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Sample records for adherence rating scale

  1. A large-scale validation study of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS).

    PubMed

    Fialko, Laura; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul E; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Adherence to medication is an important predictor of illness course and outcome in psychosis. The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is a ten-item self-report measure of medication adherence in psychosis [Thompson, K., Kulkarni, J., Sergejew, A.A., 2000. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses. Schizophrenia Research. 42. 241-247]. Although initial results suggested that the scale has good reliability and validity, the development sample was small. The current study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the MARS in a sample over four times larger. The scale was administered to 277 individuals with psychosis, along with measures of insight and psychopathology. Medication adherence was independently rated by each individual's keyworker. Results showed the internal consistency of the MARS to be lower than in the original sample, though adequate. MARS total score correlated weakly with keyworker-rated adherence, hence concurrent validity of the scale appeared only moderate to weak. The three factor structure of the MARS was replicated. Examination of the factor scores suggested that the factor 1 total score, which corresponds to the Medication Adherence Questionnaire [Morisky,D.E., Green,L.W. and Levine,D.M., 1986. Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Medical Care. 24, 67-74] may be a preferable measure of medication adherence behaviour to the total scale score. PMID:18083007

  2. Validation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale in homeless patients with schizophrenia: Results from the French Housing First experience

    PubMed Central

    Zemmour, K.; Tinland, A.; Boucekine, M.; Girard, V.; Loubière, S.; Resseguier, N.; Fond, G.; Auquier, P.; Boyer, L.; Apostolidis, T.; Birmes, P.; Bossetti, T.; Bouloudnine, R.; Combes, B.; Debieve, J.; Falissard, B.; Greacen, T.; Laval, C.; Lancon, C.; Le Cardinal, P.; Mantovani, J.; Moreau, D.; Naudin, J.; Rhunter, P.; Videau, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used measurements of adherence in schizophrenia (SZ), but there is no available data regarding its psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients (HSZ). The aim of this study was therefore to assess the psychometric properties of the MARS in a large multicenter sample of HSZ subjects. This multi-centre prospective study was conducted in the following 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Three hundred and fifty-three patients were included. The 3-factor structure of the MARS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis: RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97 and WRMR = 0.76. The unidimensionality of each factor was supported by the satisfactory INFIT statistics. Item internal consistencies were all higher than 0.20 and the Kuder–Richardson were higher than to 0.6, except for factor 2, which was closed to 0.5. Significant associations with symptoms, functioning and quality of life showed satisfactory external validity. The acceptability was satisfactory with missing data lower than 5% for each dimension. The MARS is a short self-administered instrument with acceptable psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients that yields interesting information about medication adherence. PMID:27534796

  3. Validation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale in homeless patients with schizophrenia: Results from the French Housing First experience.

    PubMed

    Zemmour, K; Tinland, A; Boucekine, M; Girard, V; Loubière, S; Resseguier, N; Fond, G; Auquier, P; Boyer, L

    2016-01-01

    The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used measurements of adherence in schizophrenia (SZ), but there is no available data regarding its psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients (HSZ). The aim of this study was therefore to assess the psychometric properties of the MARS in a large multicenter sample of HSZ subjects. This multi-centre prospective study was conducted in the following 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Three hundred and fifty-three patients were included. The 3-factor structure of the MARS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis: RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97 and WRMR = 0.76. The unidimensionality of each factor was supported by the satisfactory INFIT statistics. Item internal consistencies were all higher than 0.20 and the Kuder-Richardson were higher than to 0.6, except for factor 2, which was closed to 0.5. Significant associations with symptoms, functioning and quality of life showed satisfactory external validity. The acceptability was satisfactory with missing data lower than 5% for each dimension. The MARS is a short self-administered instrument with acceptable psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients that yields interesting information about medication adherence. PMID:27534796

  4. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K; Kulkarni, J; Sergejew, A A

    2000-05-01

    Medication compliance is one of the foremost problems affecting neuroleptic efficacy in psychiatric patients. To date, compliancy has most commonly been assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) developed by Hogan et al. (Hogan, T.P., Awad, A.G., Eastwood, R., 1983. A self-report scale predictive of drug compliance in schizophrenics: reliability and discriminative validity. Psychol. Med. 13, 177-183). The present study identified several deficiencies in the DAI. Using the partial credit version of the Item Response Theory measurement model, the DAI was refined with the aim of greater validity and clinical utility. The new inventory was administered to 66 patients, the majority of whom were diagnosed with schizophrenia. When available, lithium levels and carer ratings of compliance were also recorded and used to verify compliancy. The new inventory appears to be a valid and reliable measure of compliancy for psychoactive medications. PMID:10785582

  5. Evaluation of the Single-Item Self-Rating Adherence Scale for Use in Routine Clinical Care of People Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, BJ; Fredericksen, RJ; Crane, PK; Safren, SA; Mugavero, MJ; Willig, James H; Simoni, JM; Wilson, IB; Saag, MS; Kitahata, MM; Crane, HM

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Rating Scale Item (SRSI) is a single-item self-report adherence measure that uses adjectives in a 5-point Likert scale, from “very poor” to “excellent,” to describe medication adherence over the past 4 weeks. This study investigated the SRSI in 2,399 HIV-infected patients in routine care at two outpatient primary HIV clinics. Correlations between the SRSI and four commonly used adherence items ranged from 0.37–0.64. Correlations of adherence barriers, such as depression and substance use, were comparable across all adherence items. General estimating equations suggested the SRSI is as good as or better than other adherence items (p’s <0.001 vs. <0.001–0.99) at predicting adherence-related clinical outcomes, such as HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count. These results and the SRSI’s low patient burden suggest its routine use could be helpful for assessing adherence in clinical care and should be more widespread, particularly where more complex instruments may be impractical. PMID:23108721

  6. Adherence with drug therapy in the rheumatic diseases Part one: a review of adherence rates.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    Drug therapy plays a major role in the management of many rheumatic diseases and is particularly important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality (Pincus, 1995). Understanding of the pathogenesis of RA has led to the development of new and more effective drugs (Emery et al., 1999), but the ultimate efficacy of any drug therapy depends upon the patient's decision to take it. There is widespread agreement that many people with rheumatic disease do not adhere to their medication regimens (Deyo et al., 1981; Belcon et al., 1984; Pullar et al., 1988; Hill et al., 2001). Research has demonstrated that 50% of women taking hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis discontinue treatment after a year (Fordham, 2000) and similar rates of discontinuation are found in other chronic diseases (Haynes et al., 1996, 2000). This is bewildering as, in asymptomatic illnesses such as hypertension and diabetes, the expectation is that levels of adherence would be lower than in diseases where pain and stiffness are present. The picture becomes even more confusing when we consider the findings from a recent multi-country study of RA, which found no association between adherence and disease severity, nor with the treatment prescribed (Viller et al., 1999). In chronic disease poor adherence is commonplace. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes this and has recently stated that 'poor adherence to treatment of chronic diseases is a worldwide problem of striking magnitude' and cites adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses in developed countries averaging just 50% (WHO, 2003). The first part of this two part review focuses on adherence with drug therapy, and the second part discusses different methods of measuring it. PMID:17041995

  7. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Stangier, Ulrich; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT), for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse. Method Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female) treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00) and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98) yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials. PMID:25791915

  8. Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Rate and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV in Dubti Hospital, Afar Regional State, East Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Negus, Rahma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Antiretroviral Therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable disease; it requires near perfect adherence rates (as high as 95%). In this study, we assessed antiretroviral treatment adherence rate and associated factors among people living with HIV in Dubti Hospital. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was conducted within February 1–30, 2014. All HIV-infected patients above the age of 18 years who took first line Antiretroviral Therapy were eligible for inclusion of the study. Adherence Scale was used for labeling patients as adherent or nonadherent. All HIV-infected patients record data were collected from the medical records, entered, and analyzed using Epi Info 7 and SPSS Version 20. Multivariable analysis was used to identify the relative effect of explanatory variables on low adherence rate. Results. A total of 370 patients aged 18 years and above, who started ART, were included in this study. The self-reported adherence rate of the patient on ART was 81.1%. Independent predictors of adherence were treatment duration. Conclusion. Adherence rate was associated with time to ART. That is, the longer they were on ART, the lesser they adhered.

  9. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  10. Provider-pharmacist education and adherence rates for the oral typhoid vaccine: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Heather M

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, 35 travelers were surveyed regarding the travel medicine provider and pharmacist education they received, along with self-reported adherence rates for the Ty21a vaccine. The results demonstrated that pharmacy education is minimal and that computerized pharmacy education handouts were not considered helpful by these travelers. Complete adherence was reported at 49%. PMID:15996457

  11. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Labra, Fabio A; Marquet, Pablo A; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-06-26

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emergent property of a complex system and test the hypothesis that the probability distribution of fluctuations in the metabolic rate of individuals has a "universal" form regardless of body size or taxonomic affiliation. We examined data from 71 individuals belonging to 25 vertebrate species (birds, mammals, and lizards). We report three main results. First, for all these individuals and species, the distribution of metabolic rate fluctuations follows a tent-shaped distribution with power-law decay. Second, the standard deviation of metabolic rate fluctuations decays as a power-law function of both average metabolic rate and body mass, with exponents -0.352 and -1/4 respectively. Finally, we find that the distributions of metabolic rate fluctuations for different organisms can all be rescaled to a single parent distribution, supporting the existence of general principles underlying the structure and functioning of individual organisms. PMID:17578913

  12. Health Information Seeking and Cancer Screening Adherence Rates.

    PubMed

    Shneyderman, Yuliya; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Arheart, Kristopher L; Byrne, Margaret M; Kornfeld, Julie; Schwartz, Seth J

    2016-03-01

    Effective screening tools are available for many of the top cancer killers in the USA. Searching for health information has previously been found to be associated with adhering to cancer screening guidelines, but Internet information seeking has not been examined separately. The current study examines the relationship between health and cancer Internet information seeking and adherence to cancer screening guidelines for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in a large nationally representative dataset. The current study was conducted using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey from 2003 and 2007. The study examined age-stratified models which correlated health and cancer information seeking with getting breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening on schedule, while controlling for several key variables. Internet health and cancer information seeking was positively associated with getting Pap screening on schedule, while information seeking from any sources was positively associated with getting colorectal screening on schedule. People who look for health or cancer information are more likely to get screened on schedule. Some groups of people, however, do not exhibit this relationship and, thus, may be more vulnerable to under-screening. These groups may benefit more from targeted interventions that attempt to engage people in their health care more actively. PMID:25619195

  13. Adherent Al2O3 scales formed on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the spalling behavior of Al2O3 scales formed on an undoped NiCrAl alloy are described. Two samples of Ni-15Cr-13Al (wt pct), one a control and the other sanded, were subjected to 25 oxidation cycles. It is observed that adherent scales formed on the sanded sample; however, the control sample had speckled, spalled scales. The data reveal that the adherent scales are caused by repeated removal of surface layers after each oxidation cycle. It is determined that interfacial segregation of sulfur influences spallation and sulfur removal increases bonding. The effect of moisture on scale adhesions is investigated.

  14. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  15. Basalt Weathering Rates Across Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarresitchler, A.; Brantley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals is a known sink for atmospheric CO2. An estimated 30%-35% of the consumption of CO2 from continental silicate weathering can be attributed to basalt weathering (Dessert et al., 2003). To assess basalt weathering rates we examine weathering advance rates of basalt (w, mm/yr) reported at four scales: denudation rates from basalt watersheds (tens of kilometers), rates of soil formation from soil profiles developed on basaltic parent material of known age (meters), rates of weathering rind formation on basalt clasts (centimeters), and laboratory dissolution rates (millimeters). Basalt weathering advance rates calculated for watersheds range between 0.36 and 9.8x10-3 mm/yr. The weathering advance rate for a basalt soil profile in Hawaii is 8.0x10-3 mm/yr while advance rates for clasts range from 5.6x10-6 to 2.4x10-4 mm/yr. Batch and mixed flow laboratory experiments performed at circum- neutral pH yield advance rates of 2.5x10^{-5} to 3.4x10-7 mm/yr when normalized to BET surface area. These results show increasing advance rates with both increasing scale (from laboratory to watersheds) and increasing temperature. If we assume that basalt weathers at an intrinsic rate that applies to all scales then we conclude that variations in weathering advance rates arise from variations in surface area measurement at different scales (D); therefore, basalt weathering is a fractal system. We measure a fractal dimension (dr) of basalt weathering of 2.2. For Euclidean geometries, measured surface area does not vary with the scale at which it is measured and dr equals 2. For natural surfaces, surface area is related to the scale at which it is measured. As scale increases, the minimum size of the surface irregularities that are measurable also increases. The ratio between BET and geometric normalized laboratory dissolution rates has been defined as a roughness parameter, λ, which ranges from ~10-100. We extend the definition of this roughness parameter

  16. Depression Rating Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poznanski, Elva O.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) was devised and tested on 30 inpatient children (6 to 12 years old) in a medical hospital. A high correlation was found between global ratings by two psychiatrists of severity of depression and scores on the CDRS. Journal availability: American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204.…

  17. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lois C.; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  18. Poor adherence and low persistency rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Chen, Vincent; Vu, Vinh; Le, An; Nguyen, Linda; Zhao, Changqing; Wong, Carrie R; Nguyen, Nghia; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian; Trinh, Huy; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to examine rates and predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance adherence and persistency, since studies of such adherence and persistency in patients with chronic hepatitis (CHB) are currently limited.Consecutive CHB patients (N = 1329) monitored for ≥1 year at 4 US clinics from January 1996 to July 2013 were retrospectively studied. Surveillance adherence was evaluated based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze surveillance persistency of 510 patients who had initially fair adherence (having at least annual surveillance imaging with further follow-up).Mean age was 48, with the majority being male (58%), Asian (92%), foreign-born (95%), and medically insured (97%). Patients with cirrhosis and those seen at university liver clinics were more likely to have optimal HCC surveillance than those without cirrhosis and those seen at community clinics (38.4% vs 21.6%, P <0.001 and 33.5% vs 14.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). HCC diagnosed in optimally adherent patients trended toward smaller tumor size (P < 0.08). On multivariate analysis also inclusive of age, sex, clinical visits, cirrhosis, clinic setting and antiviral therapy use, strong independent predictors for having at least annual imaging were a history of more frequent clinical visits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, P < 0.001) and university-based care (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001). Even for those with initially fair adherence, persistency dropped to 70% at 5 years.Adherence and persistency to HCC surveillance in CHB patients is generally poor. More frequent clinic visits and university-based settings were significant and strong predictors of at least annual HCC surveillance adherence. PMID:27583921

  19. Systematic review of adherence rates by medication class in type 2 diabetes: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Andrew; Tippu, Zayd; Hinton, William; Munro, Neil; Whyte, Martin; de Lusignan, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Treatment options for type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly complex with people often prescribed multiple medications, and may include both oral and injectable therapies. There is ongoing debate about which drug classes provide the optimum second-line and third-line treatment options. In the real world, patient adherence and persistence determines medication effectiveness. A better understanding of adherence may help inform the choice of second-line and third-line drug classes. Methods and analysis This systematic review will compare adherence and persistence rates across the different classes of medication available to people with type 2 diabetes. It will include all identified studies comparing medication adherence or persistence between two or more glucose-lowering medications in people with type 2 diabetes. Research databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, The Register of Controlled Trials, PsychINFO and CINAHL) will be searched for relevant articles, using a comprehensive search strategy. All identified medication trials and observational studies will be included which compare adherence or persistence across classes of diabetes medication. The characteristics and outcomes of all the included studies will be reported along with a study quality grade, assessed using the Cochrane Risk Assessment Tool. The quality of adjustment for confounders of adherence or persistence will be reported for each study. Where multiple (n ≥3) studies provide compare adherence or persistence across the same 2 medication classes, a meta-analysis will be performed. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is required. This review and meta-analysis (where possible) will provide important information on the relative patient adherence and persistence, with the different classes of diabetes therapies. Once complete, the results will be made available by peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number CRD42015027865. PMID:26928029

  20. Poor adherence and low persistency rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Christina; Chen, Vincent; Vu, Vinh; Le, An; Nguyen, Linda; Zhao, Changqing; Wong, Carrie R.; Nguyen, Nghia; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian; Trinh, Huy; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our goal was to examine rates and predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance adherence and persistency, since studies of such adherence and persistency in patients with chronic hepatitis (CHB) are currently limited. Consecutive CHB patients (N = 1329) monitored for ≥1 year at 4 US clinics from January 1996 to July 2013 were retrospectively studied. Surveillance adherence was evaluated based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze surveillance persistency of 510 patients who had initially fair adherence (having at least annual surveillance imaging with further follow-up). Mean age was 48, with the majority being male (58%), Asian (92%), foreign-born (95%), and medically insured (97%). Patients with cirrhosis and those seen at university liver clinics were more likely to have optimal HCC surveillance than those without cirrhosis and those seen at community clinics (38.4% vs 21.6%, P <0.001 and 33.5% vs 14.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). HCC diagnosed in optimally adherent patients trended toward smaller tumor size (P < 0.08). On multivariate analysis also inclusive of age, sex, clinical visits, cirrhosis, clinic setting and antiviral therapy use, strong independent predictors for having at least annual imaging were a history of more frequent clinical visits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, P < 0.001) and university-based care (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001). Even for those with initially fair adherence, persistency dropped to 70% at 5 years. Adherence and persistency to HCC surveillance in CHB patients is generally poor. More frequent clinic visits and university-based settings were significant and strong predictors of at least annual HCC surveillance adherence. PMID:27583921

  1. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients provide similar opportunities for skill demonstration. This study examined the correspondence of treatment adherence and competence ratings obtained in real client and role-played sessions for 91 clinicians trained in Motivational Interviewing (MI), using data from a multi-site trial examining three methods of clinician training (Martino et al., 2011). Results indicated overall poor integrity rating correspondence across the two session types, as indicated by weak correlations (r = .05–.27). Clinicians were rated significantly more MI adherent overall and specifically used more advanced MI strategies in role-played than real client sessions at several assessment time points (d = 0.36, 0.42). Real clients, in comparison to the role-play actor, demonstrated greater motivation at the beginning of the session (d = 1.09), discussion of unrelated topics (d = 0.70), and alliance with the clinician (d = 0.72). These findings suggest that MI integrity rating data obtained from real client and role-played sessions may not be interchangeable. More research is needed to improve the procedures and psychometric strength of treatment integrity assessment based on role-played sessions. PMID:23205626

  2. The Adaptive Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.

    A scale to identify important behaviors in preschool children was developed, and ratings were related to more traditional indices of development and academic readiness. Teacher interviews were used to identify 62 specific behaviors related to maximally adapted and maximally maladapted kindergarten children. These were incorporated into a…

  3. Validation of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale among women with breast and cervical cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; Ribeiro, Samila Gomes; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Paulo Cesar; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: the aim was to translate and culturally adapt the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale for the Portuguese language in the Brazilian context, and to check its reliability and validity to analyze the elements of the adherence of patients to the clinical treatment for breast and cervical cancer. Method: this was a methodological study, carried out in two oncology reference centers. The sample consisted of 198 participants, with 152 being treated for breast cancer and 46 being treated for cervical cancer. The content validation was performed by a committee of experts. The construct validation was demonstrated through factor analysis and the reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. Results: the committee of experts made the necessary adjustments so that the scale was adapted to the Brazilian context. The factor analysis suggested a reduction from seven to five factors and the maintenance of 38 items similar to those of the original scale. The reliability, investigated through Cronbach's alpha, was .829, showing high internal consistency. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Brazilian version of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale is a valid and reliable instrument that is able to measure the elements of adherence to the treatment for breast and cervical cancer. PMID:26487149

  4. The Scale of Self-Efficacy Expectations of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment: A Tool for Identifying Risk for Non-Adherence to Treatment for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; de Carvalho Leite, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of risk for non-adherence to treatment is a challenge for personalized care for people living with HIV. Standardized questionnaires of patients’ expectations of their capability to overcome obstacles for treatment adherence may be used as a pre-screening for risk identification. A scale of self-efficacy expectations of adherence to antiretroviral treatment (SEA-ART scale) was previously developed. This study assesses the scale validity in predicting non-adherence to ART in adults living with HIV. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study applied a 21-item SEA-ART scale to 275 adults in ART treatment at an outpatient public service for HIV in Southern Brazil. ART medications taken were assessed at one-month follow-up; ART adherence was devised as an intake of 95% and more of the prescribed medication. A SEA-ART score was calculated by adding up the scores of all items. Multivariable logistic regression and the Area Under the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Curve (AUROC) were applied to examine the ability of the SEA-ART score to predict non-adherence at follow-up. The SEA-ART score varied from 21 to 105; mean 93.9; median 103.0. Non-adherence was 30.3% (n = 81/267). The odds of non-adherence was 8% lower for each unit increase of the SEA-ART score; after adjustment for age, sex, formal education and time in treatment (OR = 0.92; 95%CI 0.90–0.95; LRT for linear trend, p = 0.002). The AUROC was 0.80 (95%CI 0.73–0.87; p<0.001). The SEA-ART optimal cut-off value was 101, providing a sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 73.1%, a positive predictive value of 55.4% and a negative predictive value of 87.7%. There was no evidence of difference in sensitivity, and specificity among groups organized by age, gender, formal education and time in treatment. Conclusions The SEA-ART scale appears to have a good capacity to discriminate between adherents and non-adherents at one-month follow-up. Further studies should confirm these results

  5. The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Malgady, R G; Barcher, P R

    1982-01-01

    The Vocational Adaptation Rating Scales (VARS) were developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of maladaptive social behavior related to vocational success, but not directly measuring job performance of mentally retarded workers. Psychometric information derived from the VARS is useful for developing individualized educational plans (IEPs) for compliance with Public Law 94-142; for program, worker or curriculum evaluations; and for predicting placement of workers in vocational training. Research indicates that VARS scores are internally consistent, moderately correlated with other vocational measures, unbiased with respect to sex and age differences, and independent of IQ. Inter-rater reliability is acceptable, and VARS profiles are accurate predictors of level of sheltered workshop placement of mentally retarded workers, independent of IQ, sex and age. Unlike other instruments, the VARS offers a profile of social behavior in a vocational context. PMID:7168570

  6. A relationship between indigenous impurity elements and protective oxide scale adherence characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeggil, J. G.; Funkenbusch, A. W.; Bornstein, N. S.

    1986-06-01

    A new and a radically different mechanism to account for the beneficial effects that small additions of elements such as yttrium have on the adherence of oxide scales is proposed. It has been long:known and has been reaffirmed here that indigenous impurities such as sulfur, known to be present at tramp levels (<100 ppm) within nickel and nickel-based alloys, can segregate to metal surfaces. However, here it has been disclosed that such sulfur segregation can also markedly affect the adherence of the protective oxide scale. In the absence of elements like yttrium, such segregation effects weaken the bond between the protective scale and the substrate metal. The role of the yttrium is to interact with such indigenous sulfur to form a refractory sulfide. This interaction lessens the amount of sulfur available to segregate to and concentrate at the critical scale-metal interface. Results reported here have focused on sulfur because sulfur has been long known to be a common tramp impurity in nickel and nickel-based alloys. However other elements, e.g., phosphorus, chlorine, etc., could very probably produce similar effects. The results of experiments involving Auger spectroscopy, optical, scanning electron microscopy, scanning electron microprobe, and scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques in conjunction with isothermal and cyclic oxidation testing which have led us to propose this mechanism are presented.

  7. Accuracy of patient-reported adherence to glaucoma medications on a visual analog scale as compared with electronic monitors

    PubMed Central

    Sayner, Robyn; Carpenter, Delesha M.; Blalock, Susan J.; Robin, Alan L.; Muir, Kelly W.; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Giangiacomo, Annette L.; Tudor, Gail; Sleath, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Glaucoma medications can reduce intraocular pressure and improve clinical outcomes when patients adhere to their medication regimen. Providers often ask glaucoma patients to self-report their adherence, but the accuracy of this self-report method has received little scientific attention. Our purpose was to compare a self-report medication adherence measure with adherence data collected from Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS) electronic monitors. Additionally, we sought to identify which patient characteristics were associated with over-reporting adherence on the self-reported measure. Methods English-speaking adult glaucoma patients were recruited for this observational cohort study from six ophthalmology practices. Patients were interviewed immediately after a baseline medical visit and were given MEMS containers, which were used to record adherence over a 60-day period. MEMS data were used to calculate percent adherence, which measured the percentage of the prescribed number of doses taken, and timing adherence, which assessed the percent doses taken on time. Patients self-reported adherence to their glaucoma medications on a visual analog scale (VAS) approximately 60 days following the baseline visit. Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Self-reported medication adherence on the VAS was plotted against MEMS adherence to illustrate the level of discrepancy between self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence. Findings The analyses included 240 patients who returned their MEMS containers and who self-reported medication adherence at the 60-day follow-up visit. When compared with MEMS-measured percent adherence, 31% of patients (n=75) over-estimated their adherence on the VAS. When compared with MEMS-measured timing adherence, 74% (n=177) of patients over-estimated their adherence on the VAS. For the MEMS-measured percent adherence, logistic regression revealed that patients who were newly prescribed

  8. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  9. Rates and Predictors of Adherence to Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah L.; Carpenter, Laura; Leslie, R. Scott; Hunt, Kelly S.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Charles, Jane; Nicholas, Joyce S.

    2014-01-01

    Medication adherence in children is poor, particularly among those with chronic or mental health disorders. However, adherence has not been fully assessed in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The validated proportion of days covered method was used to quantify adherence to psychotropic medication in Medicaid-eligible children who met diagnostic…

  10. Is There an Association between STARD Statement Adherence and Citation Rate?

    PubMed

    Dilauro, Marc; McInnes, Matthew D F; Korevaar, Daniël A; van der Pol, Christian B; Petrcich, William; Walther, Stefan; Quon, Jeffrey; Kurowecki, Darya; Bossuyt, Patrick M M

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To determine if adherence to the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) is associated with postpublication citation rates. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases was performed to identify published articles that have evaluated adherence of diagnostic accuracy studies to the STARD statement. These were included if the number of STARD items reported ("STARD result") could be obtained for each evaluated study. The date of publication, journal impact factor, and citation rate (citations per day) were extracted for the diagnostic accuracy studies. Univariate correlations were performed to identify any association between STARD result, impact factor, and citation rate. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to explore the effect of impact factor on postpublication citation rates. Results The authors were able to obtain the STARD results for 1002 "original" diagnostic accuracy studies from eight different "STARD evaluation" articles. The median impact factor was 3.97 (interquartile range [IQR]: 2.32-6.21), the median STARD result was 15 of 25 items (IQR: 12-18), and the median citation rate was 0.007 citations per day (IQR: 0.0032-0.017). The authors identified a weak positive correlation between STARD result and citation rate (r = 0.096; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.034, 0.157), a moderate positive correlation between impact factor and citation rate (r = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.535, 0.617), and a weak positive correlation between impact factor and STARD result (r = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.064, 0.186). Multivariate analysis accounting for journal clustering effects revealed that, when impact factor is partialed out, the positive correlation between citation rate and STARD result does not persist (r = 0.029; 95% CI: -0.033, 0.091). Conclusion There is a positive correlation between completeness of reporting, as evaluated with STARD, and citation rate as well as impact factor. When adjusted for

  11. Effects of pressure and temperature on the survival rate of adherent A-172 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, Ryo; Kushida, Ryo; Ishii, Shiwori; Yamanoha, Banri; Shimizu, Akio

    2013-06-01

    Preservation of cells under high pressure is an important alternative to cryopreservation. We studied the effect of temperature (4, 25, 37°C) and pressure (0.1-350 MPa) on the survival rate of A-172 glioblastoma cells. The survival rate was not changed by brief (10 min) pressurization of up to 150 MPa, but the survival rate began to decrease from 150 MPa, and most of the A-172 cells died when treated with over 200 MPa. Lengthy pressurization (4 days) at lower pressure (upto 20.1 MPa) without medium exchange showed complex results. The survival rate of cells preserved at 25°C showed two maxima at 1.6 and 20.1 MPa. After preservation, cells adhered and proliferated in the same way as normal cells when cultured at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. The other two temperatures, 4° and 37°C, showed no maximum survival rate. Therefore, a high survival rate can be maintained with high pressure treatment.

  12. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  13. The Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS): Concurrent Validity Using a Clinical Measure among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Morisky, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a prevalent problem worldwide but up to today, no gold standard is available to assess such behavior. This study was to evaluate the psychometric properties, particularly the concurrent validity of the English version of the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS) among people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. Individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 21 years and above, using at least one anti-diabetes agent and could communicate in English were recruited. The MALMAS was compared with the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess its convergent validity while concurrent validity was evaluated based on the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Participants answered the MALMAS twice: at baseline and 4 weeks later. The study involved 136 participants. The MALMAS achieved acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.565) and stable reliability as the test-retest scores showed fair correlation (Spearman’s rho=0.412). The MALMAS has good correlation with the MMAS-8 (Spearman’s rho=0.715). Participants who were adherent to their anti-diabetes medications had significantly lower median HbA1C values than those who were non-adherence (7.90 versus 8.55%, p=0.032). The odds of participants who were adherent to their medications achieving good glycemic control was 3.36 times (95% confidence interval: 1.09-10.37) of those who were non-adherence. This confirms the concurrent validity of the MALMAS. The sensitivity of the MALMAS was 88.9% while its specificity was 29.6%. The findings of this study further substantiates the reliability and validity of the MALMAS, in particular its concurrent validity and sensitivity for assessing medication adherence of people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. PMID:25909363

  14. A Patient Education Program to Improve Adherence Rates with Antituberculosis Drug Regimens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morisky, Donald E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An incentive scheme to reward positive health behaviors (adherence to antituberculosis drug regimens) was tested with 88 active and 117 preventive patients randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Preventive patients who received incentives were significantly more likely to continue care and had higher adherence levels. Actives showed…

  15. Psychological factors predict adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis; findings from a systematic review of rates, predictors and associations with patient-reported and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, James; Barton, Anne; Hyrich, Kimme L; Cordingley, Lis; Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment response to methotrexate (MTX) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not universal and non-adherence may partially explain this. The aims of this systematic review were to: (1) summarise existing rates of adherence to MTX, (2) identify predictors of adherence to MTX, and (3) assess the association between non-adherence and patient outcomes. The authors conducted a systematic search of papers published from January 1980 to February 2015 in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: (1) MTX was used as monotherapy or in combination with other therapies, (2) MTX was used in an RA or inflammatory polyarthritis population, (3) adherence was defined and measured as the extent to which patients followed their MTX regimen during the period of prescription, and (4) it was an original piece of research. In total, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and 8 were evaluated as high quality. Rates of adherence ranged from 59% to 107%, and exposed differences in definitions of adherence, study methodologies and sample heterogeneity. A number of potential predictors of MTX adherence were identified; the strongest being related to beliefs in the necessity and efficacy of MTX, absence of low mood, mild disease and MTX monotherapy. Furthermore, 3 studies tested the association of adherence with disease activity as an outcome measure; all 3 found non-adherence associated with poor treatment response. This systematic review shows the importance of adherence to MTX treatment and summarises the associated modifiable factors. PMID:26848403

  16. Validation of the Persian Version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in Iranian Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Moharamzad, Yashar; Saadat, Habibollah; Nakhjavan Shahraki, Babak; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Morisky, Donald E

    2015-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was assessed in a sample of Iranian hypertensive patients. In this multi-center study which lasted from August to October 2014, a total of 200 patients who were suffering from hypertension (HTN) and were taking anti-hypertensive medication(s) were included. The cases were accessed through private and university health centers in the cities of Tehran, Karaj, Kermanshah, and Bafgh in Iran and were interviewed face-to-face by the research team. The validated Persian translation of the MMAS-8 was provided by the owner of this scale. This scale contains 7 questions with "Yes" or "No" response choices and an additional Likert-type question (totally 8 questions). The total score ranges from 0 to 8 with higher scores reflecting better medication adherence. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.57 (±1.86). There were 108 (54%), 62 (31%), and 30 (15%) patients in the low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Internal consistency was acceptable with an overall Cronbach's ? coefficient of 0.697 and test-retest reliability showed good reproducibility (r= 0.940); P< 0.001. Overall score of the MMAS-8 was significantly correlated with systolic BP (r= - 0.306) and diastolic BP (r= - 0.279) with P< 0.001 for both BP measurements. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between adherence level and BP control (P= 0.016). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the scale were 92.8%, 22.3%, 52.9%, and 76.7%, respectively. The Persian version of the MMAS had acceptable reliability and validity in Iranian hypertensive patients. This scale can be used as a standard and reliable tool in future studies to determine medication adherence of Persian-speaking patients with chronic conditions. PMID:25946926

  17. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  18. Scaling up human papillomavirus vaccination: a conceptual framework of vaccine adherence

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ingrid T.; Ware, Norma C.; Gray, Glenda; Haberer, Jessica E.; Mellins, Claude A.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    This review article provides a conceptual framework for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance and adherence, with a focus on improving understanding of the sociocultural factors impacting vaccine adherence behaviour. We include a systematic review of the slowly expanding literature on HPV vaccine acceptability and uptake in developed nations, as well as the relatively few publications from poorer nations, where more than 80% of global cervical cancer related deaths occur and where the vaccine will probably have the largest impact. We suggest that this conceptual framework will not only improve our understanding of HPV vaccine uptake and adherence, but it may also guide future sociobehavioural research geared towards improving adherence to the HPV vaccine and other multi-step vaccines in a young population at risk for sexually transmissible infections. PMID:20719215

  19. [Strategies for measuring medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfang; Huang, Zhiping; Xu, Dong; Gong, Wenjie; Tang, Yuan; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Long-term therapy should be administrated for patients with schizophrenia and the medication adherence is very important for the prognosis and outcome in these patients. In this study, we screened the literatures from various databases in accordance with our search criteria. A total of 11 literatures with the results of reliability and validity regarding the measurement of schizophrenia medication adherence were enrolled in our analysis. Based on the measurements, they were classified into subjective methods and objective ones. The objective methods include blood plasma and urine concentrations, pharmacy records, pill counts and Medication Event Monitoring System. The subjective methods include Drug Attitude Inventory, Rating of Medication Influences Scale, Brief Evaluation of Medication Influences and Beliefs, the Brief Adherence Rating Scale, Medication Adherence Rating Scale, and Morisky scales. In general, single method for measuring medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia is limited. We recommend researchers to use 2 or more methods when measuring the medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26932222

  20. Development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyn, Eddy H.

    2004-01-01

    The present study described the development of the Mentor Behaviour Rating Scale. In the Dutch secondary educational system, the mentor is a teacher responsible for individual students' academic and socio-emotional progress throughout the academic year. In order to assess the mentor behaviours conducive to pupils' acceptance levels of their…

  1. Expectations of Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rick; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are no better or worse than other methods when assessed on a quantitative basis but have greater potential when assessed on use and qualitative criteria. Suggestions are offered for extending BARS research to process questions and domains other than performance appraisal. (Author)

  2. Reliability Generalization for Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidbord, Jonathan; Croudace, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a popular behavior-observation instrument that was developed more than 34 years ago and has since been adopted in a wide variety of contexts for assessing the presence and severity of autism symptomatology in both children and adolescents. This investigation of the reliability of CARS scores involves…

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (2nd Edition): Youth Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Mooney, Paul; Ryser, Gail; Pierce, Corey D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reports findings of three studies addressing convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition (BERS-2). Method: Pearson product-moment correlations were used in all three studies, the first two addressing convergent validity and the third…

  4. Modeling Randomness in Judging Rating Scales with a Random-Effects Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the random-effects rating scale model (RE-RSM) which takes into account randomness in the thresholds over persons by treating them as random-effects and adding a random variable for each threshold in the rating scale model (RSM) (Andrich, 1978). The RE-RSM turns out to be a special case of the multidimensional random…

  5. Reliability and Validity of the "Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale" and the "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating scale (Eaves, 2003) and the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (Gilliam, 1995) were investigated in this study. One hundred thirty-four individuals with autism, other pervasive developmental disorders, or conditions frequently confused with autism participated in the study. The…

  6. Validation of the Persian Version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in Iranian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moharamzad, Yashar; Saadat, Habibollah; Shahraki, Babak Nakhjavan; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Morisky, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was assessed in a sample of Iranian hypertensive patients. In this multi-center study which lasted from August to October 2014, a total of 200 patients who were suffering from hypertension (HTN) and were taking anti-hypertensive medication(s) were included. The cases were accessed through private and university health centers in the cities of Tehran, Karaj, Kermanshah, and Bafgh in Iran and were interviewed face-to-face by the research team. The validated Persian translation of the MMAS-8 was provided by the owner of this scale. This scale contains 7 questions with “Yes” or “No” response choices and an additional Likert-type question (totally 8 questions). The total score ranges from 0 to 8 with higher scores reflecting better medication adherence. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.57 (±1.86). There were 108 (54%), 62 (31%), and 30 (15%) patients in the low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Internal consistency was acceptable with an overall Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.697 and test–retest reliability showed good reproducibility (r= 0.940); P< 0.001. Overall score of the MMAS-8 was significantly correlated with systolic BP (r= - 0.306) and diastolic BP (r= - 0.279) with P< 0.001 for both BP measurements. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between adherence level and BP control (P= 0.016). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the scale were 92.8%, 22.3%, 52.9%, and 76.7%, respectively. The Persian version of the MMAS had acceptable reliability and validity in Iranian hypertensive patients. This scale can be used as a standard and reliable tool in future studies to determine medication adherence of Persian-speaking patients with chronic conditions. PMID:25946926

  7. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417

  8. Severity rating scales for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lange, W R

    1993-06-01

    Severity of ciguatera fish poisoning is often quite variable. Two symptom check list rating scales were developed for quantifying illness severity and for selectively monitoring response to therapy in patients with chronic toxicity. Content validity was ascertained, and internal consistency reliability was demonstrated by means of the Cronbach alpha correlation coefficient (alpha = 0.9475). It was concluded that these instruments were valid and reliable, and that they conveniently and accurately recorded illness severity and treatment efficacy. They should prove useful in clinical settings and epidemiologic investigations. PMID:8342175

  9. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  10. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  11. Lethality of Suicide Attempt Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents an 11-point scale for measuring the degree of lethality of suicide attempts. The scale has nine example "anchors" and uses the relative lethality of an extensive table of drugs. The scale can be used reliably by nonmedical personnel with no prior training. (Author/BL)

  12. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  13. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  14. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  15. Development of a new diabetes medication self-efficacy scale and its association with both reported problems in using diabetes medications and self-reported adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Blalock, Susan J; Davis, Scott A; Hickson, Ryan P; Lee, Charles; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Scott, Jennifer E; Rodebaugh, Lisa B; Cummings, Doyle M

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there are several different general diabetes self-efficacy scales, there is a need to develop a self-efficacy scale that providers can use to assess patient’s self-efficacy regarding medication use. The purpose of this study was to: 1) develop a new diabetes medication self-efficacy scale and 2) examine how diabetes medication self-efficacy is associated with patient-reported problems in using diabetes medications and self-reported adherence. Patients and methods Adult English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a family medicine clinic and a pharmacy in Eastern North Carolina, USA. The patients were eligible if they reported being nonadherent to their diabetes medicines on a visual analog scale. Multivariable regression was used to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and the number of reported diabetes medication problems and adherence. Results The diabetes medication self-efficacy scale had strong reliability (Cronbach’s alpha =0.86). Among a sample (N=51) of mostly African-American female patients, diabetes medication problems were common (6.1±3.1) and a greater number of diabetes medications were associated with lower medication adherence (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.89). Higher medication self-efficacy was significantly related to medication adherence (odds ratio: 1.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.30) and inversely related to the number of self-reported medication problems (β=−0.13; P=0.006). Conclusion Higher diabetes medication self-efficacy was associated with fewer patient-reported medication problems and better medication adherence. Assessing medication-specific self-efficacy may help to identify medication-related problems that providers can help the patients address, potentially improving adherence and patient outcomes. PMID:27354769

  16. Rating Scale Analysis with Latent Class Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Jurgen

    1988-01-01

    A general approach for analyzing rating data with latent class models is described, paralleling rating models in the framework of latent trait theory. A general rating model and a two-parameter model with location and dispersion parameters are derived and illustrated. (Author/SLD)

  17. Determinants of methotrexate adherence in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Ellen; De Gucht, Veronique; Maes, Stan; Van Camp, Yoleen; De Clerck, Luc S

    2016-05-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, weekly intake of methotrexate (MTX) is the basic drug treatment. This observational study aims to investigate how many RA patients are adherent in terms of MTX intake and to identify determinants of non-adherence. Intake of MTX (orally or via injection) was recorded in 129 RA patients with an electronic monitoring system (MEMS(®)) during 16 weeks. In addition, two adherence questionnaires, the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) and the Compliance-Questionnaire-Rheumatology (CQR) as well as a visual analogue scale (VAS) measuring MTX adherence, were administered to these patients. As possible determinants of adherence, data on demographics, disease and treatment characteristics, depression, illness cognitions, motivation, and social support were collected. Of all participants, 58 % were fully adherent and 75 % skipped at most one dose during 16 weeks. A better mental health status and suffering from comorbidities had a positive effect on adherence, while living alone had a negative effect. These three predictors explained 30 % of the variance in MTX adherence. Of the three self-report medication adherence measures, the VAS correlated the highest with the results of the electronic monitoring system (r = 0.552, p = 0.01). A relatively high adherence rate was observed in RA patients treated with MTX. The determinants identified by this study could be used to screen patients at risk for non-adherence. A simple VAS scale seems to be an acceptable way for a preliminary screening of MTX adherence. PMID:26781783

  18. The brief scale for anxiety: a subdivision of the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale.

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, P; Owen, R T; Cicchetti, D V

    1984-01-01

    A rating scale suitable for recording anxious symptoms is described. It is a subdivision of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and comprises 10 items, all of which are rated on a 7 point scale. It is suitable for the rating of pathological anxiety alone or for anxiety occurring in the setting of other psychological or medical disorder. PMID:6481391

  19. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  20. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor analysis…

  1. RATE OF ADHERENCE TO AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH METHADONE MAINTENANCE TREATMENT PROGRAM (MMTP) COMPLIANCE AMONG INJECTING DRUG USE PATIENTS IN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Chamroonswasdi, Kanittha; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine the rate of adherence to and factors associated with compliance with a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) among injecting drug users in Nepal. We conducted face-to-face structured interviews with 165 methadone treatment patients aged 20-54 years during 5-20 April 2015. Data analysis included percentages, means, standard deviations, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Seventy-two point one percent of respondents had good adherence to a MMTP. Multiple logistic regression with 81.8% prediction showed respondents without a previous history of relapse were 2.7 times more likely to adhere to the MMTP than those with a history of relapse [Adjusted OR = 2.772; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.163-6.605]. Respondents with a good knowledge of the MMTP 9.4 times more likely to be adherent to the MMTP than those with a poor to fair knowledge of the MMTP (Adjusted OR = 9.464; 95% CI: 3.873-23.126). The likelihood of MMTP adherence was 4.5 times more likely when methadone treatment services were available than those where the availability of methadone treatment services were low to moderate (Adjusted OR = 4.553; 95% CI: 1.883-11.008). Knowledge and availability of MMTP need to be improved in the study area in Nepal. PMID:27244967

  2. Measuring Cognitive Load with Subjective Rating Scales during Problem Solving: Differences between Immediate and Delayed Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeck, Annett; Opfermann, Maria; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Leutner, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Subjective cognitive load (CL) rating scales are widely used in educational research. However, there are still some open questions regarding the point of time at which such scales should be applied. Whereas some studies apply rating scales directly after each step or task and use an average of these ratings, others assess CL only once after the…

  3. A mobile application improves therapy-adherence rates in elderly patients undergoing rehabilitation: A crossover design study comparing documentation via iPad with paper-based control.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Alexander; Brandl, Christopher; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Schlick, Christopher; Neumann, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Meister, Sven; Diamantidis, Clarissa Jonas; Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Horn, Peter; Becker, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medication adherence is crucial for success in the management of patients with chronic conditions. This study analyzes whether a mobile application on a tablet aimed at supporting drug intake and vital sign parameter documentation affects adherence in elderly patients.Patients with coronary heart disease and no prior knowledge of tablet computers were recruited. They received a personal introduction to the mobile application Medication Plan, installed on an Apple iPad. The study was conducted using a crossover design with 3 sequences: initial phase, interventional phase (28 days of using the app system), and comparative phase (28 days of using a paper diary). Users experienced the interventional and comparative phases alternately.A total of 24 patients (12 males; mean age 73.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean for subjectively assessed adherence (A14-scale; 5-point Likert scale, from "never" to "very often" which results in a score from 0 to 56) before the study was 50.0 (SD = 3.44). After both interventions there was a significant increase, which was more pronounced after the interventional phase (54.0; SD = 2.01) than after the comparative phase (52.6; SD = 2.49) (for all pairs after both interventions, P <0.001). Neither medical conditions nor the number of drug intake (amount and frequency of drug taking) per day affected subjective adherence. Logging data showed a significantly stronger adherence for the medication app than the paper system for both blood pressure recordings (P <0.001) and medication intake (P = 0.033). The majority of participants (n = 22) stated that they would like to use the medication app in their daily lives and would not need further assistance with the app.A mobile app for medication adherence increased objectively and subjectively measured adherence in elderly users undergoing rehabilitation. The findings have promising clinical implications: digital tools can assist chronic disease patients achieve adherence to

  4. Assessing the Adherence to Guidelines of Media Reporting of Suicide Using a Novel Instrument--the "Risk of Imitative Suicide Scale" (RISc).

    PubMed

    Nutt, Rachel; Kidd, Brian; Matthews, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Media guidelines for reporting of suicide are considered important in suicide prevention because of the risk of "imitative" suicide. There are currently no established tools for the quantification of quality of reporting. We sought to develop and validate a quality assessment instrument-the Risk of Imitative Suicide Scale (RISc). The RISc appears capable of discriminating reliably between adherent and nonadherent articles. Our data suggest that adherence to guidelines is inconsistent, and there are major differences between web-based and print media. The RISc could be used to evaluate effectiveness and consistency of media engagement with suicide prevention strategies. PMID:25382433

  5. Symptom severity, self-reported adherence, and electronic pill monitoring in poorly adherent patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Levin, Jennifer; Sams, Johnny; Cassidy, Kristin A; Akagi, Kouri; Aebi, Michelle E; Ramirez, Luis F; Safren, Steven A; Tatsuoka, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This analysis of screening and baseline data from an ongoing trial examined self-report versus automated adherence monitoring and assessed the relationship between bipolar disorder (BD) symptoms and adherence in 104 poorly adherent individuals. Methods Adherence was measured with the Tablets Routine Questionnaire (TRQ) and the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Symptoms were measured with the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Results Mean age of the sample was 46.3 years [standard deviation (SD) = 9.41], with 72% (n = 75) women and 71% (n = 74) African American subjects. Adherence improved from screening to baseline with a mean missed drug proportion measured by TRQ of 61.43% (SD = 26.48) versus baseline mean of 46.61% (SD = 30.55). Mean proportion of missed medication using MEMS at baseline was 66.43% (SD = 30.40). Correlation between TRQ and MEMS was 0.47. Correlation between a single index drug and all BD medications was 0.95. Symptoms were generally positively correlated with TRQ (worse adherence = more severe symptoms), but in most instances was only at a trend level (p > 0.05) with the exception of correlation between baseline TRQ and MADRS and BPRS, which were positive (r = 0.20 and r = 0.21, respectively) and significant (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions In patients with BD, monitoring increased adherence by 15%. MEMS identified 20% more non-adherence than self-report. Using a standard procedure to identify a single index drug for adherence monitoring may be one way to assess global adherence in patients with BD receiving polypharmacy treatment. Greater BD symptom severity may be a clinical indicator to assess for adherence problems. PMID:26529124

  6. Heterogeneity among studies in rates of decline of ART adherence over time: Results from the MACH14 study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Shen, Jie; Simoni, Jane M.; Reynolds, Nancy R.; Goggin, Kathy; Gross, Robert; Arnsten, Julia H.; Remien, Robert H.; Erlen, Judith A.; Liu, Honghu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use electronic drug monitoring to determine if adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy changes over time, whether changes are linear, and how the declines vary by study. Design We conducted a longitudinal study of pooled data from 11 different studies of HIV infected adults using antiretroviral therapy. The main outcome was antiretroviral therapy adherence (percent of prescribed doses taken) measured by electronic drug monitoring. We modeled and compared changes in adherence over time using repeated measures linear mixed effects models and generalized additive mixed models. Indicator variables were used to examine the impact of individual studies, and the variation across studies was evaluated using study-specific parameter estimates calculated by using interaction terms of study and time. Results The mean age of the subjects was 41 years, 35% were female, most had high school education or less, and 46% were African-American. In generalized additive mixed models, adherence declined over time. The generalized additive mixed models further suggested that the decline was non-linear, and in both sets of models there was considerable study-to-study variability in how adherence changed over time. Limitations Findings may not be generalizable to non-US populations or to patients not in clinical studies. Conclusions Although overall antiretroviral therapy adherence declined with time, not all studies showed declines, and a number of patterns of change were seen. Studies that identify clinical and organizational factors associated with these different patterns are needed. Models of changes in adherence with time should take account of possible non-linear effects. PMID:24225904

  7. Decision tree rating scales for workload estimation: Theme and variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale which is a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks was examined. The study determined if variations of the scale might provide greater sensitivity and the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were examined in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. It is indicated that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent senstivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The MCH scale results are consistent with earlier experiments. The rating scale experiments are reported and the questionnaire results which were directed to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  8. Decision Tree Rating Scales for Workload Estimation: Theme and Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wietwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks. The MCH scale was examined to determine if certain variations of the scale might provide even greater sensitivity and to determine the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were studied in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. Results indicate that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent sensitivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The results of the rating scale experiments are presented and the questionnaire results which were directed at obtaining a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  9. The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…

  10. Sensitivity of School-Performance Ratings to Scaling Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng; Koretz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers usually leave decisions about scaling the scores used for accountability to their appointed technical advisory committees and the testing contractors. However, scaling decisions can have an appreciable impact on school ratings. Using middle-school data from New York State, we examined the consistency of school ratings based on two…

  11. Development and Validation of the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Several rating scales for measuring externalizing problems in children are inconsistent with widely used diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD). The Conduct Disorder Rating Scale (CDRS) was developed to provide valid measures of CD in children age 5 to 12 years. In Study 1, the CDRS was evaluated in a community sample of 1,554 children.…

  12. Factor Analytic Composition of the Geriatric Rating Scale (GRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Ambulatory geriatric patients (N=370) were rated on the Geriatric Rating Scale and results factor analyzed. The scale was found to be composed of three factors: Withdrawal/Apathy, Antisocial Disruptive Behavior, and Deficits in Activities of Daily Living. The results help explain some of the findings regarding sex differences in previous research.…

  13. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  14. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  15. Critical Scale Invariance in a Healthy Human Heart Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Sakata, Seiichiro; Hayano, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-10-01

    We demonstrate the robust scale-invariance in the probability density function (PDF) of detrended healthy human heart rate increments, which is preserved not only in a quiescent condition, but also in a dynamic state where the mean level of the heart rate is dramatically changing. This scale-independent and fractal structure is markedly different from the scale-dependent PDF evolution observed in a turbulentlike, cascade heart rate model. These results strongly support the view that a healthy human heart rate is controlled to converge continually to a critical state.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Rating Scales with a Brief Review of the "Connors Teacher Rating Scale" (1998)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Matthew, McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) definition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) (ADHD). The use of rating scales to diagnose ADHD was evaluated. Rating scales have been used since the 1970s and are highly influential in the detection of ADHD…

  17. Rethinking adherence.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John F

    2012-10-16

    In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will introduce measures of adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs into its Medicare Advantage quality program. To meet these quality goals, delivery systems will need to develop and disseminate strategies to improve adherence. The design of adherence interventions has too often been guided by the mistaken assumptions that adherence is a single behavior that can be predicted from readily available patient characteristics and that individual clinicians alone can improve adherence at the population level.Effective interventions require recognition that adherence is a set of interacting behaviors influenced by individual, social, and environmental forces; adherence interventions must be broadly based, rather than targeted to specific population subgroups; and counseling with a trusted clinician needs to be complemented by outreach interventions and removal of structural and organizational barriers. To achieve the adherence goals set by CMS, front-line clinicians, interdisciplinary teams, organizational leaders, and policymakers will need to coordinate efforts in ways that exemplify the underlying principles of health care reform. PMID:23070491

  18. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  19. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Michio; Usami, Eiseki; Iwai, Mina; Nakao, Toshiya; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Mori, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21-85 years) and 73 years (range, 30-90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3-3,585 days) and 219 days (24-3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4-5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117

  20. Oral anticancer agent medication adherence by outpatients

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, MICHIO; USAMI, EISEKI; IWAI, MINA; NAKAO, TOSHIYA; YOSHIMURA, TOMOAKI; MORI, HIROMI; SUGIYAMA, TADASHI; TERAMACHI, HITOMI

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, medication adherence and factors affecting adherence were examined in patients taking oral anticancer agents. In June 2013, 172 outpatients who had been prescribed oral anticancer agents by Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Gifu, Japan) completed a questionnaire survey, with answers rated on a five-point Likert scale. The factors that affect medication adherence were evaluated using a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis. For patients with good and insufficient adherence to medication, the median ages were 66 years (range, 21–85 years) and 73 years (range, 30–90 years), respectively (P=0.0004), while the median dosing time was 131 days (range, 3–3,585 days) and 219 days (24–3,465 days), respectively (P=0.0447). In 36.0% (62 out of 172) of the cases, there was insufficient medication adherence; 64.5% of those cases (40 out of 62) showed good medication compliance (4–5 point rating score). However, these patients did not fully understand the effects or side-effects of the drugs, giving a score of three points or less. The percentage of patients with good medication compliance was 87.2% (150 out of 172). Through the CS analysis, three items, the interest in the drug, the desire to consult about the drug and the condition of the patient, were extracted as items for improvement. Overall, the medication compliance of the patients taking the oral anticancer agents was good, but the medication adherence was insufficient. To improve medication adherence, a better understanding of the effectiveness and necessity of drugs and their side-effects is required. In addition, the interest of patients in their medication should be encouraged and intervention should be tailored to the condition of the patient. These steps should lead to improved medication adherence. PMID:25295117

  1. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  2. K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…

  3. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  4. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  5. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  6. Self-Control in Children: Development of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Wilcox, Lance E.

    1979-01-01

    Referred children were rated as significantly less self-controlled on the self control rating scale (SCRS) than were matched nonreferred children. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures test latencies and behavioral observations. The SCRS appeared to be a reliable and valid index of self-control. (Author)

  7. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  8. Universal temperature and body-mass scaling of feeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Björn C.; Brose, Ulrich; Hartvig, Martin; Kalinkat, Gregor; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Petchey, Owen L.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of feeding rates is the basis to understand interaction strength and subsequently the stability of ecosystems and biodiversity. Feeding rates, as all biological rates, depend on consumer and resource body masses and environmental temperature. Despite five decades of research on functional responses as quantitative models of feeding rates, a unifying framework of how they scale with body masses and temperature is still lacking. This is perplexing, considering that the strength of functional responses (i.e. interaction strengths) is crucially important for the stability of simple consumer–resource systems and the persistence, sustainability and biodiversity of complex communities. Here, we present the largest currently available database on functional response parameters and their scaling with body mass and temperature. Moreover, these data are integrated across ecosystems and metabolic types of species. Surprisingly, we found general temperature dependencies that differed from the Arrhenius terms predicted by metabolic models. Additionally, the body-mass-scaling relationships were more complex than expected and differed across ecosystems and metabolic types. At local scales (taxonomically narrow groups of consumer–resource pairs), we found hump-shaped deviations from the temperature and body-mass-scaling relationships. Despite the complexity of our results, these body-mass- and temperature-scaling models remain useful as a mechanistic basis for predicting the consequences of warming for interaction strengths, population dynamics and network stability across communities differing in their size structure. PMID:23007080

  9. The Effects of Adherence to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Factors Influencing Drug Adherence in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of knee osteoarthritis patients according to drug adherence; and to find out the factors the affecting those outcomes. We analyzed the drug adherence and clinical outcomes in 1,334 primary knee osteoarthritis patients who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for 3 weeks. Clinical outcomes of Pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and EQ-5D were compared at baseline and 3 weeks’ follow-up between the two groups of adherent group and non-adherent group (1,167 vs. 167 patients). Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors affecting the adherence, and the reasons for the non-adherence were asked. The follow-up clinical outcomes of NRS and KOOS symptom, pain and activity of daily life were significantly higher in the adherence group (P = 0.003, P = 0.048, P = 0.005, and P = 0.003, respectively). The adherence was better in the elderly and in the male group (P = 0.042 and P = 0.034, respectively) and the top reason for no strict adherence was “symptom improved” (21.5%) followed by side effects. In this study, the patients with better adherence to NSAIDs showed better outcomes compared to those with poor adherence. This study can contribute to the patient education for the pharmacological treatment in knee OA patients. PMID:27134504

  10. Critical scaling with strain rate in overdamped sheared disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Joel; Salerno, Kenneth; Robbins, Mark

    In the limit of quasistatic shear, disordered solids demonstrate non-equilibrium critical behavior including power-law distributions of avalanches. Using molecular dynamics simulations of 2D and 3D overdamped binary LJ glasses, we explore the critical behavior in the limit of finite strain rate. We use finite-size scaling to find the critical exponents characterizing shear stress, kinetic energy, and measures of temporal and spatial correlations. The shear stress of the system rises as a power β of the strain rate. Larger system size extends this power law to lower rates. This behavior is governed by a power law drop of the dynamic correlation length with increasing shear stress defined by the exponent ν. This finite-size effect also impacts the scaling of the RMS kinetic energy with strain rate as avalanches begin nucleating simultaneously leading to continuous deformation of the solid. As system size increases, avalanches begin overlapping at lower rates. The correlation function of non-affine displacement exhibits novel anisotropic power law scaling with the magnitude of the wave vector. Its strain rate dependence is used to determine the scaling of the dynamic correlation length. Support provided by: DMR-1006805; NSF IGERT-0801471; OCI-0963185; CMMI-0923018.

  11. Adherence with Electronic Monitoring and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jaewon; Yoon, Byung-Moon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study was to compare electronic monitoring with other measures of adherence to Osmotic-controlled Release Oral delivery System methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The secondary aim was to analyze the relationships between adherence and clinical factors, including ADHD symptoms. Methods Thirty-nine children diagnosed with ADHD were monitored for adherence to medication over the course of eight weeks. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), which is a bottle cap with a microprocessor that records all instances and times that the bottle is opened; patient self-report; clinician rating; and pill count. Information, including demographic and clinical characteristics, symptom rating scale, and psychological test results, were also collected. The relationships between adherence and clinical factors, including ADHD rating scores of baseline and of the changes, were assessed. Results The rate of non-adherence measured by the MEMS was found to be 46.2%, which was considerably higher than those of the patient self-report (17.9%), clinician rating (31.7%), and pill count (12.8%) of non-adherence. The rate of adherence measured by the MEMS was not significantly associated with baseline symptom severity or symptom changes over the eight weeks, although non-adherent group showed more severe baseline symptoms and inferior improvement. Conclusion Adherence as measured by the MEMS showed a discrepancy with other measures of adherence in patients with ADHD. The symptom severity and level of improvement were not related to adherence with MEMS. Further studies are needed to evaluate the variables that may impact medication adherence in children with ADHD. PMID:22993526

  12. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J., III; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  13. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A G; Ghanbarian, B; Skinner, T E; Ewing, R P

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture. PMID:26232976

  14. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. G.; Ghanbarian, B.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture.

  15. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  16. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  17. A Comparison of the Counselor Rating Form and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1982-01-01

    Compared two measures of perceived counselor expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness: the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS). Results showed expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness as measured by both instruments are not independent and are components of a single dimension of perceived…

  18. Concordance Rates between Parent and Teacher Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Observational Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Jacqueline; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; Wolfson, Virginia; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that early identification of children with language issues is critical for effective intervention, and yet many children are not identified until school age. The use of parent-completed rating scales, especially in urban, minority populations, might improve early identification if parent ratings are found to be…

  19. Making Long-Lasting Changes with the Environment Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma

    2010-01-01

    An assessment with the Environment Rating Scales (ERS) is designed to give early childhood administrators and teaching staff much more than a set of quality scores. Appropriately used, an ERS assessment can provide a blueprint for planning and carrying out both immediate and long-range program improvements. Unfortunately, programs often complete…

  20. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  1. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  2. Factor Structure Evaluation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magyar, Caroline I.; Pandolfi, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Principal components analysis (PCA) and principal axis factor analysis (PAF) evaluated archival data from children presenting to a university clinic with suspected autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; N = 164). PCA did not replicate components identified by…

  3. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  4. Mixed Rasch Modeling of the Self-Rating Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Min, Sae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mixed Rasch modeling was used on the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), a widely used measure of depression, among a non-Western sample of 618 Korean college students. The results revealed three latent classes and confirmed the unidimensionality of the SDS. In addition, there was a significant effect for gender in terms of class…

  5. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  6. Rate-dependent scaling laws for spall failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Justin; Ramesh, Kt

    Here we derive simple bounds on the growth rate of voids considering the combined retarding effects of micro-inertia and dislocation kinetics. We make use of these bounds to derive simple scaling laws capable of predicting the strong rate-dependence of spall strength. We show that the rate-sensitivity exponent for spall strength is bounded to below 6/7 when micro-inertia is the dominant retarding effect on void growth. However, under conditions in which the void growth is predominately governed by dislocation kinetics the rate-sensitivity exponent may rise to a maximum value of 1. With these scaling laws in hand, we go on to further explore the role of microstructure on spall strength. Though simple, the derived scaling laws compare well with experimental measurements and prove useful in shedding light on some of the more perplexing observations associated with spall failure. In particular, the scaling laws are helpful in understanding the somewhat anomalous dependence of spall strength on pre-existing microstructure, e.g. grain size and purity content.

  7. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale.

    PubMed

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for heart rate detection on a subject that stands on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear, and does not require any sensors attached to the body. We have applied our method to three different weighing scales, and estimated whether their sensitivity and frequency response suited heart rate detection. Scale sensitivities were from 490 nV/V/N to 1670 nV/V/N, all had an underdamped transient response and their dynamic gain error was below 19% at 10 Hz, which are acceptable values for heart rate estimation. We also designed a pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits, whose gain was about 70x10(3) and able to sense force variations about 240 mN. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the main peaks of the pulse signal detected was higher than 48 dB, which is large enough to estimate the heart rate by simple signal processing methods. To validate the method, the ECG and the force signal were simultaneously recorded on 12 volunteers. The maximal error obtained from heart rates determined from these two signals was +/-0.6 beats/minute. PMID:18003457

  8. Characterizing the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Hafenrichter, Everett Shingo; Pahl, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser diode ignition experiments were conducted in an effort to characterize the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria. Over forty experiments were conducted with various laser power densities and laser spot sizes. In addition, relatively simple analytical and numerical calculations were performed to assist with interpretation of the experimental data and characterization of the explosive ignition criteria.

  9. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  10. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  11. Variation of foraging rate and wing loading, but not resting metabolic rate scaling, of insect pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, John S.; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Morphological, physiological and behavioural variation with body size (i.e. scaling) may affect costs of living in a particular environment for insects and, ultimately, pollination or foraging success. However, few studies have directly assessed the scaling of these traits at the species level. Using two similar-sized pollinator species (the hawkmoth Macroglossum trochilus and the fly Moegistorhynchus longirostrus), we compare intraspecific scaling relationships of resting metabolic rate (RMR), foraging rate (FR) and wing loading (WL) to address this paucity of data. Scaling of RMR was similar for both taxa although the intercepts for the relationships differed. However, these two species showed variation in WL scaling relationships and fundamentally different FR scaling. For M. longirostrus, FR scaling was positive but non-significantly related to body mass while for M. trochilus FR scaling was negative. This suggests that variation in FR and WL, but not RMR scaling, among these flies and hawkmoths may impose significant energetic costs which could affect animal-plant interactions in the wild.

  12. Medication Adherence and Treatment Satisfaction Among Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik A; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Jarab, Anan; Bustami, Rami; Khalidi, Nabil; Alshaya, Abdulrahman; Bin Saleh, Khalid; Alraddadi, Sultan; Alharbi, Shmeylan; Vasudevan, Senthilvel; Alsayyari, Abdullah; Qandil, Amjad M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that patients who are more satisfied with their treatment show better adherence with the prescribed therapy. Although there is valuable data about medication adherence among renal transplant recipients (RTRs), there is a limited literature about their treatment satisfaction and its relation to adherence. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that can predict medication adherence and to explore the relationship between treatment satisfaction and medication adherence in renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Adult RTRs were included in the study using convenient sampling. The participants were asked to complete the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and Treatment Satisfaction Scale TSQM 1.4 in addition to several socio-demographic and treatment-related data. The results were statistically analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression modelling in a stepwise procedure. RESULTS A total of 151 RTRs were included in the study, of which 52 were classified as adherent (34%). Univariate analysis showed that, in comparison with non-adherent RTRs, the adherent group demonstrated significantly higher satisfaction scores in the domains of convenience (96.6±8.7 vs. 85.3±19.3), side effects (95.9±14.1 vs. 82.6±24.1), and global satisfaction (93.4±9.8 vs. 86.7±16.7), while they had marginally higher satisfaction scores in the effectiveness domain (90.4±11.6 vs. 86.5±14.5). Results from multiple logistic regression showed that higher likelihood of adherence was significantly associated with increased satisfaction score in the convenience domain [AOR=1.76, 95% CI=(1.21, 2.55); p=0.003] and marginally related to increased satisfaction scores in the side effects domain [AOR=1.31, 95% CI=(0.99, 1.74); p=0.061]. Male RTRs were significantly more likely to be adherent than female RTRs [AOR=2.23, 95% CI=(1.02, 4.84); p=0.043]. CONCLUSIONS Although the adherence rate among RTRs is relatively

  13. A new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale.

    PubMed

    Trémeau, Fabien; Goggin, Michelle; Antonius, Daniel; Czobor, Pàl; Hill, Vera; Citrome, Leslie

    2008-09-30

    The commonly used rating scales for negative symptoms in schizophrenia have shown good reliability, but disagreement persists regarding both the content definition and the validity of several items. Instead, authors have recommended rating the specific behaviors that are defined as negative symptoms. To surmount these shortcomings, we developed a new rating scale for negative symptoms: the Motor-Affective-Social Scale (MASS). During a 5-minute structured interview, hand coverbal gestures, spontaneous smiles, voluntary smiling, and questions asked by the interviewer were counted and rated on 101 inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Information on social behavior was obtained from nursing staff. The scale consisted of a total of eight items. The MASS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.81), inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.81). Convergent validity analyses showed high correlations between MASS scores and scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptom (SANS), and the negative symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The MASS showed excellent psychometric properties, practicality, and subject tolerability. Future research that includes the use of the MASS with other patient populations and that investigates the scale's sensitivity during clinical trials should be performed. PMID:18722021

  14. Adherence to cardiovascular medications in the South Asian population: A systematic review of current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Akeroyd, Julia M; Chan, Winston J; Kamal, Ayeesha K; Palaniappan, Latha; Virani, Salim S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review methods of assessing adherence and strategies to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease (CVD) medications, among South Asian CVD patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English language studies that examined CVD medication adherence in South Asian populations from 1966 to April 1, 2015 in SCOPUS and PubMed. Working in duplicate, we identified 61 studies. After exclusions, 26 studies were selected for full text review. Of these, 17 studies were included in the final review. We abstracted data on several factors including study design, study population, method of assessing adherence and adherence rate. RESULTS: These studies were conducted in India (n = 11), Pakistan (n = 3), Bangladesh (n = 1), Nepal (n = 1) and Sri Lanka (n = 1). Adherence rates ranged from 32%-95% across studies. Of the 17 total publications included, 10 focused on assessing adherence to CVD medications and 7 focused on assessing the impact of interventions on medication adherence. The validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used as the primary method of assessing adherence in five studies. Three studies used validated questionnaires similar to the MMAS, and one study utilized Medication Event Monitoring System caps, with the remainder of the studies utilizing pill count and self-report measures. As expected, studies using non-validated self-report measures described higher rates of adherence than studies using validated scale measurements and pill count. The included intervention studies examined the use of polypill therapy, provider education and patient counseling to improve medication adherence. CONCLUSION: The overall medication adherence rates were low in the region, which suggest a growing need for future interventions to improve adherence. PMID:26730300

  15. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  16. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS) to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS). Methods A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease). WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age). Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. Results The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93), moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.78-0.91) and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, p<.03), between the WURS Behavioral Scale and reports of mood and behavior (rs>.76, p<.04) and between WURS Total scores and quality of life (rs=-.86, p=.001). The WURS demonstrated acceptable content validity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83). Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and

  17. In Search of Reaction Rate Scaling Law for Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Lou, Zhipeng; Li, Wenhai

    2015-11-01

    As a way of employing the flamelet approach, which was developed essentially for incompressible flows, to model supersonic combustion, the role ascribed to pressure has not been very convincing. That is, the reaction rate is often scaled on the square of the pressure in the finite Mach number flow field relative to the usually atmospheric static pressure field used in the generation of the flamelet library. This scaling assumption is quite simple and will therefore be very attractive if it has a sound theoretical basis and it works for a large selection of high-speed combustion flows. We try to find some justifications for different scaling laws, with the hope of coming up with a more universally-acceptable flamelet procedure for supersonic combustion.

  18. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  19. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  20. Optimizing adherence to antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Seema; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Dhayarkar, Sampada

    2011-01-01

    HIV has now become a manageable chronic disease. However, the treatment outcomes may get hampered by suboptimal adherence to ART. Adherence optimization is a concrete reality in the wake of ‘universal access’ and it is imperative to learn lessons from various studies and programmes. This review examines current literature on ART scale up, treatment outcomes of the large scale programmes and the role of adherence therein. Social, behavioural, biological and programme related factors arise in the context of ART adherence optimization. While emphasis is laid on adherence, retention of patients under the care umbrella emerges as a major challenge. An in-depth understanding of patients’ health seeking behaviour and health care delivery system may be useful in improving adherence and retention of patients in care continuum and programme. A theoretical framework to address the barriers and facilitators has been articulated to identify problematic areas in order to intervene with specific strategies. Empirically tested objective adherence measurement tools and approaches to assess adherence in clinical/ programme settings are required. Strengthening of ART programmes would include appropriate policies for manpower and task sharing, integrating traditional health sector, innovations in counselling and community support. Implications for the use of theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, community involvement and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is suggested. PMID:22310817

  1. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes.

    PubMed

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499:471-475). We also identified species-specific recombination hotspots in each group using a modified LDhot framework, which greatly improves statistical power to detect hotspots at varying strengths. We show that fewer hotspots are shared among chimpanzee subspecies than within human populations, further narrowing the time scale of complete hotspot turnover. Further, using species-specific PRDM9 sequences to predict potential binding sites (PBS), we show higher predicted PRDM9 binding in recombination hotspots as compared to matched cold spot regions in multiple great ape species, including at least one chimpanzee subspecies. We found that correlations between broad-scale recombination rates decline more rapidly than nucleotide divergence between species. We also compared the skew of recombination rates at centromeres and telomeres between species and show a skew from chromosome means extending as far as 10-15 Mb from chromosome ends. Further, we examined broad-scale recombination rate changes near a translocation in gorillas and found minimal differences as compared to other great ape species perhaps because the coordinates relative to the chromosome ends were unaffected. Finally, on the basis of multiple linear regression analysis, we found that various correlates of recombination rate persist throughout the African great apes including repeats, diversity, and divergence. Our study is the first to analyze within- and between-species genome-wide recombination rate variation in several close relatives. PMID:26671457

  2. Variability of erythrocyte and serum lithium levels correlates with therapist treatment adherence efforts and maintenance treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R; Mallinger, A G; Frank, E; Rucci, P; Thase, M E; Kupfer, D J

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between psychotherapeutic interventions and pharmacologic measures of pharmacotherapy treatment adherence in patients with bipolar I disorder, as well as the relationship between these measures and treatment outcome. Subjects were participating in an ongoing maintenance treatment study. Audiotaped therapy sessions were rated for frequency of psychotherapeutic interventions related to pharmacotherapy treatment adherence. Pharmacologic measures of medication adherence were compared to the tape ratings as well as to treatment outcome. Variability in log erythrocyte (RBC) lithium-a marker of probable nonadherence to the pharmacotherapy regimen-for individual patients correlated significantly with treatment adherence interventions scale ratings. This marker of nonadherence was significantly related to maintenance treatment outcome, as was variability of the serum lithium level/dose (L/D) ratio; however, no relationship was found between treatment adherence interventions scale ratings and outcome. PMID:11120401

  3. Deposition of thick and adherent Teflon-like coating on industrial scale stainless steel shell using pulsed dc and RF PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaprasad, A.; Nema, S. K.; Sinha, N. K.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-04-01

    A unique combination of pulsed dc and radio frequency (RF) discharge deposition was used to deposit thick (˜5 μm) and adherent (2-4 MPa) Teflon-like coatings on a stainless steel (SS) shell of 2 m diameter size, through plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The details of deposition on such a big industrial scale component are reported for the first time. In this method, highly adherent thin interface layers were grown on SS shell that was electrically grounded, using pulsed dc discharge, followed by RF discharge deposition to build up the required coating thickness. The fluorocarbon precursor molecules, required for the deposition of Teflon-like coating, are generated indigenously by pyrolyzing the Teflon powder. The deposited coating was studied for its chemical bond state, surface roughness (Ra), morphology, thickness, and adhesive strength. These studies were carried out by using XPS, AFM, SEM, etc. The adhesive strength of the coating was measured by pin-pull test as per ASTM D4541 standard test. The coatings deposited with pulsed dc discharge were observed to have higher adhesive strength when compared with those deposited with RF discharge.

  4. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  5. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-01

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Non-Adherence and Treatment Failure in a Large Scale Multi-National Trial of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV: Data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Biello, Katie B.; Smeaton, Laura; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Walawander, Ann; Lama, Javier R.; Rana, Aadia; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Kayoyo, Virginia M.; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Joglekar, Anjali; Celentano, David; Martinez, Ana; Remmert, Jocelyn E.; Nair, Aspara; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Background PEARLS, a large scale trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV (n = 1,571, 9 countries, 4 continents), found that a once-daily protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (ATV+DDI+FTC), but not a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI/NRTI) regimen (EFV+FTC/TDF), had inferior efficacy compared to a standard of care twice-daily NNRTI/NRTI regimen (EFV+3TC/ZDV). The present study examined non-adherence in PEARLS. Methods Outcomes: non-adherence assessed by pill count and by self-report, and time to treatment failure. Longitudinal predictors: regimen, quality of life (general health perceptions  =  QOL-health, mental health  =  QOL-mental health), social support, substance use, binge drinking, and sexual behaviors. “Life-Steps” adherence counseling was provided. Results In both pill-count and self-report multivariable models, both once-a-day regimens had lower levels of non-adherence than the twice-a-day standard of care regimen; although these associations attenuated with time in the self-report model. In both multivariable models, hard-drug use was associated with non-adherence, living in Africa and better QOL-health were associated with less non-adherence. According to pill-count, unprotected sex was associated with non-adherence. According to self-report, soft-drug use was associated with non-adherence and living in Asia was associated with less non-adherence. Both pill-count (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09, p<.01) and self-report (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.13, p<.01) non-adherence were significant predictors of treatment failure over 72 weeks. In multivariable models (including pill-count or self-report nonadherence), worse QOL-health, age group (younger), and region were also significant predictors of treatment failure. Conclusion In the context of a large, multi-national, multi-continent, clinical trial there were variations in adherence over time, with more

  7. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid- and fibrinogen gamma-chain carboxyterminal peptides inhibit platelet adherence to arterial subendothelium at high wall shear rates. An effect dissociable from interference with adhesive protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J B; Kramer, W S; McKeown, L P; Williams, S B; Gralnick, H R

    1990-01-01

    Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)- and fibrinogen gamma-chain carboxyterminal (GQQHHLGGAKQAGDV) peptides inhibit fibrinogen, fibronectin (Fn), vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding to the platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (GP IIb-IIIa). GP IIb-IIIa, vWF, and Fn are essential for normal platelet adherence to subendothelium. We added peptides to normal citrated whole blood before perfusion over human umbilical artery subendothelium and evaluated platelet adherence morphometrically at high (2,600 s-1) and low (800 s-1) wall shear rates. We also examined the effects of the peptides on platelet adhesion to collagen in a static system. At the high wall shear rate, RGDS and GQQHHLGGAKQAGDV caused dose-dependent reduction in the surface coverage with spread and adherent platelets. Amino acid transposition and conservative substitutions of RGD peptides and the AGDV peptide significantly inhibited platelet adherence at 2,600 s-1. By contrast, the modified RGD peptides and AGDV do not affect adhesive protein binding to platelets. None of the native or modified RGD- or fibrinogen gamma-chain peptides significantly inhibited either platelet adherence to subendothelium at 800 s-1 or platelet adhesion to collagen. Our findings demonstrate that peptides that interfere with adhesive protein binding to GP IIb-IIIa inhibit platelet adherence to vascular subendothelium with flowing blood only at high wall shear rates. Platelet adherence to subendothelium at high wall shear rates appears to be mediated by different recognition specificities from those required for fluid-phase adhesive protein binding or static platelet adhesion. PMID:2243140

  8. Scaling laws for the upper ocean temperature dissipation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogucki, Darek J.; Huguenard, K.; Haus, B. K.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Reniers, A.; Laxague, N. J. M.

    2015-02-01

    Our understanding of temperature dissipation rate χ within the upper ocean boundary layer, which is critical for climate forecasts, is very limited. Near-surface turbulence also affects dispersion of contaminants and biogeochemical tracers. Using high-resolution optical turbulence measurements, scaling laws for χ are investigated under forcing states where either the daytime heat flux or the wind stress forcing is dominant. We find that χ remains constant over 1.5 times the significant wave height, while over a layer below, χ decays based on the local surface forcing. When the heat flux is dominant, traditional scaling based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory remains valid; χ ∝ z-1. When the wind stress dominates, we observe the emergence of a new scaling, χ ∝ z-1/2, which is explained by invoking the effect of small-scale coherent structures on vertical heat transport. These results have implications for improved modeling of the ocean's heat and CO2 intake.

  9. Factor Analysis of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale with Teacher Ratings of Students with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Eaves, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale (PDDRS; Eaves, 2003) is a rating scale that is used in the screening process for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The PDDRS contains three scales: Arousal, Affect, and Cognition. In this study, the construct validity of the PDDRS was examined with teacher ratings from a sample of 168…

  10. [Adherence to psychopharmacological treatment: Psychotherapeutic strategies to enhance adherence].

    PubMed

    Lencer, R; Korn, D

    2015-05-01

    Effective psychopharmacological medication with good tolerability represents the cornerstone of treatment for severe mental illness; however, the 1-year adherence rates are only approximately 50%. The term adherence emphasizes the collaborative responsibility of the clinician and the patient for a positive treatment outcome. Reasons for non-adherence are manifold and include patient-specific factors, such as self-stigmatization, lack of social and familial support, cognitive impairment and substance use besides insufficient effectiveness and the occurrence of side effects of the psychotropic drugs. To enhance adherence, both clinician and patient have to fully understand all the reasons for and against adherence to medication before a collaborative decision is made on future long-term treatment. A positive attitude towards medication critically depends on whether patients feel that the medication supports the attainment of the individual goals. PMID:25903501

  11. Patterns and obstacles to oral antidiabetic medications adherence among type 2 diabetics in Ismailia, Egypt: a cross section study

    PubMed Central

    Heissam, Khaled; Abuamer, Zeinab; El-Dahshan, Nahed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a costly and increasingly common chronic disease. Effective management of diabetes to achieve glycemic control improves patient quality of life. Adherence rates to drug regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes are relatively low and vary widely between populations. There are many factors that could affect patient adherence to drug therapy. The aim of the present study was assessing patterns and obstacles to adherence of type 2 diabetic patients to their oral hypoglycemic drugs. Methods The present work is a descriptive cross section study, carried on type 2 diabetic patients who were on oral hypoglycemic drugs. Data concerning adherence to drugs was assessed using measure treatment adherence scale (MTA). Results A total of 372 (55.59% males and 44.41% females) patients with type-2 diabetes fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included in the study. Among the participants, 26.1% were found to have good adherence, 47.9% had a fair adherence, and 26% had poor adherence. Conclusion The overall rate of medication adherence among the diabetic patients population was suboptimal and non-acceptable. Evaluation of adherence is vital for patients with diabetes in order to determine factors and barriers affecting the adherence and to manage them. PMID:26113919

  12. [Treatment adherence: a key element].

    PubMed

    Bastida, Guillermo; Sánchez Montes, Cristina; Aguas, Mariam

    2011-12-01

    A substantial percentage of patients fail to follow health professionals' recommendations, which affects the management of chronic diseases, reducing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions and increasing the costs of the disease. Lack of adherence is a multidimensional phenomenon and is influenced by numerous factors that should be identified. A multiplicity of measures is available to improve adherence, such as simplifying treatment administration, but none of these measures is effective when used alone. One way of tackling lack of adherence is by identifying patients' barriers to medication and involving them in decision making. Ulcerative colitis (UC) poses a risk for lack of treatment adherence. In this disease, poor adherence correlates with poor disease control (drug effectiveness) and with higher costs. As in other chronic diseases, the causes associated with poor adherence are multiple, including psychosocial factors, the physician-patient relationship and patients' prejudices toward medication. A single dose of aminosalycylates (5-ASA) should be recommended, as this dose is as safe and effective as other regimens. However, by itself, this recommendation does not seem to improve adherence. Identifying the scale of the problem and developing strategies to involve the patient in decision making is crucial to improve treatment adherence. PMID:25443221

  13. Measuring insulin adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Gonzalez, Jeffery S

    2016-08-01

    Non-adherence to insulin is common and associated with suboptimal health. We adapted the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale to specify insulin adherence (MIAS) and compared it to the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale for Diabetes (ARMS-D) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities medications subscale (SDSCA-MS) and an insulin-specific (SDSCA-IS) version. A sample of 144 insulin-treated adults (58 % African American/Black, 34 % Caucasian/White, 8 % Other/Mixed race; 6.9 % Hispanic) completed these measures along with a HbA1C test. The internal consistency and factor structure of the MIAS were adequate; 59 % of participants forgot to take insulin and 46 % reported non-adherence. The MIAS was associated with the ARMS-D, SDSCA-MS, and SDSCA-IS (p < 0.001), and higher MIAS scores were marginally associated with better self-rated health (p = 0.057), but significantly associated with fewer emergency room visits (p = 0.001), and better HbA1C (p = 0.001). The MIAS is a valid and reliable insulin adherence assessment tool for practice and research applications. PMID:27062271

  14. Large-Scale Production of High-Quality Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors Using Adherent Cells in Cell Factories

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Cela, Racel; Clarke, Christian; Bertin, Terry K.; Mouriño, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The most efficient and widely used system for generating helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) is the Cre/loxP system developed by Graham and co-workers (Parks, R.J., Chen, L., Anton, M., Sankar, U., Rudnicki, M.A., and Graham, F.L. [1996]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 13565–13570). Alternative systems have been developed for HDAd production, but all are limited by the technical complexity of a three-component vector production system for reproducibly generating large quantities of adenovirus with high infectivity and low helper virus (HV) contamination. Recently, these problems were addressed by Ng and co-workers (Palmer, D., and Ng, P. [2003]. Mol Ther. 8, 846–852), who developed an improved system that combines the use of a suspension-adapted producer cell line expressing high levels of Cre recombinase, a HV resistant to mutation, and a refined purification protocol. With this system, >1 × 1013 highly infectious vector particles are easily produced without vector genome rearrangements and having very low HV contamination levels. However, the Ng system incorporates a spinner flask culture system that involves considerable time, effort, and tissue culture medium to produce HDAds. We have an alternative system to obtain comparable quantities with equivalent quality to the spinner flask approach but requiring reduced labor and lower volumes of medium. This method utilizes a 10-chamber cell factory with adherent cells to produce high infectivity of HDAds with minimal HV contamination while improving yield and reducing technical complexity, effort, and medium requirements. This system is easily translatable to the production of clinical-grade HDAds for human trials. PMID:19719388

  15. Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgoston, Eric; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a stochastic environment with two time scales and outline a general theory that compares two methods to reduce the dimension of the original system. The first method involves the computation of the underlying deterministic center manifold followed by a naive replacement of the stochastic term. The second method allows one to more accurately describe the stochastic effects and involves the derivation of a normal form coordinate transform that is used to find the stochastic center manifold. The results of both methods are used along with the path integral formalism of large fluctuation theory to predict the escape rate from one basin of attraction to another. The general theory is applied to the example of a surface flow described by a generic, singularly perturbed, damped, nonlinear oscillator with additive, Gaussian noise. We show how both nonlinear reduction methods compare in escape rate scaling. Additionally, the center manifolds are shown to predict high prehistory probability regions of escape. The theoretical results are confirmed using numerical computation of the mean escape time and escape prehistory, and we briefly discuss the extension of the theory to stochastic control.

  16. Antidepressant adherence after psychiatric hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Zivin, Kara; Ganoczy, Dara; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Miller, Erin M.; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Depressed patients discharged from psychiatric hospitalizations face increased risks for adverse outcomes including suicide, yet antidepressant adherence rates during this high-risk period are unknown. Using Veterans Affairs (VA) data, we assessed antidepressant adherence and predictors of poor adherence among depressed veterans following psychiatric hospitalization. Method We identified VA patients nationwide with depressive disorders who had a psychiatric hospitalization between April 1, 1999 and September 30, 2003, received antidepressant medication, and had an outpatient appointment following discharge. We calculated medication possession ratios (MPRs), a measure of medication adherence, within three and six months following discharge. We assessed patient factors associated with having lower levels of adherence (MPRs <0.8) after discharge. Results 20,931 and 23,182 patients met criteria for three and six month MPRs. The mean three month MPR was 0.79 (s.d.=0.37). The mean six month MPR was 0.66 (s.d.=0.40). Patients with poorer adherence were male, younger, non-white, and had a substance abuse disorder, but were less likely to have PTSD or other anxiety disorders. Conclusion Poor antidepressant adherence is common among depressed patients after psychiatric hospitalization. Efforts to improve adherence at this time may be critical in improving the outcomes of these high-risk patients. PMID:19609666

  17. Chemostat Enrichments of Human Feces with Resistant Starch Are Selective for Adherent Butyrate-Producing Clostridia at High Dilution Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard; Macfarlane, George T.

    2000-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) enrichments were made using chemostats inoculated with human feces from two individuals at two dilution rates (D = 0.03 h−1 and D = 0.30 h−1) to select for slow- and fast-growing amylolytic communities. The fermentations were studied by analysis of short-chain fatty acids, amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and viable counts of the predominant culturable populations and the use of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Considerable butyrate was produced at D = 0.30 h−1, which corresponded with reduced branched-chain fatty acid formation. At both dilution rates, high levels of extracellular amylase activity were produced, while α-glucosidase was predominantly cell associated. Bacteroides and bifidobacteria predominated at the low dilution rate, whereas saccharolytic clostridia became more important at D = 0.30 h−1. Microscopic examination showed that within 48 h of inoculation, one particular bacterial morphotype predominated in RS enrichments at D = 0.30 h−1. This organism attached apically to RS granules and formed rosette-like structures which, with glycocalyx formation, agglomerated to form biofilm networks in the planktonic phase. Attempts to isolate this bacterium in pure culture were repeatedly unsuccessful, although a single colony was eventually obtained. On the basis of its 16S rDNA sequence, this RS-degrading, butyrate-producing organism was identified as being a previously unidentified group I Clostridium sp. A 16S rRNA-targeted probe was designed using this sequence and used to assess the abundance of the population in the enrichments. At 240 h, its contributions to total rRNA in the chemostats were 5 and 23% at D = 0.03 and 0.30 h−1, respectively. This study indicates that bacterial populations with significant metabolic potential can be overlooked using culture-based methodologies. This may provide a paradigm for explaining the discrepancy between the low numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria that are

  18. Integration of scale-down experimentation and general rate modelling to predict manufacturing scale chromatographic separations.

    PubMed

    Gerontas, Spyridon; Asplund, Magnus; Hjorth, Rolf; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2010-10-29

    Chromatography is an essential downstream processing step in the production of biopharmaceuticals. Here we present an approach to chromatography scale-up using scale-down experimentation integrated with general rate modelling. This type of modelling takes account all contributions to the mass transfer kinetics providing process understanding. The model is calibrated using a 2.5 cm height, 1 ml column and used to predict chromatograms for 20 cm height columns from 40 ml to 160 L volume. Simulations were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. The envisaged approach could potentially reduce the number of experiments, shorten development time and reduce costs. PMID:20880533

  19. Improving medication adherence in migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Rains, Jeanetta A; Nicholson, Robert A; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    Medication adherence is integral to successful treatment of migraine and other headache. The existing literature examining medication adherence in migraine is small, and the methodologies used to assess adherence are limited. However, these studies broadly suggest poor adherence to both acute and preventive migraine medications, with studies using more objective monitoring reporting lower adherence rates. Methods for improving medication adherence are described, including organizational strategies, provider-monitoring and self-monitoring of adherence, regimen strategies, patient education, self-management skills training (e.g., stimulus control, behavioral contracts), and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. The article concludes by discussing the future of research regarding adherence to medications for migraine and other headaches. PMID:26040703

  20. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Davidson, Ana D.; Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue. PMID:20798111

  1. The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z

    2000-01-01

    In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827

  2. On the context-dependent scaling of consumer feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Barrios-O'Neill, Daniel; Kelly, Ruth; Dick, Jaimie T A; Ricciardi, Anthony; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Emmerson, Mark C

    2016-06-01

    The stability of consumer-resource systems can depend on the form of feeding interactions (i.e. functional responses). Size-based models predict interactions - and thus stability - based on consumer-resource size ratios. However, little is known about how interaction contexts (e.g. simple or complex habitats) might alter scaling relationships. Addressing this, we experimentally measured interactions between a large size range of aquatic predators (4-6400 mg over 1347 feeding trials) and an invasive prey that transitions among habitats: from the water column (3D interactions) to simple and complex benthic substrates (2D interactions). Simple and complex substrates mediated successive reductions in capture rates - particularly around the unimodal optimum - and promoted prey population stability in model simulations. Many real consumer-resource systems transition between 2D and 3D interactions, and along complexity gradients. Thus, Context-Dependent Scaling (CDS) of feeding interactions could represent an unrecognised aspect of food webs, and quantifying the extent of CDS might enhance predictive ecology. PMID:27094829

  3. Scaling of standard metabolic rate in estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Gienger, C M; Brien, Matthew L; Tracy, Christopher R; Charlie Manolis, S; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2013-05-01

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR, ml O2 min(-1)) of captive Crocodylus porosus at 30 °C scales with body mass (kg) according to the equation, SMR = 1.01 M(0.829), in animals ranging in body mass of 3.3 orders of magnitude (0.19-389 kg). The exponent is significantly higher than 0.75, so does not conform to quarter-power scaling theory, but rather is likely an emergent property with no single explanation. SMR at 1 kg body mass is similar to the literature for C. porosus and for alligators. The high exponent is not related to feeding, growth, or obesity of captive animals. The log-transformed data appear slightly curved, mainly because SMR is somewhat low in many of the largest animals (291-389 kg). A 3-parameter model is scarcely different from the linear one, but reveals a declining exponent between 0.862 and 0.798. A non-linear model on arithmetic axes overestimates SMR in 70% of the smallest animals and does not satisfactorily represent the data. PMID:23233168

  4. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  5. Freely expanding detonation products: Scaling of rate processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, N. R.

    1988-03-01

    Using the Los Alamos reactive hydrodynamics code KIVA, calculations have been made to simulate the free expansion of cylinders of detonation products into a high vacuum. The emphasis of this paper is on the scaling of rate processes with cylinder size and initial conditions as a function of position in the expanding mass. The processes considered include diffusion, unimolecular decomposition, biomolecular radical reactions, and vibrational relaxation. The calculations also give time-dependent velocity fields; schlieren images; and profiles of density, pressure, and temperature. Many features of the calculations can be compared with experimental observations, including time-delayed schlieren and shadowgraph snapshots, time-dependent absorption spectra, and time-of-arrival profiles of molecular species. Some unexpected insights, such as the effect of the equation of state on the shape of the expanding plume and the effect of position on the rate of quenching, are discussed. These calculations are being used to interpret the available experimental data and to design future experiments.

  6. Medication adherence to oral anticancer drugs: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chuan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Shun-Jin; Chang, Chao-Sung

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that non-adherence to oral anticancer drugs (OACDs) has challenged treatment efficacy. Otherwise, few validated tools exist to measure patients' adherence to medication regimen in clinical practice. To synthesize previous studies on adherence by cancer patients taking OACDs, especially in targeted therapy, a systematic search of several electronic databases was conducted. We analyzed existing scales' contents for various cancer patients and outcomes of studies assessing adherence. However, a well-validated scale designed particularly for OACD adherence is still lacking. Most adherence scales used in the studies reviewed contain items focused on measuring patients' medication-taking behavior more than their barriers to medication compliance and beliefs. However, non-adherence to OACDs is a complex phenomenon, and drug-taking barriers and patient beliefs significantly affect patients' non-adherence. To understand the key drivers and predisposing factors for non-adherence, we need to develop a well-validated, multidimensional scale. PMID:26935964

  7. A validated rating scale for global mental workload measurement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwile, W. W.; Casali, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper (1969) scale has been extensively used for evaluation of aircraft handling qualities and associated mental workload. The scale is a 10-point scale with a decision tree. A modified version of the scale, called the MCH scale, has been devised for the purpose of assessing workload in systems other than those where the human operator performs motor tasks; namely, where perceptual, mediational, and communications activity is preent. The MCH scale has been validated in three different experiments. The scale is recommended for applications in which overall mental workload is to be assessed.

  8. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.

  9. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (rho (mu/ls) = 0.97 +/- 0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65 +/- 0.13; EH, 0.54 +/- 0.05; YH, 0.57 +/- 0.05; p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in rho (mu/ls) (day, 0.65 +/- 0.13; night, 0.66 +/- 0.12; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54 +/- 0.05; night, 0.61 +/- 0.05; p=0.002). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification. PMID:16711836

  10. Uncinate Process Length in Birds Scales with Resting Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter; Nudds, Robert; Codd, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental function of the respiratory system is the supply of oxygen to meet metabolic demand. Morphological constraints on the supply of oxygen, such as the structure of the lung, have previously been studied in birds. Recent research has shown that uncinate processes (UP) are important respiratory structures in birds, facilitating inspiratory and expiratory movements of the ribs and sternum. Uncinate process length (UPL) is important for determining the mechanical advantage for these respiratory movements. Here we report on the relationship between UPL, body size, metabolic demand and locomotor specialisation in birds. UPL was found to scale isometrically with body mass. Process length is greatest in specialist diving birds, shortest in walking birds and intermediate length in all others relative to body size. Examination of the interaction between the length of the UP and metabolic demand indicated that, relative to body size, species with high metabolic rates have corresponding elongated UP. We propose that elongated UP confer an advantage on the supply of oxygen, perhaps by improving the mechanical advantage and reducing the energetic cost of movements of the ribs and sternum. PMID:19479074

  11. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  12. Improving Post-Discharge Medication Adherence in Patients with CVD: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo D.; Morisky, Donald E.; Costa, Francisco A.; Pacheco, Sara T.; Neves, Sabrina F.; Lyra-Jr, Divaldo P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to improve medication adherence are usually complex and expensive. Objective To assess the impact of a low-cost intervention designed to improve medication adherence and clinical outcomes in post-discharge patients with CVD. Method A pilot RCT was conducted at a teaching hospital. Intervention was based on the four-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4). The primary outcome measure was medication adherence assessed using the eight-item MMAS at baseline, at 1 month post hospital discharge and re-assessed 1 year after hospital discharge. Other outcomes included readmission and mortality rates. Results 61 patients were randomized to intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 31) groups. The mean age of the patients was 61 years (SD 12.73), 52.5% were males, and 57.4% were married or living with a partner. Mean number of prescribed medications per patient was 4.5 (SD 3.3). Medication adherence was correlated to intervention (p = 0.04) and after 1 month, 48.4% of patients in the control group and 83.3% in the intervention group were considered adherent. However, this difference decreased after 1 year, when adherence was 34.8% and 60.9%, respectively. Readmission and mortality rates were related to low adherence in both groups. Conclusion The intervention based on a validated patient self-report instrument for assessing adherence is a potentially effective method to improve adherent behavior and can be successfully used as a tool to guide adherence counseling in the clinical visit. However, a larger study is required to assess the real impact of intervention on these outcomes. PMID:25590930

  13. Patient Characteristics and Variability in Adherence and Competence in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, James F.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E.; Bullis, Jacqueline; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott; Barlow, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Although associations with outcome have been inconsistent, therapist adherence and competence continues to garner attention, particularly within the context of increasing interest in the dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of evidence-based treatments. To date, research on therapist adherence and competence has focused on average levels across therapists. With a few exceptions, research has failed to address multiple sources of variability in adherence and competence, identify important factors that might account for variability, or take these sources of variability into account when examining associations with symptom change. Objective (a) statistically demonstrate between- and within-therapist variability in adherence and competence ratings and examine patient characteristics as predictors of this variability and (b) examine the relationship between adherence/competence and symptom change. Method Randomly selected audiotaped sessions from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder were rated for therapist adherence and competence. Patients completed a self-report measure of panic symptom severity prior to each session and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Personality Disorder Scale prior to the start of treatment. Results Significant between- and within-therapist variability in adherence and competence were observed. Adherence and competence deteriorated significantly over the course of treatment. Higher patient interpersonal aggression was associated with decrements in both adherence and competence. Neither adherence nor competence predicted subsequent panic severity. Conclusions Variability and “drift” in adherence and competence can be observed in controlled trials. Training and implementation efforts should involve continued consultation over multiple cases in order to account for relevant patient factors and promote sustainability across sessions and patients. PMID:23339537

  14. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  15. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  16. [Diagnosis and symptom rating scale of restless legs syndrome].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movement and is exacerbated or occurs mainly in the evening or night. People suffering from RLS are estimated to represent 2-3% of the general Japanese population, which is relatively lower than the estimated prevalence in western countries. Supportive diagnostic critevia include family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep, and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. RLS phenotypes include an early onset form that is usually idiopathic with frequent familial history and a late onset form that is usually secondary to other somatic conditions that are causative factors in RLS occurrence. In all patients presenting with complaints of insomnia or discomfort in the lower limbs, diagnosis of RLS should be considered. RLS should be differentiated from akathisia, which is an urge to move the whole body in the absence of uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) can detect PLM in patients that are asleep or awake. RLS may cause severe sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Secondary RLS may occur due to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drug use including antipsychotics and antidepressants. Small fiber neuropathy can trigger RLS or mimic its symptoms. RLS is associated with many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; althoughit does not predispose to these diseases. A symptom rating scale for RLS authorized by the International RLS Study Group (IRLS) would facilitate accurate diagnosis of this condition. PMID:19514513

  17. The effects of psychological factors in sports medicine rehabilitation adherence.

    PubMed

    Lampton, C C; Lambert, M E; Yost, R

    1993-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of achievement motivation and self-esteem on injury treatment adherence in a general sample of injured patients receiving treatment in a sports medicine clinic. Subjects consisted of both injured athletes and workers who had incurred an on-the-job injury. Based on scales of self-esteem and achievement motivation, patients were categorized as either high or low in self-esteem certainty, self-esteem level, tendency to be task-involved, and tendency to ego-involved in tasks. Treatment adherence was measured by number of missed appointments and by physical therapist ratings of effort and progress. It was found that patients low in self-esteem certainty and high in ego-involvement tended to miss the most treatment appointments. Contrary to previous findings, task-involvement was not found to be related to treatment adherence. PMID:8107483

  18. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  19. Bisphosphonates adherence for treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a disease of bone metabolism in which bisphosphonates (BPS) are the most common medications used in its treatment, whose main objective is to reduce the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis. Methods Systematic review of articles on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis, indexed on MEDLINE (via PubMed) databases, from inception of databases until January 2013. Search terms were “Adherence, Medication” (MeSH term), “Bisphosphonates” (MeSH term), and “Osteoporosis” (MeSH term). Results Of the 78 identified studies, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Identified studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding adherence and associated factors, adherence and fracture, adherence and BPs dosage. The studies are mostly observational, conducted with women over 45 years old, showing low rates of adherence to treatment. Several factors may influence adherence: socio-economic and cultural, participation of physicians when guidance is given to the patient, the use of bone turnover markers, and use of generic drugs. The monthly dosage is associated with greater adherence compared to weekly dosage. Conclusions Considering the methodological differences between the studies, the results converge to show that adherence to treatment of osteoporosis with BPs is still inadequate. Further experimental studies are needed to evaluate the adherence and suggest new treatment options. PMID:23705998

  20. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distribution of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  1. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Ch; Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distributions of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  2. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  3. Predictors of decline in medication adherence: Results from CoSMO

    PubMed Central

    Krousel-Wood, Marie; Joyce, Cara; Holt, Elizabeth; Muntner, Paul; Webber, Larry S; Morisky, Donald E; Frohlich, Edward D; Re, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Few data are available on the predictors of decline in antihypertensive medication adherence and the association of decline in adherence with subsequent blood pressure (BP) control. The current analysis included 1,965 adults from the Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults (CoSMO) recruited between August 2006 and September 2007. Decline in antihypertensive medication adherence was defined as a ≥ 2 point decrease on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale assessed during telephone surveys 1 and 2 years following baseline. Risk factors for decline in adherence were collected using telephone surveys and administrative databases. BP was abstracted from outpatient records. The annual rate for a decline in adherence was 4.3% (159 participants experienced a decline). After multivariable adjustment, a decline in adherence was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for uncontrolled BP (≥140/90 mm Hg) at follow up of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.80). Depressive symptoms (OR 1.84, 95%CI 1.20, 2.82) and a high stressful life events score (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.19, 2.38) were associated with higher ORs for a decline in adherence. Female gender (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42, 0.88); being married (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47, 0.98); and calcium channel blocker use (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48, 0.97) were associated with lower ORs for decline. In summary, a decline in antihypertensive medication adherence was associated with uncontrolled BP. Modifiable factors associated with decline were identified. Further research is warranted to determine if interventions can prevent the decline in antihypertensive medication adherence and improve BP control. PMID:21968751

  4. Reliability and Validity of Teacher Rating Procedures in the Assessment of Hyperactivity as a Function of Rating Scale Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Lambert, Nadine M.

    The effects of varying the formats of behavior rating scale items on teacher ratings of student hyperactivity were investigated. Two hundred forty-two teachers were asked to rate a variety of children; some had been identified as hyperactive by physicians, parents, or teachers; some were not considered hyperactive; and others were randomly…

  5. The Brief Alcoholism Rating Scale: A New Test for Diagnosing

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, K. R.; Smith, Selwyn M.; Bulmer, D. A.; Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new scale, comprising 100 criteria based on medical history, physical examination and routine laboratory data, independent of a drinking history, can help physicians in the detection, diagnosis and early treatment of alcoholism. The scale also permits objective classification of alcoholism into mild, moderate and severe categories and overcomes the patient's denial—a major obstacle to early diagnosis. Results suggest that the instrument is accurate: 94% of patients were classified correctly by the scale. Further validation studies in clinical practice are necessary. PMID:21286108

  6. Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups. PMID:20407392

  7. The Association between Poor Antiretroviral Adherence and Unsafe Sex: Differences by Gender and Sexual Orientation and Implications for Scale-Up of Treatment as Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Remien, Robert H.; Dolezal, Curtis; Wagner, Glenn J.; Goggin, Kathy; Wilson, Ira B.; Gross, Robert; Rosen, Marc I.; Shen, Jie; Simoni, Jane M.; Golin, Carol E.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Bangsberg, David R.; Liu, Honghu

    2013-01-01

    Non-adherence to safer sex and non-adherence to ART can each have adverse health consequences for HIV-infected individuals and their sex partners, but little is known about the association of these behaviors with each other. This “dual risk” has potential negative public health consequences since non-adherence can lead to the development of resistant virus that can then be transmitted to sex partners. Among participants in the Multi-site Adherence Collaboration in HIV (MACH14) we examined, at study baseline, the association between the frequency of unprotected sex (assessed by self-report) and ART adherence (assessed by Medication Event Monitoring System, Aardex) among the sexually active participants in the five studies (N=459) that collected sexual risk behavior. The bivariate association between sexual risk behaviors and ART adherence was assessed by Pearson correlations; subsequently ANOVAs were used to evaluate the role of demographic characteristics, depression and substance use in explaining the “dual risk” outcome (sexual risk and non-adherence). Among participants who had been sexually active, more unprotected anal/vaginal sex was weakly associated with poorer ART adherence (r = −.12, p=0.01 for the overall sample). Further analysis showed this association was driven by the heterosexual men in the sample (r = −.29, p<0.001), and was significant only for this group, and not for gay/bisexual men or for women (heterosexual and homosexual). Neither substance use nor depression accounted for the association between sexual risk and ART adherence. HIV-infected heterosexual men who are having difficulty adhering to ART are also more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors and therefore may benefit from counseling about these risk behaviors. We must identify procedures to screen for these risk behaviors and develop interventions, appropriately tailored to specific populations and identified risk factors, that can be integrated into routine clinical

  8. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  9. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  10. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  11. Zung, Beck, and Hamilton Rating Scales as Measures of Treatment Outcome: A Meta-Analytic Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Treatment studies using the Zung Self-Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as dependent measures were reviewed to determine whether these scales provide comparable data for assessing treatment effects. Results indicated that the Zung and the Beck showed less change in depression following…

  12. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  13. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy impact on clinical and economic outcomes for Medicaid enrollees with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shun; Rust, George; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Felizzola, Jesus; Fransua, Mesfin; Stringer, Harold G.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of antiretroviral treatment adherence among Hepatitis C co-infected HIV patients on survival and clinical outcomes. We analyzed Medicaid claims data from fourteen southern states from 2005-2007, comparing survival and clinical outcomes and cost of treatment for HIV and hepatitis-C co-infected patients (N=4,115) at different levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy.More than one in five patients (20.5%) showed less than 50% adherence to antiretroviral treatment, but there were no racial-ethnic or gender disparities. Significant survival benefit was demonstrated at each incremental level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (one-year mortality ranging from 3.5% in the highest adherence group to 26.0% in the lowest). Low adherence patients also had higher rates of hospitalization and emergency department visits. Relative to patients with high (>95%) ART-adherence, those with less than 25% treatment adherence had four-fold greater risk of death (adjusted odds ratio 4.22 [95% CI, 3.03,5.87]). Non-drug Medicaid expenditures were lower for high adherence patients, but cost of medications drove total Medicaid expenditures higher for high-adherence patients. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved (relative to the <25% low-adherence group) ranged from $21,874 for increasing adherence to 25-50% to $37,229 for increasing adherence to 75-95%. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection is associated with lower adverse clinical outcomes at a Medicaid cost per QALY commensurate with other well-accepted treatment and prevention strategies. Further research is needed to identify interventions which can best achieve optimal ART adherence at a population scale. PMID:25814041

  14. Family interaction and treatment adherence after stroke.

    PubMed

    Evans, R L; Bishop, D S; Matlock, A L; Stranahan, S; Smith, G G; Halar, E M

    1987-08-01

    Caregivers of 60 stroke patients were assessed five months after patient discharge from a stroke care unit to determine the relationship between family function and poststroke treatment adherence. Areas of family interaction which were significantly related to ratings of treatment adherence included problem solving, communication, and affective involvement. Better functioning families were consistently high on signs of treatment adherence. Findings suggest that families with specific dysfunction may not be as capable of helping patients comply with rehabilitation efforts as families who function more effectively. Thorough family assessment to identify which areas of family interaction are most problematic in relation to adherence issues is recommended. PMID:3619615

  15. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  16. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  17. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Jones, Christie J.

    2004-01-01

    The validity of hyperactivity rating scales in children with mental retardation was evaluated. Forty-eight children with mental retardation were rated by parents, teachers and teaching assistants on rating scales measuring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as part of a related investigation. In addition, direct observations were…

  18. Development of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Lian-Hwang

    1987-01-01

    Developed a teacher's rating scale of self-esteem for children. Participants were 231 school children in grades K-7. Used sociometric measures, popularity ranking by teachers, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to estimate validity. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale for Children (SERSC) included 12 behavioral characteristics rated most…

  19. Discriminant Validity of the Windward Rating Scale: Screening for Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Roger S.; Tomikawa, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    The Windward Rating Scale (WRS), a locally-developed teacher rating scale of student behavior, was evaluated for potential use as a screening measure. Pre-certification ratings of 720 learning disabled students and non-special education students in grades K-6 were analyzed. Psychometric properties and diagnostic efficiency of the WRS were…

  20. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  1. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Alyousif, Sarah M; Alshabanah, Najla; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Alharbi, Shemylan; Alhejaili, Fayze F; Alsayyari, Abdullah A; Qandil, Abeer Ma; Qandil, Amjad M

    2014-07-01

    Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD) at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8). The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012), being married (P = 0.012) increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024) decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence. PMID:24969185

  2. A comparison of the performance of rating scales used in the diagnosis of postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W M; Harris, B; Lazarus, J; Richards, C

    1998-09-01

    The results of a study looking into the association between thyroid status and depression in the postpartum period were reanalysed to explore the psychometric properties of the rating scales employed. The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was found to be superior to that of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in identifying RDC-defined depression, and on a par with the observer-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, which it also matched for sensitivity to change in mood state over time. The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale performed well, reflecting the fact that anxiety represents a prominent symptom in postnatal depression. PMID:9761410

  3. Patient Medication Adherence and Physician Prescribing among Congestive Heart Failure Patients of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Alakhali, K M; Daniel, P S; Noohu, A M; Sirajudeen, S A

    2013-09-01

    Congestive heart failure has been associated with high morbidity and mortality requiring hospitalisation and is further complicated by noncompliance and under prescriptions. We aim to determine medication adherence and percentage deviation among Asians population in general and Yemenis in particular. A cross-sectional, prospective observational study with purposive sampling was conducted at two cardiac outpatient centers in 70 congestive heart failure patients for a period of 3 months. An Arabic translated Morisky 4 item scale assessed the adherence of patients. Deviation in prescribing was determined by chart review. All 70 patients had mean age of 56.6±16 years. Morisky 4 item scale predicted low adherence (n=33; 47.1%) and overall nonadherencerate (n=38; 54.2%) was slightly higher than adherence. Percentage nonadherence versus adherence was high with diuretics (53 vs. 46%) and, digoxin (40 vs. 29%). The adherence percentage of angiotensin receptor blockers (9%) and beta blockers (8%) was low. Diuretics were the most prescribed drugs (n=69; 99%), followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n=51; 73%), cardiac glycoside (n=48; 69%), few patients were on angiotensin receptor blockers (n=8; 11%) and (n=9; 13%) beta blockers. The maximum prescribing rate deviation was seen with angiotensin receptor blockers (-89%) and beta blockers (-87%) followed by nitrates (-77%). Digoxin (-31%) and angiotensin converting enzymes (-27%) deviated comparatively less. Prescribing as well as utilisation rates generally were low resulting in nonachievement of therapeutic goals which could be resolved using multimodel approach. PMID:24403656

  4. Examining rating scales using Rasch and Mokken models for rater-mediated assessments.

    PubMed

    Wind, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects based on latent trait models (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider ratings in terms of the structure of the rating scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine rating scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of rating scale effectiveness based on Rasch models and models adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of rating scale effectiveness based on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of rating scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. PMID:24950531

  5. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  6. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  7. Adherence to Pharmacotherapy and Medication-Related Beliefs in Patients with Hypertension in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Malaga, German

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize adherence to pharmacological medication and beliefs towards medication in a group of patients with hypertension in a large national hospital. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional survey among patients with hypertension attending the outpatient clinic of a large national hospital. Exposure of interest was the patient's beliefs towards general medication and antihypertensive drugs, i.e. beliefs of harm, overuse, necessity and concern, measured using the Beliefs about Medication questionnaire. Main outcome was adherence measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson distribution logistic regression, prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results Data from 115 participants, 67% females and mean age 62.7 years were analyzed. Low adherence was found in 57.4%. Highest scores were on the ideas of necessity and one of the most rated statements was “physicians would prescribe less medication if they spent more time with patients”. Beliefs of harm about medications and concerns about antihypertensive drugs were higher in the low adherence group (p<0.01). Those who scored higher on ideas of harm were 52% less likely of being high adherents (PR 0.48; 95% CI 0.25–0.93) and those with higher scores on concerns were 41% less likely of being high adherents (PR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39–0.91). Patients whose ideas of necessity outweighed their concerns were more likely to be adherent (PR 2.65; 95% CI 1.21–5.81). Conclusions Low adherence to antihypertensive medication is common. High scores on ideas of harm, concern and a high necessity-concern differential were predictors of medication adherence. PMID:25470372

  8. Magnitude estimation and categorical rating scaling in social sciences: a theoretical and psychometric controversy.

    PubMed

    Beltyukova, Svetlana A; Stone, Gregory E; Fox, Christine M

    2008-01-01

    This paper revisits a half-century long theoretical controversy associated with the use of magnitude estimation scaling (MES) and category rating scaling (CRS) procedures in measurement. The MES procedure in this study involved instructing participants to write a number that matched their impression of difficulty of a test item. Participants were not restricted in the range of numbers they could choose for their scale. They also had the choice of disclosing their individual scale. After the MES task was completed, participants were given a blank copy of the test to rate the perceived difficulty of each item using a researcher-imposed categorical rating scale from 1 (very easy) to 6 (very difficult). The MES and CRS data were both analyzed using Rasch Rating scale model. Additionally, the MES data were examined with Rasch Partial Credit model. Results indicate that knowing each person's scale is associated with smaller errors of measurement. PMID:18480511

  9. Screening for learning disabilities with teacher rating scales.

    PubMed

    Salvesen, K A; Undheim, J O

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of teacher assessments in screening for learning disabilities. In a longitudinal study, 603 children were rated by their teachers in the second grade (age 8 to 9 years), and the ratings were correlated with examinations of reading, spelling, and intelligence in the third grade. The third-grade tests for reading, spelling, and intelligence classified children into groups with low achievement and dyslexia, and these two groups were compared with normally achieving children. The accuracy of teacher assessments, measured with correlation analysis, ROC curves, and kappa indices, showed that teachers were quite accurate in their judgment of low achievement, but somewhat less efficient in their judgment of specific reading difficulties. PMID:8133189

  10. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. PMID:26164391

  11. Predictors and impact of non-adherence in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving OROS methylphenidate: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication non-adherence has an important impact on treatment efficacy and healthcare burden across a range of conditions and therapeutic areas. The aim of this analysis was to determine predictors of non-adherence and impact of non-adherence on treatment response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Post-hoc analysis of a 13-week randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of OROS methylphenidate (MPH) 54 and 72 mg/day. Primary efficacy variable was the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Screening Version (CAARS:O-SV). Daily adherence was calculated as average daily adherence (100 × capsules taken/2), with overall adherence calculated as the average daily adherence. Predictors of adherence were assessed using mixed-effects logistic regression. Descriptive statistics were generated for change in CAARS:O-SV score for adherent (> 95% adherence) and non-adherent subjects. Predictors of change were analyzed using a mixed model. Results Subjects were allocated to OROS MPH (54 mg, n = 87; 72 mg, n = 92) or placebo (n = 97). Mean adherence was 92.6% and 93.3% (OROS MPH 54 and 72 mg/day, respectively), versus 97.5% (placebo). Adherence was higher and less variable in completers. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included female sex, shorter time since ADHD diagnosis, higher education level (completion of university) and score on the Drug Use Screening Inventory psychiatric disorders subscale. Improvements from baseline in CAARS:O-SV score were numerically greater in subjects defined as adherent than in those who were non-adherent. Significant predictors of CAARS:O-SV change in patients who completed the study included percentage adherence up to the point of assessment (p < 0.0001), baseline score (p < 0.0001) and family history of ADHD (p = 0.0003). Conclusion The results of this analysis suggest that newly diagnosed patients, those with a high score on the DUSI-R psychiatric disorder scale, women

  12. Patient Characteristics Associated with Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Rolnick, Sharon J; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Hedblom, Brita D.; Asche, Stephen E.; Bruzek, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence indicating therapeutic benefit for adhering to a prescribed regimen, many patients do not take their medications as prescribed. Non-adherence often leads to morbidity and to higher health care costs. The objective of the study was to assess patient characteristics associated with medication adherence across eight diseases. Design Retrospective data from a repository within an integrated health system was used to identify patients ≥18 years of age with ICD-9-CM codes for primary or secondary diagnoses for any of eight conditions (depression, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, cancer, or osteoporosis). Electronic pharmacy data was then obtained for 128 medications used for treatment. Methods Medication possession ratios (MPR) were calculated for those with one condition and one drug (n=15,334) and then for the total population having any of the eight diseases (n=31,636). The proportion of patients adherent (MPR ≥80%) was summarized by patient and living-area (census) characteristics. Bivariate associations between drug adherence and patient characteristics (age, sex, race, education, and comorbidity) were tested using contingency tables and chi-square tests. Logistic regression analysis examined predictors of adherence from patient and living area characteristics. Results Medication adherence for those with one condition was higher in males, Caucasians, older patients, and those living in areas with higher education rates and higher income. In the total population, adherence increased with lower comorbidity and increased number of medications. Substantial variation in adherence was found by condition with the lowest adherence for diabetes (51%) and asthma (33%). Conclusions The expectation of high adherence due to a covered pharmacy benefit, and to enhanced medication access did not hold. Differences in medication adherence were found across condition and by

  13. Therapist Competence and Treatment Adherence for a Brief Intervention addressing Alcohol and Violence among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Resko, Stella M.; Walton, Maureen A.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines therapist competency and treatment adherence for a brief intervention addressing alcohol misuse and violent behaviors among adolescents aged 14–18. Three observational measures of fidelity were used by independent raters to evaluate 60 therapist-delivered sessions (m=32.5 minutes). Individual items from the Content Adherence scale, the Global Rating of Competence (GROMIT) and Self Exploration and Change Talk (SECT) demonstrated fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlations ranged from .40 to 1.0). Principal components analysis (PCA) was utilized to identify the underlying factor structure of the Content Adherence and GROMIT. Parallel analysis suggested the extraction of three components for the Content Adherence reflecting the three distinct goals for each segment of the intervention. Two components were identified for the GROMIT representing the general spirit of motivational interviewing and empowerment. Findings provide support for the fidelity instruments adapted for this study and offer direction for future training and clinical supervision. PMID:22119182

  14. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  15. A current and historical perspective on disparities in US childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine adherence and in rates of invasive pneumococcal disease: Considerations for the routinely-recommended, pediatric PCV dosing schedule in the United States.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, John M; Utt, Eric A; Hill, Nina M; Welch, Verna L; Power, Edward; Sylvester, Gregg C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that reducing the US 4-dose PCV13 schedule to a 3-dose schedule may provide cost savings, despite more childhood pneumococcal disease. The study also stressed that dose reduction should be coupled with improved PCV adherence, however, US PCV uptake has leveled-off since 2008. An estimated 24-36% of US children aged 5-19 months are already receiving a reduced PCV schedule (i.e., missing ≥1 dose). This raises a practical concern that, under a reduced, 3-dose schedule, a similar proportion of children may receive ≤2 doses. It is also unknown if a reduced, 3-dose PCV schedule in the United States will afford the same disease protection as 3-dose schedules used elsewhere, given lower US PCV adherence. Finally, more assurance is needed that, under a reduced schedule, racial, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities in PCV adherence will not correspond with disproportionately higher rates of pneumococcal disease among poor or minority children. PMID:26376039

  16. Development and validation of the Affective Self Rating Scale for manic, depressive, and mixed affective states.

    PubMed

    Adler, Mats; Liberg, Benny; Andersson, Stig; Isacsson, Göran; Hetta, Jerker

    2008-01-01

    Most rating scales for affective disorders measure either depressive or hypomanic/manic symptoms and there are few scales for hypomania/mania in a self-rating format. We wanted to develop and validate a self-rating scale for comprehensive assessment of depressive, manic/hypomanic and mixed affective states. We developed an 18-item self-rating scale starting with the DSM-IV criteria for depression and mania, with subscales for depression and mania. The scale was evaluated on 61 patients with a diagnosis of affective disorder, predominantly bipolar disorder type I, using Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hypomania Interview Guide-Clinical version (HIGH-C) and Clinical Global Impression scale, modified for bipolar patients (CGI-BP) as reference scales. Internal consistency of the scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for the depression subscale and 0.91 for the mania subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients (two-tailed) between the depression subscale and MADRS was 0.74 (P<0.01) and between mania subscale and HIGH-C 0.80 (P<0.01). A rotated factor analysis of the scale supported the separation of symptoms in the mania and depression subscale. We established that the self-rating scales sensitivity to identify mixed states, with combined cut-offs on the MADRS and HIGH-C as reference, was 0.90 with a specificity of 0.71. The study shows that the Affective Self Rating Scale is highly correlated with ratings of established interview scales for depression and mania and that it may aid the detection of mixed affective states. PMID:18569776

  17. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  18. How Is a Teacher Rating Scale Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of children with Attention Deficit Disorder should include use of teacher rating scales. Rater biases, positive and negative halo effects, practice effects, and other problems are outweighed by the ease of use, low cost, and reasonable reliability and validity of teacher rating scales. (Author/DB)

  19. Same Constructs, Different Results: Examining the Consistency of Two Behavior-Rating Scales with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Bour, Jennifer L.; Sidebottom, Kristina J.; Murphy, Sara B.; Hakman, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band or multidimensional behavior-rating scales are common tools for evaluating children. Two popular behavior-rating scales, the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000), have undergone downward extensions so that the…

  20. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  1. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  2. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  3. Reliability and Structural Validity of The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…

  4. Expert Practitioner's Views about the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…

  5. Discriminant Validity of a Teacher-Developed Rating Scale for Specific Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamada, Roger S.; Tomikawa, Sandra

    Local teachers and other school personnel in Hawaii expressed a need for operational guidelines to use in deciding whether or not to refer students for diagnostic evaluations for specific learning disabilities (SLD). This project was designed to evaluate whether the Windward Rating Scale (WRS), a locally-developed teacher rating scale of student…

  6. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  7. Quantum quenches in free field theory: universal scaling at any rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Galante, Damián A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum quenches display universal scaling in several regimes. For quenches which start from a gapped phase and cross a critical point, with a rate slow compared to the initial gap, many systems obey Kibble-Zurek scaling. More recently, a different scaling behaviour has been shown to occur when the quench rate is fast compared to all other physical scales, but still slow compared to the UV cutoff. We investigate the passage from fast to slow quenches in scalar and fermionic free field theories with time dependent masses for which the dynamics can be solved exactly for all quench rates. We find that renormalized one point functions smoothly cross over between the regimes.

  8. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  9. Rating scales for states for anxiety, depression, mania and schizophrenia. A multiaxial approach.

    PubMed

    Kastrup, M; Bech, P; Rafaelsen, O J

    1986-01-01

    Rating scales are considered to be an efficient instrument in the assessment of treatment effect, and during the last 25 years a number of rating scales has been constructed for measuring states of anxiety, depression, mania and schizophrenia. The paper describes some of the most frequently used scales. Time has come to coordinate the existing rating scales and to agree upon common operational definitions in the judgement of psychopathological symptoms. Basic practical guidelines to be used in both clinical practice and research are given. PMID:2881427

  10. The Dissipation Rate Transport Equation and Subgrid-Scale Models in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Ye, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence modeling. The difficulties arc increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statistical theory of rotating turbulence. In the strong rotation limit, the theory predicts a turbulent steady state in which the inertial range energy spectrum scales as k(sup -2) and the turbulent time scale is the inverse rotation rate. This scaling has been derived previously by heuristic arguments.

  11. Variability in ESL Essay Rating Processes: The Role of the Rating Scale and Rater Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Various factors contribute to variability in English as a second language (ESL) essay scores and rating processes. Most previous research, however, has focused on score variability in relation to task, rater, and essay characteristics. A few studies have examined variability in essay rating processes. The current study used think-aloud protocols…

  12. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  13. Area Scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory as Predictors of School Performance and Rating Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Alan W.; Abrahams, Norman M.

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the area (homogeneous) scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory (NVII) as predictors of Class "A" school achievement and as measures of rating differentiation by comparing specific occupational scales with more general interest measures--the NVII area scales. The NVII was…

  14. Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for Preschool Children: A Revised, Brief, Age-Specific Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) is one of the most commonly used measures of child behavior problems. However, the scale length and the appropriateness of some of the items on the scale may reduce the usefulness of the CTRS-R for use with preschoolers. In this study, a Graded Response Model analysis based on Item Response Theory…

  15. Pore-Scale Process Coupling and Effective Surface Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Subsurface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript provides a review of pore-scale researches in literature including experimental and numerical approaches, and scale-dependent behavior of geochemical and biogeochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media. A mathematical equation that can be used to predict the scale-dependent behavior of geochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media has been derived. The derived effective rate expression explicitly links the effective reaction rate constant to the intrinsic rate constant, and to the pore-scale variations in reactant concentrations in porous media. Molecular simulations to calculate the intrinsic rate constants were provided. A few examples of pore-scale simulations were used to demonstrate the application of the equation to calculate effective rate constants in heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the deviation of effective rate constant from the intrinsic rate in heterogeneous porous media is caused by the pore-scale distributions of reactants and their correlation, which are affected by the pore-scale coupling of reactions and transport.

  16. [Reliability and factorial structure of a rating scale for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Oda, E; Ohashi, Y; Tashiro, K; Mizuno, Y; Kowa, H; Yanagisawa, N

    1996-11-01

    The Modified Norris Scale is a rating scale for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which consists of two parts, the Limb Norris Scale and the Norris Bulbar Scale. The Limb Scale has 21 items to evaluate extremity function and the Bulbar Scale has 13 items to evaluate bulbar function. Each item is rated in 4 ordinal categories. Considering the habitual difference, we translated the English scale into Japanese one with minor modification, and added more detailed explanations for all categories of each item. Then we examined reliability and factorial structure of the translated scale. The subjects were 23 patients with motor disturbance and each subject was rated twice by 2-4 neurologists. As a measure of reliability, the Kappa coefficient proposed by Cohen (1960) and Kraemer (1980) was calculated for each item and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated for total scores of each of two scales. To analyze the factorial structure, the factor analysis was carried out. The minimum and the maximum Kappa values were .70 and .97 for intra-rater reliability of the Limb Scale's items, .60 and .83 for inter-rater reliability of the Limb Scale's items, .41 and 1.00 for intra-rater reliability of the Bulbar Scale's items and .26 and .81 for inter-rater reliability of the Bulbar Scale's items, respectively. Concerning the factorial structure, the contribution of the first factor was 83.6% for the Limb Scale and that for the Bulbar Scale was 66.7%. This indicates unidimensionality of both Scales. The ICCs for the total scores were .97 (95%C.I. .95-.99) for the Limb Scale and .86 (.73-.93) for the Bulbar Scale, respectively. On the basis of these results, the Scale has unidimensionality and high reliability enough for practical use. PMID:8951891

  17. Two-parameter characterization of chromosome-scale recombination rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan

    2009-12-01

    The genome-wide recombination rate (RR) of a species is often described by one parameter, the ratio between total genetic map length (G) and physical map length (P), measured in centimorgans per megabase (cM/Mb). The value of this parameter varies greatly between species, but the cause for these differences is not entirely clear. A constraining factor of overall RR in a species, which may cause increased RR for smaller chromosomes, is the requirement of at least one chiasma per chromosome (or chromosome arm) per meiosis. In the present study, we quantify the relative excess of recombination events on smaller chromosomes by a linear regression model, which relates the genetic length of chromosomes to their physical length. We find for several species that the two-parameter regression, G = G(0) + k x P , provides a better characterization of the relationship between genetic and physical map length than the one-parameter regression that runs through the origin. A nonzero intercept (G(0)) indicates a relative excess of recombination on smaller chromosomes in a genome. Given G(0), the parameter k predicts the increase of genetic map length over the increase of physical map length. The observed values of G(0) have a similar magnitude for diverse species, whereas k varies by two orders of magnitude. The implications of this strategy for the genetic maps of human, mouse, rat, chicken, honeybee, worm, and yeast are discussed. PMID:19752285

  18. Improving Patient's Primary Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Leguelinel-Blache, Géraldine; Dubois, Florent; Bouvet, Sophie; Roux-Marson, Clarisse; Arnaud, Fabrice; Castelli, Christel; Ray, Valérie; Kinowski, Jean-Marie; Sotto, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quality of transitions of care is one of the first concerns in patient safety. Redesigning the discharge process to incorporate clinical pharmacy activities could reduce the incidence of postdischarge adverse events by improving medication adherence. The present study investigated the value of pharmacist counseling sessions on primary medication adherence after hospital discharge. This study was conducted in a 1844-bed hospital in France. It was divided in an observational period and an interventional period of 3 months each. In both periods, ward-based clinical pharmacists performed medication reconciliation and inpatient follow-up. In interventional period, initial counseling and discharge counseling sessions were added to pharmaceutical care. The primary medication adherence was assessed by calling community pharmacists 7 days after patient discharge. We compared the measure of adherence between the patients from the observational period (n = 201) and the interventional period (n = 193). The rate of patients who were adherent increased from 51.0% to 66.7% between both periods (P < 0.01). When discharge counseling was performed (n = 78), this rate rose to 79.7% (P < 0.001). The multivariate regression performed on data from both periods showed that age of at least 78 years old, and 3 or less new medications on discharge order were predictive factors of adherence. New medications ordered at discharge represented 42.0% (n = 1018/2426) of all medications on discharge order. The rate of unfilled new medications decreased from 50.2% in the observational period to 32.5% in the interventional period (P < 10−7). However, patients included in the observational period were not significantly more often readmitted or visited the emergency department than the patients who experienced discharge counseling during the interventional period (45.3% vs. 46.2%; P = 0.89). This study highlights that discharge counseling sessions are

  19. Cross-Informant Agreement for Ratings for Social Skill and Problem Behavior Ratings: An Investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Cook, Clayton R.; Vance, Michael J.; Kettler, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills…

  20. Medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders: an observational survey involving patients before they switch to long-acting injectable risperidone

    PubMed Central

    Baylé, Franck Jean; Tessier, Arnaud; Bouju, Sophie; Misdrahi, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in psychosis is important in preventing relapse. Long-acting depot preparations can prevent covert non-adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes. In this observational survey the main objective is to evaluate medication adherence and its determinants for oral treatment in a large sample of patients with psychosis. Methods In this cross-sectional survey medication adherence for oral treatment was assessed by patients using the patient-rated Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). Data were collected by physicians on patients with a recent acute psychotic episode before switching to long-acting injectable risperidone. Other evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression – Severity), patients’ insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale item G12), treatment acceptance (clinician-rated Compliance Rating Scale), and therapeutic alliance (patient-rated 4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale). Results A total of 399 psychiatrists enrolled 1,887 patients (mean age 36.8±11.9 years; 61.6% had schizophrenia). Adherence to oral medication was “low” in 53.2% of patients, “medium” in 29.5%, and “high” in 17.3%. Of patients with psychiatrist-rated active acceptance of treatment, 70% had “medium” or “high” MAQ scores (P<0.0001). Medication adherence was significantly associated with therapeutic alliance (4-Point ordinal Alliance Scale score; P<0.0001). Patient age was significantly associated with adherence: mean age increased with greater adherence (35.6, 36.7, and 38.6 years for patients with “low”, “medium”, and “high” levels of adherence, respectively; P=0.0007), while age <40 years was associated with “low” MAQ classification (P=0.0003). Poor adherence was also associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (P=0.0083), more severe disease (Clinical Global Impression – Severity ≥4; P<0.0001), and lower insight (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

  1. Correlates of Adherence to Varenicline Among HIV+ Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Gonzalez, Mirelis; Krebs, Paul; Wong, Selena; Furberg, Robert; Sherman, Scott; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Urbina, Anthony; Cleland, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low rates of adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy may limit the effectiveness of treatment. However, few studies have examined adherence in smoking cessation trials thus, there is a limited understanding of factors that influence adherence behaviors. This brief report analyzes correlates of adherence to varenicline among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Study participants were recruited from three HIV care centers in New York City and enrolled in a three-arm randomized controlled pilot study in which all subjects received varenicline. At the 1-month study visit, there were no significant differences in adherence by study condition, therefore we combined treatment arms to examine correlates of adherence (n = 127). We used pill counts to assess varenicline adherence, defined as taking at least 80% of the prescribed dose. We conducted a multivariate path analysis to assess factors proposed by the information-motivation-behavioral skills model to predict adherence. Results: Only 56% of smokers were at least 80% adherent to varenicline at 1 month. Adherence-related information, self-efficacy, a college degree, and non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity were associated with increased varenicline adherence. In path analysis, information and motivation were associated with increased adherence self-efficacy, and adherence self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence, but with marginal significance. These associations with adherence were no longer significant after controlling for race/ethnicity and education. Conclusions: Further exploration of the role of a modifiable correlates of adherence, such as adherence-related information, motivation and self-efficacy is warranted. Interventions are needed that can address disparities in these and other psychosocial factors that may mediate poor medication adherence. PMID:26180221

  2. Screening accuracy of Level 2 autism spectrum disorder rating scales. A review of selected instruments.

    PubMed

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be ASD-specific, and have published evidence of diagnostic validity in peer-reviewed journals. The five scales reviewed were: the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Gilliam Autism Rating Scale/Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS/GARS-2), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS). Twenty total studies were located, most examining the SCQ. Research on the other scales was limited. Comparisons between scales were few and available evidence of diagnostic validity is scarce for certain subpopulations (e.g., lower functioning individuals, PDDNOS). Overall, the SCQ performed well, the SRS and ASSQ showed promise, and the GARS/GARS-2 and ASDS demonstrated poor sensitivity. This review indicates that Level 2 ASD caregiver-completed rating scales are in need of much more scientific scrutiny. PMID:20591956

  3. Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may

  4. Infection Control Practice in the Operating Room: Staff Adherence to Existing Policies in a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Tennant, Ingrid A; McGaw, Clarence D; Harding, Hyacinth; Walters, Christine A; Crandon, Ivor W

    2013-01-01

    Context: Infection control interventions are important for containing surgery-related infections. For this reason, the modern operating room (OR) should have well-developed infection control policies. The efficacy of these policies depends on how well the OR staff adhere to them. There is a lack of available data documenting adherence to infection control policies. Objective: To evaluate OR staff adherence to existing infection control policies in Jamaica. Methods: We administered a questionnaire to all OR staff to assess their training, knowledge of local infection control protocols, and practice with regard to 8 randomly selected guidelines. Adherence to each guideline was rated with fixed-choice items on a 4-point Likert scale. The sum of points determined the adherence score. Two respondent groups were defined: adherent (score > 26) and nonadherent (score ≤ 26). We evaluated the relationship between respondent group and age, sex, occupational rank, and time since completion of basic medical training. We used χ2 and Fisher exact tests to assess associations and t tests to compare means between variables of interest. Results: The sample comprised 132 participants (90 physicians and 42 nurses) with a mean age of 36 (standard deviation ± 9.5) years. Overall, 40.1% were adherent to existing protocols. There was no significant association between the distribution of adherence scores and sex (p = 0.319), time since completion of basic training (p = 0.595), occupational rank (p = 0.461), or age (p = 0.949). Overall, 19% felt their knowledge of infection control practices was inadequate. Those with working knowledge of infection control practices attained it mostly through informal communication (80.4%) and self-directed research (62.6%). Conclusion: New approaches to the problem of nonadherence to infection control guidelines are needed in the Caribbean. Several unique cultural, financial, and environmental factors influence adherence in this region, in contrast to

  5. Potential Savings From Increasing Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy in Medicaid-Enrolled Children

    PubMed Central

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; McRoy, Luceta; Pisu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Many asthma-related exacerbations could be prevented by consistent use of daily inhaled corticosteroid therapy (ICS-Rx). Objectives We sought to measure the potential cost savings that could accrue from increasing ICS-Rx adherence in children. Study Design We measured observed costs for a cohort of 43,156 Medicaid-enrolled children in 14 southern states whose initial ICS-Rx was prescribed in 2007. Methods Adherence rates and associated costs were calculated from Medicaid claims. Children were categorized as high or low adherence based on the ratio of ICS-Rx claims filled to total asthma drug claims. Branching tree simulation was used to project the potential cost savings achieved by increasing the proportion of children with ICS-Rx to total asthma Rx ratios greater than 0.5 to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Results Increasing the proportion of children who maintain higher adherence after initial ICS-Rx to 40% would generate savings of $95 per child per year. An intervention costing $10 per member per month that resulted in even half of the children maintaining high adherence would generate a 98% return on investment for managed care plans or state Medicaid programs. Net costs decreased incrementally at each level of increase in ICS-Rx adherence. The projected Medicaid cost savings for these 14 states in 2007 ranged from $8.2 million if 40% of the children achieved high adherence, to $57.5 million if 80% achieved high adherence. Conclusions If effective large-scale interventions can be found, there are substantial cost savings to be gained from even modest increases in real-world adherence to ICS-Rx among Medicaid-enrolled children with asthma. PMID:25880622

  6. Weight loss intervention adherence and factors promoting adherence: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Bird, Yelena; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adhering to weight loss interventions is difficult for many people. The majority of those who are overweight or obese and attempt to lose weight are simply not successful. The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify overall adherence rates for various weight loss interventions and 2) to provide pooled estimates for factors associated with improved adherence to weight loss interventions. Methods We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all studies published between January 2004 and August 2015 that reviewed weight loss intervention adherence. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and checking the methodological quality, 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall adherence rate was 60.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 53.6–67.2). The following three main variables were found to impact adherence: 1) supervised attendance programs had higher adherence rates than those with no supervision (rate ratio [RR] 1.65; 95% CI 1.54–1.77); 2) interventions that offered social support had higher adherence than those without social support (RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.24–1.34); and 3) dietary intervention alone had higher adherence than exercise programs alone (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.19–1.35). Conclusion A substantial proportion of people do not adhere to weight loss interventions. Programs supervising attendance, offering social support, and focusing on dietary modification have better adherence than interventions not supervising attendance, not offering social support, and focusing exclusively on exercise. PMID:27574404

  7. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  8. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-07-15

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  9. Treatment adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yunfei; Yin, Rulan; Fu, Ting; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Guo, Genkai; Li, Liren; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) may lead to joint damage and function loss. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore Chinese RA patients’ adherence rates and investigate potential risk factors for nonadherence. Methods A total of 122 RA patients were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from January 2014 to April 2015. Patients were asked to complete a set of standardized self-report questionnaires (Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Short Form-36 questionnaire, 28-joint Disease Activity Score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Visual Analog Scale). Independent samples t-tests, chi-square analyses, and logistic regression modeling were used to analyze these data. Results Based on Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology, 38% of the patients adhered to DMARDs. Adherence was associated with education, income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs. Other demographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with adherence. Logistic regression models identified income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs as predictors of medication nonadherence. Conclusion In this study, 62% of patients with RA were not adherent to their DMARD prescription. Education, income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs were associated with medication adherence, and income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs were independent predictors of medication adherence in patients with RA. These findings could help medical personnel develop helpful interventions to improve adherence in RA patients by paying more attention to the patients with these accompanying risk factors and, finally, improve RA patients’ quality of life. PMID:27217726

  10. Development and Validation of a Clinical Scale for Rating the Severity of Blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Hallett, Mark; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Gigante, Angelo F.; Ferrazzano, Gina; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Existing scales for rating the severity of blepharospasm (BSP) are limited by a number of potential drawbacks. We therefore developed and validated a novel scale for rating the severity of BSP. The development of the scale started with careful examination of the clinical spectrum of the condition by a panel of experts who selected phenomenological aspects thought to be relevant to disease severity. Thereafter, selected items were first checked for reliability, then reliable items were combined to generate the scale, and clinimetric properties of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the confidence with which the scale could be used by people without high levels of movement disorders skill was assessed. The new scale, based on objective criteria, yielded moderate to almost perfect reliability, acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, partial correlations with a prior severity scale and with a quality of life scale, and good sensitivity to change. Despite a few limitations, the foregoing features make the novel scale more suitable than existing scales to assess the severity of BSP in natural history and pathophysiologic studies as well as in clinical trials. PMID:25847472

  11. Assessing culturally different students for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using behavior rating scales.

    PubMed

    Reid, R; DuPaul, G J; Power, T J; Anastopoulos, A D; Rogers-Adkinson, D; Noll, M B; Riccio, C

    1998-06-01

    Behavior rating scales are commonly used in the assessment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is little information available concerning the extent to which scales are valid with culturally different students. This study explored the use of the ADHD-IV Rating Scale School Version with male Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) students from ages 5 to 18 years. Teachers rated AA students higher on all symptoms across all age groups. LISREL analysis indicated that scale does not perform identically across groups. This was supported by the results of multidimensional scaling with suggested that there is a different relation between items across groups. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:9650625

  12. A Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The…

  13. Assessing pain intensity following spinal cord injury: should rating scales measure 'overall' or 'maximal' values?

    PubMed

    Frank, Andrew O; Spyridonis, Fotios; Ghinea, Gheorghita

    2015-03-01

    Rating scales (RSs) are important for the assessment of pain intensity (PI) following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a Graphic Rating Scale, this pilot study measured an 'overall' level of PI repeated about every 2 h over 1 day and compared it with maximal PI scores reported previously. Patients were categorized into severity groups according to the overall Graphic Rating Scale score at initial assessment (T0). Eight men and six women (mean age 53.1; range 28-75) participated. Comparison of the overall PI scores and their changes over time with the maximal PI scores reported previously showed loss of patients in the severe group and less pronounced PI changes over time. Rating scales used in spinal cord injury services should measure maximal pain experienced 'right now' to eliminate potential averaging out of pain over time, which might allow physicians to assist patients in understanding their pain and begin their adjustment. PMID:25419691

  14. A cross-syndrome evaluation of a new attention rating scale: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Nerelie C; Gray, Kylie M; Taffe, John R; Cornish, Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Whilst neuropsychological research has enhanced our understanding of inattentive and hyperactive behaviours among children with intellectual disability (ID), the absence of rating scales developed for this group continues to be a gap in knowledge. This study examined these behaviours in 176 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS), or idiopathic ID using a newly developed teacher rating scale, the Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability. Findings suggested that children with ASD had a significantly greater breadth of hyperactive/impulsive behaviours than those with DS or idiopathic ID. These findings support existing research suggesting differing profiles of attention and activity across groups. Understanding disorder-specific profiles has implications for developing strategies to support students with ID in the classroom. PMID:27348856

  15. HIGH RATE NUTRIENT REMOVAL FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS. BENCH SCALE AND DEMONSTRATION SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high rate physical/chemical treatment system has been evaluated for the removal of suspended solids and the macronutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, from combined sewer overflow. The system utilized a single unit process concept consisting of in-line chemical addition, coagulat...

  16. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Virologic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M.; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R.; Peterson, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The often cited need to achieve ≥95% (nearly perfect) adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for successful virologic outcomes in HIV may present a barrier to initiation of therapy in the early stages of HIV. This meta-analysis synthesized 43 studies (27,905 participants) performed across >26 countries, to determine the relationship between cut-off point for optimal adherence to ART and virologic outcomes. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect model to calculate pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The mean rate of patients reporting optimal adherence was 63.4%. Compared with suboptimal adherence, optimal adherence was associated with a lower risk of virologic failure (0.34; 95% CI: 0.26–0.44). There were no significant differences in the pooled odds ratios among different optimal adherence thresholds (≥98–100%, ≥95%, ≥80–90%). Study design (randomized controlled trial vs observational study) (regression coefficient 0.74, 95% CI: 0.04–1.43, P < 0.05) and study region (developing vs developed countries; regression coefficient 0.56, 95% CI: 0.01–1.12, P < 0.05) remained as independent predictors of between-study heterogeneity, with more patients with optimal adherence from developing countries or randomized controlled trials experiencing virologic failure. The threshold for optimal adherence to achieve better virologic outcomes appears to be wider than the commonly used cut-off point (≥95% adherence). The cut-off point for optimal adherence could be redefined to a slightly lower level to encourage the prescribing ART at an early stage of HIV infection. PMID:27082595

  17. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRS-S was found to have…

  18. Psychometric Analysis of the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale among University Population of Poor Sleepers in India

    PubMed Central

    Veqar, Zubia; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale is a 65 item self administered open source questionnaire. The scale is widely used in clinical practice but its psychometric properties are not well established. Therefore keeping in mind this lacuna the current study was designed for university population of poor sleepers in India. Aims: The purpose of this study was to establish the Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index test- retest reliability, validity and internal consistency of Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale. Materials and Methods: Twenty five subjects were randomly chosen from the screened population of poor sleepers. Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Insomnia severity index were administered on test day. Retest was administered after one week. Results: Eight males and seventeen females with mean age 24 + 7.04 were recruited. The test retest reliability for Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale total score showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1-0.93). The results also show that the total score is moderately correlated with Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index (r-0.31) and moderately correlated with Insomnia severity index (r-0.49). Internal consistency for the test was excellent (Cronbach's alpha- 0.930) Conclusion: The study findings suggest that Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good validity for university population of poor sleepers in India. It is an important first line of assessment scale for screening of sleep problems. PMID:24843848

  19. Evaluating the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS): Assessing Differences between the First and Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Laura M.; Whitebook, Marcy; Wishard, Alison; Howes, Carollee

    2003-01-01

    Before 1998, most large-scale studies of center-based child care programs measured quality using the 1980 version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). To know whether data from studies conducted after 1998 using the revised ECERS-R can be fairly compared to data from studies using the 1980 ECERS, simultaneous assessments using…

  20. Family Child Care Environment Rating Scale Revised Edition (FCCERS-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma; Cryer, Debby; Clifford, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Featuring a new spiral binding, the FCCERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, "The Family Day Care Rating Scale." Designed for use in family child care programs, it is suitable for programs serving children from infancy through school-age. Following extensive input from users of the original scale,…

  1. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  2. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  3. Screening Accuracy of Level 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scales: A Review of Selected Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be…

  4. Assessing and Testing Interrater Agreement on a Single Target Using Multi-Item Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Michael K.

    2001-01-01

    Developed an index for assessing interrater agreement with respect to a single target using a multi-item rating scale. The variance of rater mean scale scores is used as the numerator of the agreement index. Studied four variants of a disattenuated agreement index that vary in the random response term used as the denominator. (SLD)

  5. Reliability of delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98) using variance-based multivariate modelling.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Slor, Chantal J; Leonard, Maeve; Witlox, Joost; de Jonghe, Jos F M; Macdonald, Alastair J D; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David

    2013-07-01

    Delirium's characteristic fluctuation in symptom severity complicates the assessment of test-retest reliability of scales using classical analyses, but application of modelling to longitudinal data offers a new approach. We evaluated test-retest reliability of the delirium rating scale (DRS) and delirium rating scale-revised-98 (DRS-R98), two widely used instruments with high validity and inter-rater reliability. Two existing longitudinal datasets for each scale included DSM-IV criteria for delirium diagnosis and repeated measurements using the DRS or DRS-R98. To estimate the reliability coefficients RT and RΛ for each scale we used a macros provided by Dr. Laenen at http://www.ibiostat.be/software/measurement.asp. For each dataset a linear mixed-effects model was fitted to estimate the variance-covariance parameters. A total of 531 cases with between 4 and 9 measurement points across studies including both delirious and non-delirious patients. Comorbid dementia in the datasets varied from 27% to 55%. Overall RT for the DRS were 0.71 and 0.50 and for DRS-R98 0.75 and 0.84. RΛ values for DRS were 0.99 and 0.98 and for DRS-R98 were 0.92 and 0.96. Individual RT measures for DRS-R98 and DRS across visits within studies showed more range than overall values. Our models found high overall reliability for both scales. Multiple factors impact a scale's reliability values including sample size, repeated measurements, patient population, etc in addition to rater variability. PMID:23522935

  6. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = −0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = −0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = −0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = −0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = −0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  7. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = -0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = -0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  8. Evaluation of medication adherence in Lebanese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Mohammad; Al-Hajje, Amal; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Zein, Salam; Bawab, Wafa; Bou Zeid, Mayssam; El Hajj, Maya; Salameh, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    Controlling hypertension is essential in cardiovascular diseases. Poor medication adherence is associated with poor disease outcomes, waste of healthcare resources, and contributes to reduced blood pressure control. This study evaluates treatment adherence to antihypertensive therapy in Lebanese hypertensive patients by estimating the proportion of adherent hypertensive patients using a validated tool and investigates what factors predict this behavior. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 210 hypertensive outpatients selected from clinics located in tertiary-care hospitals and from private cardiology clinics located in Beirut. Adherence level was measured using a validated 8-item Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMMAS). Among 210 patients, 50.5% showed high adherence, 27.1% medium adherence, and 22.4% low adherence to medication. Mean MMMAS score was 6.59±2.0. In bivariate analyses, having controlled blood pressure (p=0.003) and taking a combination drug (p=0.023) were predictors of high adherence. Forgetfulness (p<0.01), complicated drug regimen (p=0.001), and side effects (p=0.006) were predictors of low adherence after multiple liner regression. Logistic regression results showed that calcium channel blockers (p=0.030) were associated with increased adherence levels. In conclusion, developing multidisciplinary intervention programs to address the factors identified, in addition to educational strategies targeting healthcare providers, are necessary to enhance patient adherence. PMID:26232704

  9. [Adherence to chronic medication: also a frequent problem in Belgium!].

    PubMed

    Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless

  10. Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scales Based on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Hersey, Denise P; Leder, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    Identification of pharyngeal residue severity located in the valleculae and pyriform sinuses has always been a primary goal during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Pharyngeal residue is a clinical sign of potential prandial aspiration making an accurate description of its severity an important but difficult challenge. A reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scale for FEES would be beneficial. A systematic review of the published English language literature since 1995 was conducted to determine the quality of existing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales based on FEES. Databases were searched using controlled vocabulary words and synonymous free text words for topics of interest (deglutition disorders, pharyngeal residue, endoscopy, videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic technology, aspiration, etc.) and outcomes of interest (scores, scales, grades, tests, FEES, etc.). Search strategies were adjusted for syntax appropriate for each database/platform. Data sources included MEDLINE (OvidSP 1946-April Week 3 2015), Embase (OvidSP 1974-2015 April 20), Scopus (Elsevier), and the unindexed material in PubMed (NLM/NIH) were searched for relevant articles. Supplementary efforts to identify studies included checking reference lists of articles retrieved. Scales were compared using qualitative properties (sample size, severity definitions, number of raters, and raters' experience and training) and psychometric analyses (randomization, intra- and inter-rater reliability, and construct validity). Seven articles describing pharyngeal residue severity rating scales met inclusion criteria. Six of seven scales had insufficient data to support their use as evidenced by methodological weaknesses with both qualitative properties and psychometric analyses. There is a need for qualitative and psychometrically reliable, validated, and generalizable pharyngeal residue severity rating scales that are anatomically specific, image

  11. Multi-scale fluctuations of bedload transport rates over steep slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mettra, F.; Heyman, J.; Ancey, C.; Fu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The bedload transport rate is of large fluctuation across several time scales. Understanding bedload transport fluctuation would be helpful for modeling the transport process. In this talk, we first report a multi-scale phenomenon of fluctuation of bedload transport rate by an experimental study. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the fluctuations of bedload transport rates decay with the sampling time scales. A clear three-stage scale-dependent decaying process can be found. Then, an expression for the dependence of the fluctuation of bedload transport rates on the sampling time scales is derived from a stochastic theory (Ancey et al., 2008). The expression is consistent with experimental observations demonstrating that the bedload transport rates behave as a homogeneous Piosson process at the small time scales, which is consistent with Einstein's theory. However, at the media and large time scales, the internal memory of the stochastic sediment dynamics would induce more fluctuations. It is closely related to the collective entrainment mechanism of bedload transport which was newly introduced by Ancey's theory. Together with the very recent finding by Heyman et al. (2012), our theoretical expressions can calibrate all the necessary parameters in Ancey's theory by the experimental observation of bedload transport rates.; The fluctuation of bedload transport rates at different sampling time scales. Experimental conditionst; τs, Shields stress; Re, Reynolds number; Red, particle Reynolds number; Fr, Froud number;θ, slope angle (%); u, mean fluid velocity (m/s); h, mean water depth (cm); Qi, mean input solid discharge (particles/s); Qo, mean output solid discharge (particles/s).

  12. Predicting Malawian Women’s Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N.; Lee, Jerry W.; Gleason, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Results Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. Conclusions This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public health The knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to

  13. Large-scale enrichment of mobilized CD34+ peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors by removal of nylon wool-adherent mature cells.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, M; Siena, S; Bregni, M; Ravagnani, F; Vitello, F; Belli, N; Dodero, A; Magni, M; Bonadonna, G; Gianni, A M

    1994-12-01

    With the aim of facilitating the ex vivo manipulation of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitors (CPCs = circulating progenitor cells) collected by leukapheresis, we removed polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes that naturally adhere to nylon wool fibers. Leukapheresed cells harvested at the time of hematopoietic recovery after cancer therapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide plus hematopoietic growth factors were incubated with nylon wool fibers for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Evaluation of the cells non-adherent to the nylon wool in all experiments (n = 14) showed that the median recovery of nucleated cells and CPCs detected as CD34+ cells, CFU-GM and BFU-E was 16.4% (range 4.8%-34.0%), 60.0% (range 30.8-80.8%), 60.9% (range 33.4-74.5%) and 65.5% (range 30.8-69.2%), respectively. Therefore exposure to the nylon wool determined a selective removal of mature cells and a complementary enrichment of CPCs. The wide range of results depended on the significantly different cell compositions of the unmanipulated leukaphereses. The latter from patients receiving rhG-CSF (n = 10) comprised a median of 88.5% (range 77.8-93.8%) and 11.5% (range 6.2-22.2%) polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, respectively. In contrast, leukaphereses from patients receiving rhGM-CSF or PIXY321 (n = 4) comprised a median of 71.1% (range 55.4-85.0%) and 28.9% (range 15.0-44.6%) polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7536068

  14. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  15. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S)". Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the "GRS-S" Spanish Form. Results…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  17. Evaluation of the Bess TRS-CA Using the Rasch Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating System for Children and Adolescents (BESS TRS-CA; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) screener using Rasch Rating Scale model (RSM) methodology to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items. Data from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children…

  18. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  19. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  20. Increased Rate of Apoptosis and Diminished Phagocytic Ability of Human Neutrophils Infected with Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Brest, Patrick; Bétis, Frédéric; Çuburu, Nicolas; Selva, Eric; Herrant, Magali; Servin, Alain; Auberger, Patrick; Hofman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The proinflammatory effect of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains have been recently demonstrated in vitro by showing that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transepithelial migration is induced after bacterial colonization of apical intestinal monolayers. The effect of Afa/Dr DAEC-PMN interaction on PMN behavior has been not investigated. Because of the putative virulence mechanism of PMN apoptosis during infectious diseases and taking into account the high level of expression of the decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the receptor of Afa/Dr DAEC on PMNs, we sought to determine whether infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains could promote cell apoptosis. We looked at the behavior of PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains once they had transmigrated across polarized monolayers of intestinal (T84) cells. Infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced PMN apoptosis characterized by morphological nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and a high level of annexin V expression. However, transmigrated and nontransmigrated PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains showed similar elevated global caspase activities. PMN apoptosis depended on their agglutination, induced by Afa/Dr DAEC, and was still observed after preincubation of PMNs with anti-CD55 and/or anti-CD66 antibodies. Low levels of phagocytosis of Afa/Dr DAEC strains were observed both in nontransmigrated and in transmigrated PMNs compared to that observed with the control E. coli DH5α strain. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that interaction of Afa/Dr DAEC with PMNs may increase the bacterial virulence both by inducing PMN apoptosis through an agglutination process and by diminishing their phagocytic capacity. PMID:15385473

  1. Assessment and treatment of dysthymia. The development of the Cornell dysthymia rating scale.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J

    1997-01-01

    The understanding and classification of persistently depressed mood has undergone many changes since the term 'dysthymia' was first used nearly 150 years ago. Originally it was applied to both melancholia and mania; later it was applied to depressive personality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-III in 1980 and in subsequent updates classified dysthymia as a mood disorder, characterized by a frequently insidious onset and a course that is chronic and unremitting. The assessment of clinical response in the pharmacologic treatment of dysthymia has been more difficult than that for major depression. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, among others, is oriented towards episodic rather than chronic states of depression. A new rating scale, the Cornell Dysthymia Rating Scale, has been developed to better assess milder symptomatology in chronically depressed patients. Early studies suggest its utility, but further validation of the scale is needed in patients with dysthymia and without major depression. PMID:19698530

  2. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  3. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however

  4. Enhancing adherence through education.

    PubMed

    Smrtka, Jennifer; Caon, Christina; Saunders, Carol; Becker, Brenda L; Baxter, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has advanced greatly since the introduction of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in the early 1990s. Although the DMTs have exhibited significant efficacy in relapsing-remitting MS and other forms of the disease, the degree of benefit depends heavily on patient adherence to recommended regimens. This article addresses some of the most pressing areas of unmet need in educating advanced-practice nurses, neurologists, patients, and support care partners regarding strategies that can overcome obstacles to adherence. The observations presented here are based on clinical experience with real-life cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural impediments to adherence. The article also explores the ways in which adherence may be affected by emerging therapies for MS (such as oral agents) as well as the educational needs that will arise with the further evolution of MS care. PMID:21049830

  5. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  6. Adherence to Insulin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarbacker, G Blair; Urteaga, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF Six million people with diabetes use insulin either alone or in combination with an oral medication. Many barriers exist that lead to poor adherence with insulin. However, there is an underwhelming amount of data on interventions to address these barriers and improve insulin adherence. Until pharmacological advancements create easier, more acceptable insulin regimens, it is imperative to involve patients in shared decision-making. PMID:27574371

  7. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  8. Cannabis use and involuntary admission may mediate long-term adherence in first-episode psychosis patients: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine factors associated with treatment adherence in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients followed up over 8 years, especially involuntary first admission and stopping cannabis use. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients collected data on symptoms, adherence, functioning, and substance use. Adherence to treatment was the main outcome variable and was categorized as ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Cannabis use during follow-up was stratified as continued use, stopped use, and never used. Bivariate and logistic regression models identified factors significantly associated with adherence and changes in adherence over the 8-year follow-up period. Results Of the 98 FEP patients analyzed at baseline, 57.1% had involuntary first admission, 74.4% bad adherence, and 52% cannabis use. Good adherence at baseline was associated with Global Assessment of Functioning score (p = 0.019), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (p = 0.017) and voluntary admission (p < 0.001). Adherence patterns over 8 years included: 43.4% patients always bad, 26.1% always good, 25% improved from bad to good. Among the improved adherence group, 95.7% had involuntary first admission and 38.9% stopped cannabis use. In the subgroup of patients with bad adherence at baseline, involuntary first admission and quitting cannabis use during follow up were associated with improved adherence. Conclusions The long-term association between treatment adherence and type of first admission and cannabis use in FEP patients suggest targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24289797

  9. Maintaining Adherence Programme: evaluation of an innovative service model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Llewellyn; O'Keeffe, Christine; Smyth, Ian; Mallalieu, Judi; Baldock, Laura; Oliver, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The Maintaining Adherence Programme (MAP) is a new model of care for patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar affective disorder which aims to encourage adherence and prevent relapse. This evaluation, conducted by retrospective and prospective data collection (including patient questionnaires and staff interviews), aimed to describe MAP's impact on healthcare resource use, clinical measures and patient and staff satisfaction, following its implementation in a university National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust in England. We included 143 consenting patients who entered MAP before 31 March 2012. Results In-patient bed days and non-MAP NHS costs reduced significantly in the 18 months post-MAP entry. At 15–18 months post-MAP, Medication Adherence Rating Scale scores had improved significantly from baseline and there was a shift towards less severe clinician-rated disease categories. Based on patient surveys, 96% would recommend MAP to friends, and staff were also overwhelmingly positive about the service. Clinical implications MAP was associated with reduced cost of treatment, improvements in clinical outcomes and very high patient and staff satisfaction. PMID:26958352

  10. The Complex Relation between Bisphosphonate Adherence and Fracture Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Amanda R.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Losina, Elena; Schousboe, John T.; Cadarette, Suzanne M.; Mogun, Helen; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Real-world adherence to bisphosphonate therapy is poor. Consistent data support a relation between medication adherence and fracture reduction, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of the method used to measure adherence on this relation or on the relation between adherence and specific fracture types. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relation between bisphosphonate adherence and the risk of hip, vertebral, distal forearm, and any fracture using different measures of adherence. Design: We conducted a cohort study using administrative claims data. Adherence was assessed in sequential 60-d periods. In models incorporating time-varying measures of adherence, the adjusted relation between adherence and fracture was examined using several methods for calculating the proportion of days covered (PDC). Patients: Patients included community-dwelling elderly enrolled in a Pennsylvania pharmaceutical assistance program and Medicare initiating an oral bisphosphonate for osteoporosis. Main Outcome Measures: Risk of hip, vertebral, distal forearm, and any osteoporotic fracture was assessed. Results: Fractures occurred at a rate of 43 per 1000 person-years among the 19,987 patients meeting study eligibility criteria. There was an inverse relation between adherence and fracture rate for all adherence measures and fracture types, excluding distal forearm fractures. High (80–100%) cumulative PDC was associated with a 22% reduction in overall fracture rate, a 23% reduction in hip fracture rate, and 26% reduction in vertebral fracture rate. Conclusions: We found a consistent relation between adherence with osteoporosis treatment and fracture reduction, regardless of method for measuring PDC. The similarity in results across adherence measures is likely due to the high correlation between them. PMID:20444916

  11. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  12. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  13. Scales for rating motor impairment in Parkinson's disease: studies of reliability and convergent validity.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L; Kennard, C; Crawford, T J; Day, S; Everitt, B S; Goodrich, S; Jones, F; Park, D M

    1991-01-01

    Study 1 examined the reliability of the ratings assigned to the performance of five sign-and-symptom items drawn from tests of motor impairment in Parkinson's disease. Patients with Parkinson's disease of varying severity performed gait, rising from chair, and hand function items. Video recordings of these performances were rated by a large sample of experienced and inexperienced neurologists and by psychology undergraduates, using a four point scale. Inter-rater reliability was moderately high, being higher for gait than hand function items. Clinical experience proved to have no systematic effect on ratings or their reliability. The idiosyncrasy of particular performances was a major source of unreliable ratings. Study 2 examined the intercorrelation of several standard rating scales, comprised of sign-and-symptom items as well as activities of daily living. The correlation between scales was high, ranging from 0.70 to 0.83, despite considerable differences in item composition. Inter-item correlations showed that the internal cohesion of the tests was high, especially for the self-care scale. Regression analysis showed that the relationship between the scales could be efficiently captured by a small selection of test items, allowing the construction of a much briefer test. PMID:2010754

  14. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and

  15. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  16. Examining the relationship between psychological distress and adherence to anti-retroviral therapy among Ugandan adolescents living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mutumba, Massy; Musiime, Victor; Lepkwoski, James M; Harper, Gary W; Snow, Rachel C; Resnicow, Ken; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress is common among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) worldwide, and has been associated with non-adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), leading to poor virologic suppression, drug resistance, and increased risk for AIDS morbidity and mortality. However, only a few studies have explored the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper examines the relationship between psychological distress and ART adherence, and effect of psychosocial resources on ART adherence. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 464 ALHIV (aged 12-19; 53% female) seeking HIV care at a large HIV treatment center in Kampala, Uganda. ALHIV were recruited during routine clinic visits. Three self-reported binary adherence measures were utilized: missed pills in the past three days, non-adherence to the prescribed medical regimen, and self-rated adherence assessed using a visual analog scale. Psychological distress was measured as a continuous variable, and computed as the mean score on a locally developed and validated 25-item symptom checklist for Ugandan ALHIV. Psychosocial resources included spirituality, religiosity, optimism, social support, and coping strategies. After adjusting for respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial resources, a unit increase in psychological distress was associated with increased odds of missing pills in past 3 days (Odds Ratio(OR) = 1.75; Confidence Interval (CI): 1.04-2.95), not following the prescribed regimen (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.08-2.46), and lower self-rated adherence (OR = 1.79; CI: 1.19-2.69). Psychosocial resources were associated with lower odds for non-adherence on all three self-report measures. There is a need to strengthen the psychosocial aspects of adolescent HIV care by developing interventions to identify and prevent psychological distress among Ugandan ALHIV. PMID:27294696

  17. Relationships between rating scales, question stem wording, and community responses to railway noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi; Morihara, Takashi; Masden, Kirk

    2004-10-01

    Two series of social surveys on community responses to railway noise were carried out in Japan to evaluate the relationships between two verbal scales and a numeric scale, and those among four base descriptors. In the first survey, two types of questionnaires were prepared in which a 0-10- point numeric scale was used in combination with either a four-point or a five-point verbal scale. The key questions concerned annoyance, activity disturbance and related effects caused by railway noise. Community responses were compared on the basis of the dose-response relationships. Regarding the percentages of respondents who answered, "highly annoyed," it was found that there were no systematic differences between the two verbal scales. It was also found that the extent of noise annoyance rated on the four-point or five-point verbal scale corresponded with that rated on the 11-point numeric scale by percentages of scale steps. In the second survey, four types of questionnaires were prepared, each using one of the four base descriptors. Community responses to general noise annoyance among the four base descriptors were compared. No systematic differences were found among the four base descriptors.

  18. Adapting CEF-Descriptors for Rating Purposes: Validation by a Combined Rater Training and Scale Revision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Martin, Guido

    2012-01-01

    We explore how a local rating scale can be based on the Common European Framework CEF-proficiency scales. As part of the scale validation (Alderson, 1991; Lumley, 2002), we examine which adaptations are needed to turn CEF-proficiency descriptors into a rating scale for a local context, and to establish a practicable method to revise the initial…

  19. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, W Brent

    2009-03-03

    The overall goal of the project was to bridge the gap between our knowledge of small-scale geochemical reaction rates and reaction rates meaningful for modeling transport at core scales. The working hypothesis was that reaction rates, determined from laboratory measurements based upon reactions typically conducted in well mixed batch reactors using pulverized reactive media may be significantly changed in in situ porous media flow due to rock microstructure heterogeneity. Specifically we hypothesized that, generally, reactive mineral surfaces are not uniformly accessible to reactive fluids due to the random deposition of mineral grains and to the variation in flow rates within a pore network. Expected bulk reaction rates would therefore have to be correctly up-scaled to reflect such heterogeneity. The specific objective was to develop a computational tool that integrates existing measurement capabilities with pore-scale network models of fluid flow and reactive transport. The existing measurement capabilities to be integrated consisted of (a) pore space morphology, (b) rock mineralogy, and (c) geochemical reaction rates. The objective was accomplished by: (1) characterizing sedimentary sandstone rock morphology using X-ray computed microtomography, (2) mapping rock mineralogy using back-scattered electron microscopy (BSE), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and CMT, (3) characterizing pore-accessible reactive mineral surface area, and (4) creating network models to model acidic CO{sub 2} saturated brine injection into the sandstone rock samples.

  20. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Ditangco, Rossana; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher KC; Mustafa, Mahiran; Merati, Tuti; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Singtoroj, Thida; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M) collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i) <100% and (ii) <95%. Follow-up time started from ART initiation and was censored at 24 months, loss to follow-up, death, treatment switch, or treatment cessation for >14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported <100% adherence and 17% ever reported <95%. Defining the outcome as SubAdh <100%, the rates of SubAdh for the four time intervals were 26%, 17%, 12% and 10%. Sites with an average of >2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR)=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55 to 0.90), p=0.006), compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00), p=0.004) and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71), p<0.001). Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI) combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67), p=0.001) compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI) combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001). Similar associations were found with adherence

  1. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease activity rating scale: reliability, validity and factorial structure.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Michiko; Takai, Kenichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Kagawa, Koujiro

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Activity Rating Scale (CARS) to measure life-related activity in patients with COPD, and to confirm its reliability and constructive validity in a factorial structure model. The subjects consisted of 114 patients with COPD. An 88-item life-related activity list, generated previously from a literature review, was administered. The secondary structural model consisted of four factors with 12 items. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis by structural equation modeling showed the fit criteria to be statistically significant. The internal consistency of the 12 items was highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.924). The CARS score was correlated with pulmonary function tests, breathlessness, and the health-related quality of life (QOL) scales in Pearson correlation coefficient. The results suggest that the COPD Activity Rating Scale is a valid scale for the assessment of life-related activity in patients with COPD. PMID:12603718

  2. STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE NATURE OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC SCALING RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F. E-mail: jforbrich@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: joao.alves@univie.ac.at

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate scaling relations between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for both local Galactic clouds and a sample of external galaxies. We specifically consider relations between the star formation rates and measurements of dense, as well as total, molecular gas masses. We argue that there is a fundamental empirical scaling relation that directly connects the local star formation process with that operating globally within galaxies. Specifically, the total star formation rate in a molecular cloud or galaxy is linearly proportional to the mass of dense gas within the cloud or galaxy. This simple relation, first documented in previous studies, holds over a span of mass covering nearly nine orders of magnitude and indicates that the rate of star formation is directly controlled by the amount of dense molecular gas that can be assembled within a star formation complex. We further show that the star formation rates and total molecular masses, characterizing both local clouds and galaxies, are correlated over similarly large scales of mass and can be described by a family of linear star formation scaling laws, parameterized by f{sub DG}, the fraction of dense gas contained within the clouds or galaxies. That is, the underlying star formation scaling law is always linear for clouds and galaxies with the same dense gas fraction. These considerations provide a single unified framework for understanding the relation between the standard (nonlinear) extragalactic Schmidt-Kennicutt scaling law, that is typically derived from CO observations of the gas, and the linear star formation scaling law derived from HCN observations of the dense gas.

  3. Motion sickness in cats - A symptom rating scale used in laboratory and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suri, K. B.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The cat is proposed as a model for the study of motion and space sickness. Development of a scale for rating the motion sickness severity in the cat is described. The scale is used to evaluate an antimotion sickness drug, d-amphetamine plus scopolamine, and to determine whether it is possible to predict sickness susceptibility during parabolic flight, including zero-G maneuvers, from scores obtained during ground based trials.

  4. Microbicide clinical trial adherence: insights for introduction.

    PubMed

    Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena

    2013-01-01

    After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs. PMID:23561044

  5. [Assessment of the distance between categories in rating scales by using the item response model].

    PubMed

    Wakita, Takafumi

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the distance between adjacent categories of rating scales. It is common practice to treat ordinal variables as interval-scaled variables in the analysis of rating scales. Strictly speaking, however, ordinal scale data should be treated as such, since there is little reason and assurance that they are equivalent to interval variables. In view of this practice, this study proposes a method to assess the interval of rating scales, and analyzes empirical data in order to examine the results obtained by the method. This method is based upon the generalized partial credit model which is one of item response theory (IRT) models. The experiment was carried out on two data sets that differed only on the verbal phrasing of the rating. Main results of the study were: 1) the difference in item content (positive or negative) affects the width of a neutral category; and 2) the distance between categories differs significantly reflecting the difference in verbal phrasing. PMID:15747553

  6. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  7. Adherence to Sublingual Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Leo, Gualtiero; Ridolo, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    Adherence is a major issue in any medical treatment. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is particularly affected by a poor adherence because a flawed application prevents the immunological effects that underlie the clinical outcome of the treatment. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1990s, and the early studies suggested that adherence and compliance to such a route of administration was better than the traditional subcutaneous route. However, the recent data from manufacturers revealed that only 13% of patients treated with SLIT reach the recommended 3-year duration. Therefore, improved adherence to SLIT is an unmet need that may be achieved by various approaches. The utility of patient education and accurate monitoring during the treatment was demonstrated by specific studies, while the success of technology-based tools, including online platforms, social media, e-mail, and a short message service by phone, is currently considered to improve the adherence. This goal is of pivotal importance to fulfill the object of SLIT that is to modify the natural history of allergy, ensuring a long-lasting clinical benefit, and a consequent pharmaco-economic advantage, when patients complete at least a 3-year course of treatment. PMID:26758865

  8. Heart failure patient adherence: epidemiology, cause, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Corotto, Paul S; McCarey, Melissa M; Adams, Suzanne; Khazanie, Prateeti; Whellan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Poor adherence to therapeutic regimens is a significant impediment to improving clinical outcomes in the HF population. Typical rates of adherence to prescribed medications, low-sodium diets, and aerobic exercise programs remain lower than that needed to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with HF. Factors contributing to poor adherence include multiple comorbidities, clinical depression, and decreased cognitive functioning. HF education and programs to enhance self-management skills have improved patient quality of life but have yet to decrease mortality or rehospitalization rates significantly. Telemonitoring to improve adherence behaviors and self-management interventions within broader HF management programs have demonstrated significant clinical improvements in this population. PMID:23168317

  9. Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Implications for Future Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Terri E.; Sawyer, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a critical problem with adherence rates ranging from 30–60%. Poor adherence to CPAP is widely recognized as a significant limiting factor in treating OSA, reducing the overall effectiveness of the treatment and leaving many OSA patients at heightened risk for comorbid conditions, impaired function and quality of life. The extant literature examining adherence to CPAP provides critical insight to measuring adherence outcomes, defining optimal adherence levels, and predicting CPAP adherence. This research has revealed salient factors that are associated with or predict CPAP adherence and may guide the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Over the past 10 years, intervention studies to promote CPAP adherence have incorporated a multitude of strategies including education, support, cognitive behavioral approaches, and mixed strategies. This review of the current state of science of CPAP adherence will (1) synthesize the extant literature with regard to measuring, defining, and predicting CPAP adherence, (2) review published intervention studies aimed at promoting CPAP adherence, and (3) suggest directions for future empiric study of adherence to CPAP that will have implications for translational science. Our current understanding of CPAP adherence suggests that adherence is a multi-factorial, complex clinical problem that requires similarly designed approaches to effectively address poor CPAP adherence in the OSA population. PMID:20308750

  10. The development of a noise annoyance scale for rating residential noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jong Kwan; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2005-09-01

    In this study, 5-point and 7-point verbal noise annoyance scales were developed. The 5-point annoyance scale for outside environmental noise was developed from a survey conducted in four Korean cities. An auditory experiment using residential noises such as airborne, bathroom drainage, and traffic noises was conducted to compare the effectiveness of the 5-point and 7-point scales for rating residential indoor noise. Result showed that the 7-point scale yielded more detailed responses to indoor residential noise. In addition, auditory experiments were conducted to develop a noise annoyance scale for the classification of common residential noises. The modifiers used in the scales were selected according to the method proposed by ICBEN (International Commission on the Biological 12Effect of Noise) Team 6. As a result, the difference between the intensity of 21 modifiers investigated in the survey and the auditory experiment was very small. It was also found that the intensity of the selected modifiers in the 7-point noise annoyance scale was highly correlated with noise levels, and that the intensity difference between each pair of successive levels in the 7-point annoyance scale was almost identical.

  11. Allometric scaling of foraging rate with trail dimensions in leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Andrew I.; Burd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.) create physical pathways to support the transport of resources on which colony growth and reproduction depend. We determined the scaling relationship between the rate of resource acquisition and the size of the trail system and foraging workforce for 18 colonies of Atta colombica and Atta cephalotes. We examined conventional power-law scaling patterns, but did so in a multivariate analysis that reveals the simultaneous effects of forager number, trail length and trail width. Foraging rate (number of resource-laden ants returning to the nest per unit time) scaled at the 0.93 power of worker numbers, the –1.02 power of total trail length and the 0.65 power of trail width. These scaling exponents indicate that individual performance declines only slightly as more foragers are recruited to the workforce, but that trail length imposes a severe penalty on the foraging rate. A model of mass traffic flow predicts the allometric patterns for workforce and trail length, although the effect of trail width is unexpected and points to the importance of the little-known mechanisms that regulate a colony's investment in trail clearance. These results provide a point of comparison for the role that resource flows may play in allometric scaling patterns in other transport-dependent entities, such as human cities. PMID:22337696

  12. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale--self-report and clinician-rated versions.

    PubMed

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  13. Detection of changes in the fractal scaling of heart rate and speed in a marathon race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Meyer, Yves; Wesfreid, Eva

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect changes in the fractal scaling behavior of heart rate and speed fluctuations when the average runner’s speed decreased with fatigue. Scaling analysis in heart rate (HR) and speed (S) dynamics of marathon runners was performed using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the wavelet based structure function. We considered both: the short-range ( α1) and the long-range ( α2) scaling exponents for the DFA method separated by a change-point, n0=64=5.3 min (box length), the same for all the races. The variability of HR and S decreased in the second part of the marathon race, while the cardiac cost time series (i.e. the number of cardiac beats per meter) increased due to the decreasing speed behavior. The scaling exponents α1 and α2 of HR and α1 of S, increased during the race ( p<0.01) as did the HR wavelet scaling exponent ( τ). These findings provide evidence of the significant effect of fatigue induced by long exercise on the heart rate and speed variability.

  14. ECERS-E: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Curricular Extension to ECERS-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylva, Kathy; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This is the third edition of the ECERS-E, formerly called "Assessing Quality in the Early Years: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-E)." The ECERS-E is an instrument for measuring quality in literacy, numeracy, science and diversity as observable in pre-school in relation to child cognitive and social/behavioural developmental…

  15. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  16. Direct Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners: A Preliminary Investigation of Diagnostic Accuracy in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Welsh, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales for use in school-based behavior screening of second-grade students. Results indicated that each behavior target was a moderately to highly accurate predictor of behavioral risk. Optimal universal screening cut scores…

  17. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  18. A Rating Scale to Screen Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to offer children with developmental disorders adequate help, professionals working in special needs education must use a screening device to assess the specific psychiatric difficulties of the children. In this paper the psychometric properties of an easy-to-use parental rating scale to screen symptoms of major psychiatric disorders…

  19. Measuring Pretest-Posttest Change with a Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Chiu, Chris W. T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a method for disentangling changes in persons from changes in the interpretation of Likert-type questionnaire items and the use of rating scales. The procedure relies on anchoring strategies to create a common frame of reference for interpreting measures taken at different times. Illustrates the use of these procedures using the FACETS…

  20. The Reliability and Validity of a Korean-Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a Korean-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) and explored the effect of gender, rater, and grade. Data were collected from elementary schools in a metropolitan area and a midsize town in South Korea. In all, 49 elementary school teachers and 272 parents…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  2. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  3. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  4. Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS) is an assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschoolers with well-established reliability and validity for educational and clinical application in children with and without disabilities. The present study provides further evidence of psychometric rigor for items and…

  5. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  6. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  7. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating…

  8. An Analysis of Teachers' Rating Scales as Sources of Evidence for a Standardised Greek Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triga, Anastassia

    2004-01-01

    Until recently there has been no nationally acceptable test for assessing reading for the higher grades (Five and Six) of the elementary schools in Greece. As part of an effort to validate such a test, evidence was gathered from teachers' rating scales. Seventy-two teachers from Fifth and Sixth Grades all over Greece evaluated their 1377 students'…

  9. An Examination of the Structure and Construct Validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kasey; Watson, David

    2016-01-01

    The Wender Utah Rating Scale (Ward, Wender, & Reimherr, 1993 ) has been widely used in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research to assess childhood symptoms retrospectively, but little research has examined its factor structure and specificity in predicting ADHD versus other psychopathology. Consequently, this study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the Wender Utah Rating Scale's structure, and (b) to explicate the construct validity of this measure by relating factors from our structural analyses to other ADHD, psychopathology, and personality measures. Structural analyses in an adult community sample (N = 294) yielded a 3-factor structure of aggression (e.g., angry), internalizing distress (e.g., depressed), and academic difficulties (e.g., underachiever). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that these factors failed to display specificity in their associations with ADHD versus other psychopathology. Aggression and internalizing distress associated most strongly with indicators of externalizing (e.g., ill temper, manipulativeness) and internalizing psychopathology (e.g., depression, anxiety), respectively. Academic difficulties associated most strongly with ADHD symptoms, but these relations were relatively weak. Taken together, these findings raise concerns about the Wender Utah Rating Scale's construct validity, although additional longitudinal research is needed to clarify to what extent the Wender Utah Rating Scale validly assesses childhood ADHD symptoms. PMID:27050760

  10. Validation of the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Parent Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Audrey Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The current dissertation gathered empirical evidence of convergent and predictive validity for the Self-Regulation Strategies Inventory-Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), which measures parents' perception of their child's use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies during mathematics activities. The SRSI-PRS, which is part of the larger SRSI…

  11. Psychometric Properties of a Proposed Short Form of the BASC Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Daniel J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    A 25 item short form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool (TRS-P) was developed by the BASC authors to serve as an emotional/behavioral indicator for an academic intervention study targeting preschool-aged students. The BASC screener is thought to fulfill a need for an abbreviated behavior rating…

  12. Validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale: Prediction of Mentally Retarded Workers' Placement in Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Vocational Adaptation Rating Scale (VARS) for predicting placement of 125 mentally retarded workers in sheltered workshop settings was investigated. Results indicated low to moderate significant partial correlations with concurrent placement and one year follow-up placement (controlling IQ, age, and sex). (Author)

  13. Treatment Sensitivity of a Brief Rating Scale for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Vaesen, Hilde; Roodenrijs, Dorien; Kelgtermans, Lut

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the treatment sensitivity of the ADHD Questionnaire (ADHD-Q), which is a brief rating scale for measuring symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children. Parent, teacher, and child self-report data of the ADHD-Q were obtained for 17 clinically referred children with ADHD on the three occasions: (1) during…

  14. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  15. Validation of an Interview-Based Rating Scale Developed in Japan for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tani, Iori; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Adachi, Jun; Hara, Koichi; Ogasawara, Megumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Kamio, Yoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Taku; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), an interview-based instrument for evaluating PDDs, has been developed in Japan with the aim of providing a method that (1) can be used to evaluate PDD symptoms and related support needs and (2) is simpler and easier than the currently used "gold standard"…

  16. Measurement Error of Scores on the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale across Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Henson, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    Submitted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (F. Richardson and R. Suinn, 1972) to a reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MARS scores across administrations and identify characteristics predictive of score reliability variations. Results for 67 analyses generally support the internal…

  17. Factor Structure and Differential Validity of the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Young, Tony R.

    2004-01-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is one of the most widely used measures in psychiatric outcome and clinical psychopharmacology research. To date, however, research on the psychometric properties of the expanded version of the BPRS (BPRS-E) has been limited. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 360) using maximum likelihood extraction with…

  18. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  19. Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)

  20. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  1. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  2. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  3. Basing Performance Assessment on Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales in Collegiate Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    The use of behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) as the basis of an assessment system that was designed to improve academic department chairpersons in a college of arts and sciences is described. Twenty-eight faculty members, two from each department, were asked to identify evaluative dimensions for assessing chairperson performance and to…

  4. The development, reliability, and validity of a clinical rating scale for codependency.

    PubMed

    Harkness, D; Swenson, M; Madsen-Hampton, K; Hale, R

    2001-01-01

    This investigation examined the reliability and validity of a rating scale for codependency in substance abuse treatment. The investigators developed an example-anchored rating scale to operationalize codependency as substance abuse counselors construe it in practice, and recruited 27 counselors for a counterbalanced multiple-treatment experiment. Counselors were randomly assigned to one of four continuing education workshops for rating-scale training, and asked to evaluate codependency in five videotaped cases. Semistructured case interviews were videotaped with a male and a female from five adult populations to vary the gender and codependency of cases: (1) outpatients in treatment for addiction, (2) outpatient spouses, (3) members of Codependents Anonymous, (4) United States Bureau of Land Management smoke jumpers, and (5) college students majoring in business or economics. To control for gender effects, one workshop presented male cases, one workshop presented female cases, and two workshops presented cases of both genders. To control for order effects, the assignment of videotapes to workshops was randomized to counterbalance the order in which counselors viewed them. The findings suggest that the rating scale yields reliable and valid evaluations of codependency without appreciable gender bias. PMID:11476263

  5. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  6. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  7. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  8. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  9. Diagnostic Assessment of Asperger's Disorder: A Review of Five Third-Party Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-01

    Five rating scales for screening and detection of Asperger's Disorder, three commercially available and two research instruments, are evaluated with reference to psychometric criteria outlined by Bracken in 1987 ("Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment," 4, 313). Reliability and validity data reported in examiner's manuals or published reports…

  10. Adherence to treatment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Egedy, Maud; Frappier, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Health care professionals must be alert to the high prevalence of low adherence to treatment during adolescence. Low adherence increases morbidity and medical complications, contributes to poorer quality of life and an overuse of the health care system. Many different factors have an impact on adherence. However, critical factors to consider in teens are their developmental stage and challenges, emotional issues and family dysfunction. Direct and indirect methods have been described to assess adherence. Eliciting an adherence history is the most useful way for clinicians to evaluate adherence, and could be the beginning of a constructive dialogue with the adolescent. Interventions to improve adherence are multiple – managing mental health issues appropriately, building a strong relationship, customizing the treatment regimen if possible, empowering the adolescent to deal with adherence issues, providing information, ensuring family and peer support, and motivational enhancement therapy. Evaluation of adherence at regular intervals should be an important aspect of health care for adolescents. PMID:19119348

  11. Erosive Augmentation of Solid Propellant Burning Rate: Motor Size Scaling Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, Norman S.

    1990-01-01

    Two different independent variable forms, a difference form and a ratio form, were investigated for correlating the normalized magnitude of the measured erosive burning rate augmentation above the threshold in terms of the amount that the driving parameter (mass flux or Reynolds number) exceeds the threshold value for erosive augmentation at the test condition. The latter was calculated from the previously determined threshold correlation. Either variable form provided a correlation for each of the two motor size data bases individually. However, the data showed a motor size effect, supporting the general observation that the magnitude of erosive burning rate augmentation is reduced for larger rocket motors. For both independent variable forms, the required motor size scaling was attained by including the motor port radius raised to a power in the independent parameter. A boundary layer theory analysis confirmed the experimental finding, but showed that the magnitude of the scale effect is itself dependent upon scale, tending to diminish with increasing motor size.

  12. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  13. The neurobehavioural rating scale: assessment of the behavioural sequelae of head injury by the clinician.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, H S; High, W M; Goethe, K E; Sisson, R A; Overall, J E; Rhoades, H M; Eisenberg, H M; Kalisky, Z; Gary, H E

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the inter-rater reliability and validity of the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale at various stages of recovery after hospitalisation for closed head injury, we studied 101 head trauma patients who had no antecedent neuropsychiatric disorder. The results demonstrated satisfactory inter-rater reliability and showed that the Neurobehavioural Rating Scale reflects both the severity and chronicity of closed head injury. A principal components analysis revealed four factors which were differentially related to severity of head injury and the presence of a frontal lobe mass lesion. Although our findings provide support for utilising clinical ratings of behaviour to investigate sequelae of head injury, extension of this technique to other settings is necessary to evaluate the distinctiveness of the neurobehavioural profile of closed head injury as compared with other aetiologies of brain damage. PMID:3572433

  14. Atomic Scale Modeling of High Strain Rate Deformation and Failure of HCP Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenchery, Karoon; Agarwal, Garvit; Dongare, Avinash

    2015-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of the microstructure effects on the defect evolution at the atomic resolution and the related contribution to plasticity at the macro-scales is needed to obtain a reliable performance of metallic materials in extreme environments. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to characterize the dynamic evolution of defect/damage structures during the deformation and failure behavior of HCP (Mg, Ti) metallic systems (single crystal and nanocrystalline at high strain rates as well as under shock loading conditions. The evolution of various types of dislocations, twins, faults, etc. and the related deformation and failure response (nucleation and growth of voids/cracks) will be discussed. The effects of strain rates on relationships between the microstructure and the strength of these materials at high strain rates and the underlying micromechanisms related to deformation and failure will be discussed.

  15. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the GRS-S Spanish Form. Results indicated strong internal consistency for teacher ratings with alphas ranging from .98 to .99. Intercorrelations between scales are moderate to strong, ranging from .88 to .97. Factor testing of two separate models supported a six factor model proposed by authors of the GRS-S. Results provided initial support for the GRS-S Spanish translated version as a reliable and potentially useful screening measure to assist in the identification of island Puerto Rican gifted students. PMID:26388705

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  17. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  18. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  19. Assessing Learners' Writing Skills in a SLA Study: Validating the Rating Process across Tasks, Scales and Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhta, Ari; Alanen, Riikka; Tarnanen, Mirja; Martin, Maisa; Hirvelä, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    There is still relatively little research on how well the CEFR and similar holistic scales work when they are used to rate L2 texts. Using both multifaceted Rasch analyses and qualitative data from rater comments and interviews, the ratings obtained by using a CEFR-based writing scale and the Finnish National Core Curriculum scale for L2 writing…

  20. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  1. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  2. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  3. Predictors of Symptomatic Change and Adherence in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Routine Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Samir; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Evelyn; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Objective A central goal of health care is to improve patient outcomes. Although several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapist guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify individual characteristics and treatment program related factors that could help clinicians predict treatment outcomes and adherence for individuals with SAD. Method The sample comprised longitudinal data collected during a 4-year period of adult individuals (N = 764) treated for SAD at a public service psychiatric clinic. Weekly self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) scores were provided. Rates of symptomatic change during treatment and adherence levels were analysed using multilevel modelling. The following domains of prognostic variables were examined: (a) socio-demographic variables; (b) clinical characteristics; (c) family history of mental illness; and (d) treatment-related factors. Results Higher treatment credibility and adherence predicted a faster rate of improvement during treatment, whereas higher overall functioning level evidenced a slower rate of improvement. Treatment credibility was the strongest predictor of greater adherence. Having a family history of SAD-like symptoms was also associated with greater adherence, whereas Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, male gender, and family history of minor depression predicted lower adherence. Also, the amount of therapist time spent per treatment module was negatively associated with adherence. Conclusions Results from a large clinical sample indicate that the credibility of ICBT is the strongest prognostic factor explaining individual differences in both adherence level and symptomatic improvement. Early screening of ADHD-like symptoms may help clinicians identify patients who might need extra support or an adjusted

  4. Effectiveness of specific intervention on treatment adherence of persons with mental illness: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nurnahar; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Baruah, Arunjyoti

    2015-01-01

    Context: Treatment nonadherence is one of the major obstacles in recovery even with the availability of a broad range of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for persons with mental illnesses. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of specific interventions in improvement of treatment adherence of persons with mental illnesses. Settings and Design: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at a tertiary mental health care setting in North-east India. Materials and Methods: Total 30 numbers of patients were selected randomly for the study. Treatment adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Rating Scale and a structured Treatment Adherence Checklist. Data were collected before and 1-month after the specific interventions to the patients and their family members. Results: Result showed a significant improvement in the treatment adherence as verbalized by the patient (paired t = 3.973, P = 0.00, df = 29) as well as reported by the family members (paired t = 2.94, P = 0.00, df = 29) following the specific intervention. Conclusion: The study result suggested that specific intervention may be used for a better outcome of treatment for mental illnesses. The findings might be generalized following implementation of the intervention to a larger sample. PMID:26816430

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Kang Uk; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to measure inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and factor solutions of the Korean version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). Methods The Korean version of the CLANG for assessing thought, language, and communication, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used to evaluate language disorder, formal thought disorder, positive and negative symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, in 167 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The factor solution was obtained by the direct oblimin method. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off score for discriminating schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Results Inter-rater reliability was considered moderate (intraclass coefficient=0.67, F=3.30, p=0.04), and test-retest reliability was considered high (r=0.94, p<0.001). Five factors, namely, pragmatics, disclosure, production, prosody, and association, were identified. An optimal cut-off score of 7 points with 84.5% sensitivity and 81.7% specificity was proposed for distinguishing schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26792040

  6. Scaling of the hysteresis in the glass transition of glycerol with the temperature scanning rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jin-Xiu

    2011-03-01

    By measuring the dependences of the temperature-dependent primary ("alpha") dielectric relaxation time behavior on the temperature scanning rate for the glass-forming glycerol, we study the scaling of hysteresis at the glass transition in glycerol. Based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) expression and the Angell's fragility concept, notable correlations of the systematic kinetic fragility, and of the hysteresis effect in the vitrification/fusion "alpha"-relaxation process of glycerol, with the temperature scanning rate, were reasonably analyzed and discussed. It was observed that the kinetic fragility m and the apparent glass-transition temperature hysteresis width Δ T_g^a, respectively, scaled the temperature scanning rate q as m ≈ αmq-γ and Δ T_g^a ≈ A0 + αqβ, at which the exponents, γ and β, were suggested to be characteristic of the resistance to the structure change or fragility change of the system during the glass transition. The observed scaling laws are quite similar to the scaling power law for the thermal hysteresis in the first-order phase transition (FOPT) of solids, providing a significant insight into the hysteresis effect in the glass transition of the glass-forming liquids.

  7. Multi-scale experimental analysis of rate dependent metal-elastomer interface mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neggers, J.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.; van der Sluis, O.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2015-07-01

    A remarkable high fracture toughness is sometimes observed for interfaces between materials with a large elastic mismatch, which is reported to be caused by the fibrillar microstructure appearing in the fracture process zone. In this work, this fibrillation mechanism is investigated further to investigate how this mechanism is dissipating energy. For that purpose, thermoplastic urethane (TPU)-copper interfaces are delaminated at various rates in a peel test experimental setup. The fracture process zone is visualized in situ at the meso-scale using optical microscopy and at the micro-scale using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). It is shown that the geometry of the fracture process zone is insensitive to the delamination rate, while the interface traction scales logarithmically with the rate. This research has revealed that, the interface roughness is shown to be pivotal in initiating the fibrillation delamination process, which facilitates the high fracture toughness. The multi-scale experimental approach identified two mechanisms responsible for this high fracture toughness. Namely, the viscous dissipation of the TPU at the high strain levels occurring in the fibrils and the loss of stored elastic energy which is disjointed from the propagation due to the size of the process zone.

  8. A new rating scale for adult ADHD based on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90-R).

    PubMed

    Eich, Dominique; Angst, Jules; Frei, Anja; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Gamma, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is increasingly recognized as a clinically important syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric performance of a new scale for adult ADHD based on the widely used Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). Scale performance was assessed in a clinical study including 100 ADHD patients and 65 opiate-dependent patient controls, and in the Zurich study, an epidemiological age cohort followed over 30 years of adult life. Assessments included a ROC analysis of sensitivity and specificity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, external validity and measurement invariance over nine testing occasions. The new scale showed a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 54%, respectively, internal consistency over 0.8 (McDonald's omega, Cronbach's alpha), one-year test-retest reliabilities over 0.7, statistically significant and substantial correlations with two other validated self-rating scales of adult ADHD (R = 0.5 and 0.66, respectively), and an acceptable degree of longitudinal stability (i.e., measurement invariance). The proposed scale must be further evaluated, but these preliminary results indicate it could be a useful rating instrument for adult ADHD in situations where SCL-90-R data, but no specific ADHD assessment, are available, such as in retrospective data analysis or in prospective studies with limited methodical resources. PMID:22212725

  9. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  10. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  11. Adherence to Glycemic Monitoring in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Susana R.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose monitoring either by self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) plays an important role in diabetes management and in reducing risk for diabetes-related complications. However, despite evidence supporting the role of glucose monitoring in better patient health outcomes, studies also reveal relatively poor adherence rates to SMBG and CGM use and numerous patient-reported barriers. Fortunately, some promising intervention strategies have been identified that promote at least short-term improvements in patients’ adherence to SMBG. These include education, problem solving, contingency management, goal setting, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational interviewing. Specific to CGM, interventions to promote greater use among patients are currently under way, yet one pilot study provides data suggesting better maintenance of CGM use in patients showing greater readiness for behavior change. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature specific to glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes focusing specifically on current adherence rates, barriers to monitoring, and promising intervention strategies that may be ready to deploy now in the clinic setting to promote greater patient adherence to glucose monitoring. Yet, to continue to help patients with diabetes adhere to glucose monitoring, future research is needed to identify the treatment strategies and the intervention schedules that most likely lead to long-term maintenance of optimal glycemic monitoring levels. PMID:25591853

  12. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children). Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05), it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD. PMID:24902016

  13. High mutational rates of large-scale duplication and deletion in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Keith, Nathan; Tucker, Abraham E; Jackson, Craig E; Sung, Way; Lucas Lledó, José Ignacio; Schrider, Daniel R; Schaack, Sarah; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Ackerman, Matthew; Younge, Andrew J; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the genome-wide rate and spectrum of mutations is necessary to understand the origin of disease and the genetic variation driving all evolutionary processes. Here, we provide a genome-wide analysis of the rate and spectrum of mutations obtained in two Daphnia pulex genotypes via separate mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments. Unlike most MA studies that utilize haploid, homozygous, or self-fertilizing lines, D. pulex can be propagated ameiotically while maintaining a naturally heterozygous, diploid genome, allowing the capture of the full spectrum of genomic changes that arise in a heterozygous state. While base-substitution mutation rates are similar to those in other multicellular eukaryotes (about 4 × 10(-9) per site per generation), we find that the rates of large-scale (>100 kb) de novo copy-number variants (CNVs) are significantly elevated relative to those seen in previous MA studies. The heterozygosity maintained in this experiment allowed for estimates of gene-conversion processes. While most of the conversion tract lengths we report are similar to those generated by meiotic processes, we also find larger tract lengths that are indicative of mitotic processes. Comparison of MA lines to natural isolates reveals that a majority of large-scale CNVs in natural populations are removed by purifying selection. The mutations observed here share similarities with disease-causing, complex, large-scale CNVs, thereby demonstrating that MA studies in D. pulex serve as a system for studying the processes leading to such alterations. PMID:26518480

  14. Application of the Repetitions in Reserve-Based Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, John; Storey, Adam; Zourdos, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION ARE A VALID METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE INTENSITY OF A RESISTANCE TRAINING EXERCISE OR SESSION. SCORES ARE GIVEN AFTER COMPLETION OF AN EXERCISE OR TRAINING SESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ATHLETE MONITORING. HOWEVER, A NEWLY DEVELOPED SCALE BASED ON HOW MANY REPETITIONS ARE REMAINING AT THE COMPLETION OF A SET MAY BE A MORE PRECISE TOOL. THIS APPROACH ADJUSTS LOADS AUTOMATICALLY TO MATCH ATHLETE CAPABILITIES ON A SET-TO-SET BASIS AND MAY MORE ACCURATELY GAUGE INTENSITY AT NEAR-LIMIT LOADS. THIS ARTICLE OUTLINES HOW TO INCORPORATE THIS NOVEL SCALE INTO A TRAINING PLAN. PMID:27531969

  15. Upscaling of reaction rates in reactive transport using pore-scale reactive transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Arnold, B. W.; Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Srinivasan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved CO2 during geological CO2 storage may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The overall rate of reaction can be affected by coupled processes among hydrodynamics, transport, and reactions at the (sub) pore-scale. In this research pore-scale modeling of coupled fluid flow, reactive transport, and heterogeneous reaction at the mineral surface is applied to account for permeability alterations caused by precipitation-induced pore-blocking. This work is motivated by the observed CO2 seeps from a natural analog to geologic CO2 sequestration at Crystal Geyser, Utah. A key observation is the lateral migration of CO2 seep sites at a scale of ~ 100 meters over time. A pore-scale model provides fundamental mechanistic explanations of how calcite precipitation alters flow paths by pore plugging under different geochemical compositions and pore configurations. In addition, response function of reaction rates will be constructed from pore-scale simulations which account for a range of reaction regimes characterized by the Damkohler and Peclet numbers. Newly developed response functions will be used in a continuum scale model that may account for large-scale phenomena mimicking lateral migration of surface CO2 seeps. Comparison of field observations and simulations results will provide mechanistic explanations of the lateral migration and enhance our understanding of subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  16. Electronic Monitoring of Medication Adherence in Early Maintenance Phase Treatment for Pediatric Leukemia and Lymphoma: Identifying Patterns of Nonadherence

    PubMed Central

    Drotar, Dennis; Alderfer, Melissa; Donewar, Crista Wetherington; Ewing, Linda; Katz, Ernest R.; Muriel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patterns of treatment adherence to early maintenance phase therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL). Methods Using an objective observational method (electronic monitoring), adherence was examined for 139 patients aged 7–19 years diagnosed with ALL or LBL across 6 centers. Results The mean adherence percentage was 86.2%. Adherence rates declined over the 1-month of follow-up to 83%. 3 linear trajectories of 6-mercaptopurine adherence were identified: (1) exemplary adherence (n = 99): Averaging nearly 100%; (2) deteriorating (n = 23): Adherence decreased from 100 to 60%; and (3) chronically poor adherence (n = 9): Averaging 40%. Conclusions Adherence promotion interventions might be tailored to subgroups of patients who demonstrated problematic patterns of treatment adherence that could place them at risk for relapse. This research demonstrates the importance of using objective real-time measures of medication adherence for measuring and documenting adherence patterns. PMID:24365698

  17. Construct Validation of Analytic Rating Scales in a Speaking Assessment: Reporting a Score Profile and a Composite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…

  18. An Application of the Facet-Factorial Approach to Scale Construction in Development of a Rating Scale for High School Marching Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument through facet-factorial analysis to assess high school marching band performance. Forty-one items were chosen to define subscales for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Music and 31 items for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Visual. To examine the stability…

  19. A New Statistically based Autoconversion rate Parameterization for use in Large-Scale Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bing; Zhang, Junhua; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2002-01-01

    The autoconversion rate is a key process for the formation of precipitation in warm clouds. In climate models, physical processes such as autoconversion rate, which are calculated from grid mean values, are biased, because they do not take subgrid variability into account. Recently, statistical cloud schemes have been introduced in large-scale models to account for partially cloud-covered grid boxes. However, these schemes do not include the in-cloud variability in their parameterizations. In this paper, a new statistically based autoconversion rate considering the in-cloud variability is introduced and tested in three cases using the Canadian Single Column Model (SCM) of the global climate model. The results show that the new autoconversion rate improves the model simulation, especially in terms of liquid water path in all three case studies.

  20. Mobile App Rating Scale: A New Tool for Assessing the Quality of Health Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond “star”-ratings. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. Results There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). Conclusions The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps. PMID:25760773

  1. [The Verbal Peer Adult Emotional (VPAE) Scale and Manual. A Behavioral Rating Scale for Measuring the Progress of Severely Maladaptive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streedbeck, Darlene; Hughes, Robert B.

    The Verbal Peer Adult Emotional Scale (VPAE), a behavioral rating scale for measuring the progress of severely maladaptive children, covers four areas: verbal behavior, peer interaction, interaction with adults, and emotional behavior. The 16-item scale is designed for use with children between the chronological ages of two and nine years, who are…

  2. Pulmonary diffusional screening and the scaling laws of mammalian metabolic rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chen; Mayo, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that the mammalian metabolic rate is linearly proportional to the surface areas of mitochondria, capillary, and alveolar membranes. However, the scaling exponents of these surface areas to the mammals' body mass (approximately 0.9-1) are higher than exponents of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) to body mass (approximately 0.75), although similar to the one of exercise metabolic rate (EMR); the underlying physiological cause of this mismatch remains unclear. The analysis presented here shows that discrepancies between the scaling exponents of RMR and the relevant surface areas may originate from, at least for the system of alveolar membranes in mammalian lungs, the facts that (i) not all of the surface area is involved in the gas exchange and (ii) that larger mammals host a smaller effective surface area that participates in the material exchange rate. A result of these facts is that lung surface areas unused at rest are activated under heavy breathing conditions (e.g., exercise), wherein larger mammals support larger activated surface areas that provide a higher capability to increase the gas-exchange rate, allowing for mammals to meet, for example, the high energetic demands of foraging and predation.

  3. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence. PMID:27010870

  4. A Review. A Criterion-related Study of Three Sets of Rating Scales Used for Measuring and Evaluating the Instrumental Achievement of First and Second Year Clarinet Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radocy, Rudolf E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a study that examined the validity of different rating scales for measuring instrumental achievement with the clarinet. Rejects the contention that the new rating scales are superior to the Clarinet Performance Rating Scale. (BSR)

  5. French version validation of the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS) for outpatients with persistent psychotic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience. PMID:23020603

  6. Genetic Analysis of Genome-Scale Recombination Rate Evolution in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of meiotic recombination varies markedly between species and among individuals. Classical genetic experiments demonstrated a heritable component to population variation in recombination rate, and specific sequence variants that contribute to recombination rate differences between individuals have recently been identified. Despite these advances, the genetic basis of species divergence in recombination rate remains unexplored. Using a cytological assay that allows direct in situ imaging of recombination events in spermatocytes, we report a large (∼30%) difference in global recombination rate between males of two closely related house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus). To characterize the genetic basis of this recombination rate divergence, we generated an F2 panel of inter-subspecific hybrid males (n = 276) from an intercross between wild-derived inbred strains CAST/EiJ (M. m. castaneus) and PWD/PhJ (M. m. musculus). We uncover considerable heritable variation for recombination rate among males from this mapping population. Much of the F2 variance for recombination rate and a substantial portion of the difference in recombination rate between the parental strains is explained by eight moderate- to large-effect quantitative trait loci, including two transgressive loci on the X chromosome. In contrast to the rapid evolution observed in males, female CAST/EiJ and PWD/PhJ animals show minimal divergence in recombination rate (∼5%). The existence of loci on the X chromosome suggests a genetic mechanism to explain this male-biased evolution. Our results provide an initial map of the genetic changes underlying subspecies differences in genome-scale recombination rate and underscore the power of the house mouse system for understanding the evolution of this trait. PMID:21695226

  7. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  8. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  9. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  10. Adherence in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir Gel Microbicide Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Leila E

    2014-01-01

    High adherence is key to microbicide effectiveness. Here we provide a description of adherence interventions and the adherence rates achieved in the CAPRISA 004 Tenofovir Gel Trial. Adherence support for the before-and-after dosing strategy (BAT 24) was provided at enrolment and at each monthly study visit. This initially comprised individual counselling and was replaced midway by a structured theory-based adherence support program (ASP) based on motivational interviewing. The 889 women were followed for an average of 18 months and attended a total of 17031 monthly visits. On average women reported 5 sex acts and returned 5.9 empty applicators per month. The adherence rate based on applicator count in relation to all reported sex acts was 72.2% compared to the 82.0% self-reported adherence during the last sex act. Adherence support activities, which achieve levels of adherence similar to or better than those achieved by the CAPRISA 004 ASP, will be critical to the success of future microbicide trials. PMID:24643315

  11. Non-adherence to topical treatments for actinic keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Shergill, Bav; Zokaie, Simon; Carr, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited information on the patterns of use, adherence rates, and factors that impact adherence with topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK). Objectives To establish patterns of use and adherence with topical treatments for AK and to identify treatment-related factors that impact on adherence. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire completed online or via telephone interview. Patients were stratified according to the presence of AK lesions on the scalp and/or other extremities; and presence of scarring resulting from treatment. Results This study included 305 patients with AK who were currently using a patient-applied topical therapy for AK or had used one within the previous 12 months. In total, 88% (n = 268/305) of patients were either non-adherent, non-persistent or both non-adherent and non-persistent to topical therapy. Duration of treatment was associated with increasing rates of non-adherence (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.2, P < 0.01): 52% of patients were non-adherent with 3–4 week treatment duration; 69% of patients with 4–8 week treatment duration; and 71% of patients with 6–12 week treatment duration. There were similar increases in non-persistence with increasing treatment duration (adjusted OR; for treatment durations greater than 4 weeks, 2.1, P < 0.05). Conclusion This study found high rates of non-adherence and non-persistence in patients with AK. Duration of treatment was a significant factor contributing to non-adherence and non-persistence to topical treatments. Patient-applied topical therapies that require less frequent application and have shorter treatment duration may be associated with improved adherence rates. PMID:24379656

  12. Relating Spontaneously Reported Extrapyramidal Adverse Events to Movement Disorder Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Karayal, Onur N.; Kolluri, Sheela; Vanderburg, Douglas; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background: While antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and akathisia remain important concerns in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, the relationship between movement disorder rating scales and spontaneously reported EPS-related adverse events (EPS-AEs) remains unexplored. Methods: Data from four randomized, placebo- and haloperidol-controlled ziprasidone trials were analyzed to examine the relationship between spontaneously reported EPS-AEs with the Simpson Angus Scale (SAS) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). Categorical summaries were created for each treatment group to show the frequencies of subjects with EPS-AEs in each of the SAS and BARS categories at weeks 1, 3, and 6, and agreement between ratings was quantified by means of weighted kappa (κ). Results: In general, we found greater frequencies of EPS-AEs with increasing severity of the SAS and BARS scores. The EPS-AEs reported with a “none” SAS score ranged from 0 to 22.2%, with a “mild” SAS score from 3.3 to 29.0%, and with a “moderate” SAS score from 0 to 100%. No subjects in any treatment group reported “severe” SAS scores or corresponding EPS-AEs. Agreement between SAS scores and EPS-AEs was poor for ziprasidone and placebo (κ < 0.2) and only slightly better for haloperidol. The EPS-AEs reported with “non questionable” BARS scores ranged from 1.9 to 9.8%, with “mild moderate” BARS scores from 12.8 to 54.6%, and with “marked severe” scores from 0 to 100%. Agreement was modest for ziprasidone and placebo (κ < 0.4) and moderate for haloperidol (κ < 0.6). Conclusions: These findings may reflect either underreporting of AEs by investigators and subjects or erroneous rating scale evaluations. PMID:26116494

  13. The role of reactant unmixedness, strain rate, and length scale on premixed combustor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelsen, S.; LaRue, J.; Vilayanur, S.; Guillaume, D.

    1995-12-31

    Lean premixed combustion provides a means to reduce pollutant formation and increase combustion efficiency. However, fuel-air mixing is rarely uniform in space and time. This nonuniformity in concentration will lead to relative increases in pollutant formation and decreases in combustion efficiency. The nonuniformity of the concentration at the exit of the premixer has been defined by Lyons (1981) as the ``unmixedness.`` Although turbulence properties such as length scales and strain rate are known to effect unmixedness, the exact relationship is unknown. Evaluating this relationship and the effect of unmixedness in premixed combustion on pollutant formation and combustion efficiency are an important part of the overall goal of US Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program and are among the goals of the program described herein. The information obtained from ATS is intended to help to develop and commercialize gas turbines. The contributions to the program which the University of California (Irvine) Combustion Lab (UCICL) will provide are: (1) establish the relationship of inlet unmixedness, length scales, and mean strain rate to performance, (2) determine the optimal levels of inlet unmixedness, length scales, and mean strain rates to maximize combustor performance, and (3) identify efficient premixing methods for achieving the necessary inlet conditions. The program during this reporting period is focused on developing a means to measure and qualify different degrees of temporal and spatial unmixedness. Laser diagnostic methods for planer unmixedness measurements are being developed and preliminary results are presented herein. These results will be used to (1), aid in the design of experimental premixers, and (2), determine the unmixedness which will be correlated with the emissions of the combustor. This measure of unmixedness coupled with length scale, strain rate and intensity information is required to attain the UCI goals.

  14. Cross-cultural evaluation of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale across disease stages.

    PubMed

    Virués-Ortega, Javier; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Micheli, Federico; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2010-07-30

    This study assessed the psychometric attributes of the modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale (mPPRS). In an attempt to improve scale's scaling assumptions and content validity, all types of hallucinations were rated and all items were scored based on intensity. The scale was cross-culturally adapted to four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, and Paraguay). Acceptability, internal consistency, factor structure, convergent and known-groups validity, and precision (standard error of measurement, SEM) were explored. A total of 388 patients with PD were included in the study (age, 64.5 +/- 10.7 years; 59.8% males; PD duration, 8.2 +/- 4.9 years). The mPPRS was highly usable in terms of missing values generated and scores distribution (total computable scores, 99.7%, ceiling effect, <15%). Scaling assumptions were acceptable as noted by the range of item-total correlations (0.14-0.55, only one coefficient below 0.2). Internal consistency was adequate for research use (Cronbach alpha, 0.7). Factor analysis identified two factors that accounted for 58.5% of the variance. Low correlation coefficients were found with cognitive function (SCOPA-Cog) and disease severity (CISI-PD) (r(S) scale's content validity and internal consistency. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:20310036

  15. Uplink Downlink Rate Balancing and Throughput Scaling in FDD Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergel, Itsik; Perets, Yona; Shamai, Shlomo

    2016-05-01

    In this work we extend the concept of uplink-downlink rate balancing to frequency division duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems. We consider a base station with large number antennas serving many single antenna users. We first show that any unused capacity in the uplink can be traded off for higher throughput in the downlink in a system that uses either dirty paper (DP) coding or linear zero-forcing (ZF) precoding. We then also study the scaling of the system throughput with the number of antennas in cases of linear Beamforming (BF) Precoding, ZF Precoding, and DP coding. We show that the downlink throughput is proportional to the logarithm of the number of antennas. While, this logarithmic scaling is lower than the linear scaling of the rate in the uplink, it can still bring significant throughput gains. For example, we demonstrate through analysis and simulation that increasing the number of antennas from 4 to 128 will increase the throughput by more than a factor of 5. We also show that a logarithmic scaling of downlink throughput as a function of the number of receive antennas can be achieved even when the number of transmit antennas only increases logarithmically with the number of receive antennas.

  16. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so. PMID:24678793

  17. Sensitivity of Flow and Sediment Transport in Meandering Rivers to Scale Effects and Flow Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Shams, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2008-06-01

    Sensitivity of flow and sediment transport in a meandering river to variations in scaling and flow rate was studied. The FLUENT™ code was used for evaluating the river flow characteristics, including the mean velocity field and the Reynolds stress components, as well as for particle trajectory analysis. Particular attention was given to the sensitivity of the sedimentation patterns of different size particles in the river bend for various scales. Simulation studies were performed for both a model river and a physical river. The physical river was geometrically similar to the model river, with a scaling ratio of 1:100, but with identical Froude number. The flow and particle deposition patterns in the physical and model rivers were compared. It was shown that the mean flow quantities exhibit dynamic similarity, but the turbulence parameters and the particle sedimentation features in the physical river were different from the model. The secondary flows and particle transport patterns were also found to be sensitive to variation in the scale and flow rate.

  18. A pilot study of an automated voice response system and nursing intervention to monitor adherence to oral chemotherapy agents.

    PubMed

    Decker, Veronica; Spoelstra, Sandra; Miezo, Emily; Bremer, Renee; You, Mei; Given, Charles; Given, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a system to monitor adherence with nonhormonal oral chemotherapeutic agents using an automated voice response (AVR) system plus nursing intervention. Participants were patients diagnosed with solid tumor cancers, primarily breast, colon, and lung cancers, who received the Symptom Management Toolkit and participated in an interview for symptom severity, satisfaction, and beliefs about oral agents. Patients received weekly AVR calls, which assessed adherence to oral agents and severity of 15 symptoms. Patients who reported adherence of below 100% of the prescribed oral agents or symptoms of 4 or greater (0-10 scale) for 3 consecutive weeks were called by a nurse for assistance with symptom management and adherence to oral chemotherapy medications. After the 8 weekly AVR calls, patients participated in a follow-up interview and medical record review. Participants were 30 oncology patients who were ambulatory and treated at 2 cancer centers in Midwest United States. The results indicate 23.3% nonadherence rate to oral chemotherapy medications due to symptoms and forgetting to take the medication. An association between symptom management and adherence was found. Symptom severity and beliefs about medications were not significantly different between adherent and nonadherent patients. This pilot study demonstrated the ability to accrue patients for a longitudinal trial and informed intervention design while providing guidance for future interventions and research studies. PMID:19816160

  19. Parent Ratings Using the Chinese Version of the Parent Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: Reliability and Validity for Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steve I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the scores of a Chinese-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) using parents as raters and explored the effects of gender and grade on the ratings. A total of 222 parents participated in the study and rated their child independently using the Chinese version of the…

  20. Fine-Scale Crossover Rate Variation on the Caenorhabditis elegans X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Max R; Rockman, Matthew V

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genotypic diversity within species. Recombination rates vary substantially across taxa, and the distribution of crossovers can differ significantly among populations and between sexes. Crossover locations within species have been found to vary by chromosome and by position within chromosomes, where most crossover events occur in small regions known as recombination hotspots. However, several species appear to lack hotspots despite significant crossover heterogeneity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was previously found to have the least fine-scale variation in crossover distribution among organisms studied to date. It is unclear whether this pattern extends to the X chromosome given its unique compaction through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase in hermaphrodites. We generated 798 recombinant nested near-isogenic lines (NILs) with crossovers in a 1.41 Mb region on the left arm of the X chromosome to determine if its recombination landscape is similar to that of the autosomes. We find that the fine-scale variation in crossover rate is lower than that of other model species, and is inconsistent with hotspots. The relationship of genomic features to crossover rate is dependent on scale, with GC content, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy being negatively associated with crossovers. We also find that the abundances of 4- to 6-bp DNA motifs significantly explain crossover density. These results are consistent with recombination occurring at unevenly distributed sites of open chromatin. PMID:27172189

  1. Two-Locus Likelihoods Under Variable Population Size and Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, John A; Spence, Jeffrey P; Chan, Jeffrey; Song, Yun S

    2016-07-01

    Two-locus sampling probabilities have played a central role in devising an efficient composite-likelihood method for estimating fine-scale recombination rates. Due to mathematical and computational challenges, these sampling probabilities are typically computed under the unrealistic assumption of a constant population size, and simulation studies have shown that resulting recombination rate estimates can be severely biased in certain cases of historical population size changes. To alleviate this problem, we develop here new methods to compute the sampling probability for variable population size functions that are piecewise constant. Our main theoretical result, implemented in a new software package called LDpop, is a novel formula for the sampling probability that can be evaluated by numerically exponentiating a large but sparse matrix. This formula can handle moderate sample sizes ([Formula: see text]) and demographic size histories with a large number of epochs ([Formula: see text]). In addition, LDpop implements an approximate formula for the sampling probability that is reasonably accurate and scales to hundreds in sample size ([Formula: see text]). Finally, LDpop includes an importance sampler for the posterior distribution of two-locus genealogies, based on a new result for the optimal proposal distribution in the variable-size setting. Using our methods, we study how a sharp population bottleneck followed by rapid growth affects the correlation between partially linked sites. Then, through an extensive simulation study, we show that accounting for population size changes under such a demographic model leads to substantial improvements in fine-scale recombination rate estimation. PMID:27182948

  2. Fine-Scale Crossover Rate Variation on the Caenorhabditis elegans X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Max R.; Rockman, Matthew V.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genotypic diversity within species. Recombination rates vary substantially across taxa, and the distribution of crossovers can differ significantly among populations and between sexes. Crossover locations within species have been found to vary by chromosome and by position within chromosomes, where most crossover events occur in small regions known as recombination hotspots. However, several species appear to lack hotspots despite significant crossover heterogeneity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was previously found to have the least fine-scale variation in crossover distribution among organisms studied to date. It is unclear whether this pattern extends to the X chromosome given its unique compaction through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase in hermaphrodites. We generated 798 recombinant nested near-isogenic lines (NILs) with crossovers in a 1.41 Mb region on the left arm of the X chromosome to determine if its recombination landscape is similar to that of the autosomes. We find that the fine-scale variation in crossover rate is lower than that of other model species, and is inconsistent with hotspots. The relationship of genomic features to crossover rate is dependent on scale, with GC content, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy being negatively associated with crossovers. We also find that the abundances of 4- to 6-bp DNA motifs significantly explain crossover density. These results are consistent with recombination occurring at unevenly distributed sites of open chromatin. PMID:27172189

  3. Experimental investigation of fuel regression rate in a HTPB based lab-scale hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xintian; Tian, Hui; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2014-12-01

    The fuel regression rate is an important parameter in the design process of the hybrid rocket motor. Additives in the solid fuel may have influences on the fuel regression rate, which will affect the internal ballistics of the motor. A series of firing experiments have been conducted on lab-scale hybrid rocket motors with 98% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidizer and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) based fuels in this paper. An innovative fuel regression rate analysis method is established to diminish the errors caused by start and tailing stages in a short time firing test. The effects of the metal Mg, Al, aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene (C14H10), and carbon black (C) on the fuel regression rate are investigated. The fuel regression rate formulas of different fuel components are fitted according to the experiment data. The results indicate that the influence of C14H10 on the fuel regression rate of HTPB is not evident. However, the metal additives in the HTPB fuel can increase the fuel regression rate significantly.

  4. Comparing Time-Dependent Geomagnetic and Atmospheric Effects on Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rate Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    A recently published cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) (Lifton et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 386, 149-160: termed the LSD model) provides two main advantages over previous scaling models: identification and quantification of potential sources of bias in the earlier models, and the ability to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors easily for a wide range of input parameters. The new model also provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of advances in model inputs. In this work, the scaling implications of two recent time-dependent spherical harmonic geomagnetic models spanning the Holocene will be explored. Korte and Constable (2011, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 188, 247-259) and Korte et al. (2011, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) recently updated earlier spherical harmonic paleomagnetic models used by Lifton et al. (2014) with paleomagnetic measurements from sediment cores in addition to archeomagnetic and volcanic data. These updated models offer improved accuracy over the previous versions, in part to due to increased temporal and spatial data coverage. With the new models as input, trajectory-traced estimates of effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC- the standard method for ordering cosmic ray data) yield significantly different time-integrated scaling predictions when compared to the earlier models. These results will be compared to scaling predictions using another recent time-dependent spherical harmonic model of the Holocene geomagnetic field by Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 388, 98-109), based solely on archeomagnetic and volcanic paleomagnetic data, but extending to 14 ka. In addition, the potential effects of time-dependent atmospheric models on LSD scaling predictions will be presented. Given the typical dominance of altitudinal over

  5. Global scale analysis of the stream power law parameters based on worldwide 10Be denudation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Marie-Alice; Mudd, Simon; Attal, Mikael

    2015-04-01

    The stream power law, expressed as E = KAmSn where E is erosion rate [LT-1], K is erodibility [T-1L(1-2m)], A is drainage area [L2], S is channel gradient [L/L] and m and n are constants, is the most widely used model for bedrock channel incision. Despite its simplicity and limitations, the model has proved useful for a large number of applications such as topographic evolution, knickpoint migration, palaeotopography reconstruction, and the determination of uplift patterns and rates. However, the unknown parameters K, m and n are often fixed arbitrarily or are based on assumptions about the physics of the erosion processes that are not always valid, which considerably alters the use and interpretation of the model. In this study, we compile published 10Be basin-wide erosion rates (n = 1335) in order to assess the m/n ratio (or concavity index), the slope exponent n and erodibility coefficient K using the integral method of channel profile analysis. These three parameters are calculated for 66 areas and allow for a global scale analysis in terms of climatic, tectonic and environmental settings. Our results suggest that (i) many sites are too noisy or do not have enough data to predict n and K with a satisfying level of confidence; (ii) the slope exponent is predominantly greater than one, meaning that the relationship between erosion rate and the channel gradient is non-linear, supporting the idea that incision is a threshold controlled process. Furthermore, a multi-regression analysis and the calculation of n and K using a reference concavity index m/n = 0.45 demonstrate that (iii) many intuitive or previously demonstrated local-scale trends, such as the correlation between erosion rate and climate, do not appear at a global scale.

  6. Global Scale Analysis of the Stream Power Law Parameters based on Worldwide 10Be Denudation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, M. A.; Mudd, S. M.; Attal, M.

    2015-12-01

    The stream power law, expressed as E = KAmSn where E is erosion rate [LT-1], K is erodibility [T-1L(1-2m)], A is drainage area [L2], S is channel gradient [L/L] and m and n are constants, is the most widely used model for bedrock channel incision. Despite its simplicity and limitations, the model has proved useful for a large number of applications such as topographic evolution, knickpoint migration, palaeotopography reconstruction, and the determination of uplift patterns and rates. However, the unknown parameters K, m and n are often fixed arbitrarily or are based on assumptions about the physics of the erosion processes that are not always valid, which considerably alters the use and interpretation of the model. In this study, we compile published 10Be basin-wide erosion rates (N= 1423) in order to assess the m/n ratio (or concavity index), the slope exponent n and erodibility coefficient K using the integral method of channel profile analysis. These three parameters are calculated for 67 areas and allow for a global scale analysis in terms of climatic, tectonic and environmental settings. Our results suggest that (i) many sites are too noisy or do not have enough data to predict n and K with a satisfying level of confidence; (ii) the slope exponent is predominantly greater than one, meaning that the relationship between erosion rate and the channel gradient is non-linear, supporting the idea that incision is a threshold controlled process. Furthermore, a multi-regression analysis and the calculation of n and K using a reference concavity index m/n = 0.45 demonstrates that (iii) many intuitive or previously demonstrated local-scale trends, such as the correlation between erosion rate and climate, do not appear at a global scale.

  7. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program. PMID:26646111

  8. Assessing adherence in Thai patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, S J; Avihingsanon, A; Putcharoen, O; Chetchotisakd, P; Layton, M; Ubolyam, S; Ruxrungtham, K; Cooper, D A; Phanuphak, P; Duncombe, C

    2012-03-01

    In settings where medications and viral load (VL) monitoring are limited by cost, clinicians need reliable ways to assess patient adherence to therapy. We assessed sensitivity and specificity of two self-reported adherence tools (a visual analogue scale [VAS] and the CASE [Center for Adherence Support Evaluation] adherence index), against a standard of detectable VL, with 288 patients from three sites in Thailand. We also assessed predictors of non-adherence. The sensitivity and specificity of the VAS <95% and CASE adherence index ≤11 against a VL >50 copies/mL were 26% and 90%, 19% and 95%, respectively. Against a VL ≥1000 copies/mL sensitivities increased to 55% and 36%, respectively, and specificities were unchanged. Attending a clinic not staffed by HIV specialists (odds ratio [OR] 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-8.34) and being educated to primary school level or less (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.01-4.94) were associated with self-reported adherence <95% on the VAS in multivariate analysis. Adherence assessed by the VAS was a more accurate predictor of detectable VL. Policy-makers in resource-limited settings should ensure that treatment centres are staffed with well-trained personnel aware of the importance of good patient adherence. PMID:22581867

  9. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Catherine A

    2013-02-28

    Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of

  10. Application of coalescent methods to reveal fine-scale rate variation and recombination hotspots.

    PubMed Central

    Fearnhead, Paul; Harding, Rosalind M; Schneider, Julie A; Myers, Simon; Donnelly, Peter

    2004-01-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in understanding the way in which recombination rates vary over small physical distances, and the extent of recombination hotspots, in various genomes. Here we adapt, apply, and assess the power of recently developed coalescent-based approaches to estimating recombination rates from sequence polymorphism data. We apply full-likelihood estimation to study rate variation in and around a well-characterized recombination hotspot in humans, in the beta-globin gene cluster, and show that it provides similar estimates, consistent with those from sperm studies, from two populations deliberately chosen to have different demographic and selectional histories. We also demonstrate how approximate-likelihood methods can be used to detect local recombination hotspots from genomic-scale SNP data. In a simulation study based on 80 100-kb regions, these methods detect 43 out of 60 hotspots (ranging from 1 to 2 kb in size), with only two false positives out of 2000 subregions that were tested for the presence of a hotspot. Our study suggests that new computational tools for sophisticated analysis of population diversity data are valuable for hotspot detection and fine-scale mapping of local recombination rates. PMID:15342541

  11. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  12. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age. PMID:18212472

  13. Experimental demonstration of photon efficient coherent temporal combining for data rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, D. J.; Yarnall, T. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Schieler, C. M.; Robinson, B. S.; Hamilton, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The next generation free-space optical (FSO) communications infrastructure will need to support a wide range of links from space-based terminals at LEO, GEO, and deep space to the ground. Efficiently enabling such a diverse mission set requires a common ground station architecture capable of providing excellent sensitivity (i.e., few photons-per-bit) while supporting a wide range of data rates. One method for achieving excellent sensitivity performance is to use integrated digital coherent receivers. Additionally, coherent receivers provide full-field information, which enables efficient temporal coherent combining of block repeated signals. This method allows system designers to trade excess link margin for increased data rate without requiring hardware modifications. We present experimental results that show a 45-dB scaling in data rate over a 41-dB range of input powers by block-repeating and combining a PRBS sequence up to 36,017 times.

  14. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). PMID:26945159

  15. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  16. The Development and Validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Y.; Worrell, Frank C.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS) – an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Forty-two adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CS+MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At post-treatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the Patient Recall Task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across seven MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT+MS condition compared to CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with Patient Recall Task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers’ use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. PMID:26389597

  17. 99Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Miller, Micah D.; Varga, Tamas; Resch, Charles T.

    2015-10-15

    Abstract: An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate pertechnetate (Tc(VII)) retardation, reduction, and rate scaling in three sediments from Ringold formation at U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford site, where 99Tc is a major contaminant in groundwater. Tc(VII) was reduced in all the sediments in both batch reactors and diffusion columns, with a faster rate in a sediment containing a higher concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II). Tc(VII) migration in the diffusion columns was reductively retarded with retardation degrees correlated with Tc(VII) reduction rates. The reduction rates were faster in the diffusion columns than those in the batch reactors, apparently influenced by the spatial distribution of redox-reactive minerals along transport paths that supplied Tc(VII). X-ray computed tomography and autoradiography were performed to identify the spatial locations of Tc(VII) reduction and transport paths in the sediments, and results generally confirmed the newly found behavior of reaction rate changes from batch to column. The results from this study implied that Tc(VII) migration can be reductively retarded at Hanford site with a retardation degree dependent on reactive Fe(II) content and its distribution in sediments. This study also demonstrated that an effective reaction rate may be faster in transport systems than that in well-mixed reactors.

  18. Comparisons of Instantaneous TRMM Ground Validation and Satellite Rain Rate Estimates at Different Spatial Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive inter-comparison of instantaneous rain rates observed by the two rain sensors aboard the TRMM satellite with ground data from two regional sites established for long-term ground validation: Kwajalein Atoll and Melbourne, Florida. The satellite rain algorithms utilize remote observations of precipitation collected by the TRMM microwave imager (TMI) and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite. Three standard Level I1 rain products are generated from operational applications of the TMI, PR and Combined (COM) rain algorithms using rain information collected from the TMI and the PR along the orbital track of the TRMM satellite. In the first part of the study, 0.25 x 0.25 instantaneous rain rates obtained from the TRMM 3668 product were analyzed and compared to instantaneous GV rain rates gridded at a scale of 0.5deg x 0.5. In the second part of the study, TMI, PR, COM and GV rain rates were spatio-temporally matched and averaged at the scale of TMI footprint (- 150 sq km). This study covered a six-year period 1999-2004 and consisted of over 50,000 footprints for each GV site. In the first analysis our results showed that all of the respective rain rate estimates agree well, with some exceptions. The more salient differences were associated with heavy rain events in which one or more of the algorithms failed to properly retrieve these extreme events. Also, it appears that there is a preferred mode of precipitation for TMI rain rates at or near 2 mm/hr over the ocean. This mode was noted over ocean areas of Kwajalein and Melbourne and has been observed in TRMM tropical-global ocean areas as well.

  19. Determinants of Medication Adherence to Topical Glaucoma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dreer, Laura E.; Girkin, Christopher; Mansberger, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    . Significant differences for adherence rates between patients of European descent and those of African descent were found for all three definitions with those who were less adherent more likely to be of African descent. Conclusions Electronic dose monitors provide important information regarding adherence to topical ocular hypotensive medications in glaucoma patients. Electronic dose monitors show low adherence in a significant number of participants. Future studies are needed to determine the reasons for these differences in health behaviors related to glaucoma treatment which should guide treatment of poor adherence with glaucoma therapy. PMID:21623223

  20. Linking soil DOC production rates and transport processes from landscapes to sub-basin scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y. Q.; Yu, Q.; Li, J.; Ye, C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research rejects the traditional perspective that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) component in global carbon cycle are simply trivial, and in fact evidence demonstrates that lakes likely mediate carbon dynamics on a global scale. Riverine and estuarine carbon fluxes play a critical role in transporting and recycling carbon and nutrients, not only within watersheds but in their receiving waters. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive carbon fluxes, from land to rivers, lake and oceans, remain poorly understood. This presentation will report a research result of the scale-dependent DOC production rate in coastal watersheds and DOC transport processes in estuarine regions. We conducted a series of controlled experiments and field measurements for examining biogeochemical, biological, and geospatial variables that regulate downstream processing on global-relevant carbon fluxes. Results showed that increased temperatures and raised soil moistures accelerate decomposition rates of organic matter with significant variations between vegetation types. The measurements at meso-scale ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation to bulk concentration of DOC monitored in receiving waters at the outlets of sub-basins (R2 > 0.65). These field and experimental measurements improved the model of daily carbon exports through below-ground processes as a function of the organic matter content of surface soils, forest litter supply, and temperature. The study demonstrated a potential improvement in modeling the co-variance of CDOM and DOC with the unique terrestrial sources. This improvement indicated a significant promise for monitoring riverine and estuarine carbon flux from satellite images. The technical innovations include deployments of 1) mini-ecosystem (mesocosms) with soil as replicate controlled experiments for DOC production and leaching rates, and 2) aquatic mesocosms for co-variances of DOC and CDOM endmembers, and an instrumented incubation experiment for

  1. Workplace Social Capital and Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kouvonen, Anne; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Sjösten, Noora; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    Background While hypertension is a common and treatable health problem, adherence to antihypertensive medication remains a challenge. This study examines the hypothesis that workplace social capital may influence adherence to antihypertensive medication among hypertensive employees. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked survey responses to nationwide pharmacy records for a cohort of 3515 hypertensive employees (mean age 53.9 years, 76% women) who required continuous antihypertensive drug therapy (the Finnish Public Sector study). A standard scale was used to measure workplace social capital from co-workers' assessments and self-reports in 2000–2004. Non-adherence to antihypertensive medication was determined based on the number of days-not-treated at the year following the survey using comprehensive prescription records. Negative binomial regression models were conducted adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, duration of hypertension, behaviour-related risk factors, and co-morbid conditions. The overall rate of days-not-treated was 20.7 per person-year (78% had no days-not-treated). Higher age, obesity, and presence of somatic co-morbidities were all associated with better adherence, but this was not the case for co-worker-assessed or self-reported workplace social capital. The rate of days-not-treated was 19.7 per person-year in the bottom fourth of co-worker-assessed workplace social capital, compared to 20.4 in the top fourth. The corresponding rate ratio from the fully-adjusted model was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–1.56). In a subgroup of 907 new users of antihypertensive medication this rate ratio was 0.98 (95% CI 0.42–2.29). Conclusions/Significance We found no consistent evidence to support the hypothesized effect of workplace social capital on adherence to drug therapy among employees with chronic hypertension. PMID:21931836

  2. Implications of two Holocene time-dependent geomagnetic models for cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is a major influence on in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates at a given location (in addition to atmospheric pressure and, to a lesser extent, solar modulation effects). A better understanding of how past fluctuations in these influences affected production rates should allow more accurate application of cosmogenic nuclides. As such, this work explores the cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling implications of two recent time-dependent spherical harmonic geomagnetic models spanning the Holocene. Korte and Constable (2011, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter.188, 247-259) and Korte et al. (2011, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) recently updated earlier spherical harmonic paleomagnetic models with new paleomagnetic data from sediment cores in addition to new archeomagnetic and volcanic data. These updated models offer improved resolution and accuracy over the previous versions, in part due to increased temporal and spatial data coverage. In addition, Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 388, 98-109) developed another time-dependent spherical harmonic model of the Holocene geomagnetic field, based solely on archeomagnetic and volcanic paleomagnetic data from the same underlying paleomagnetic database as the Korte et al. models, but extending to 14 ka. With the new models as input, trajectory-traced estimates of effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC - the standard method for ordering cosmic ray data) yield significantly different time-integrated scaling predictions when compared to each other and to results using the earlier models. In addition, predictions of each new model using RC are tested empirically using recently published production rate calibration data for both 10Be and 3He, and compared to predictions using corresponding time-varying geocentric dipolar RC formulations and a static geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model. Results for the few calibration sites from geomagnetically sensitive regions suggest that the

  3. Community Program Therapist Adherence and Competence in a Motivational Interviewing Assessment Intake Session

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Carly J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Martino, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Background Teaching community program therapists to use motivational interviewing (MI) strategies for addictions treatment with sufficient frequency (i.e., adherence) and skill (i.e., competence) is a priority and challenge for the field. The development of psychometrically valid MI integrity measures that can be used for supervision and evaluation and be both sensitive and robust across clinical situations is needed. Objective This article examines the performance of the Independent Tape Rating Scale (ITRS) (1) when used to evaluate the delivery of MI within a one-session assessment intake (2). Methods Audiotapes of 315 sessions of therapists in MI and counseling-as-usual conditions were rated according to the ITRS by raters blind to treatment condition. Results Results indicate that community therapists were successfully trained and supervised to use MI within an assessment intake session, with MI adherence and competence that was discriminable from counseling-as-usual practices. Increased therapist MI adherence and competence was associated with increases in an index of client motivation for change, though unrelated to treatment outcome. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The ITRS appears to be a valid instrument for measuring therapist MI adherence and competence within an assessment intake. PMID:20942726

  4. Adherence to Recommended Breast Cancer Screening in Iranian Turkmen Women: The Role of Knowledge and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Charkazi, Abdurrahman; Samimi, Afieh; Razzaghi, Khadijeh; Kouchaki, Ghorban Mohammad; Moodi, Mitra; Meirkarimi, Kamal; Kouchaki, Ashoor Mohammad; Shahnazi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate breast cancer screening performance among Iranian Turkmen women along with their knowledge and beliefs. A cross-sectional study was carried out in June to December 2011. Through clustered sampling method, 1080 Iranian Turkmen women completed the questionnaire including breast cancer screening adherence, knowledge, fatalism beliefs, and perceived threat using Champions Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS).The mean age of the participants was 43.04 (SD = 11.80) years. Compliance rate in a regular basis based on national guidelines was 13.1%, 2.5%, and 0.9% for SBE, CBE, and mammography, respectively. A mere 4% have been provided adequately with information about breast cancer. Having knowledge was the best predictor of breast cancer screening adherence along with high educated husbands for SBE performing. Susceptibility and fatalism were low and were influenced by participants' educational level and age. In conclusion, Iranian Turkmen women had insufficient knowledge, low perceived susceptibility, high fatalistic belief, and very poor adherence to breast cancer screening. There is a need for providing breast cancer education programs among the Iranian Turkmen women to increase their adherence rate. PMID:24977094

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL DEMENTIA RATING SCALE CUTOFF SCORES FOR PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Wyman-Chick, Kathryn A.; Scott, BJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale in measuring cognitive impairment among individuals with Parkinson's disease. The scale was created for use in patients with Alzheimer's disease and, to date, there have been no published studies examining if this tool is appropriate for patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods The data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database and included 490 subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, further categorized as having Parkinson's disease dementia (n= 151), mild cognitive impairment (n= 186), or normal cognition (n = 153) by a treating physician. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were calculated for the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Global Score as well as the Sum of Boxes Score using existing cutoff scores. Finally, new cutoff scores were calculated using sensitivity and specificity values derived using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the published Global Score cutoff scores for patients with dementia were .34 and .10, respectively. The newly calculated cutoff scores for patients with dementia yielded a sensitivity of .79 and a specificity of .96. The area under the curve was 0.92 (95% CI = 0.90-0.95). Conclusion The CDR is a useful tool in identifying dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease when the cutoff scores are adjusted. PMID:26660076

  6. Free energy of cluster formation and a new scaling relation for the nucleation rate

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond

    2014-05-21

    Recent very large molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation with (1 − 8) × 10{sup 9} Lennard-Jones atoms [J. Diemand, R. Angélil, K. K. Tanaka, and H. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] allow us to accurately determine the formation free energy of clusters over a wide range of cluster sizes. This is now possible because such large simulations allow for very precise measurements of the cluster size distribution in the steady state nucleation regime. The peaks of the free energy curves give critical cluster sizes, which agree well with independent estimates based on the nucleation theorem. Using these results, we derive an analytical formula and a new scaling relation for nucleation rates: ln J{sup ′}/η is scaled by ln S/η, where the supersaturation ratio is S, η is the dimensionless surface energy, and J{sup ′} is a dimensionless nucleation rate. This relation can be derived using the free energy of cluster formation at equilibrium which corresponds to the surface energy required to form the vapor-liquid interface. At low temperatures (below the triple point), we find that the surface energy divided by that of the classical nucleation theory does not depend on temperature, which leads to the scaling relation and implies a constant, positive Tolman length equal to half of the mean inter-particle separation in the liquid phase.

  7. A rating scale for the assessment of objective and subjective formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD).

    PubMed

    Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Fährmann, Paul; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Grosvald, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Nagels, Arne

    2014-12-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core syndrome of schizophrenia. However, patients with other diagnoses, such as mania and depression amongst others, also present with FTD. We introduce a novel, comprehensive clinical rating scale, capturing the full variety of FTD phenomenology including subjective experiences. The 30-item Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) scale is based on a detailed review of the literature, encompassing all formal thought disorder symptoms reported from the early 20th century onwards. Objectively observable symptoms as well as subjective phenomena were included. Two hundred and ten participants (146 patients ICD-10 diagnoses: depression n=63, schizophrenia n=63, mania n=20; 64 healthy control subjects) were interviewed and symptoms rated with the TALD, TLC, HAMD, YMRS and SAPS/SANS. A principal component analyses was performed for the TALD to differentiate sub-syndromes. The principal component analysis revealed four FTD factors; objective and subjective as well as positive and negative factor dimensions. The correlation analyses with the TLC and the SAPS/SANS FTD sub-scores demonstrated the factor validity for the objective factors. The different diagnoses showed a distinct pattern of symptom severity in each of the factors, with mania patients exhibiting the highest value in the positive, objective dimension. The scale showed good psychometric results, which makes it a practicable, nosologically-open instrument for the detailed assessment of all FTD dimensions. The results strengthen the importance of subjective symptom assessment reported by the patient. PMID:25458572

  8. Population-Scale Sequencing Data Enable Precise Estimates of Y-STR Mutation Rates.

    PubMed

    Willems, Thomas; Gymrek, Melissa; Poznik, G David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Erlich, Yaniv

    2016-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are mutation-prone loci that span nearly 1% of the human genome. Previous studies have estimated the mutation rates of highly polymorphic STRs by using capillary electrophoresis and pedigree-based designs. Although this work has provided insights into the mutational dynamics of highly mutable STRs, the mutation rates of most others remain unknown. Here, we harnessed whole-genome sequencing data to estimate the mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) with 2-6 bp repeat units that are accessible to Illumina sequencing. We genotyped 4,500 Y-STRs by using data from the 1000 Genomes Project and the Simons Genome Diversity Project. Next, we developed MUTEA, an algorithm that infers STR mutation rates from population-scale data by using a high-resolution SNP-based phylogeny. After extensive intrinsic and extrinsic validations, we harnessed MUTEA to derive mutation-rate estimates for 702 polymorphic STRs by tracing each locus over 222,000 meioses, resulting in the largest collection of Y-STR mutation rates to date. Using our estimates, we identified determinants of STR mutation rates and built a model to predict rates for STRs across the genome. These predictions indicate that the load of de novo STR mutations is at least 75 mutations per generation, rivaling the load of all other known variant types. Finally, we identified Y-STRs with potential applications in forensics and genetic genealogy, assessed the ability to differentiate between the Y chromosomes of father-son pairs, and imputed Y-STR genotypes. PMID:27126583

  9. Pressure Decay Testing Methodology for Quantifying Leak Rates of Full-Scale Docking System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Penney, Nicholas; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. This system, called the Low Impact Docking System, is a mechanism designed to connect the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the International Space Station, the lunar lander (Altair), and other future Constellation Project vehicles. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this docking system. This seal will be relatively large with an outside diameter in the range of 54 to 58 in. (137 to 147 cm). As part of this effort, a new test apparatus has been designed, fabricated, and installed to measure leak rates of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Using this test apparatus, a pressure decay testing and data processing methodology has been developed to quantify full-scale seal leak rates. Tests performed on untreated 54 in. diameter seals at room temperature in a fully compressed state resulted in leak rates lower than the requirement of less than 0.0025 lbm, air per day (0.0011 kg/day).

  10. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  11. Identifying Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items with the Rasch Model: An Introduction and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    This study (a) provided a conceptual introduction to differential item functioning (DIF), (b) introduced the multifaceted Rasch rating scale model (MRSM) and an associated statistical procedure for identifying DIF in rating scale items, and (c) applied this procedure to previously collected data from American coaches who responded to the coaching…

  12. Test Review: Michael H. Epstein and Lori Synhorst "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevon, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS), a 42-item family member--or school personnel--completed rating scale designed to measure the behavioral and emotional strengths of preschool children ages 3-0 to 5-11. According to the manual, results can be used to identify preschoolers with limited…

  13. Creating Abbreviated Rating Scales to Monitor Classroom Inattention-Overactivity, Aggression, and Peer Conflict: Reliability, Validity, and Treatment Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Rating scales developed to measure child emotional and behavioral problems typically are so long as to make their use in progress monitoring impractical in typical school settings. This study examined two methods of selecting items from existing rating scales to create shorter instruments for use in assessing response to intervention. The…

  14. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and < 4 consecutive days missed), and dispensing data (medication possession ratio ≥ 80%). One hundred four women and 33 men participated (mean age, 51; standard deviation, 14). Paroxetine was most frequently prescribed (N = 53, 38%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that of the personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits. PMID:27454894

  15. Membrane electroporation: The absolute rate equation and nanosecond time scale pore creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilkoski, Zlatko; Esser, Axel T.; Gowrishankar, T. R.; Weaver, James C.

    2006-08-01

    The recent applications of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric field pulses to biological systems show striking cellular and subcellular electric field induced effects and revive the interest in the biophysical mechanism of electroporation. We first show that the absolute rate theory, with experimentally based parameter input, is consistent with membrane pore creation on a nanosecond time scale. Secondly we use a Smoluchowski equation-based model to formulate a self-consistent theoretical approach. The analysis is carried out for a planar cell membrane patch exposed to a 10ns trapezoidal pulse with 1.5ns rise and fall times. Results demonstrate reversible supraelectroporation behavior in terms of transmembrane voltage, pore density, membrane conductance, fractional aqueous area, pore distribution, and average pore radius. We further motivate and justify the use of Krassowska’s asymptotic electroporation model for analyzing nanosecond pulses, showing that pore creation dominates the electrical response and that pore expansion is a negligible effect on this time scale.

  16. Developing a Saudi Version of the New Four Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakheit, Salah Edin Farah Attallah

    2015-01-01

    The scales for rating the behavioral characteristics of superior students (SRBCSS), which were developed by Renzulli and his colleagues, are considered the most widespread and the most important scales used in the identification of gifted and superior students. Recently, four new scales were added. The aim of this research was to examine the…

  17. Reconceptualizing medication adherence: six phases of dynamic adherence.

    PubMed

    Gearing, Robin E; Townsend, Lisa; MacKenzie, Michael; Charach, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Nonadherence is the Achilles' heel of effective psychiatric treatment. It affects the resolution of mental health symptoms and interferes with the assessment of treatment response. The meaning of the term adherence has evolved over time and is now associated with a variety of definitions and measurement methods. The result has been a poorly operationalized and nonstandardized term that is often interpreted differently by providers and patients. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article aims to (1) describe changes in the concept of adherence, drawing from the mental health treatment literature, (2) present a more comprehensive definition of adherence that recognizes the role of patient-provider transactions, (3) introduce dynamic adherence, a six-phase model, which incorporates the role of transactional processes and other factors that influence patients' adherence decisions, and (4) provide recommendations for providers to improve adherence as well as their relationships with patients. PMID:21790266

  18. Relaxation rate and scaling function of the critical system 3-methylpentane-nitroethane-cyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Iwanowski, I; Mirzaev, S Z; Kaatze, U

    2008-08-14

    The critical system 3-methylpentane-nitroethane-cyclohexane (3-MP-NE-CH) has been investigated and compared to the limiting binary systems 3-MP-NE as well as NE-CH in order to study the degree of renormalization in the critical exponents of the ternary system. The solubility curves of the 3-MP-NE-CH system have been determined at various molar ratios of the nonpolar constituents in order to obtain the plait points as a function of mixture composition. At the col point (the mixture with the lowest transition temperature) and two further plait point compositions shear viscosity, dynamic light scattering, and frequency-dependent ultrasonic attenuation coefficient measurements have been performed as a function of temperature near the critical temperatures. The fluctuation correlation length and the relaxation rate of fluctuations display power law behavior as a function of reduced temperature, with universal critical exponents nu = 0.63 and nuZ(0) = 1.928, respectively, as characteristic for binary critical mixtures. In conformity with the 3-MP-NE and NE-CH critical mixtures the scaling function in the ultrasonic spectra nicely agrees with the empirical scaling function of the Bhattacharjee-Ferrell dynamic scaling theory. Hence with respect to power laws and scaling the 3-MP-NE-CH system behaves like a quasibinary mixture. The individual amplitudes of the relaxation rate show a minimum at the col point composition, corresponding with a maximum in the background viscosity of the liquids. The amount of the adiabatic coupling constant g, derived from the amplitudes in the ultrasonic spectra, increases monotonously when going from NE-CH (/g/ = 0.1) to 3-MP-NE (/g/ = 0.26). PMID:18715094

  19. Materials Adherence Experiment: Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.P.; Landis, G.A.; Oberle, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    NASA`s Mars Pathfinder mission, launched December 4, 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. Pathfinder will demonstrate a variety of new technologies aimed at reducing the cost of Mars exploration. Chief among these will be the demonstration of a solar-powered spacecraft on the surface of Mars. The Materials Adherence Experiment on Pathfinder was designed to measure the degradation of solar arrays due to dust settling out of the atmosphere and blocking light to the solar array, lowering the array power output.

  20. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. Objectives This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). Patients and Methods For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. Results The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items (“partner” subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the “baby” subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of “nurse,” “physician,” and “baby,” which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the “self” subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0

  1. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    PubMed

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  2. Comparing quantum versus Markov random walk models of judgements measured by rating scales

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Busemeyer, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum and Markov random walk models are proposed for describing how people evaluate stimuli using rating scales. To empirically test these competing models, we conducted an experiment in which participants judged the effectiveness of public health service announcements from either their own personal perspective or from the perspective of another person. The order of the self versus other judgements was manipulated, which produced significant sequential effects. The quantum and Markov models were fitted to the data using the same number of parameters, and the model comparison strongly supported the quantum over the Markov model. PMID:26621984

  3. A review of modifying factors affecting usage of diagnostic rating scales in concussion management.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alexa; Rasouli, Jonathan; Gometz, Alex; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2014-07-01

    Sport-related concussion has gained increasing recognition as a result of recent legislation, public health initiatives and media coverage. Moreover, there have been substantial paradigm shifts in the management of concussion. This article will discuss the variables that affect the use of diagnostic rating scales such as ImPACT and SCAT in the current management of concussed individuals. Specifically, patient-specific modifying factors affecting test interpretation, including age, gender, fitness level, psychiatric conditions, learning disorders and other components of medical history will be addressed, as well as methodological concerns with baseline testing. PMID:24908218

  4. Direct rate measurements of eruption plumes at Augustine volcano: A problem of scaling and uncontrolled variables

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, W.I.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Eppler, D.; Barr, S.; Miller, T.; Chuan, R.L.; Symonds, R.B.

    1988-05-10

    The March--April 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, provided an opportunity to directly measure the flux of gas, aerosol, and ash particles during explosive eruption. Most previous direct measurements of volcanic emission rates are on plumes from fuming volcanoes or on very small eruption clouds. Direct measurements during explosive activity are needed to understand the scale relationships between passive degassing or small eruption plumes and highly explosive events. Conditions on April 3, 1986 were ideal: high winds, clear visibility, moderate activity. Three measurements were made: (1) an airborne correlation spectrometer (Cospec) provided mass flux rates of SO/sub 2/; (2) treated filter samples chemically characteized the plume and (3) a quartz crystal microcascade impactor provided particle size distribution. Atmospheric conditions on April 3 caused the development of a lee wave plume, which allowed us to constrain a model of plume dispersion leading to a forecast map of concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at greater distances from the vent.

  5. Correction for a potentially biased item on the Mattis dementia rating scale.

    PubMed

    Dean, Pamela M; Cerhan, Jane H

    2013-12-01

    The Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) is a multidimensional cognitive measure popular with clinicians for its brevity, diagnostic validity, and utility in monitoring impairment severity. In spite of the test's significant value, one task can cause discomfort because the patient is asked to name items the examiner is wearing. This task also creates possible cultural bias and standardization issues. We studied 102 MDRS profiles that included this item. Adjusted scores were calculated by giving all patients full credit for the apparel-naming item. The average adjustment was just one point, and the resulting dementia-severity ratings remained unchanged in 97% of the patients. These results show that administration of the item can be defensibly skipped if there is concern about its appropriateness with an individual patient. The adjusted scores provide a viable and fair alternative that preserves the psychometric properties of this useful instrument. PMID:24085248

  6. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J.; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult’s financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question. PMID:25866438

  7. Artificial Targets to Refine Production Rate Scaling Factors for Surface Exposure Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasky, S.; Vermeesch, P.; Baur, H.; Kober, F.; Schlüchter, C.; Wieler, R.

    2005-12-01

    To determine surface exposure ages, an obviously crucial parameter is the production rate of a nuclide of interest at the site of exposure of a given sample. As the cosmic ray intensity depends on the exact location within the troposphere, also the cosmogenic nuclide production rates vary with the geographical position. Accurate scaling of cosmogenic nuclide production rates from a calibration site to another with different geomagnetic latitude and altitude is therefore required. The international community initiated the CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray-Originated NUclide Systematics) project to improve the knowledge on production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides on earth. In our project we approach the "scaling problem'' by measuring the variability of production rates of cosmogenic noble gases (3He and 21Ne) as a function of the geographical position in artificial targets. The idea is to expose artificial targets along altitude and latitude transects during 1-2 years and subsequently measure the cosmic-ray produced 3He and 21Ne concentrations. The vacuum containers built for the experiment are inconel stainless steel tubes. The main target material is quartz, as quartz is the most commonly used mineral for exposure dating and both, cosmogenic helium and neon are produced and retained in the target container. Each target contains 1 kg of artificial quartz sand, and is degassed in vacuum prior to exposure. Blank measurements are carried out after degassing. So far, four artificial targets have been exposed in Antarctica and Tibet. Further targets will be exposed along an altitude transect between sea level and about 4500 m altitude and a latitude transect between 20-50 degrees. Blank measurements for the first exposed targets revealed 21Ne- and 3He-concentrations of about 5·105 and 5·104 atoms per container, respectively. After 1-2 years of exposure we should be able to measure the cosmogenic excess over blank with sufficient accuracy.

  8. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

  9. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the…

  10. Spatial and Temporal Length Scales Characterizing the Evolution of Seismicity Rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S. Z.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bowman, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented systematic changes in seismicity rates preceding large magnitude events. Many works suggest that these changes can be used to conduct time-dependent earthquake forecasting. We use two approaches to examine the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the seismicity rate changes, with the goal of exploring the underlying physical process. The first set of analyses follow the methodology outlined in Tiampo et al. [2002], for determining the eigenfunctions describing spatial and temporal correlation in regional seismicity. We extend the method by incorporating a temporal lag in construction of the covariance matrix. Decomposing the matrix into its eigenmodes then highlights correlated activity separated in time by the specified lag. Here, we present the results obtained for southern California seismicity from 1932 to 2004, using a range of temporal lags. Our second approach considers changes in yearly seismicity rates as a function of distance from the rupture plane of major historical events. To quantify the significance of trends in the seismicity rates, we auto-correlate the data, using a range of spatial and temporal lags. Here, we focus on the results for the 1987 Superstition Hills, 1992 Landers, and 1994 Northridge, California, earthquakes. We also briefly address the results for the 1971 San Fernando, 1983 Coalinga, 1986 Chalfant Valley, 1989 Loma Prieta, 1999 Hector Mine events and the 2002 Denali, AK, earthquake.

  11. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  12. Smartphone medication adherence apps: Potential benefits to patients and providers

    PubMed Central

    Dayer, Lindsey; Heldenbrand, Seth; Anderson, Paul; Gubbins, Paul O.; Martin, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of medication adherence, discuss the potential for smartphone medication adherence applications (adherence apps) to improve medication nonadherence, evaluate features of adherence apps across operating systems (OSs), and identify future opportunities and barriers facing adherence apps. Practice description Medication nonadherence is a common, complex, and costly problem that contributes to poor treatment outcomes and consumes health care resources. Nonadherence is difficult to measure precisely, and interventions to mitigate it have been largely unsuccessful. Practice innovation Using smartphone adherence apps represents a novel approach to improving adherence. This readily available technology offers many features that can be designed to help patients and health care providers improve medication-taking behavior. Main outcome measures Currently available apps were identified from the three main smartphone OSs (Apple, Android, and Blackberry). In addition, desirable features for adherence apps were identified and ranked by perceived importance to user desirability using a three-point rating system: 1, modest; 2, moderate; or 3, high. The 10 highest-rated apps were installed and subjected to user testing to assess app attributes using a standard medication regimen. Results 160 adherence apps were identified and ranked. These apps were most prevalent for the Android OS. Adherence apps with advanced functionality were more prevalent on the Apple iPhone OS. Among all apps, MyMedSchedule, MyMeds, and RxmindMe rated the highest because of their basic medication reminder features coupled with their enhanced levels of functionality. Conclusion Despite being untested, medication apps represent a possible strategy that pharmacists can recommend to nonadherent patients and incorporate into their practice. PMID:23571625

  13. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  14. Associations between patient factors and medication adherence: A Jordanian experience

    PubMed Central

    Basheti, Iman A.; Hait, Sami Saqf El; Qunaibi, Eyad A.; Aburuz, Salah; Bulatova, Nailya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of patient characteristics and health beliefs on their medication adherence. Methods: Patients (n=167) with chronic conditions (mean age 58.9; SD=13.54, 53% males) were recruited from March 2009- to March 2010 using a cross sectional study design. Data collected included patients’ demographics, medical conditions, medications therapeutic regimen, frequency of physician visits and health beliefs. Patient self-reported adherence to medications was assessed by the researcher using a validated and published scale. Treatment related problems (TRPs) were evaluated for each patient by competent clinical pharmacists. Associations between patient characteristics/health beliefs with adherence were explored. Results: About half of the patients (46.1%) were non-adherent. A significant association was found between lower adherence and higher number of disease states (p<0.001), higher number of medications (p=0.001), and higher number of identified TRPs (p = 0.003). Patient adherence was positively affected by older age, higher educational level, and higher number of physician visits per month, while it was negatively affected by reporting difficulties with getting prescription refills on time. Conclusion: This study identified different factors that may negatively affect adherence, including higher number of medications and disease states, higher number of identified TRPs and inability to getting prescription refills on time. Hence, more care needs to be provided to patients with complex therapeutic regimens in order to enhance adherence. PMID:27011772

  15. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size. PMID:26353528

  16. The allometry of the smallest: superlinear scaling of microbial metabolic rates in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    García, Francisca C; García-Martín, Enma Elena; Taboada, Fernando González; Sal, Sofía; Serret, Pablo; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2016-05-01

    Prokaryotic planktonic organisms are small in size but largely relevant in marine biogeochemical cycles. Due to their reduced size range (0.2 to 1 μm in diameter), the effects of cell size on their metabolism have been hardly considered and are usually not examined in field studies. Here, we show the results of size-fractionated experiments of marine microbial respiration rate along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean. The scaling exponents obtained from the power relationship between respiration rate and size were significantly higher than one. This superlinearity was ubiquitous across the latitudinal transect but its value was not universal revealing a strong albeit heterogeneous effect of cell size on microbial metabolism. Our results suggest that the latitudinal differences observed are the combined result of changes in cell size and composition between functional groups within prokaryotes. Communities where the largest size fraction was dominated by prokaryotic cyanobacteria, especially Prochlorococcus, have lower allometric exponents. We hypothesize that these larger, more complex prokaryotes fall close to the evolutionary transition between prokaryotes and protists, in a range where surface area starts to constrain metabolism and, hence, are expected to follow a scaling closer to linearity. PMID:26636550

  17. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale With Online Graduate Students.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    The Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale was examined using data from a convenience sample of 450 female and 65 male students enrolled in online, graduate-level introductory statistics courses. The mean age of the students was 33.1 (SD = 8.2), and 58.3% had completed six or fewer online courses. The majority of students were enrolled in education or counseling degree programs. Confirmatory factor analysis using unweighted least squares estimation was used to test three proposed models, and alpha coefficients were used to examine the internal consistency. The confirmatory factor analysis results supported the six-factor structure and indicated that proper models should include correlations among the six factors or two second-order factors (anxiety and attitude). Internal consistency estimates ranged from .82 to .95 and were consistent with values reported by previous researchers. The findings suggest that, when measuring statistics anxiety of online students using Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale, researchers and instructors can use scores from the individual subscales or generate two composite scores, anxiety and attitude, instead of a total score. PMID:27154380

  19. Validation of Arabic and English versions of the ARSMA-II Acculturation Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Jadalla, Ahlam; Lee, Jerry

    2015-02-01

    To translate and adapt the Acculturation Rating Scale of Mexican-Americans II (ARSMA-II) for Arab Americans. A multistage translation process followed by a pilot and a large study. The translated and adapted versions, Acculturation Rating Scale for Arabic Americans-II Arabic and English (ARSAA-IIA, ARSAA-IIE), were validated in a sample of 297 Arab Americans. Factor analyses with principal axis factoring extractions and direct oblimin rotations were used to identify the underlying structure of ARSAA-II. Factor analysis confirmed the underlying structure of ARSAA-II and produced two interpretable factors labeled as 'Attraction to American Culture' (AAmC) and 'Attraction to Arabic Culture' (AArC). The Cronbach's alphas of AAmC and AArC were .89 and .85 respectively. Findings support ARSAA-II A & E to assess acculturation among Arab Americans. The emergent factors of ARSAA-II support the theoretical structure of the original ARSMA-II tool and show high internal consistency. PMID:23934518

  20. Evaluating therapist adherence in motivational interviewing by comparing performance with standardized and real patients

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Zac E.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Baer, John; Hartzler, Bryan; Dunn, Christopher; Rosengren, David; Atkins, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of measuring therapist adherence is to determine if a therapist can perform a given treatment. Yet the evaluation of therapist behaviors in most clinical trials is limited. Typically, randomized trials have few therapists and minimize therapist variability through training and supervision. Furthermore, therapist adherence is confounded with uncontrolled differences in patients across therapists. Consequently, the extent to which adherence measures capture differences in actual therapist adherence versus other sources of variance is unclear. Method We estimated intra-class correlations (ICCs) for therapist adherence in sessions with real and standardized patients (RPs and SPs), using ratings from a motivational interviewing (MI) dissemination trial (Baer et al., 2009) in which 189 therapists recorded 826 sessions with both patient types. We also examined the correlations of therapist adherence between SP and RP sessions, and the reliability of therapist level adherence scores with generalizability coefficients (GCs). Results ICC’s for therapist adherence were generally large (average ICC for SPs = 0.44, RPs = 0.40), meaning that a given therapist’s adherence scores were quite similar across their sessions. Both ICCs and GCs were larger for SP sessions as compared to RPs on global measures of MI adherence, such as Empathy and MI Spirit. Correlations between therapist adherence with real and standardized patients were moderate to large on three of five adherence measures. Conclusion Differences in therapist-level adherence ratings were substantial, and standardized patients have promise as tools to evaluate therapist behavior. PMID:24588405

  1. Manipulating the pulse rate and resonance scale in speech and animal calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Hideki

    2005-04-01

    A large proportion of the sound in speech and animal calls is voiced, and thus, periodic in nature. The sounds are generated by repetitive pulsive stimulations and each pulse produces a resonant response. This repetitive structure in the sounds can be interpreted as a time-frequency sampling process that provides a stream of information about the size, shape, and structure of the resonators in the vocal tract. This perspective has enabled us to develop a system, referred to as STRAIGHT, that can analyze, manipulate, and resynthesize vocal sounds. It is based on an extended pitch synchronous spectral estimation algorithm that recovers the underlying smooth time-frequency representation representing physical information on resonators. Ideally, this process removes stimulation related structure from the time-frequency representation, and thus, it should follow the same scaling laws as the physical dimensions of the resonating body. One problem is that speech sometimes contains multiple stimulations within one pitch period. This type of stimulation introduces a spectral deformation that has the same scaling laws as for the fundamental frequency (reciprocal of the repetition rate). The effects of this dual scaling and the problems of joint normalization will be discussed. [Work supported by MEXT Japan.

  2. Symptom Dimensions of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales in Psychosis: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Todd S.; Jung, Kwanghee; Hwang, Heungsun; Yin, John; Taylor, Laura; Menon, Mahesh; Peters, Emmanuelle; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Waters, Flavie; Lecomte, Tania; Sommer, Iris E.; Daalman, Kirstin; van Lutterveld, Remko; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Homan, Philipp; Badcock, Johanna C.; Chhabra, Saruchi; Cella, Matteo; Keedy, Sarah; Allen, Paul; Mechelli, Andrea; Preti, Antonio; Siddi, Sara; Erickson, David

    2014-01-01

    The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) is an instrument designed to quantify the severity of delusions and hallucinations and is typically used in research studies and clinical settings focusing on people with psychosis and schizophrenia. It is comprised of the auditory hallucinations (AHS) and delusions subscales (DS), but these subscales do not necessarily reflect the psychological constructs causing intercorrelation between clusters of scale items. Identification of these constructs is important in some clinical and research contexts because item clustering may be caused by underlying etiological processes of interest. Previous attempts to identify these constructs have produced conflicting results. In this study, we compiled PSYRATS data from 12 sites in 7 countries, comprising 711 participants for AHS and 520 for DS. We compared previously proposed and novel models of underlying constructs using structural equation modeling. For the AHS, a novel 4-dimensional model provided the best fit, with latent variables labeled Distress (negative content, distress, and control), Frequency (frequency, duration, and disruption), Attribution (location and origin of voices), and Loudness (loudness item only). For the DS, a 2-dimensional solution was confirmed, with latent variables labeled Distress (amount/intensity) and Frequency (preoccupation, conviction, and disruption). The within-AHS and within-DS dimension intercorrelations were higher than those between subscales, with the exception of the AHS and DS Distress dimensions, which produced a correlation that approached the range of the within-scale correlations. Recommendations are provided for integrating these underlying constructs into research and clinical applications of the PSYRATS. PMID:24936086

  3. Assessment of Drug-Associated Extrapyramidal Symptoms in People With Intellectual Disability: A Comparison of an Informant-Based Scale With Clinical Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    de Kuijper, Gerda M; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2016-10-01

    Drug-associated extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in people with intellectual disability (ID) may be difficult to recognize, and clinicians' assessments may be hampered by lack of patients' capacities to adequately cooperate and by lack of reliable instruments to measure EPS in this population. Therefore, we compared assessments based on professional caregivers' observations with the informant-based validated Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) scale with assessments by clinicians using a set of clinical rating scales, most of which have not been validated for use in this population. We also compared 2 dyskinesia scales by replacing the widely used but not validated Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale with the validated Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale (DISCUS) in half of the set of scales. We used linear regression to analyze associations between EPS as measured with MEDS and EPS as measured with the sets of scales at item and at scale level.Of the 30 MEDS items, 6 were associated with items of the other scales. At scale level, we found no significant associations. Comparison of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale with the DISCUS indicated that the DISCUS may be preferable for use in people with ID.Results may be explained by shortcomings in education and training of caregivers and by lack of reliable assessments and rating scales for EPS in people with ID.We conclude that there is an urgent need for education and training of care professionals and clinicians in this area and for studies investigating the psychometric properties of rating scales. PMID:27529770

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (OAV)

    PubMed Central

    Studerus, Erich; Gamma, Alex; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2010-01-01

    Background The OAV questionnaire has been developed to integrate research on altered states of consciousness (ASC). It measures three primary and one secondary dimensions of ASC that are hypothesized to be invariant across ASC induction methods. The OAV rating scale has been in use for more than 20 years and applied internationally in a broad range of research fields, yet its factorial structure has never been tested by structural equation modeling techniques and its psychometric properties have never been examined in large samples of experimentally induced ASC. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study conducted a psychometric evaluation of the OAV in a sample of psilocybin (n = 327), ketamine (n = 162), and MDMA (n = 102) induced ASC that was obtained by pooling data from 43 experimental studies. The factorial structure was examined by confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, hierarchical item clustering (ICLUST), and multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling. The originally proposed model did not fit the data well even if zero-constraints on non-target factor loadings and residual correlations were relaxed. Furthermore, ICLUST suggested that the “oceanic boundlessness” and “visionary restructuralization” factors could be combined on a high level of the construct hierarchy. However, because these factors were multidimensional, we extracted and examined 11 new lower order factors. MIMIC modeling indicated that these factors were highly measurement invariant across drugs, settings, questionnaire versions, and sexes. The new factors were also demonstrated to have improved homogeneities, satisfactory reliabilities, discriminant and convergent validities, and to differentiate well among the three drug groups. Conclusions/Significance The original scales of the OAV were shown to be multidimensional constructs. Eleven new lower order scales were constructed and demonstrated to have desirable

  5. The rate of force development scaling factor (RFD-SF): protocol, reliability, and muscle comparisons.

    PubMed

    Bellumori, Maria; Jaric, Slobodan; Knight, Christopher A

    2011-07-01

    Performing a set of isometric muscular contractions to varied amplitudes with instructions to generate force most rapidly reveals a strong linear relationship between peak forces (PF) achieved and corresponding peak rates of force development (RFD). The slope of this relationship, termed the RFD scaling factor (RFD-SF), quantifies the extent to which RFD scales with contraction amplitude. Such scaling allows relative invariance in the time required to reach PF regardless of contraction size. Considering the increasing use of this relationship to study quickness and consequences of slowness in older adults and movement disorders, our purpose was to further develop the protocol to measure RFD-SF. Fifteen adults (19-28 years) performed 125 rapid isometric contractions to a variety of force levels in elbow extensors, index finger abductors, and knee extensors, on 2 days. Data were used to determine (1) how the number of pulses affects computation of the RFD-SF, (2) day-to-day reliability of the RFD-SF, and (3) the nature of RFD-SF differences between diverse muscle groups. While sensitive to the number of pulses used in its computation (P<.05), RFD-SF was reliable when computed with >50 pulses (ICC>.7) and more so with 100-125 pulses (ICC=.8-.92). Despite differences in size and function across muscles, RFD-SF was generally similar (i.e., only 8.5% greater in elbow extensors than in index finger abductors and knee extensors; P=.049). Results support this protocol as a reliable means to assess how RFD scales with PF in rapid isometric contractions as well as a simple, non-invasive probe into neuromuscular health. PMID:21656219

  6. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  7. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes.

    PubMed

    Zouache, Moussa A; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as [Formula: see text], where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  8. Natural-Scale Lava Flow Experiments on Video: Variations with Temperature, Slope, and Effusion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.; Wysocki, R.; Edwards, B. R.; Lev, E.

    2013-12-01

    Investigations of active basaltic lava flows and analog materials show that flow dynamics and final flow morphology are strongly determined by the rapidly evolving rheology of the lava crust which constrains the downslope advance of the lava flow. The non-dimensional factor Ψ (ratio of the time scale of crust formation to advective heat loss) provides a useful means of comparing different flows. The key parameters that control Ψ include the melt viscosity, temperature, effusion rate, and slope. Experimental lava flows, up to several meters long created in the Syracuse University Lava Project permit these variables to be investigated independently and in combination in volume-limited flows (<450 kg, 0.5 m3). Video results show lava is very sensitive to relatively small variations in these variables under experimental conditions. For example, experiments 1.1 Ga Keewenan basalt from the Mid-Continent Rift and 200 Ma basalt from the Palisades Sill show very different flow rates and flow morphologies for meter-scale flows on dry sand slopes between 5° and 20°, with all other variables held constant. Similar differences result from varying the effusion rate (~10-4m3s-1) or temperature (1050°-1250°C) on a constant slope. In addition, videos document the development of a wide range of reproducible lava flow structures found in natural lava flows including folds, shear zones, lava tubes, inflated lobes, break-outs, and bubbles (limu o'Pele), that provide additional information on lava crust development. New, continuous flow (cooling-limited) experiments show downslope variations under constant flow conditions.

  9. Century-scale variability of Coralline Algal Calcification Rates in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, J.; Chan, P.; Adey, W.; Hetzinger, S.; Williams, B.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean acidification may inhibit calcification pathways of marine plants and animals. Recently, it has been suggested that aragonitic tropical corals and other marine calcifiers already exhibit declining calcification rates. Greater oceanic CO2 uptake at mid-to-high latitudes may result in greater inhibition of calcium carbonate secretion in subarctic organisms than in those at lower latitudes. Such inhibition may be particularly evident in the metabolically expensive high Mg-calcite skeletons of the shallow-water, habitat-forming coralline algae. It has been shown that biogenic high Mg-calcites exceed the solubility of aragonite at approximately 12 mol% MgCO3. Here we present the first century-scale records of calcification rates in the coralline alga Clathromorphum sp. from the North Pacific/Bering Sea region and the subarctic NW Atlantic. Clathromorphum forms annual growth increments in its massive skeleton and is known to have a lifespan of up to several centuries. The seasonal MgCO3 range in Clathromorphum from our subarctic collection sites fluctuates between 10-15 mol%. Century-long time series of calcification rates - the product of skeletal density and linear extension - were generated at submonthly resolution using Micro Computer Tomography. Results indicate that coralline algal calcification rates display multidecadal cycles that covary with regional climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Unlike studies of other marine calcifiers, this study has not detected a significant decline in calcification rates during the past decades. This is likely attributable to Clathromorphum calcification being metabolically driven, with the organism maintaining significant physiological control over both placement and dissolution of carbonate. Most carbonate in Clathromorphum cells is deposited along an inner wall embedded in an organic matrix of very small, radially-placed high magnesium calcite crystals.

  10. Reply to 'Comments on upscaling geochemical reaction rates usingpore-scale network modeling' by Peter C. Lichtner and Qinjun Kang

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Li; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2006-05-03

    Our paper "Upscaling geochemical reaction rates usingpore-scale network modeling" presents a novel application of pore-scalenetwork modeling to upscale mineral dissolution and precipitationreaction rates from the pore scale to the continuum scale, anddemonstrates the methodology by analyzing the scaling behavior ofanorthite and kaolinite reaction kinetics under conditions related to CO2sequestration. We conclude that under highly acidic conditions relevantto CO2 sequestration, the traditional continuum-based methodology may notcapture the spatial variation in concentrations from pore to pore, andscaling tools may be important in correctly modeling reactive transportprocesses in such systems. This work addresses the important butdifficult question of scaling mineral dissolution and precipitationreaction kinetics, which is often ignored in fields such as geochemistry,water resources, and contaminant hydrology. Although scaling of physicalprocesses has been studied for almost three decades, very few studieshave examined the scaling issues related to chemical processes, despitetheir importance in governing the transport and fate of contaminants insubsurface systems.

  11. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  12. The Influence of Alternative Scale Formats on the Generalizability of Data Obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Christ, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study served to extend previous research on scaling construction of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) in order to explore the potential flexibility of DBR to fit various intervention contexts. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students viewed the same classroom footage but rated student behavior using one of eight randomly assigned…

  13. RESPONSIVENESS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING SCALE OF THE KNEE OUTCOME SURVEY AND NUMERIC PAIN RATING SCALE IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Sara R.; Gil, Alexandra B.; Moore, Charity G.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess internal and external responsiveness of the Activity of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey and Numeric Pain Rating Scale on patients with patellofemoral pain. Design One group pre-post design. Subjects A total of 60 individuals with patellofemoral pain (33 women; mean age 29.9 (standard deviation 9.6) years). Methods The Activity of Daily Living Scale and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale were assessed before and after 8 weeks of physical therapy program. Patients completed a global rating of change scale at the end of therapy. The standardized effect size, Guyatt responsiveness index, and the minimum clinical important difference were calculated. Results Standardized effect size of the Activity of Daily Living Scale was 0.63, Guyatt responsiveness index was 1.4, area under the curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.72, 0.94), and the minimum clinical important difference corresponded to an increase of 7.1 percentile points. Standardized effect size of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale was 0.72, Guyatt responsiveness index was 2.2, area under the curve was 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.92), and the minimum clinical important difference corresponded to a decrease of 1.16 points. Conclusion Information from this study may be helpful to therapists when evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation intervention on physical function and pain, and to power future clinical trials on patients with patellofemoral pain. PMID:19229444

  14. Locus of pain control associated with medication adherence behaviors among patients after an orthopedic procedure

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Thaisy Mendes; Machado, Daniele Caferatti; Martins, Rafael Olívio; Galato, Dayani; Piovezan, Anna Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Locus of pain control (LPC) is characterized by the behavior of people coping with their health problems, as a result of their own actions (internal control) or external factors or other people (external control). This parameter can be associated with medication adherence, in addition to other psychosocial factors that may also influence this behavior. This study was performed to investigate the influence of the LPC on medication adherence in patients undergoing an orthopedic procedure. Subjects and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on patients who attended an orthopedic clinic for arthroscopy treatment. The patients’ LPC and pain intensity data were obtained on the day of admission through the use of the LPC scale and the visual analog scale (VAS), respectively, both being validated tools. After arthroscopic surgery, the patients received drug prescriptions and were reassessed after 15 days regarding treatment adherence, using the Morisky test. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We assessed 79 individuals from both the internal LPC group (n=35) and external LPC group (n=44) and found that there were no group differences in sex, affected limb, cause of injury, repetitive strain injury, duration of pain, or pain intensity. However, there was a higher proportion of patients in the external LPC group that adhered to the prescribed medication compared with the internal LPC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The results showed that among patients who underwent an orthopedic procedure, there was a higher adherence rate to prescribed medication in the external LPC group compared with the internal LPC group. PMID:25075178

  15. Design and optimization for variable rate selective excitation using an analytic RF scaling function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Neville D.; Zur, Yuval

    2007-11-01

    At higher B0 fields, specific absorption rate (SAR) deposition increases. Due to maximum SAR limitation, slice coverage decreases and/or scan time increases. Conventional selective RF pulses are played out in conjunction with a time independent field gradient. Variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) is a technique that modifies the original RF and gradient waveforms such that slice profile is unchanged. The drawback is that the slice profile for off-resonance spins is distorted. A new VERSE algorithm based on modeling the scaled waveforms as a Fermi function is introduced. It ensures that system related constraints of maximum gradient amplitude and slew rate are not exceeded. The algorithm can be used to preserve the original RF pulse duration while minimizing SAR and peak b1 or to minimize the RF pulse duration. The design is general and can be applied to any symmetrical or asymmetrical RF waveform. The algorithm is demonstrated by using it to (a) minimize the SAR of a linear phase RF pulse, (b) minimize SAR of a hyperbolic secant RF pulse, and (c) minimize the duration of a linear phase RF pulse. Images with a T1-FLAIR (T1 FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) sequence using a conventional and VERSE adiabatic inversion RF pulse are presented. Comparison of images and scan parameters for different anatomies and coils shows increased scan coverage and decreased SAR with the VERSE inversion RF pulse, while image quality is preserved.

  16. Relationship between Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Wilson, John T; Kampbell, Donald H

    2006-09-01

    Certain strains of Dehalococcoides bacteria can dechlorinate chlorinated ethylenes to harmless products. This study was conducted to determine if there is a valid association between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the observed rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale. Dehalococcoides DNA in water from monitoring wells was determined using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) with DNA primer set specific for Dehalococcoides organisms. Dechlorination rate constants were extracted from field data using the BIOCHLOR software. Of the six conventional plumes surveyed, "generally useful" rates of dechlorination (greater than or equal to 0.3 per year) of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) along the flow path were observed at three sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was detected, and little attenuation of cis-DCE and VC occurred at two sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was not detected. At the two sites where there was no net direction of ground water flow, the relationship between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the trend in concentrations of chlorinated ethylenes over time in monitoring wells was not so consistent as that observed for the conventional plumes. A comparison of our study to a field study performed by Lendvay and his coworker indicated that monitoring wells did not efficiently sample the Dehalococcoides organisms in the aquifer. PMID:16889813

  17. Cochlea-scaled spectral entropy predicts rate-invariant intelligibility of temporally distorted sentences1

    PubMed Central

    Stilp, Christian E.; Kiefte, Michael; Alexander, Joshua M.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence, mostly drawn from experiments using only a single moderate rate of speech, suggests that low-frequency amplitude modulations may be particularly important for intelligibility. Here, two experiments investigated intelligibility of temporally distorted sentences across a wide range of simulated speaking rates, and two metrics were used to predict results. Sentence intelligibility was assessed when successive segments of fixed duration were temporally reversed (exp. 1), and when sentences were processed through four third-octave-band filters, the outputs of which were desynchronized (exp. 2). For both experiments, intelligibility decreased with increasing distortion. However, in exp. 2, intelligibility recovered modestly with longer desynchronization. Across conditions, performances measured as a function of proportion of utterance distorted converged to a common function. Estimates of intelligibility derived from modulation transfer functions predict a substantial proportion of the variance in listeners’ responses in exp. 1, but fail to predict performance in exp. 2. By contrast, a metric of potential information, quantified as relative dissimilarity (change) between successive cochlear-scaled spectra, is introduced. This metric reliably predicts listeners’ intelligibility across the full range of speaking rates in both experiments. Results support an information-theoretic approach to speech perception and the significance of spectral change rather than physical units of time. PMID:20968382

  18. Dose-rate scaling factor estimation of THOR BNCT test beam.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F Y; Tung, C J; Chen, J C; Wang, Y L; Huang, H C; Zamenhof, R G

    2004-11-01

    In 1998, an epithermal neutron test beam was designed and constructed at the Tsing Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) for the purpose of preliminary dosimetric experiments in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A new epithermal neutron beam was designed at this facility, and is currently under construction, with clinical trials targeted in late 2004. Depth dose-rate distributions for the THOR BNCT test beam have been measured by means of activation foil and dual ion chamber techniques. Neutron and structure-induced gamma spectra measured at the test beam exit were configured into a source function for the Monte Carlo-based treatment planning code NCTPlan. Dose-rate scaling factors (DRSFs) were determined to normalize computationally derived dose-rate distributions with experimental measurements in corresponding mathematical and physical phantoms, and to thus enable accurate treatment planning using the NCTPlan code. A similar approach will be implemented in characterizing the new THOR epithermal beam in preparation for clinical studies. This paper reports the in-phantom calculated and experimental dosimetry comparisons and derived DRSFs obtained with the THOR test beam. PMID:15308162

  19. The Verbal Rating Scale Is Reliable for Assessment of Postoperative Pain in Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Rune Dueholm; Lauritsen, Jens; Ovesen, Ole; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hip fracture patients represent a challenge to pain rating due to the high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Methods. Patients prospectively rated pain on the VRS. Furthermore, patients described the changes in pain after raising their leg, with one of five descriptors. Agreement between paired measures on the VRS at rest and by passive straight leg raise with a one-minute interval between ratings at rest and three-minute interval for straight leg raise was expressed by kappa coefficients. Reliability of this assessment of pain using the VRS was compared to the validity of assessing possible change in pain from the selected descriptors. Cognitive status was quantified by the short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test. Results. 110 patients were included. Paired scores with maximum disagreement of one scale point reached 97% at rest and 95% at straight leg raise. Linear weighted kappa coefficients ranged from 0.68 (95% CI = 0.59–0.77) at leg raise to 0.75 (95% CI = 0.65–0.85) at rest. Unweighted kappa coefficients of agreement in recalled pain compared to agreement of paired VRS scores ranged from 0.57 (95% CI = 0.49–0.65) to 0.36 (95% CI = 0.31–0.41). Interpretation. The VRS is reliable for assessment of pain after hip fracture. The validity of intermittent questioning about possible change in pain intensity is poor. PMID:26078880

  20. Full-Scale System for Quantifying Loads and Leak Rates of Seals for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Robbie, Malcolm G.; Erker, Arthur H.; Drlik, Gary J.; Mayer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated vacuum seals in support of future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and other destinations. These seals may be 50 to 60 in. (127 to 152 cm) in diameter and must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions to the International Space Station or the Moon. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them during docking or mating, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow two mated systems to separate when required. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new test apparatus to measure leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed in seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange configurations at temperatures from -76 to 140 F (-60 to 60 C) under operational pressure gradients. Nominal and off-nominal mating conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features of the test apparatus as well as techniques used to overcome some of the design challenges.

  1. Variation in guideline adherence in intrauterine insemination care.

    PubMed

    Haagen, Esther C; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Grol, Richard P T M; Braat, Didi D M; Hermens, Rosella P M G; Kremer, Jan A M

    2010-04-01

    Health-care delivery according to clinical practice guidelines is thought to be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the extent to which practice performance in intrauterine insemination (IUI) care is consistent with guideline recommendations and to evaluate the association between guideline adherence and outcome of IUI care. In a retrospective cohort study, 1100 infertile couples who underwent IUI treatment at 10 Dutch hospitals were asked to grant access to their medical record for assessment of guideline adherence using 25 systematically developed guideline-based performance indicators. A total of 558 couples who started 2334 IUI cycles participated. Guideline adherence regarding 20 process and five structure aspects of IUI care was often substandard and varied considerably between hospitals. Out of 10 possible associations investigated, guideline adherence regarding sperm quality and guideline adherence regarding the total number of IUI cycles were associated with improved ongoing pregnancy rates after IUI. Thus, guideline adherence in IUI care is far from optimal and varies substantially between hospitals. As associations between guideline adherence and ongoing pregnancy after IUI were mainly non-significant, further research is needed to evaluate associations between guideline adherence and other outcomes of IUI care besides ongoing pregnancy, such as patient safety and cost effectiveness. PMID:20129823

  2. Race and Residential Socioeconomics as Predictors of CPAP Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Martha E.; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Zee, Phyllis; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: There are few established predictors of CPAP adherence; poor adherence limits its effectiveness. We investigated whether race, education level, and residential economic status predict CPAP adherence in participants enrolled in a trial with standard access to treatment. Design: A multi-center randomized trial of home vs. lab-based evaluation and treatment of OSA assessing adherence to CPAP at 1 and 3 months. Setting: Seven AASM-accredited sleep centers in 5 U.S. cities. Participants: Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15 and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score > 12) who completed follow-up at 1 and/or 3 months (n = 135). Measurements and Results: Subjects' demographic data were collected upon enrollment; CPAP use at 1 and 3 months was assessed at clinic follow-up. In unadjusted analyses, CPAP adherence (average minutes per night of CPAP use) at 3 months was lower in black subjects and in subjects from lower socioeconomic status ZIP codes. In adjusted analyses using multivariate linear regression, black race was predictive of CPAP adherence at one month (P = 0.03). At 3 months, black race was predictive in analyses only when ZIP code SES was not adjusted for. Conclusion: Black race and lower socioeconomic residential areas are associated with poorer adherence to CPAP in subjects with standardized access to care and treatment. Disparities remain despite provision of standardized care in a clinical trial setting. Future research is needed to identify barriers to adherence and to develop interventions tailored to improve CPAP adherence in at risk populations. Portable Monitoring for Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Apnea (HomePAP) Clinical Trial Information: NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME; Auckley D; Benca R; Foldvary-Schaefer N; Iber C; Redline S; Rosen CL; Zee P; Kapur VK. Race and residential socioeconomics as predictors of CPAP adherence. SLEEP 2011

  3. Improved adherence with contingency management.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc I; Dieckhaus, Kevin; McMahon, Thomas J; Valdes, Barbara; Petry, Nancy M; Cramer, Joyce; Rounsaville, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) based interventions that reinforce adherence to prescribed medications have shown promise in a variety of disadvantaged populations. Fifty-six participants with histories of illicit substance use who were prescribed antiretroviral medication but evidenced suboptimal adherence during a baseline assessment were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of weekly CM-based counseling or supportive counseling, followed by 16 additional weeks of data collection and adherence feedback to providers. The CM intervention involved review of data generated by electronic pill-bottle caps that record bottle opening (MEMS) and brief substance abuse counseling. CM participants were reinforced for MEMS-measured adherence with drawings from a bowl for prizes and bonus drawings for consecutive weeks of perfect adherence. Potential total earnings averaged $800. Mean MEMS-measured adherence to the reinforced medication increased from 61% at baseline to 76% during the 16-week treatment phase and was significantly increased relative to the supportive counseling group (p = 0.01). Furthermore, mean log-transformed viral load was significantly lower in the CM group. However, by the end of the 16-week follow-up phase, differences between groups in adherence and viral load were no longer significantly different. Proportions of positive urine toxicology tests did not differ significantly between the two groups at any phase. A brief CM-based intervention was associated with significantly higher adherence and lower viral loads. Future studies should evaluate methods to extend effects for longer term benefits. PMID:17263651

  4. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  5. Changes in self-rating of symptoms: a comparison of questionnaire graphic scales with test cards.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Edington, A; Kellner, R

    1979-01-01

    Forty-five in-patients, with primary diagnoses of neurosis or personality disorder, completed the test cards and booklet versions of the Symptom Rating Test--Day (SRT). In order to facilitate retroactive interference the Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) were administered between the two forms of the SRT. On the next day the patients were given the SRT (Week). The initial SRT, MAS and MPI testing was repeated one week later. On the assumption that positional set is an important consideration predictions were made as to the expected differences between the test cards and booklet modes of SRT administration. The results add support to the practical use of the SRT in its more recent standardized format. PMID:760909

  6. The Carroll rating scale for depression. II. Factor analyses of the feature profiles.

    PubMed

    Smouse, P E; Feinberg, M; Carroll, B J; Park, M H; Rawson, S G

    1981-03-01

    Factor analyses were conducted for the Hamilton depression rating scale (HRS) and the self administered Carroll counterpart (CRS). The factor loadings for the respective first factors were similar; those for the respective second factors showed strict sign consistency but only moderate consistency of magnitude; the loadings for the respective third factors showed no particular consistency. The first three CRS and first three HRS factor scores were computed for each individual and correlations were computed from these factor scores. The first and second factors were highly correlated but the third factors were negatively correlated indicating that they were not measuring the same thing. The first factors of the CRS and HRS correlated highly with their respective raw total scores and were indices of the severity of illness. The self-administered CRS (with matching weights) is a credible alternative to the HRS for routine clinical assessment of the severity of depression. PMID:7272610

  7. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task: Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.

  8. Factor structure and differential validity of the expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J; Young, Tony R

    2004-06-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is one of the most widely used measures in psychiatric outcome and clinical psychopharmacology research. To date, however; research on the psychometric properties of the expanded version of the BPRS (BPRS-E) has been limited. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 360) using maximum likelihood extraction with oblimin rotation found a four-factor solution (Thought Disturbance, Animation, Mood Disturbance, Apathy) to underlie the BPRS-E. Furthermore, these factors were logical in nature and estimates of internal consistency were acceptable. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted on a second, independent sample (n = 280)found that for the five models currently available in the literature, the model developed herein provided the best fit to the data. Again, estimates of internal consistency were found acceptable. Finally, the four factors demonstrated appropriate differential validity with regards to both demographic variables and various psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:15171466

  9. Growth rate distribution of NH4Cl dendrite and its scaling structure.

    PubMed

    Miki, Hiroshi; Honjo, Haruo

    2012-12-01

    Scaling structure of the growth rate distribution on the interface of a dendritic pattern is investigated. The distribution is evaluated for an NH4Cl quasi-two-dimensional crystal by numerically solving the Laplace equation with the boundary condition taking account of the surface tension effect. It is found that the distribution has multifractality and the surface tension effect is almost ineffective in the unscreened large growth region. The values of the minimum singular exponent and the fractal dimension are smaller than those for the diffusion-limited aggregation pattern. The Makarov's theorem, the information dimension equals one, and the Turkevich-Scher conjecture between the fractal dimension and the minimum singularity exponent hold. PMID:23367960

  10. Growth rate distribution of NH4Cl dendrite and its scaling structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hiroshi; Honjo, Haruo

    2012-12-01

    Scaling structure of the growth rate distribution on the interface of a dendritic pattern is investigated. The distribution is evaluated for an NH4Cl quasi-two-dimensional crystal by numerically solving the Laplace equation with the boundary condition taking account of the surface tension effect. It is found that the distribution has multifractality and the surface tension effect is almost ineffective in the unscreened large growth region. The values of the minimum singular exponent and the fractal dimension are smaller than those for the diffusion-limited aggregation pattern. The Makarov's theorem, the information dimension equals one, and the Turkevich-Scher conjecture between the fractal dimension and the minimum singularity exponent hold.

  11. False discovery rate estimation for large-scale homogeneous discrete p-values.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale homogeneous discrete p-values are encountered frequently in high-throughput genomics studies, and the related multiple testing problems become challenging because most existing methods for the false discovery rate (FDR) assume continuous p-values. In this article, we study the estimation of the null proportion and FDR for discrete p-values with common support. In the finite sample setting, we propose a novel class of conservative FDR estimators. Furthermore, we show that a broad class of FDR estimators is simultaneously conservative over all support points under some weak dependence condition in the asymptotic setting. We further demonstrate the significant improvement of a newly proposed method over existing methods through simulation studies and a case study. PMID:26492596

  12. Scaling the energy conversion rate from magnetic field reconnection to different bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.

    2010-10-15

    Magnetic field reconnection is often invoked to explain electromagnetic energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres, stellar coronae, and other astrophysical objects. Because of the huge dynamic range of magnetic fields in these bodies, it is important to understand energy conversion as a function of magnetic field strength and related parameters. It is conjectured theoretically and shown experimentally that the energy conversion rate per unit area in reconnection scales as the cube of an appropriately weighted magnetic field strength divided by the square root of an appropriately weighted density. With this functional dependence, the energy release in flares on the Sun, the large and rapid variation of the magnetic flux in the tail of Mercury, and the apparent absence of reconnection on Jupiter and Saturn, may be understood. Electric fields at the perihelion of the Solar Probe Plus mission may be tens of V/m.

  13. Cut-off values of blessed dementia rating scale and its clinical application in elderly Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-Han; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Tai, Chih-Ta; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2006-08-01

    Although the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), a clinical screening instrument, has been applied extensively, no suitable cut-off values and clinical application have been proposed, particularly in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the precursor of dementia. The BDRS, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) were administrated in people aged 65 years and above, who were enrolled from southern Taiwan with multistep stratified random sampling and followed-up for 2 years. All subjects (total number = 3,027), with new onset of MCI (defined as CDR = 0.5) in the first year and dementia (defined as CDR > or = 1) in the second and third years were subjected to statistical analysis. In distinguishing normal from MCI, except in the literate group aged 65-74 years, MMSE was superior to BDRS, with cut-off values of 1 in both literate groups aged 65-74 years and > or = 75 years, and 1.5 and 2 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. In distinguishing MCI from dementia, BDRS had cut-off values of 2.5 in both literate groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, and 2.5 and 3 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. These values were better than those for MMSE in all groups. BDRS might be considered as a better tool than MMSE to screen for MCI and dementia in the increasing proportion of literate elderly aged 65-74 years in the aging population. PMID:16911919

  14. Physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the specific star formation rates of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2015-12-01

    Two explanations have been put forward to explain the observed conformity between the colours and specific star formation rates (SFR/M*) of galaxies on large scales: (1) the formation times of their surrounding dark matter haloes are correlated (commonly referred to as `assembly bias'), (2) gas is heated over large scales at early times, leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies (commonly referred to as `pre-heating'). To distinguish between the pre-heating and assembly bias scenarios, we search for relics of energetic feedback events in the neighbourhood of central galaxies with different specific SFRs. We find a significant excess of very high mass (log M* > 11.3) galaxies out to a distance of 2.5 Mpc around low SFR/M* central galaxies compared to control samples of higher SFR/M* central galaxies with the same stellar mass and redshift. We also find that very massive galaxies in the neighbourhood of low-SFR/M* galaxies have much higher probability of hosting radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). The radio-loud AGN fraction in neighbours with log M* > 11.3 is four times higher around passive, non star-forming centrals at projected distances of 1 Mpc and two times higher at projected distances of 4 Mpc. Finally, we carry out an investigation of conformity effects in the recently publicly released Illustris cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, which includes energetic input both from quasars and from radio mode accretion on to black holes. We do not find conformity effects of comparable amplitude on large scales in the simulations and we propose that gas needs to be pushed out of dark matter haloes more efficiently at high redshifts.

  15. The development of a rating scale for the prediction of success in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dash, J D; Brown, R A

    1977-07-01

    A valid and reliable rating instrument was developed that has predictive value with regard to the ability to lose weight. The major constructs that the test was intended to measure were knowledge of the pragmatics of weight reduction and obesity and the role of fantasy in weight loss. Test items were drawn from research findings in the obesity literature and from subject matter experts in the fields of nutrition, internal medicine and clinical psychology. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the new instrument range from .64 to .95. Construct validity was ascertained through administration of the scale to groups of high school students (N=20), college nutrition students (N=30) and successful and unsuccessful dieters (Ns=28 and 20, respectively). It appears that the scale, The Dash-Brown Survey of Fact and Fiction in Weight Reduction (DBS), may be employed usefully to assess the remediability of obesity for potential dieters. The data further suggest that cognitive awareness of diet-related issues is significant in weight reduction. PMID:893707

  16. The canine cognitive dysfunction rating scale (CCDR): a data-driven and ecologically relevant assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Salvin, Hannah E; McGreevy, Paul D; Sachdev, Perminder S; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-related neurobehavioural syndrome which, although common, is severely under-diagnosed in community-based dogs. Using data from a large cross-sectional survey of older dogs (n=957), this study aimed to develop a clinical scale for assessing CCD. Data-driven analytical techniques were used to distil 27 significant behavioural items (previously identified as relevant to CCD) into an assessment tool with maximal cognito-behavioural breadth whilst maintaining clinical utility. The resulting CCD rating scale (CCDR) comprised 13 behavioural items, of which three were sensitive to the severity of the disease stage. When tested on an independent survey sample, the CCDR had an overall 98.9% diagnostic accuracy with a 77.8% positive predictive value and a 99.3% negative predictive value. Test-re-test reliability of the CCDR over 2months was also high (r=0.73, P<0.0001). In conjunction with veterinary assessment, the CCDR could be a valuable tool in research and clinical settings for both the assessment and longitudinal tracking of cognitive change. PMID:20542455

  17. First Grade Norms, Factor Analysis and Cross Correlation for Conners, Davids, and Quay-Peterson Behavior Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three behavior rating scales were filled out by teachers for the entire first grades of three public schools, totalling 225 children. Factor analyses on this nonclinical sample yielded different factors from those found previously on clinical samples. (Author)

  18. Research on Scaling up Evidence-Based Instructional Practice: Developing a Sensitive Measure of the Rate of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles R.; Abbott, Mary; Tapia, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Few evidence-based instructional practices achieve large-scale use, often remaining only in the schools directly involved in their development. Research on scaling up effective educational practice often lacks sensitive measures of the practice's implementation and the required research protocol. This article describes how we used rate of…

  19. The Evaluation of Child Care Centers and the "Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale": An Environmental Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    This paper questions the physical environmental adequacy of the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS) developed by Thelma Harms, Debby Cryer, and Richard Clifford at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. ITERS is a 35-item scale designed to assess the quality of center-based infant and toddler care, and one of a family of child…

  20. Development and Validation of the User Version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS)

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Kavanagh, David J; Wilson, Hollie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) provides a reliable method to assess the quality of mobile health (mHealth) apps. However, training and expertise in mHealth and the relevant health field is required to administer it. Objective This study describes the development and reliability testing of an end-user version of the MARS (uMARS). Methods The MARS was simplified and piloted with 13 young people to create the uMARS. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the uMARS was then examined in a second sample of 164 young people participating in a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth app. App ratings were collected using the uMARS at 1-, 3,- and 6-month follow up. Results The uMARS had excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90), with high individual alphas for all subscales. The total score and subscales had good test-retest reliability over both 1-2 months and 3 months. Conclusions The uMARS is a simple tool that can be reliably used by end-users to assess the quality of mHealth apps. PMID:27287964

  1. Growth rate of matter perturbations as a probe of large-scale magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    The growth rate of matter perturbations is computed in a magnetized environment for the ΛCDM and wCDM paradigms. It is argued that the baryons do not necessarily follow into the dark matter potential wells after they are released from the drag of the photons. The baryonic evolution equations inherit a forcing term whose explicit form depends on the plasma description and can be deduced, for instance, in the resistive magnetohydrodynamical approximation. After deriving an analytical expression for the growth rate applicable when dark energy does not cluster, the effects of relativistic corrections and of the inhomogeneities associated with the other species of the plasma are taken into account numerically. The spectral amplitudes and slopes of the stochastic magnetic background are selected to avoid appreciable distortions in the measured temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The growth of structures in the current paradigms of structure formation represents a complementary probe of large-scale magnetism in the same way as the shape of the growth factor and the associated indices can be used, in the conventional lore, to discriminate between competing scenarios of dark energy or even to distinguish different models of gravity.

  2. Psychometric Analysis of the Emotional Tone Rating Scale: A Measure of Person-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Boyle, Diane K.; Herman, Ruth E.; Coleman, Carissa K.; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric analysis of the Emotional Tone Rating Scale (ETRS) was completed using ratings of naïve listeners who evaluated staff-resident communication in three nursing homes. Interrater consistency was high with ICC (2, 1) for agreement = 0.95 and consistency = 0.95. Factor analysis revealed two factors—person-centered communication and controlling communication—that explained 84.8% of the variance. Person-centered communication included seven descriptors (items) with loadings ranging from 0.84 to 0.98 and a coefficient alpha of 0.98. Controlling communication included five items that loaded from −0.63 to .99 with a coefficient alpha of 0.94. These factors were negatively correlated p = −.64 and demonstrated good ranges, standard deviations, and high item-total correlations. Person-centered communication correlated with higher resident engagement in conversation in contrast to controlling communication. The ETRS provides a measure of person-centered communication that can be used to evaluate interactions between nursing staff and older adults who reside in long term care settings. PMID:23519545

  3. Reaction Rate Theory of Radiation Exposure and Scaling Hypothesis in Mutation Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Issei; Bando, Masako

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a kinetic reaction model for cells with irradiated DNA molecules due to ionizing radiation exposure. Our theory simultaneously accounts for the time-dependent reactions of DNA damage, DNA mutation and DNA repair, and the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in a tissue with a minimal set of model parameters. In contrast to existing theories of radiation exposition, we do not assume the relationships between the total dose and the induced mutation frequency. Our theory provides a universal scaling function that reasonably explains the mega-mouse experiments by Russell and Kelly [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 542 (1982)] with different dose rates. Furthermore, we have estimated the effective dose rate, which is biologically equivalent to the ionizing effects other than those caused by artificial irradiation. This value is 1.11 × 10-3 Gy/h, which is significantly larger than the effect caused by natural background radiation.

  4. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

  5. SCALING OF THE GROWTH RATE OF MAGNETIC ISLANDS IN THE HELIOSHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2012-05-10

    Current sheets thinner than the ion inertial length are unstable to the tearing instability and will develop magnetic islands that grow due to magnetic reconnection. We investigate whether the growth of magnetic islands in a current sheet can continue indefinitely, or in the case of the heliosheath, until reaching a neighboring current sheet, and at what rate the islands grow. We investigate the development and growth of magnetic islands using a particle-in-cell code, starting from particle noise. Performing a scaling of the growth of magnetic islands versus the system size, we find that the growth rate is independent of the system size up to the largest simulation we were able to complete. The islands are able to continue growing as long as they merge with each other and maintain a high aspect ratio. Otherwise, there is not enough magnetic tension to sustain reconnection. When applied to the sectored magnetic fields in the heliosheath, we show that the islands can continue growing until they reach the sector width and do so in much less time than it takes for the islands to convect through the heliosheath.

  6. A new MRI rating scale for progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Yan; Vérin, Marc; Payan, Christine A; Duchesne, Simon; Kraft, Eduard; Hauser, Till K; Jarosz, Josef; Deasy, Neil; Defevbre, Luc; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Ludolph, Albert C; Bensimon, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate a standardised MRI acquisition protocol and a new image rating scale for disease severity in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple systems atrophy (MSA) in a large multicentre study. Methods The MRI protocol consisted of two-dimensional sagittal and axial T1, axial PD, and axial and coronal T2 weighted acquisitions. The 32 item ordinal scale evaluated abnormalities within the basal ganglia and posterior fossa, blind to diagnosis. Among 760 patients in the study population (PSP=362, MSA=398), 627 had per protocol images (PSP=297, MSA=330). Intra-rater (n=60) and inter-rater (n=555) reliability were assessed through Cohen's statistic, and scale structure through principal component analysis (PCA) (n=441). Internal consistency and reliability were checked. Discriminant and predictive validity of extracted factors and total scores were tested for disease severity as per clinical diagnosis. Results Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were acceptable for 25 (78%) of the items scored (≥0.41). PCA revealed four meaningful clusters of covarying parameters (factor (F) F1: brainstem and cerebellum; F2: midbrain; F3: putamen; F4: other basal ganglia) with good to excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.75–0.93) and moderate to excellent reliability (intraclass coefficient: F1: 0.92; F2: 0.79; F3: 0.71; F4: 0.49). The total score significantly discriminated for disease severity or diagnosis; factorial scores differentially discriminated for disease severity according to diagnosis (PSP: F1–F2; MSA: F2–F3). The total score was significantly related to survival in PSP (p<0.0007) or MSA (p<0.0005), indicating good predictive validity. Conclusions The scale is suitable for use in the context of multicentre studies and can reliably and consistently measure MRI abnormalities in PSP and MSA. Clinical Trial Registration Number The study protocol was filed in the open clinical trial registry (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) with

  7. Assessing effusion rate of lava flows from thermal structure: theoretical analysis and lab-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, Fanny; Kaminski, Edouard; Tait, Stephen; Limare, Angela

    2010-05-01

    Management of effusive volcanic crises has to be based on the quantitative interpretation of flow monitoring. An important issue is the ability to predict where the flow will go, and when it will stop. Geophysical fluid dynamics shows that the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux. Hence the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards). A relationship between the surface structure temperature and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger energy radiated by a lava flow. A theoretical formula combining some empirical parameters was developed by Harris and co-workers (review in Harris et al., 2007) and is used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite. However, the theoretical grounds of this technique, as well as its domain of validity, remain questioned. Here we propose a systematic theoretical study to help to define the validity domain of this approach and to investigate whether or not it can be refined and/or modify to better assess flow rates. We chose in our approach to study at lab-scale a flow with a rheology simpler than that of the natural lava, but taking into account all the complexity of the cooling process at the surface of the flow, by radiation and convection. We used fully controlled experimental parameters, especially the cooling conditions, the flux rate and geometry of the flow. The spreading geometry is the one of an axisymmetric viscous gravity current of newtonian viscosity (Huppert, 1982). For a given enthalpy content, the coupled cooling/spreading processes are characterized by two dimensionless numbers. A first one quantifies the efficiency of the surface cooling compared to the heat advected in the flow. The second one quantifies the relative efficiency of radiative and convective surface cooling. We identify different stages of cooling as a function of these numbers and

  8. Comparisons of Instantaneous TRMM Ground Validation and Satellite Rain Rate Estimates at Different Spatial Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive inter-comparison of instantaneous rain estimates from the two rain sensors aboard the TRMM satellite with ground data from thee designated Ground Validation Sites: Kwajalein Atoll, Melbourne, Florida and Houston, Texas. The satellite rain retrievals utilize rain observations collected by the TRMM microwave imager (TMI) and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite. Three standard instantaneous rain products are the generated from the rain information retrieved from the satellite using the TMI, PR and Combined (COM) rain algorithms. The validation data set used in this study was obtained from instantaneous rain rates inferred from ground radars at each GV site. The first comparison used 0.5(sup 0) x 0.5(sup 0) gridded data obtained from the TRMM 3668 product, and similarly gridded GV data obtained from ground-based radars. The comparisons were made at the same spatial and temporal scales in order to eliminate sampling biases in our comparisons. An additional comparison was made by averaging rain rates for the PR, COM and GV estimates within each TMI footprint (approx. 150 square kilometers). For this analysis, unconditional mean rain rates from PR, COM and GV estimates were calculated within each TMI footprint that was observed within 100 km from the respective GV site (and also observed by the PR). This analysis used all the available matching data from the period 1999-2004, representing a sample size of over 50,000 footprints for each site. In the first analysis our results showed that all of the respective rain rate estimates agree well, with some exceptions. The more salient differences were associated with heavy rain events in which one or more of the algorithms failed to properly retrieve these extreme events. Also, it appears that there is a preferred mode of precipitation for TMI rain rates at or near 2 mm per hour over the ocean. This mode was noted over ocean areas of Melbourne, Florida and Kwajalein

  9. STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

    2009-04-14

    Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

  10. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-02-25

    High level waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the cold cap. The bubbles coalesce into cavities that escape around the edges of the cold cap. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. More information is needed about the formation and behavior of the foam layer to control, limit and possibly avoid foaming, thus allowing for a higher rate of melting. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory scale assembly with a sealed silica-glass crucible. A high alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min-1. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap and foam during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the cold cap increased as the cold cap expanded. Under the cold cap, the bubbles coalesced into oblong cavities. These cavities allowed the evolved gases to escape around the edges of the cold cap through the molten glass into the melter plenum.

  11. Adherence to insulin treatment in diabetes: can it be improved?

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila Anne; Chan, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Insulin is used in all subjects with Type 1 diabetes, and when Type 2 diabetes is not controlled by oral anti-diabetic medicines, insulin is also used in Type 2 diabetes. However, despite this use, there is still increased mortality and morbidity in subjects with diabetes, compared to subjects without diabetes. One of the factors, which may be involved in this increased mortality and morbidity in subjects with diabetes, is nonadherence to insulin. Nonadherence rates to insulin are in the range of 20-38%, and many factors contribute to the nonadherence. The major aim of the review was to determine whether interventions to improve adherence to insulin do actually improve adherence to insulin. Most studies have shown that adherence to insulin was improved by changing from the vial-and-syringe approach to prefilled insulin pens, but not all studies have shown that this translated into better glycemic control and clinical outcomes. The results of studies using automatic telephone messages to improve adherence to insulin to date are inconclusive. There is limited and variable evidence that an intervention by a nurse/educator, which discusses adherence to medicines, does improve adherence to insulin. In contrast, there is little or no evidence that an extra intervention by a doctor or an intervention by a pharmacist, which discusses adherence to insulin, does actually improve the measured adherence to insulin. In conclusion, rather than assuming that an intervention by a health professional discussing adherence to insulin actually improves adherence to insulin, long-term studies investigating this are required. PMID:25195971

  12. Using COSI-CORR to Quantify Earthflow Movement Rates Over Decadal Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Roering, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Large, complex earthflow systems can evolve over diverse (seasonal to millennial) timescales and thus require a range of tools to document their kinematics. In many areas, extensive archives of historical aerial photographs offer potential for quantifying decadal fluctuations, but tracking individual features has been impractical over significant temporal and spatial scales. Here, we explore recent software that automates landslide mapping and improves feasibility of tracking deformation at these scales. The Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) software allows for correlation between air photographs and LiDAR imagery, and tracks surface deformation over a sequence of aerial surveys. To analyze the efficacy for landslides, we focused on a 1km2 area riddled with active earthflows, shallow landslides, and gullying in the Waipaoa River catchment on the North Island of New Zealand. This area is dominated by Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary clay-rich mudstones and calcite-rich sandstones with highly sheared and more massive units that fail in diverse fashion. Starting in the 1900s, the area was burned and converted to pastureland, and is now heavily grazed by sheep and cattle. Slope deformation in the study area has accelerated due to this history of land use changes. We used aerial photographs from 1956, 1960, 1979, and 1982 to track slide movement. The photos were scanned at 1200 dpi (21 micron), giving a ground resolution between approximately 0.2-1m/pixel (scale of 1:16000 to 1:47000). We rectified the photos with 2010 orthophotos and a corresponding 1m LiDAR DEM and hillshade map using the COSI-Corr interface in ENVI 4.5. They were then sequentially correlated, which automatically identifies surface changes with sub-pixel resolution. Next we generated a vector field displacement map for each time step with 8m grid nodes. The resulting vector maps show velocities ranging from about 1-5m/yr. This corresponds well with previously

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  14. Clustering based on adherence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Adherence to a medical treatment means the extent to which a patient follows the instructions or recommendations by health professionals. There are direct and indirect ways to measure adherence which have been used for clinical management and research. Typically adherence measures are monitored over a long follow-up or treatment period, and some measurements may be missing due to death or other reasons. A natural question then is how to describe adherence behavior over the whole period in a simple way. In the literature, measurements over a period are usually combined just by using averages like percentages of compliant days or percentages of doses taken. In the paper we adapt an approach where patient adherence measures are seen as a stochastic process. Repeated measures are then analyzed as a Markov chain with finite number of states rather than as independent and identically distributed observations, and the transition probabilities between the states are assumed to fully describe the behavior of a patient. The patients can then be clustered or classified using their estimated transition probabilities. These natural clusters can be used to describe the adherence of the patients, to find predictors for adherence, and to predict the future events. The new approach is illustrated and shown to be useful with a simple analysis of a data set from the DART (Development of AntiRetroviral Therapy in Africa) trial in Uganda and Zimbabwe. PMID:21385451

  15. Cognitive function and adherence to anticoagulation treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Katarzyna, Lomper; Lidia, Alberska; Joanna, Jaroch; Dudek, Krzysztof; Izabella, Uchmanowicz

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is an integral part of the comprehensive care of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving oral anticoagulations (OACs) therapy. Many patients with AF are elderly and may suffer from some form of cognitive impairment. This study was conducted to investigate whether cognitive impairment affects the level of adherence to anticoagulation treatment in AF patients. Methods The study involved 111 AF patients (mean age, 73.5 ± 8.3 years) treated with OACs. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The level of adherence was assessed by the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Scores on the MMAS-8 range from 0 to 8, with scores < 6 reflecting low adherence, 6 to < 8 medium adherence, and 8 high adherence. Results 46.9% of AF patients had low adherence, 18.8% had moderate adherence, and 33.3% had high adherence to OACs. Patients with lower adherence were older than those with moderate or high adherence (76.6 ± 8.7 vs. 71.3 ± 6.4 vs. 71.1 ± 6.7 years) and obtained low MMSE scores, indicating cognitive disorders or dementia (MMSE = 22.3 ± 4.2). Patients with moderate or high adherence obtained high MMSE test results (27.5 ± 1.7 and 27.5 ± 3.6). According to Spearman's rank correlation, worse adherence to treatment with OACs was determined by older age (rS = −0.372) and lower MMSE scores (rS = 0.717). According to multivariate regression analysis, the level of cognitive function was a significant independent predictor of adherence (b = 1.139). Conclusions Cognitive impairment is an independent determinant of compliance with pharmacological therapy in elderly patients with AF. Lower adherence, beyond the assessment of cognitive function, is related to the age of patients. PMID:27605935

  16. Criterion Noise in Ratings-Based Recognition: Evidence from the Effects of Response Scale Length on Recognition Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces "decision noise" and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether…

  17. Teacher Ratings of Young Children with and without ADHD: Construct Validity of Two Child Behavior Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Amy G.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined teachers' behavioral ratings of young children (ages 5 and 6) with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A study group consisting of 30 children with formal diagnoses of ADHD and a comparison group of 30 children without ADHD were developed using randomized matching procedures. Teachers of these children…

  18. Alcohol challenge and sensitivity to change of The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS)

    PubMed Central

    Voller, Bernhard; Lines, Emily; McCrossin, Gayle; Artiles, Aaron; Tinaz, Sule; Lungu, Codrin; Hallett, Mark; Haubenberger, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Background The Essential Tremor (ET) Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS) has shown excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. To assess the scale’s ability to detect changes in tremor severity, we compared TETRAS performance with standard postural tremor accelerometry during a standardized ethanol challenge. Methods Fifteen adult ET patients received a single oral ethanol dose calculated to reach 0.05 g/dl breath alcohol content (brAC) on two different study days. Two investigators independently assessed the effects with accelerometry on one day and with TETRAS on another day. Measurements were taken at 8 time-points (2 time-points baseline and 6 time-points up to 2 hours post ethanol). Further outcome measures included brAC readings at the same time points. Results Because correlation between TETRAS and accelerometry revealed a logarithmic relation, for all comparisons, accelerometry data were log-transformed and a cumulative score logACC(R+L) was calculated. Correlation between logACC(R+L) and TETRAS was significant (r= 0.57, p<0.01). Repeated measures ANOVA for both TETRAS and accelerometry before and after ethanol showed a significant effect of time-point (F=34.6, p<0.01; F=13.5, p<0.01). Corrected post-hoc tests showed a difference between baseline and each of the following 6 time-points. TETRAS and brAC were significantly correlated (r=−0.29, p<0.01). Intra-rater test-retest analysis between baseline measures showed high correlation (ICC=0.974, p<0.001). The ethanol challenge showed excellent reproducibility. Conclusion We demonstrated sensitivity of the TETRAS performance scale to change after a therapeutic intervention. Our study provides responsiveness validity for TETRAS, further establishing its potential as a valid instrument for ET evaluation in both clinical and research settings. PMID:24123358

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale in Severely Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Paiva-Medeiros, Paula Francielle; Duarte-Guerra, Leorides Severo; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition worldwide and has frequent association with major depression. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was applied to obese patients in order to detect briefly and systematically depressive symptoms. The objectives were: to estimate the reliability of the MADRS and to investigate the criterion validity of MADRS. The best cut-off point to detect depressive symptoms was determined in comparison with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnosis (SCID-I). The sample was recruited consecutively from the waiting list of a bariatric surgery service of the university clinic. Trained clinical psychologists applied the assessment instruments. The final sample was comprised of 374 class III obese adults (women 79.9 %, mean age 43.3 years [SD 11.6], mean body mass index 47.0 kg/m2 [SD 7.1]). The mean total score of the MADRS was 7.73 (SD 11.33) for the total sample, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .93. Women presented higher mean score than men (8.08 versus 6.33; p = .23). The best cut-off point was 13/14 in accordance with the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, yielding a sensitivity of .81 and specificity of .85. The overall ability to discriminate depression according to area under the curve was .87. The results showed that the MADRS is a reliable and valid scale to detect depressive symptoms among patients seeking treatment in preoperative period, displaying adequate psychometric properties. PMID:26364907

  20. The German Version of the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS): Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Gregor; Marx, Lisa; Spenthof, Ines; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fear of eye gaze and avoidance of eye contact are core features of social anxiety disorders (SAD). To measure self-reported fear and avoidance of eye gaze, the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS) has been developed and validated in recent years in its English version. The main objectives of the present study were to psychometrically evaluate the German translation of the GARS concerning its reliability, factorial structure, and validity. Methods Three samples of participants were enrolled in the study. (1) A non-patient sample (n = 353) completed the GARS and a set of trait questionnaires to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factorial structure, and concurrent and divergent validity. (2) A sample of patients with SAD (n = 33) was compared to a healthy control group (n = 30) regarding their scores on the GARS and the trait measures. Results The German GARS fear and avoidance scales exhibited excellent internal consistency and high stability over 2 and 4 months, as did the original version. The English version’s factorial structure was replicated, yielding two categories of situations: (1) everyday situations and (2) situations involving high evaluative threat. GARS fear and avoidance displayed convergent validity with trait measures of social anxiety and were markedly higher in patients with GSAD than in healthy controls. Fear and avoidance of eye contact in situations involving high levels of evaluative threat related more closely to social anxiety than to gaze anxiety in everyday situations. Conclusions The German version of the GARS has demonstrated reliability and validity similar to the original version, and is thus well suited to capture fear and avoidance of eye contact in different social situations as a valid self-report measure of social anxiety and related disorders in the social domain for use in both clinical practice and research. PMID:26937638