlation to nates than to the back. As expected, our results from the

  14. A Cell-type-resolved Liver Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chen; Li, Yanyan; Guo, Feifei; Jiang, Ying; Ying, Wantao; Li, Dong; Yang, Dong; Xia, Xia; Liu, Wanlin; Zhao, Yan; He, Yangzhige; Li, Xianyu; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiongming; Song, Lei; Zhen, Bei; Zhang, Pumin; Qian, Xiaohong; Qin, Jun; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Parenchymatous organs consist of multiple cell types, primarily defined as parenchymal cells (PCs) and nonparenchymal cells (NPCs). The cellular characteristics of these organs are not well understood. Proteomic studies facilitate the resolution of the molecular details of different cell types in organs. These studies have significantly extended our knowledge about organogenesis and organ cellular composition. Here, we present an atlas of the cell-type-resolved liver proteome. In-depth proteomics identified 6000 to 8000 gene products (GPs) for each cell type and a total of 10,075 GPs for four cell types. This data set revealed features of the cellular composition of the liver: (1) hepatocytes (PCs) express the least GPs, have a unique but highly homogenous proteome pattern, and execute fundamental liver functions; (2) the division of labor among PCs and NPCs follows a model in which PCs make the main components of pathways, but NPCs trigger the pathways; and (3) crosstalk among NPCs and PCs maintains the PC phenotype. This study presents the liver proteome at cell resolution, serving as a research model for dissecting the cell type constitution and organ features at the molecular level. PMID:27562671

  15. Congenital fiber type disproportion--30 years on.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2003-10-01

    Thirty years ago, M. H. Brooke coined the term "congenital fiber type disproportion" (CFTD) to describe 12 children who had clinical features of a congenital myopathy and relative type 1 fiber hypotrophy on muscle biopsy. It is now clear that this histological pattern can accompany a wide range of neurological disorders, leading to disillusionment with CFTD as a distinct nosological entity. To determine whether the CFTD has clinical utility as a diagnostic entity, we have reviewed the literature for cases of type 1 fiber hypotrophy and have used strict exclusion criteria to identify 67 cases of CFTD. Most patients presented at birth with weakness and hypotonia, had normal intelligence, and followed a static or improving clinical course. In 43% of families, more than 1 individual was affected. Failure to thrive was common and 25% of patients had contractures or spinal deformities. Bulbar weakness and ophthalmoplegia were less common and cardiac involvement was rare. Twenty-five percent followed a severe course and 10% had died at the time of reporting, all from respiratory failure. Ophthalmoplegia and facial and bulbar weakness were significantly associated with a poorer prognosis. The relatively homogeneous phenotype supports the retention of CFTD as a distinct diagnostic entity and familial occurrence suggests a genetic basis. Regarding the diagnosis of CFTD, we found no strong evidence that the minimum difference between type 1 and type 2 fiber sizes should be increased from 12% to 25%. We also list the other reported causes of relative type 1 fiber hypotrophy to aid their exclusion from CFTD.

  16. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  17. The evolution of mating type switching

    PubMed Central

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Kuijper, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Predictions about the evolution of sex determination mechanisms have mainly focused on animals and plants, whereas unicellular eukaryotes such as fungi and ciliates have received little attention. Many taxa within the latter groups can stochastically switch their mating type identity during vegetative growth. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that mating type switching overcomes distortions in the distribution of mating types due to drift during asexual growth. Using a computational model, we show that smaller population size, longer vegetative periods and more mating types lead to greater distortions in the distribution of mating types. However, the impact of these parameters on optimal switching rates is not straightforward. We find that longer vegetative periods cause reductions and considerable fluctuations in the switching rate over time. Smaller population size increases the strength of selection for switching but has little impact on the switching rate itself. The number of mating types decreases switching rates when gametes can freely sample each other, but increases switching rates when there is selection for speedy mating. We discuss our results in light of empirical work and propose new experiments that could further our understanding of sexuality in isogamous eukaryotes. PMID:27271362

  18. Evolution of eyes and photoreceptor cell types.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of the eye is a matter of debate ever since Darwin's Origin of Species. While morphological comparisons of eye anatomy and photoreceptor cell types led to the view that animal eyes evolved multiple times independently, the molecular conservation of the pax6 eye-specifying cascade has indicated the contrary - that animal eyes evolved from a common, simple precursor, the proto-eye. Morphological and molecular comparative approaches are combined here in a novel Evo-Devo approach, the molecular comparison of cell types ("comparative molecular cell biology"). In the eye, the various types of photoreceptor cells, as well as pigment and lens cells, each require distinct combinations of specifying transcription factors that control their particular differentiation programmes, such as opsin expression in photoreceptors, specific neurotransmitter metabolism, or axonal outgrowth. Comparing the molecular combinatorial codes of cell types of animal extant eyes, their evolutionary histories can be reconstructed. This is exemplified here on the evolution of ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells in bilaterian eyes and on the evolution of cell type diversity in the vertebrate retina. I propose that the retinal ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells are evolutionary sister cell types that evolved from a common rhabdomeric photoreceptor cell precursor.

  19. Antibody activity to type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus in human cervical mucus.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, B M; Skinner, G R

    1977-08-01

    Neutralizing antibody activity in cervical mucus to type 1 herpes virus was detected in 24 of 28 patients, and to type 2 herpes simplex virus in 18 of 24 patients. The neutralizing antibody activity resisted heat inactivation for 30 minutes at 56 degrees C, was independent of complement and followed first order kinetics. There was evidence of antibody against both virus types in immunoglobulin fractions IgG and IgA, the latter containing approximately threefold greater neutralizing antibody activity per unit of immunoglobulin concentration. Type 1 and type 2 neutralizing antibody activity showed a positive but weak correlation and type 2 neutralizing antibody activity showed a positive but weak correlation and a type-common immunoprecipitin was identified in all concentrated pooled mucus samples. However, type-specific neutralizing antibody against both virus types was identified in pooled mucus samples by heterologous absorption techniques. There was a relatively higher average type 2 neutralizing antibody activity in the mucus than in the serum and there was no correlation between serum and mucus antibody levels for either virus type. These observations support the concept of an independent local antibody system for herpes simplex virus in the uterine cervix.

  20. Diphthericin types, bacteriophage types and serotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, L. F.; Colman, G.

    1973-01-01

    A dipthericin typing scheme has been constructed using 441 strains of Corynebacterium diptheriae isolated in eastern Australia from 1962 to 1971. Ten types have been distinguished using seven strains of C. diphtheriae and two strains of C. belfanti as indicators of the diphthericins produced by the newly isolated strains. Strains grouped into types L2, L3 and L3a were found only in Melbourne and types L1 and L4 were predominant in Sydney. Type L5 strains were isolated intermittently throughout the period of study and were found in all eastern states. Numerical analysis of the characteristics of the strains suggests that associations exist between, on the one hand, diphthericin type and, on the other hand, bacteriophage type, serotype and biochemical activity. PMID:4203597