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Sample records for adherence rating scale

  1. A large-scale validation study of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS).

    PubMed

    Fialko, Laura; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul E; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Adherence to medication is an important predictor of illness course and outcome in psychosis. The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is a ten-item self-report measure of medication adherence in psychosis [Thompson, K., Kulkarni, J., Sergejew, A.A., 2000. Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses. Schizophrenia Research. 42. 241-247]. Although initial results suggested that the scale has good reliability and validity, the development sample was small. The current study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the MARS in a sample over four times larger. The scale was administered to 277 individuals with psychosis, along with measures of insight and psychopathology. Medication adherence was independently rated by each individual's keyworker. Results showed the internal consistency of the MARS to be lower than in the original sample, though adequate. MARS total score correlated weakly with keyworker-rated adherence, hence concurrent validity of the scale appeared only moderate to weak. The three factor structure of the MARS was replicated. Examination of the factor scores suggested that the factor 1 total score, which corresponds to the Medication Adherence Questionnaire [Morisky,D.E., Green,L.W. and Levine,D.M., 1986. Concurrent and predictive validity of a self-reported measure of medication adherence. Medical Care. 24, 67-74] may be a preferable measure of medication adherence behaviour to the total scale score.

  2. Adherence styles of schizophrenia patients identified by a latent class analysis of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS): a six-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Susanne; Pfiffner, Carmen; Weiser, Prisca; Kilian, Reinhold; Becker, Thomas; Längle, Gerhard; Eschweiler, Gerhard Wilhelm; Croissant, Daniela; Schepp, Wiltrud; Steinert, Tilman

    2012-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine patients' response profiles to the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and to evaluate the potential of response styles as predictors of the future course of psychotic disorders in terms of rehospitalisation and maintenance of medication. A total of 371 psychiatric in-patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were taking part in a naturalistic long-term study completed a German version of the MARS. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was performed. Five latent classes of response styles could be identified: "moderately adherent", "critical discontinuers", "good compliers", "careless and forgetful", and "compliant sceptics". Class membership was found to be related to the severity of symptoms, level of functioning, insight into illness, insight into necessity of treatment, treatment satisfaction and medication side effects. At a six-month follow-up appointment, significant differences between the classes persisted. Participants showing a "good compliers" response pattern had a significantly better prognosis in terms of rehospitalisation rate and maintenance of the original medication than "critical discontinuers". Evaluation of the MARS by studying response profiles provides informative results that reach beyond the results obtained by an evaluation by scores. Patients can be classified into adherence groups that are of predictive value for long-term patient outcome.

  3. Validation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale in homeless patients with schizophrenia: Results from the French Housing First experience

    PubMed Central

    Zemmour, K.; Tinland, A.; Boucekine, M.; Girard, V.; Loubière, S.; Resseguier, N.; Fond, G.; Auquier, P.; Boyer, L.; Apostolidis, T.; Birmes, P.; Bossetti, T.; Bouloudnine, R.; Combes, B.; Debieve, J.; Falissard, B.; Greacen, T.; Laval, C.; Lancon, C.; Le Cardinal, P.; Mantovani, J.; Moreau, D.; Naudin, J.; Rhunter, P.; Videau, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used measurements of adherence in schizophrenia (SZ), but there is no available data regarding its psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients (HSZ). The aim of this study was therefore to assess the psychometric properties of the MARS in a large multicenter sample of HSZ subjects. This multi-centre prospective study was conducted in the following 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Three hundred and fifty-three patients were included. The 3-factor structure of the MARS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis: RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97 and WRMR = 0.76. The unidimensionality of each factor was supported by the satisfactory INFIT statistics. Item internal consistencies were all higher than 0.20 and the Kuder–Richardson were higher than to 0.6, except for factor 2, which was closed to 0.5. Significant associations with symptoms, functioning and quality of life showed satisfactory external validity. The acceptability was satisfactory with missing data lower than 5% for each dimension. The MARS is a short self-administered instrument with acceptable psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients that yields interesting information about medication adherence. PMID:27534796

  4. Validation of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale in homeless patients with schizophrenia: Results from the French Housing First experience.

    PubMed

    Zemmour, K; Tinland, A; Boucekine, M; Girard, V; Loubière, S; Resseguier, N; Fond, G; Auquier, P; Boyer, L

    2016-01-01

    The Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used measurements of adherence in schizophrenia (SZ), but there is no available data regarding its psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients (HSZ). The aim of this study was therefore to assess the psychometric properties of the MARS in a large multicenter sample of HSZ subjects. This multi-centre prospective study was conducted in the following 4 French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Three hundred and fifty-three patients were included. The 3-factor structure of the MARS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis: RMSEA = 0.045, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97 and WRMR = 0.76. The unidimensionality of each factor was supported by the satisfactory INFIT statistics. Item internal consistencies were all higher than 0.20 and the Kuder-Richardson were higher than to 0.6, except for factor 2, which was closed to 0.5. Significant associations with symptoms, functioning and quality of life showed satisfactory external validity. The acceptability was satisfactory with missing data lower than 5% for each dimension. The MARS is a short self-administered instrument with acceptable psychometric properties in homeless SZ patients that yields interesting information about medication adherence. PMID:27534796

  5. Raters & Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

  6. Adherence with drug therapy in the rheumatic diseases Part one: a review of adherence rates.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    Drug therapy plays a major role in the management of many rheumatic diseases and is particularly important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality (Pincus, 1995). Understanding of the pathogenesis of RA has led to the development of new and more effective drugs (Emery et al., 1999), but the ultimate efficacy of any drug therapy depends upon the patient's decision to take it. There is widespread agreement that many people with rheumatic disease do not adhere to their medication regimens (Deyo et al., 1981; Belcon et al., 1984; Pullar et al., 1988; Hill et al., 2001). Research has demonstrated that 50% of women taking hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis discontinue treatment after a year (Fordham, 2000) and similar rates of discontinuation are found in other chronic diseases (Haynes et al., 1996, 2000). This is bewildering as, in asymptomatic illnesses such as hypertension and diabetes, the expectation is that levels of adherence would be lower than in diseases where pain and stiffness are present. The picture becomes even more confusing when we consider the findings from a recent multi-country study of RA, which found no association between adherence and disease severity, nor with the treatment prescribed (Viller et al., 1999). In chronic disease poor adherence is commonplace. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes this and has recently stated that 'poor adherence to treatment of chronic diseases is a worldwide problem of striking magnitude' and cites adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses in developed countries averaging just 50% (WHO, 2003). The first part of this two part review focuses on adherence with drug therapy, and the second part discusses different methods of measuring it. PMID:17041995

  7. The mindfulness-based relapse prevention adherence and competence scale: development, interrater reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Neharika; Collin, Susan; Bowen, Sarah; Hsu, Sharon; Grow, Joel; Douglass, Anne; Marlatt, G Alan

    2010-07-01

    The present study describes the development of the Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention Adherence and Competence Scale (MBRP-AC), a measure of treatment integrity for mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP). MBRP is a newly developed treatment integrating core aspects of relapse prevention with mindfulness practices. The MBRP-AC was developed in the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of MBRP efficacy and consists of two sections: Adherence (adherence to individual components of MBRP and discussion of key concepts) and Competence (ratings of therapist style/approach and performance). Audio recordings from 44 randomly selected group treatment sessions (50%) were rated by independent raters for therapist adherence and competence in the RCT. Findings evinced high interrater reliability for all treatment adherence and competence ratings, and adequate internal consistency for Therapist Style/Approach and Therapist Performance summary scales. Ratings on the MBRP-AC suggested that therapists in the recent RCT adhered to protocol, discussed key concepts in each session, and demonstrated the intended style and competence in treatment delivery. Finally, overall ratings on the Adherence section were positively related to changes in mindfulness over the course of the treatment.

  8. Therapeutic adherence and competence scales for Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for adolescents with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Stangier, Ulrich; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The assessment of therapeutic adherence and competence is often neglected in psychotherapy research, particularly in children and adolescents; however, both variables are crucial for the interpretation of treatment effects. Objective Our aim was to develop, adapt, and pilot two scales to assess therapeutic adherence and competence in a recent innovative program, Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT), for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse. Method Two independent raters assessed 30 randomly selected sessions involving 12 D-CPT patients (age 13–20 years, M age=16.75, 91.67% female) treated by 11 therapists within the pilot phase of a multicenter study. Results Three experts confirmed the relevance and appropriateness of each item. All items and total scores for adherence (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]=0.76–1.00) and competence (ICC=0.78–0.98) yielded good to excellent inter-rater reliability. Cronbach's alpha was 0.59 for the adherence scale and 0.96 for the competence scale. Conclusions The scales reliably assess adherence and competence in D-CPT for adolescent PTSD patients. The ratings can be helpful in the interpretation of treatment effects, the assessment of mediator variables, and the identification and training of therapeutic skills that are central to achieving good treatment outcomes. Both adherence and competence will be assessed as possible predictor variables for treatment success in future D-CPT trials. PMID:25791915

  9. The Infant Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the usefulness of the Infant Rating Scale (IRS) in the early identification of learning difficulties. Thirteen hundred five-year-olds were rated by their teachers after one term in school. The structure of the IRS, its reliability, and predictive validity are examined. (Author/SJL)

  10. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  11. Adherence to treatment in a Western European paediatric population with haemophilia: reliability and validity of the VERITAS-Pro scale.

    PubMed

    Lock, J; Raat, H; Duncan, N; Shapiro, A; Beijlevelt, M; Peters, M; Tamminga, R Y J; Leebeek, F W G; Moll, H A; Cnossen, M H

    2014-09-01

    Treatment adherence in haemophilia is strongly associated with quality of life and the cost-benefit of treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and monitor it. This study aimed to validate a translation of the VERITAS-Pro cross-culturally and analyse treatment adherence in a Dutch population of paediatric haemophilia patients. Children aged 1-18 years with haemophilia were included from three Haemophilia Treatment Centres, on prophylactic clotting factor replacement therapy for more than 1 year. Parents and adolescents were analysed separately. The adherence scale for prophylactic therapy (VERITAS-Pro) was translated according to international guidelines. This instrument contains a total of six subscales ('Time', 'Dose', 'Plan', 'Remember', 'Skip' and 'Communicate') each with four items. Lower scores reflect higher adherence. Overall response rate was 85%, leading to a study population of 60 children. Mean age was 10 years (SD 4.1). Internal consistency reliability: Mean Cronbach's alphas were adequate (>0.70) for total score and the subscales 'Skip' and 'Communicate'. Item-own subscale correlations were stronger than most item-other subscale correlations. Convergent validity: Total scores were higher for non-adherent participants compared with adherent participants according to patient infusion logs (n = 48; P < 0.05). Test-retest correlations: Significant for all scales except 'Dose' (n = 58; P < 0.01). This study demonstrates applicability of VERITAS-Pro outside the United States, as total score and most subscales effectively quantified treatment adherence in a Dutch paediatric population on prophylactic therapy. Non-adherent respondents' total scores were significantly higher, demonstrating the ability of VERITAS-Pro to identify non-adherent individuals.

  12. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  13. Factors associated with high rates of antiretroviral medication adherence among youth living with perinatal HIV in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ezer; Delzell, Darcie A P; Chhabra, Manik; Oberdorfer, Peninnah

    2015-07-01

    Antiretroviral medication adherence behaviour among Thai youth with perinatal HIV in Thailand has received growing attention. However, few studies have examined individual predictors of antiretroviral adherence using multiple self-reports. A convenience sample of 89 Thai youth (interquartile range 14-16 years) with perinatal HIV at three paediatric programmes in Chiang Mai completed a structured questionnaire and reported their antiretroviral adherence in the past one, seven and 30 days using count-based recall and a visual analog scale. Mean self-reported adherence rates ranged from 83.5% (past 30 days) to 99.8% (yesterday) of the time. One-inflated beta regression models were used to examine the associations between antiretroviral adherence outcomes, treatment self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, social support and beliefs/attitudes about medications. Higher percentage of medications taken in the past 30 days was independently associated with higher treatment self-efficacy and fewer symptoms of depression. Adherence monitoring would benefit from focal assessment of youth depression and perceived capacity to follow their antiretroviral regimen.

  14. Adherence to anti-Parkinson drug therapy in the "REASON" sample of Italian patients with Parkinson's disease: the linguistic validation of the Italian version of the "Morisky Medical Adherence Scale-8 items".

    PubMed

    Fabbrini, G; Abbruzzese, G; Barone, P; Antonini, A; Tinazzi, M; Castegnaro, G; Rizzoli, S; Morisky, D E; Lessi, P; Ceravolo, R

    2013-11-01

    Information about patients' adherence to therapy represents a primary issue in Parkinson's disease (PD) management. To perform the linguistic validation of the Italian version of the self-rated 8-Item Morisky Medical Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and to describe in a sample of Italian patients affected by PD the adherence to anti-Parkinson drug therapy and the association between adherence and some socio-demographic and clinical features. MMAS-8 was translated into Italian language by two independent Italian mother-tongue translators. The consensus version was then back-translated by an English mother-tongue translator. This translation process was followed by a consensus meeting between the authors of translation and investigators and then by two comprehension tests. The translated version of the MMAS-8 scale was then administered at the baseline visit of the "REASON" study (Italian Study on the Therapy Management in Parkinson's disease: Motor, Non-Motor, Adherence and Quality Of Life Factors) in a large sample of PD patients. The final version of the MMAS-8 was easily understood. Mean ± SD MMAS-8 score was 6.1 ± 1.2. There were no differences in adherence to therapy in relationship to disease severity, gender, educational level or decision to change therapy. The Italian version of MMAS-8, the key tool of the REASON study to assess the adherence to therapy, has shown to be understandable to patients with PD. Patients enrolled in the REASON study showed medium therapy adherence. PMID:23728715

  15. Rating scales for musician's dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Berque, Patrice; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a focal adult-onset dystonia most commonly involving the hand. It has much greater relative prevalence than non-musician’s focal hand dystonias, exhibits task specificity at the level of specific musical passages, and is a particularly difficult form of dystonia to treat. For most MD patients, the diagnosis confirms the end of their music performance careers. Research on treatments and pathophysiology is contingent upon measures of motor function abnormalities. In this review, we comprehensively survey the literature to identify the rating scales used in MD and the distribution of their use. We also summarize the extent to which the scales have been evaluated for their clinical utility, including reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity to MD, and practicality for a clinical setting. Out of 135 publications, almost half (62) included no quantitative measures of motor function. The remaining 73 studies used a variety of choices from among 10 major rating scales. Most used subjective scales involving either patient or clinician ratings. Only 25% (18) of the studies used objective scales. None of the scales has been completely and rigorously evaluated for clinical utility. Whether studies involved treatments or pathophysiologic assays, there was a heterogeneous choice of rating scales used with no clear standard. As a result, the collective interpretive value of those studies is limited because the results are confounded by measurement effects. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD. PMID:23884039

  16. The Maternal Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Independent ratings of videotaped sessions in which mothers (N=60) interacted with their mentally retarded children (ages 1-3) suggested that potentially important components of maternal behavior (child orientedness/pleasure and control) may be assessed with the seven-item short form of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale. (JW)

  17. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lois C.; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  18. Poor adherence and low persistency rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Chen, Vincent; Vu, Vinh; Le, An; Nguyen, Linda; Zhao, Changqing; Wong, Carrie R; Nguyen, Nghia; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian; Trinh, Huy; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to examine rates and predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance adherence and persistency, since studies of such adherence and persistency in patients with chronic hepatitis (CHB) are currently limited.Consecutive CHB patients (N = 1329) monitored for ≥1 year at 4 US clinics from January 1996 to July 2013 were retrospectively studied. Surveillance adherence was evaluated based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze surveillance persistency of 510 patients who had initially fair adherence (having at least annual surveillance imaging with further follow-up).Mean age was 48, with the majority being male (58%), Asian (92%), foreign-born (95%), and medically insured (97%). Patients with cirrhosis and those seen at university liver clinics were more likely to have optimal HCC surveillance than those without cirrhosis and those seen at community clinics (38.4% vs 21.6%, P <0.001 and 33.5% vs 14.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). HCC diagnosed in optimally adherent patients trended toward smaller tumor size (P < 0.08). On multivariate analysis also inclusive of age, sex, clinical visits, cirrhosis, clinic setting and antiviral therapy use, strong independent predictors for having at least annual imaging were a history of more frequent clinical visits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, P < 0.001) and university-based care (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001). Even for those with initially fair adherence, persistency dropped to 70% at 5 years.Adherence and persistency to HCC surveillance in CHB patients is generally poor. More frequent clinic visits and university-based settings were significant and strong predictors of at least annual HCC surveillance adherence. PMID:27583921

  19. Poor adherence and low persistency rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Christina; Chen, Vincent; Vu, Vinh; Le, An; Nguyen, Linda; Zhao, Changqing; Wong, Carrie R.; Nguyen, Nghia; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian; Trinh, Huy; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our goal was to examine rates and predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance adherence and persistency, since studies of such adherence and persistency in patients with chronic hepatitis (CHB) are currently limited. Consecutive CHB patients (N = 1329) monitored for ≥1 year at 4 US clinics from January 1996 to July 2013 were retrospectively studied. Surveillance adherence was evaluated based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze surveillance persistency of 510 patients who had initially fair adherence (having at least annual surveillance imaging with further follow-up). Mean age was 48, with the majority being male (58%), Asian (92%), foreign-born (95%), and medically insured (97%). Patients with cirrhosis and those seen at university liver clinics were more likely to have optimal HCC surveillance than those without cirrhosis and those seen at community clinics (38.4% vs 21.6%, P <0.001 and 33.5% vs 14.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). HCC diagnosed in optimally adherent patients trended toward smaller tumor size (P < 0.08). On multivariate analysis also inclusive of age, sex, clinical visits, cirrhosis, clinic setting and antiviral therapy use, strong independent predictors for having at least annual imaging were a history of more frequent clinical visits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, P < 0.001) and university-based care (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001). Even for those with initially fair adherence, persistency dropped to 70% at 5 years. Adherence and persistency to HCC surveillance in CHB patients is generally poor. More frequent clinic visits and university-based settings were significant and strong predictors of at least annual HCC surveillance adherence. PMID:27583921

  20. Poor adherence and low persistency rates for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Chen, Vincent; Vu, Vinh; Le, An; Nguyen, Linda; Zhao, Changqing; Wong, Carrie R; Nguyen, Nghia; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian; Trinh, Huy; Nguyen, Mindie H

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to examine rates and predictors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance adherence and persistency, since studies of such adherence and persistency in patients with chronic hepatitis (CHB) are currently limited.Consecutive CHB patients (N = 1329) monitored for ≥1 year at 4 US clinics from January 1996 to July 2013 were retrospectively studied. Surveillance adherence was evaluated based on the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze surveillance persistency of 510 patients who had initially fair adherence (having at least annual surveillance imaging with further follow-up).Mean age was 48, with the majority being male (58%), Asian (92%), foreign-born (95%), and medically insured (97%). Patients with cirrhosis and those seen at university liver clinics were more likely to have optimal HCC surveillance than those without cirrhosis and those seen at community clinics (38.4% vs 21.6%, P <0.001 and 33.5% vs 14.4%, P < 0.001, respectively). HCC diagnosed in optimally adherent patients trended toward smaller tumor size (P < 0.08). On multivariate analysis also inclusive of age, sex, clinical visits, cirrhosis, clinic setting and antiviral therapy use, strong independent predictors for having at least annual imaging were a history of more frequent clinical visits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5, P < 0.001) and university-based care (OR = 5.2, P < 0.001). Even for those with initially fair adherence, persistency dropped to 70% at 5 years.Adherence and persistency to HCC surveillance in CHB patients is generally poor. More frequent clinic visits and university-based settings were significant and strong predictors of at least annual HCC surveillance adherence.

  1. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients provide similar opportunities for skill demonstration. This study examined the correspondence of treatment adherence and competence ratings obtained in real client and role-played sessions for 91 clinicians trained in Motivational Interviewing (MI), using data from a multi-site trial examining three methods of clinician training (Martino et al., 2011). Results indicated overall poor integrity rating correspondence across the two session types, as indicated by weak correlations (r = .05–.27). Clinicians were rated significantly more MI adherent overall and specifically used more advanced MI strategies in role-played than real client sessions at several assessment time points (d = 0.36, 0.42). Real clients, in comparison to the role-play actor, demonstrated greater motivation at the beginning of the session (d = 1.09), discussion of unrelated topics (d = 0.70), and alliance with the clinician (d = 0.72). These findings suggest that MI integrity rating data obtained from real client and role-played sessions may not be interchangeable. More research is needed to improve the procedures and psychometric strength of treatment integrity assessment based on role-played sessions. PMID:23205626

  2. The Creative Processes Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Margaret; Tarter, Barbara J.

    1986-01-01

    Developed from research about and teacher experience with children and creativity, the Creative Processes Rating Scale was tested with 100 sixth graders and found to be an effective instrument (which can be used by teachers with no experience in art) for assessing the creative processes of children in the visual arts. (Author/CB)

  3. A mobile application improves therapy-adherence rates in elderly patients undergoing rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Alexander; Brandl, Christopher; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Schlick, Christopher; Neumann, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Meister, Sven; Diamantidis, Clarissa Jonas; Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Horn, Peter; Becker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medication adherence is crucial for success in the management of patients with chronic conditions. This study analyzes whether a mobile application on a tablet aimed at supporting drug intake and vital sign parameter documentation affects adherence in elderly patients. Patients with coronary heart disease and no prior knowledge of tablet computers were recruited. They received a personal introduction to the mobile application Medication Plan, installed on an Apple iPad. The study was conducted using a crossover design with 3 sequences: initial phase, interventional phase (28 days of using the app system), and comparative phase (28 days of using a paper diary). Users experienced the interventional and comparative phases alternately. A total of 24 patients (12 males; mean age 73.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean for subjectively assessed adherence (A14-scale; 5-point Likert scale, from “never” to “very often” which results in a score from 0 to 56) before the study was 50.0 (SD = 3.44). After both interventions there was a significant increase, which was more pronounced after the interventional phase (54.0; SD = 2.01) than after the comparative phase (52.6; SD = 2.49) (for all pairs after both interventions, P <0.001). Neither medical conditions nor the number of drug intake (amount and frequency of drug taking) per day affected subjective adherence. Logging data showed a significantly stronger adherence for the medication app than the paper system for both blood pressure recordings (P <0.001) and medication intake (P = 0.033). The majority of participants (n = 22) stated that they would like to use the medication app in their daily lives and would not need further assistance with the app. A mobile app for medication adherence increased objectively and subjectively measured adherence in elderly users undergoing rehabilitation. The findings have promising clinical implications: digital tools can assist chronic disease patients achieve

  4. Validation of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale among women with breast and cervical cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; Ribeiro, Samila Gomes; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Paulo Cesar; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: the aim was to translate and culturally adapt the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale for the Portuguese language in the Brazilian context, and to check its reliability and validity to analyze the elements of the adherence of patients to the clinical treatment for breast and cervical cancer. Method: this was a methodological study, carried out in two oncology reference centers. The sample consisted of 198 participants, with 152 being treated for breast cancer and 46 being treated for cervical cancer. The content validation was performed by a committee of experts. The construct validation was demonstrated through factor analysis and the reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. Results: the committee of experts made the necessary adjustments so that the scale was adapted to the Brazilian context. The factor analysis suggested a reduction from seven to five factors and the maintenance of 38 items similar to those of the original scale. The reliability, investigated through Cronbach's alpha, was .829, showing high internal consistency. Conclusion: it was concluded that the Brazilian version of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale is a valid and reliable instrument that is able to measure the elements of adherence to the treatment for breast and cervical cancer. PMID:26487149

  5. Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Urge Incontinence When Combined With Drug Therapy: Adherence Rates, Barriers, and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Markland, Alayne D.; Kenton, Kimberly; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Behavioral intervention outcomes for urinary incontinence (UI) depend on active patient participation. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe adherence to behavioral interventions (pelvic-floor muscle [PFM] exercises, UI prevention strategies, and delayed voiding), patient-perceived exercise barriers, and predictors of exercise adherence in women with urge-predominant UI. Design This was a prospectively planned secondary data analysis from a 2-stage, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients and Intervention Three hundred seven women with urge-predominant UI were randomly assigned to receive either 10 weeks of drug therapy only or 10 weeks of drug therapy combined with a behavioral intervention for UI. One hundred fifty-four participants who received the combined intervention were included in this analysis. Measurements Pelvic-floor muscle exercise adherence and exercise barriers were assessed during the intervention phase and 1 year afterward. Adherence to UI prevention strategies and delayed voiding were assessed during the intervention only. Results During intervention, 81% of women exercised at least 5 to 6 days per week, and 87% performed at least 30 PFM contractions per day. Ninety-two percent of the women used the urge suppression strategy successfully. At the 12-month follow-up, only 32% of the women exercised at least 5 to 6 days per week, and 56% performed 15 or more PFM contractions on the days they exercised. The most persistent PFM exercise barriers were difficulty remembering to exercise and finding time to exercise. Similarly, difficulty finding time to exercise persisted as a predictor of PFM exercise adherence over time. Limitations Co-administration of medication for UI may have influenced adherence. Conclusions Most women adhered to exercise during supervised intervention; however, adherence declined over the long term. Interventions to help women remember to exercise and to integrate PFM exercises and UI prevention

  6. Tension Tamer: Delivering Meditation With Objective Heart Rate Acquisition for Adherence Monitoring Using a Smart Phone Platform

    PubMed Central

    Vertegel, Alexey; Shaporev, Aleksey; Treiber, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This brief report demonstrates the proof of concept of the Tension Tamer (TT) smartphone application, which integrates photoplethysmograph capabilities with breathing awareness meditation (BAM), to reduce stress and measure heart rate and adherence. Design Methods for objectively measuring heart rate and adherence to BAM were developed as part of a future randomized controlled trial. Setting/Location The study was conducted at Jerry Zucker Middle School of Science and the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Subjects The subjects were three prehypertensive male teachers. Intervention The method used was smartphone delivered BAM. Outcome measures Objective measures included heart rate, adherence, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP). Results Adherence data was successfully collected by the TT application. Increased adherence to TT coincided with increased improvements in ambulatory BP over a 3-month period. Conclusions TT shows promise as a simple inexpensive program for administering BAM and capturing adherence data in future clinical trials. PMID:22967280

  7. The Scale of Self-Efficacy Expectations of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment: A Tool for Identifying Risk for Non-Adherence to Treatment for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; de Carvalho Leite, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of risk for non-adherence to treatment is a challenge for personalized care for people living with HIV. Standardized questionnaires of patients’ expectations of their capability to overcome obstacles for treatment adherence may be used as a pre-screening for risk identification. A scale of self-efficacy expectations of adherence to antiretroviral treatment (SEA-ART scale) was previously developed. This study assesses the scale validity in predicting non-adherence to ART in adults living with HIV. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study applied a 21-item SEA-ART scale to 275 adults in ART treatment at an outpatient public service for HIV in Southern Brazil. ART medications taken were assessed at one-month follow-up; ART adherence was devised as an intake of 95% and more of the prescribed medication. A SEA-ART score was calculated by adding up the scores of all items. Multivariable logistic regression and the Area Under the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Curve (AUROC) were applied to examine the ability of the SEA-ART score to predict non-adherence at follow-up. The SEA-ART score varied from 21 to 105; mean 93.9; median 103.0. Non-adherence was 30.3% (n = 81/267). The odds of non-adherence was 8% lower for each unit increase of the SEA-ART score; after adjustment for age, sex, formal education and time in treatment (OR = 0.92; 95%CI 0.90–0.95; LRT for linear trend, p = 0.002). The AUROC was 0.80 (95%CI 0.73–0.87; p<0.001). The SEA-ART optimal cut-off value was 101, providing a sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 73.1%, a positive predictive value of 55.4% and a negative predictive value of 87.7%. There was no evidence of difference in sensitivity, and specificity among groups organized by age, gender, formal education and time in treatment. Conclusions The SEA-ART scale appears to have a good capacity to discriminate between adherents and non-adherents at one-month follow-up. Further studies should confirm these results

  8. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  9. Accuracy of patient-reported adherence to glaucoma medications on a visual analog scale as compared with electronic monitors

    PubMed Central

    Sayner, Robyn; Carpenter, Delesha M.; Blalock, Susan J.; Robin, Alan L.; Muir, Kelly W.; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Giangiacomo, Annette L.; Tudor, Gail; Sleath, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Glaucoma medications can reduce intraocular pressure and improve clinical outcomes when patients adhere to their medication regimen. Providers often ask glaucoma patients to self-report their adherence, but the accuracy of this self-report method has received little scientific attention. Our purpose was to compare a self-report medication adherence measure with adherence data collected from Medication Event Monitoring Systems (MEMS) electronic monitors. Additionally, we sought to identify which patient characteristics were associated with over-reporting adherence on the self-reported measure. Methods English-speaking adult glaucoma patients were recruited for this observational cohort study from six ophthalmology practices. Patients were interviewed immediately after a baseline medical visit and were given MEMS containers, which were used to record adherence over a 60-day period. MEMS data were used to calculate percent adherence, which measured the percentage of the prescribed number of doses taken, and timing adherence, which assessed the percent doses taken on time. Patients self-reported adherence to their glaucoma medications on a visual analog scale (VAS) approximately 60 days following the baseline visit. Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Self-reported medication adherence on the VAS was plotted against MEMS adherence to illustrate the level of discrepancy between self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence. Findings The analyses included 240 patients who returned their MEMS containers and who self-reported medication adherence at the 60-day follow-up visit. When compared with MEMS-measured percent adherence, 31% of patients (n=75) over-estimated their adherence on the VAS. When compared with MEMS-measured timing adherence, 74% (n=177) of patients over-estimated their adherence on the VAS. For the MEMS-measured percent adherence, logistic regression revealed that patients who were newly prescribed

  10. Rates and Predictors of Adherence to Psychotropic Medications in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah L.; Carpenter, Laura; Leslie, R. Scott; Hunt, Kelly S.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Charles, Jane; Nicholas, Joyce S.

    2014-01-01

    Medication adherence in children is poor, particularly among those with chronic or mental health disorders. However, adherence has not been fully assessed in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The validated proportion of days covered method was used to quantify adherence to psychotropic medication in Medicaid-eligible children who met diagnostic…

  11. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  12. The Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS): Concurrent Validity Using a Clinical Measure among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Morisky, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a prevalent problem worldwide but up to today, no gold standard is available to assess such behavior. This study was to evaluate the psychometric properties, particularly the concurrent validity of the English version of the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS) among people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. Individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 21 years and above, using at least one anti-diabetes agent and could communicate in English were recruited. The MALMAS was compared with the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess its convergent validity while concurrent validity was evaluated based on the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Participants answered the MALMAS twice: at baseline and 4 weeks later. The study involved 136 participants. The MALMAS achieved acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.565) and stable reliability as the test-retest scores showed fair correlation (Spearman’s rho=0.412). The MALMAS has good correlation with the MMAS-8 (Spearman’s rho=0.715). Participants who were adherent to their anti-diabetes medications had significantly lower median HbA1C values than those who were non-adherence (7.90 versus 8.55%, p=0.032). The odds of participants who were adherent to their medications achieving good glycemic control was 3.36 times (95% confidence interval: 1.09-10.37) of those who were non-adherence. This confirms the concurrent validity of the MALMAS. The sensitivity of the MALMAS was 88.9% while its specificity was 29.6%. The findings of this study further substantiates the reliability and validity of the MALMAS, in particular its concurrent validity and sensitivity for assessing medication adherence of people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. PMID:25909363

  13. The Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS): Concurrent Validity Using a Clinical Measure among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen Wei; Chua, Siew Siang; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Morisky, Donald E

    2015-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a prevalent problem worldwide but up to today, no gold standard is available to assess such behavior. This study was to evaluate the psychometric properties, particularly the concurrent validity of the English version of the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS) among people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. Individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 21 years and above, using at least one anti-diabetes agent and could communicate in English were recruited. The MALMAS was compared with the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess its convergent validity while concurrent validity was evaluated based on the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Participants answered the MALMAS twice: at baseline and 4 weeks later. The study involved 136 participants. The MALMAS achieved acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.565) and stable reliability as the test-retest scores showed fair correlation (Spearman's rho=0.412). The MALMAS has good correlation with the MMAS-8 (Spearman's rho=0.715). Participants who were adherent to their anti-diabetes medications had significantly lower median HbA1C values than those who were non-adherence (7.90 versus 8.55%, p=0.032). The odds of participants who were adherent to their medications achieving good glycemic control was 3.36 times (95% confidence interval: 1.09-10.37) of those who were non-adherence. This confirms the concurrent validity of the MALMAS. The sensitivity of the MALMAS was 88.9% while its specificity was 29.6%. The findings of this study further substantiates the reliability and validity of the MALMAS, in particular its concurrent validity and sensitivity for assessing medication adherence of people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.

  14. A Patient Education Program to Improve Adherence Rates with Antituberculosis Drug Regimens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morisky, Donald E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An incentive scheme to reward positive health behaviors (adherence to antituberculosis drug regimens) was tested with 88 active and 117 preventive patients randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Preventive patients who received incentives were significantly more likely to continue care and had higher adherence levels. Actives showed…

  15. Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Stress Incontinence: Rates, Barriers, and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, Kathryn L.; Goode, Patricia S.; Ye, Wen; Weidner, Alison C.; Lukacz, Emily S.; Jelovsek, John-Eric; Bradley, Catherine S.; Schaffer, Joseph; Hsu, Yvonne; Kenton, Kimberly; Spino, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Background First-line conservative treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women is behavioral intervention, including pelvic-floor muscle (PFM) exercise and bladder control strategies. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe adherence and barriers to exercise and bladder control strategy adherence and (2) to identify predictors of exercise adherence. Design This study was a planned secondary analysis of data from a multisite, randomized trial comparing intravaginal continence pessary, multicomponent behavioral therapy, and combined therapy in women with stress-predominant urinary incontinence (UI). Methods Data were analyzed from the groups who received behavioral intervention alone (n=146) or combined with continence pessary therapy (n=150). Adherence was measured during supervised treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization. Barriers to adherence were surveyed during treatment and at the 3-month time point. Regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of exercise adherence during supervised treatment and at the 3- and 12-month time points. Results During supervised treatment, ≥86% of the women exercised ≥5 days a week, and ≥80% performed at least 30 contractions on days they exercised. At 3, 6, and 12 months post-randomization, 95%, 88%, and 80% of women, respectively, indicated they were still performing PFM exercises. During supervised treatment and at 3 months post-randomization, ≥87% of the women reported using learned bladder control strategies to prevent SUI. In addition, the majority endorsed at least one barrier to PFM exercise, most commonly “trouble remembering to do exercises.” Predictors of exercise adherence changed over time. During supervised intervention, less frequent baseline UI and higher baseline 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) mental scores predicted exercise adherence. At 3 months post-randomization, women who dropped out of the study had weaker PFMs at baseline. At

  16. Subjective rating scales as a workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidimensional bipolar-adjective rating scale is employed as a subjective measure of operator workload in the performance of a one-axis tracking task. The rating scale addressed several dimensions of workload, including cognitive, physical, and perceptual task loading as well as fatigue and stress effects. Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task (with six levels of difficulty) and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Performance measures were tracking error RMS (root-mean square) and the standard deviation of control stick output. Significant relationships were observed between these performance measures and skill required, task complexity, attention level, task difficulty, task demands, and stress level.

  17. Psychological factors predict adherence to methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis; findings from a systematic review of rates, predictors and associations with patient-reported and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bluett, James; Barton, Anne; Hyrich, Kimme L; Cordingley, Lis; Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment response to methotrexate (MTX) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not universal and non-adherence may partially explain this. The aims of this systematic review were to: (1) summarise existing rates of adherence to MTX, (2) identify predictors of adherence to MTX, and (3) assess the association between non-adherence and patient outcomes. The authors conducted a systematic search of papers published from January 1980 to February 2015 in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: (1) MTX was used as monotherapy or in combination with other therapies, (2) MTX was used in an RA or inflammatory polyarthritis population, (3) adherence was defined and measured as the extent to which patients followed their MTX regimen during the period of prescription, and (4) it was an original piece of research. In total, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and 8 were evaluated as high quality. Rates of adherence ranged from 59% to 107%, and exposed differences in definitions of adherence, study methodologies and sample heterogeneity. A number of potential predictors of MTX adherence were identified; the strongest being related to beliefs in the necessity and efficacy of MTX, absence of low mood, mild disease and MTX monotherapy. Furthermore, 3 studies tested the association of adherence with disease activity as an outcome measure; all 3 found non-adherence associated with poor treatment response. This systematic review shows the importance of adherence to MTX treatment and summarises the associated modifiable factors. PMID:26848403

  18. Treatment adherence in psychoses.

    PubMed

    David, Anthony S

    2010-12-01

    A well-conducted randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve treatment adherence in psychosis published in this issue shows beneficial effects on self- and observer-rated adherence and trends towards fewer hospital readmissions. Partial adherence is the single most important barrier to optimal treatment. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines on adherence need to be revised.

  19. Measurement of Psychiatric Treatment Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Velligan, Dawn; Weiden, Peter J.; Valenstein, Marcia; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence to medications for mental disorders substantially limits treatment effectiveness and results in higher rates of relapse, hospitalization, and disability. Accurate measurement of medication adherence is important not only in adherence research, but also in clinical trials in which medications are being evaluated, and in clinical practice where failure to detect nonadherence results in premature medication changes, unnecessary polypharmacy, and greater likelihoods of functional deteriorations and hospitalizations. This is a review of psychiatric treatment adherence methods and measures arising from a meeting on “Methodological Challenges in Psychiatric Treatment Adherence Research” held on September 27-28, 2007 in Bethesda, MD and organized by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Methods This paper reviews the range of modalities currently available for assessing adherence behavior including pill counts, pharmacy records, technology-assisted monitoring, biological assays, and a range of self-report and interviewer-rated scales. Measures of adherence attitudes are also reviewed. Results Each of the adherence measures described are imperfect estimates of actual medication ingestion but each provides informative estimates of adherence or the attitudinal factors associated with adherence. Measure selection depends on a range of factors including the patient sample, the context in which the measure is being used, and the clinical outcomes expected from various levels of nonadherence. The use of multiple measures of adherence is encouraged to balance the limitations of individual measures. Conclusion While adherence assessment has become increasingly sophisticated in recent years there remains a need for refinement and expansion on currently available methods and measures. PMID:21109048

  20. Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth: Psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Fjermestad, Krister W; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT). The CAS-CBT is an 11-item scale developed to measure adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. A total of 181 videotapes from the treatment sessions in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial (Wergeland et al., 2014) comprising youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.1, range 8-15 years, 53% girls, 90.7% Caucasian) with mixed anxiety disorders were assessed with the CAS-CBT to investigate interitem correlations, internal consistency, and factor structure. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = .87). Factor analysis suggested a 2-factor solution with Factor 1 representing CBT structure and session goals (explaining 46.9% of the variance) and Factor 2 representing process and relational skills (explaining 19.7% of the variance). The sum-score for adherence and competence was strongly intercorrelated, r = .79, p < .001. Novice raters (graduate psychology students) obtained satisfactory accuracy (ICC > .40, n = 10 videotapes) and also good to excellent interrater reliability when compared to expert raters (ICC = .83 for adherence and .64 for competence, n = 26 videotapes). High rater stability was also found (n = 15 videotapes). The findings suggest that the CAS-CBT is a reliable measure of adherence and competence in manualized CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. Further research is needed to investigate the validity of the scale and psychometric properties when used with other treatment programs, disorders and treatment formats. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowska-Polanska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Chudiak, Anna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Morisky, Donald E; Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low adherence to pharmacological treatment is often associated with poor blood pressure control, but identification of nonadherent patients in outpatient settings is difficult. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the structured self-report eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) among patients with hypertension. The study was conducted in a family doctor practice between January and July 2015. After a standard "forward-backward" procedure to translate MMAS-8 into Polish, the questionnaire was administered to 160 patients with hypertension. Reliability was tested using a measure of internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest reliability. Validity was confirmed using known group validity. Three levels of adherence were considered based on the following scores: 0 to <6 (low); 6 to <8 (medium); and 8 (high). Complete questionnaires were returned by 110 respondents (mean age: 60.7 years ±12.6; 54.6% were female). The mean number of pills taken daily was 3.61±4.31. The mean adherence score was 6.42± 2.0. Moderate internal consistency was found (Cronbach's α=0.81), and test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r=0.461-0.905; P<0.001). Reproducibility expressed by Cohen's κ coefficient =0.61 was good. In high-adherent patients, the percentage of well-controlled blood pressure was higher than in low-adherent patients (33.3% vs 19.1%, χ (2)=0.87, P=0.648). Psychometric evaluation of the Polish version of the MMAS-8 indicates that it is a reliable and valid measure tool to detect nonadherent patients. The MMAS-8 may be routinely used to support communication about the medication-taking behavior in hypertensive patients. PMID:27672314

  2. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polanska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Chudiak, Anna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Morisky, Donald E; Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low adherence to pharmacological treatment is often associated with poor blood pressure control, but identification of nonadherent patients in outpatient settings is difficult. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the structured self-report eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) among patients with hypertension. The study was conducted in a family doctor practice between January and July 2015. After a standard “forward–backward” procedure to translate MMAS-8 into Polish, the questionnaire was administered to 160 patients with hypertension. Reliability was tested using a measure of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) and test–retest reliability. Validity was confirmed using known group validity. Three levels of adherence were considered based on the following scores: 0 to <6 (low); 6 to <8 (medium); and 8 (high). Complete questionnaires were returned by 110 respondents (mean age: 60.7 years ±12.6; 54.6% were female). The mean number of pills taken daily was 3.61±4.31. The mean adherence score was 6.42± 2.0. Moderate internal consistency was found (Cronbach’s α=0.81), and test–retest reliability was satisfactory (r=0.461–0.905; P<0.001). Reproducibility expressed by Cohen’s κ coefficient =0.61 was good. In high-adherent patients, the percentage of well-controlled blood pressure was higher than in low-adherent patients (33.3% vs 19.1%, χ2=0.87, P=0.648). Psychometric evaluation of the Polish version of the MMAS-8 indicates that it is a reliable and valid measure tool to detect nonadherent patients. The MMAS-8 may be routinely used to support communication about the medication-taking behavior in hypertensive patients.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polanska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Chudiak, Anna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Morisky, Donald E; Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Low adherence to pharmacological treatment is often associated with poor blood pressure control, but identification of nonadherent patients in outpatient settings is difficult. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the structured self-report eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) among patients with hypertension. The study was conducted in a family doctor practice between January and July 2015. After a standard “forward–backward” procedure to translate MMAS-8 into Polish, the questionnaire was administered to 160 patients with hypertension. Reliability was tested using a measure of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) and test–retest reliability. Validity was confirmed using known group validity. Three levels of adherence were considered based on the following scores: 0 to <6 (low); 6 to <8 (medium); and 8 (high). Complete questionnaires were returned by 110 respondents (mean age: 60.7 years ±12.6; 54.6% were female). The mean number of pills taken daily was 3.61±4.31. The mean adherence score was 6.42± 2.0. Moderate internal consistency was found (Cronbach’s α=0.81), and test–retest reliability was satisfactory (r=0.461–0.905; P<0.001). Reproducibility expressed by Cohen’s κ coefficient =0.61 was good. In high-adherent patients, the percentage of well-controlled blood pressure was higher than in low-adherent patients (33.3% vs 19.1%, χ2=0.87, P=0.648). Psychometric evaluation of the Polish version of the MMAS-8 indicates that it is a reliable and valid measure tool to detect nonadherent patients. The MMAS-8 may be routinely used to support communication about the medication-taking behavior in hypertensive patients. PMID:27672314

  4. Reliability Generalization for Childhood Autism Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidbord, Jonathan; Croudace, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) is a popular behavior-observation instrument that was developed more than 34 years ago and has since been adopted in a wide variety of contexts for assessing the presence and severity of autism symptomatology in both children and adolescents. This investigation of the reliability of CARS scores involves…

  5. Modeling Randomness in Judging Rating Scales with a Random-Effects Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the random-effects rating scale model (RE-RSM) which takes into account randomness in the thresholds over persons by treating them as random-effects and adding a random variable for each threshold in the rating scale model (RSM) (Andrich, 1978). The RE-RSM turns out to be a special case of the multidimensional random…

  6. [Strategies for measuring medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunfang; Huang, Zhiping; Xu, Dong; Gong, Wenjie; Tang, Yuan; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Long-term therapy should be administrated for patients with schizophrenia and the medication adherence is very important for the prognosis and outcome in these patients. In this study, we screened the literatures from various databases in accordance with our search criteria. A total of 11 literatures with the results of reliability and validity regarding the measurement of schizophrenia medication adherence were enrolled in our analysis. Based on the measurements, they were classified into subjective methods and objective ones. The objective methods include blood plasma and urine concentrations, pharmacy records, pill counts and Medication Event Monitoring System. The subjective methods include Drug Attitude Inventory, Rating of Medication Influences Scale, Brief Evaluation of Medication Influences and Beliefs, the Brief Adherence Rating Scale, Medication Adherence Rating Scale, and Morisky scales. In general, single method for measuring medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia is limited. We recommend researchers to use 2 or more methods when measuring the medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Adaptation and evaluation of the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale1

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Rafaela Batista dos Santos; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to undertake the cultural adaptation of, and to evaluate the measurement properties of, the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, with outpatient monitoring at a teaching hospital. Method: the process of cultural adaptation was undertaken in accordance with the international literature. The data were obtained from 147 CHD patients, through the application of the sociodemographic/clinical characterization instrument, and of the Brazilian versions of the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale. Results: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of semantic-idiomatic, conceptual and cultural equivalencies, with high acceptability and practicality. The floor effect was evidenced for the total score and for the domains of the scale studied. The findings evidenced the measure's reliability. The domains of the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented significant inverse correlations of moderate to strong magnitude between the scores of the Morisky scale, indicating convergent validity, although correlations with the measure of general self-efficacy were not evidenced. The validity of known groups was supported, as the scale discriminated between "adherents" and "non-adherents" to the medications, as well as to "sufficient dose" and "insufficient dose". Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Self-efficacy for Appropriate Medication Adherence Scale presented evidence of reliability and validity in coronary heart disease outpatients. PMID:27192417

  8. Rating depression over brief time intervals with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: standard vs. abbreviated scales.

    PubMed

    Luckenbaugh, David A; Ameli, Rezvan; Brutsche, Nancy E; Zarate, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    Although antidepressant trials typically use weekly ratings to examine changes in symptoms over six to 12 weeks, antidepressant treatments may improve symptoms more quickly. Thus, rating scales must be adapted to capture changes over shorter intervals. We examined the use of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) to evaluate more rapid changes. Data were examined from 58 patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies who received a single infusion of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo over 40 min then crossed over to the other condition. HDRS subscales, a single HDRS Depressed mood item, and a visual analogue scale were used at baseline, after a brief interval (230 min), and one week post-infusion. Effect sizes for the ketamine-placebo difference were moderate (d > 0.50), but one and two-item HDRS subscales had the smallest effects. Response rates on active drug were lowest for the complete HDRS (43%); the remaining scales had higher response rates to active drug, but the shortest subscales had higher response rates to placebo. Correlations between the changes from baseline to 230 min post-ketamine across scores were similar for most subscales (r = 0.82-0.97), but correlations using the single items were lower (r < 0.74). Overall, effect sizes for drug-placebo differences and correlations between changes were lower for one- and two-item measures. Response rates were lower with the full HDRS scale. The data suggest that, to best identify rapid antidepressant effects, a scale should have more than two items, but fewer items than a full scale.

  9. Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Polly Y.; Agarwala, Prachi; Opperman, Kiel J.; Horwitz, Adam; King, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence of psychiatric emergency (PE) visits for attempted suicide and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, we have limited information about assessment tools that are helpful in predicting subsequent risk for suicide attempts among adolescents in PE settings. This study examined the predictive validity of a highly promising instrument, the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Method Participants were 178 adolescents (44.4% male; ages 13–17 years) seeking PE services. The C-SSRS interview and selected medical chart data were collected for the index visit and subsequent visits during a 1-year follow-up. Results A suicide risk concern was the most common chief complaint (50.6%) in this sample, and nearly one third of the adolescents (30.4%) reported a lifetime history of suicide attempt at index visit. Sixty-two adolescents (34.8%) had at least one return PE visit during follow-up. Lifetime history of NSSI predicted both return PE visits and a suicide attempt at return visit. The C-SSRS intensity scale score was a significant predictor of a suicide attempt at return visit for both the full sample of adolescents and the subsample who reported suicidal ideation at their index visit. In this subsample, one specific item on the intensity scale, duration, was also a significant predictor of both a return PE visit and a suicide attempt at return visit. Conclusions The C-SSRS intensity scale and NSSI had predictive validity for suicide attempts at return visit. Results also suggest that duration of adolescents’ suicidal thoughts may be particularly important to risk for suicidal behavior, warranting further study. PMID:25285389

  10. A New Approach for Estimating Background Rates of Erosion Using Concentration of Meteoric 10-Be Adhered to River Sediment: Application to the Rapidly Eroding Waipaoa Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusser, L. J.; Bierman, P. R.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.

    2007-12-01

    New and existing data suggest that the concentration of atmospherically- produced, meteoric 10-Be adhered to river sediment provides a proxy for basin-scale erosion rates. Although the widely applied method of analyzing in situ produced 10-Be in river sediments has proven useful for estimating pre-anthropogenic rates of erosion in a variety of environments, there are lithologic limitation. In contrast, measuring the concentration of meteoric 10-Be adhered to river sediment allows erosion rate analysis in landscapes underlain by quartz-deficient or fine-grained lithologies, as well as in basins where the concentration of quartz varies spatially. By assuming that basins are in an overall isotopic steady-state, that erosion is rapid enough that decay is negligible, and that the integrated delivery rate of 10-Be from the atmosphere (D10-Be) can be estimated, basin-scale mass loss rates (Ms) can be solved by equating the 10-Be flux in from the atmosphere with the flux of 10-Be out of the basin on sediment (C10-Be) and expressed as sediment yield per unit area (Ys). Fin = Fout D10-Be * A = Ms * C10-Be Ms = (D10-Be * A)/ C10-Be Ys = D10-Be / C10-Be To validate this new approach, we examined the limited data that do exist and found reasonable correspondence between erosion rates estimated from meteoric 10-Be concentrations and estimated by other means. As a first application, we use meteoric 10-Be in river sediment to estimate basin-scale erosion rates from catchments within and near the mud-stone dominated Waipaoa River Basin draining the tectonically active east coast of New Zealand's North Island. Near total conversion of indigenous forest to pasture over the past century in the Waipaoa Basin has resulted in some of the most dramatic and widespread erosional features on the planet, and contemporary sediment yields that rank among the highest in the world (~7 million kg/(km2 * yr)). The amount of meteoric 10-Be adhered to eight river sediment samples suggests that modern

  11. Outcome Rating Scale and Session Rating Scale in Psychological Practice: Clinical Utility of Ultra-Brief Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…

  12. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  13. The reliability and internal consistency of the motivation rating scale and the general trait rating scale.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C B

    1977-01-01

    The Motivation Rating Scale (MRS) and General Trait Rating (GTRS) Scales have been proposed as methods for assessing personality traits of athletes. The scales are easily accessible and are proposed for use as coaching tools. A coach's form and athlete's form of each test was administered to 149 male and female varsity high school basketball players and their coaches in eight different states. Means and standard deviations for all variables as well as test-retest reliability coefficients, trait inter-correlations, correlations between test forms, and Alpha coefficients were calculated. Results suggest that each of the four scales was independent of the others, with the coach's form of the MRS showing reasonable reliability and reasonable internal consistency for selected traits. There is some indication that "trait generalization" among coaches may inflate the test-retest reliability of the coach's form of the MRS. No convincing evidence is presented to support the notion that any of the four scales measure the traits the scales are purported to measure.

  14. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  15. Development of the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonneson, Mary E.; Hartsough, Don M.

    1987-01-01

    Constructed and tested Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale, rating scale of caller behavior, as an outcome measure at telephone hotline facility. Psychology students rated caller behavior on role-played audiotapes. Items having respectable item-total correlations comprise final version of scale which detected meaningful differences among audiotapes.…

  16. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  17. Development of a new diabetes medication self-efficacy scale and its association with both reported problems in using diabetes medications and self-reported adherence

    PubMed Central

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Blalock, Susan J; Davis, Scott A; Hickson, Ryan P; Lee, Charles; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Scott, Jennifer E; Rodebaugh, Lisa B; Cummings, Doyle M

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there are several different general diabetes self-efficacy scales, there is a need to develop a self-efficacy scale that providers can use to assess patient’s self-efficacy regarding medication use. The purpose of this study was to: 1) develop a new diabetes medication self-efficacy scale and 2) examine how diabetes medication self-efficacy is associated with patient-reported problems in using diabetes medications and self-reported adherence. Patients and methods Adult English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a family medicine clinic and a pharmacy in Eastern North Carolina, USA. The patients were eligible if they reported being nonadherent to their diabetes medicines on a visual analog scale. Multivariable regression was used to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and the number of reported diabetes medication problems and adherence. Results The diabetes medication self-efficacy scale had strong reliability (Cronbach’s alpha =0.86). Among a sample (N=51) of mostly African-American female patients, diabetes medication problems were common (6.1±3.1) and a greater number of diabetes medications were associated with lower medication adherence (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.89). Higher medication self-efficacy was significantly related to medication adherence (odds ratio: 1.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.30) and inversely related to the number of self-reported medication problems (β=−0.13; P=0.006). Conclusion Higher diabetes medication self-efficacy was associated with fewer patient-reported medication problems and better medication adherence. Assessing medication-specific self-efficacy may help to identify medication-related problems that providers can help the patients address, potentially improving adherence and patient outcomes. PMID:27354769

  18. Guideline adherence rates and interprofessional variation in a vignette study of depression

    PubMed Central

    Tiemeier, H; de Vries, W J; van het, Loo M; Kahan, J; Klazinga, N; Grol, R; Rigter, H

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the appropriateness of and variation in intention-to-treat decisions in the management of depression in the Netherlands. Design: Mailed survey with 22 paper cases (vignettes) based on a population study. Setting: A random sample from four professional groups in the Dutch mental healthcare system. Subjects: 264 general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and clinical psychologists. Main outcome measures: Each vignette contained information on a number of patient characteristics taken from three national depression guidelines. The distribution of patient characteristics was based on data from a population study. Respondents were asked to choose the best treatment option and the best treatment setting. For each vignette we examined which of the selected treatments was appropriate according to the recommendations of the three published Dutch clinical guidelines and a panel of experts. Results: 31% of all intention-to-treat decisions were not consistent with the guidelines. Overall, less severe depression, alcohol abuse, psychotic features, and lack of social resources were related to more inappropriate judgements. There was considerable variation between the professional groups: psychiatrists made more appropriate choices than the other professions although they had the highest rate of overtreatment. Conclusions: There is sufficient variation in the intentions to treat depression to give it priority in quality assessment and guideline development. Efforts to achieve appropriate care should focus on treatment indications, referral patterns, and overtreatment. PMID:12486983

  19. Generalizability of Scaling Gradients on Direct Behavior Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2009-01-01

    Generalizability theory is used to examine the impact of scaling gradients on a single-item Direct Behavior Rating (DBR). A DBR refers to a type of rating scale used to efficiently record target behavior(s) following an observation occasion. Variance components associated with scale gradients are estimated using a random effects design for persons…

  20. Clinical Usefulness of the Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scale (ODDRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Hackenberg, Jessica L.; Riccardi, Maria M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the "Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scale" (ODDRS) in a population of children referred for ADHD evaluation. The diagnostic benefit of using a rating scale specific to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), in addition to a broad range behavior scale, was also…

  1. Reliability and Validity of Scores on the IFSP Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; McWilliam, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented regarding the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of scores for an investigator-developed individualized family service plan (IFSP) rating scale. One hundred and twenty IFSPs were rated using a 12-item instrument, the IFSP Rating Scale (McWilliam & Jung, 2001). Using principal components factor analysis…

  2. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  3. Determinants of methotrexate adherence in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Ellen; De Gucht, Veronique; Maes, Stan; Van Camp, Yoleen; De Clerck, Luc S

    2016-05-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, weekly intake of methotrexate (MTX) is the basic drug treatment. This observational study aims to investigate how many RA patients are adherent in terms of MTX intake and to identify determinants of non-adherence. Intake of MTX (orally or via injection) was recorded in 129 RA patients with an electronic monitoring system (MEMS(®)) during 16 weeks. In addition, two adherence questionnaires, the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) and the Compliance-Questionnaire-Rheumatology (CQR) as well as a visual analogue scale (VAS) measuring MTX adherence, were administered to these patients. As possible determinants of adherence, data on demographics, disease and treatment characteristics, depression, illness cognitions, motivation, and social support were collected. Of all participants, 58 % were fully adherent and 75 % skipped at most one dose during 16 weeks. A better mental health status and suffering from comorbidities had a positive effect on adherence, while living alone had a negative effect. These three predictors explained 30 % of the variance in MTX adherence. Of the three self-report medication adherence measures, the VAS correlated the highest with the results of the electronic monitoring system (r = 0.552, p = 0.01). A relatively high adherence rate was observed in RA patients treated with MTX. The determinants identified by this study could be used to screen patients at risk for non-adherence. A simple VAS scale seems to be an acceptable way for a preliminary screening of MTX adherence. PMID:26781783

  4. RATE OF ADHERENCE TO AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH METHADONE MAINTENANCE TREATMENT PROGRAM (MMTP) COMPLIANCE AMONG INJECTING DRUG USE PATIENTS IN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Chamroonswasdi, Kanittha; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine the rate of adherence to and factors associated with compliance with a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) among injecting drug users in Nepal. We conducted face-to-face structured interviews with 165 methadone treatment patients aged 20-54 years during 5-20 April 2015. Data analysis included percentages, means, standard deviations, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Seventy-two point one percent of respondents had good adherence to a MMTP. Multiple logistic regression with 81.8% prediction showed respondents without a previous history of relapse were 2.7 times more likely to adhere to the MMTP than those with a history of relapse [Adjusted OR = 2.772; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.163-6.605]. Respondents with a good knowledge of the MMTP 9.4 times more likely to be adherent to the MMTP than those with a poor to fair knowledge of the MMTP (Adjusted OR = 9.464; 95% CI: 3.873-23.126). The likelihood of MMTP adherence was 4.5 times more likely when methadone treatment services were available than those where the availability of methadone treatment services were low to moderate (Adjusted OR = 4.553; 95% CI: 1.883-11.008). Knowledge and availability of MMTP need to be improved in the study area in Nepal.

  5. RATE OF ADHERENCE TO AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH METHADONE MAINTENANCE TREATMENT PROGRAM (MMTP) COMPLIANCE AMONG INJECTING DRUG USE PATIENTS IN NEPAL.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Chamroonswasdi, Kanittha; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine the rate of adherence to and factors associated with compliance with a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) among injecting drug users in Nepal. We conducted face-to-face structured interviews with 165 methadone treatment patients aged 20-54 years during 5-20 April 2015. Data analysis included percentages, means, standard deviations, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Seventy-two point one percent of respondents had good adherence to a MMTP. Multiple logistic regression with 81.8% prediction showed respondents without a previous history of relapse were 2.7 times more likely to adhere to the MMTP than those with a history of relapse [Adjusted OR = 2.772; 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.163-6.605]. Respondents with a good knowledge of the MMTP 9.4 times more likely to be adherent to the MMTP than those with a poor to fair knowledge of the MMTP (Adjusted OR = 9.464; 95% CI: 3.873-23.126). The likelihood of MMTP adherence was 4.5 times more likely when methadone treatment services were available than those where the availability of methadone treatment services were low to moderate (Adjusted OR = 4.553; 95% CI: 1.883-11.008). Knowledge and availability of MMTP need to be improved in the study area in Nepal. PMID:27244967

  6. A mobile application improves therapy-adherence rates in elderly patients undergoing rehabilitation: A crossover design study comparing documentation via iPad with paper-based control.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Alexander; Brandl, Christopher; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Schlick, Christopher; Neumann, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Meister, Sven; Diamantidis, Clarissa Jonas; Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Horn, Peter; Becker, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medication adherence is crucial for success in the management of patients with chronic conditions. This study analyzes whether a mobile application on a tablet aimed at supporting drug intake and vital sign parameter documentation affects adherence in elderly patients.Patients with coronary heart disease and no prior knowledge of tablet computers were recruited. They received a personal introduction to the mobile application Medication Plan, installed on an Apple iPad. The study was conducted using a crossover design with 3 sequences: initial phase, interventional phase (28 days of using the app system), and comparative phase (28 days of using a paper diary). Users experienced the interventional and comparative phases alternately.A total of 24 patients (12 males; mean age 73.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean for subjectively assessed adherence (A14-scale; 5-point Likert scale, from "never" to "very often" which results in a score from 0 to 56) before the study was 50.0 (SD = 3.44). After both interventions there was a significant increase, which was more pronounced after the interventional phase (54.0; SD = 2.01) than after the comparative phase (52.6; SD = 2.49) (for all pairs after both interventions, P <0.001). Neither medical conditions nor the number of drug intake (amount and frequency of drug taking) per day affected subjective adherence. Logging data showed a significantly stronger adherence for the medication app than the paper system for both blood pressure recordings (P <0.001) and medication intake (P = 0.033). The majority of participants (n = 22) stated that they would like to use the medication app in their daily lives and would not need further assistance with the app.A mobile app for medication adherence increased objectively and subjectively measured adherence in elderly users undergoing rehabilitation. The findings have promising clinical implications: digital tools can assist chronic disease patients achieve adherence to

  7. Decision tree rating scales for workload estimation: Theme and variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.; Skipper, J. H.; Rieger, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) scale which is a sensitive indicator of workload in several different types of aircrew tasks was examined. The study determined if variations of the scale might provide greater sensitivity and the reasons for the sensitivity of the scale. The MCH scale and five newly devised scales were examined in two different aircraft simulator experiments in which pilot loading was treated as an independent variable. It is indicated that while one of the new scales may be more sensitive in a given experiment, task dependency is a problem. The MCH scale exhibits consistent senstivity and remains the scale recommended for general use. The MCH scale results are consistent with earlier experiments. The rating scale experiments are reported and the questionnaire results which were directed to obtain a better understanding of the reasons for the relative sensitivity of the MCH scale and its variations are described.

  8. The Random-Effect Generalized Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wu, Shiu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale items have been widely used in educational and psychological tests. These items require people to make subjective judgments, and these subjective judgments usually involve randomness. To account for this randomness, Wang, Wilson, and Shih proposed the random-effect rating scale model in which the threshold parameters are treated as…

  9. Development of a University of South Florida Student Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John

    The statistical results of administering a newly developed student rating scale of instructor effectiveness at the University of South Florida (USF) are analyzed, and the development and refinement of the scale are described. The scale was originally developed during the fall 1981 semester and was administered to 1,115 USF students. The scale…

  10. Rating Scales for Dystonia in Cerebral Palsy: Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…

  11. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  12. Critical Scale Invariance in a Healthy Human Heart Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Sakata, Seiichiro; Hayano, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-10-01

    We demonstrate the robust scale-invariance in the probability density function (PDF) of detrended healthy human heart rate increments, which is preserved not only in a quiescent condition, but also in a dynamic state where the mean level of the heart rate is dramatically changing. This scale-independent and fractal structure is markedly different from the scale-dependent PDF evolution observed in a turbulentlike, cascade heart rate model. These results strongly support the view that a healthy human heart rate is controlled to converge continually to a critical state.

  13. Effects of Content Polarization, Item Wording, and Rating Scale Width on Rating Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tony C. M.; Stevens, Joseph J.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the following three variables on rating scale response were studied: (1) polarization of opinion regarding scale content; (2) intensity of item wording; and (3) psychological width of the scale. Results with 167 college students suggest best ways to balance polarization and item wording regardless of scale width. (SLD)

  14. The Secret to the "Best" Ratings from Any Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Most faculty developers have a wide variety of rating scales that fly across their desk tops as their incremental program activities unfold during the academic year. The primary issue for this column is: What is the quality of those ratings used for decisions about people and programs? When students, faculty, and administrators rate a program or…

  15. Predictors of medication non-adherence in Bulgarian outpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Iglika; Milanova, Vihra; Asan, Turan

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the adherence status and to identify the risk factors for medication non-adherence in Bulgarian outpatients with schizophrenia. Variables with possible impact on adherence behaviour were assessed via a set of pre-determined clinical interviews and self-rating scales in a total of 226 patients with schizophrenia. As non-adherent were classified 55.8% of the participants. Differences between adherent and non-adherent patients were identified. A multiple regression analysis revealed three variables predictive for the medication adherence--attitudes toward medication, severity of positive symptoms and the ability to recognize psychotic symptoms. Interventions focusing on the identified predictive variables might be useful when aiming at improvement of medication adherence and outcome in schizophrenia.

  16. Rethinking adherence.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John F

    2012-10-16

    In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will introduce measures of adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs into its Medicare Advantage quality program. To meet these quality goals, delivery systems will need to develop and disseminate strategies to improve adherence. The design of adherence interventions has too often been guided by the mistaken assumptions that adherence is a single behavior that can be predicted from readily available patient characteristics and that individual clinicians alone can improve adherence at the population level.Effective interventions require recognition that adherence is a set of interacting behaviors influenced by individual, social, and environmental forces; adherence interventions must be broadly based, rather than targeted to specific population subgroups; and counseling with a trusted clinician needs to be complemented by outreach interventions and removal of structural and organizational barriers. To achieve the adherence goals set by CMS, front-line clinicians, interdisciplinary teams, organizational leaders, and policymakers will need to coordinate efforts in ways that exemplify the underlying principles of health care reform.

  17. A parametric investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and the mathematical relationships that allow for transformations of subjective data from one scale to another scale were determined. A total of 16 category scales were studied and these represented various parametric combinations of polarity, scale type, and number of scalar points. Sixteen subject groups were used and each subject group evaluated its comfort/discomfort to vertical sinusoidal vibration using one of the rating scales. The passenger ride quality apparatus which can expose six subjects simultaneously to predetermined vibrations was utilized. The vibration stimuli were composed of repeats of selected sinusoidal frequencies applied at each of nine peak floor acceleration levels. A higher degree of reliability and discriminability was generally obtained from unipolar continuous type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points as opposed to the other scales investigated.

  18. Scaling of the magnetic reconnection rate with symmetric shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cassak, P. A.; Otto, A.

    2011-07-15

    The scaling of the reconnection rate during (fast) Hall magnetic reconnection in the presence of an oppositely directed bulk shear flow parallel to the reconnecting magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional numerical simulations of Hall reconnection with two different codes. Previous studies noted that the reconnection rate falls with increasing flow speed and shuts off entirely for super-Alfvenic flow, but no quantitative expression for the reconnection rate in sub-Alfvenic shear flows is known. An expression for the scaling of the reconnection rate is presented.

  19. Development of a therapist activity rating scale: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Conte, H R; Plutchik, R; Picard, S; Karasu, T B

    1993-06-01

    A 61-item scale was constructed of relatively explicit descriptions of behavior in which a psychotherapist might engage. The scale is largely noninferential, is basically atheoretical but applicable to psychodynamically oriented therapy, may be completed by either the therapist or an independent rater with minimal training, and may be used to rate entire therapy sessions or specific segments of sessions. The scale shows high interrater reliability and discriminant validity. PMID:8337316

  20. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  1. The Multidimensional Behavior Rating Scale: An Assessment Device for Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblum, Esther D.; Green, Leon

    The Multidimensional Behavior Rating Scale (MBRS) was constructed to assess symptoms of depression across seven modalities: behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationship, and drugs. Subjects (N=33) were matched by level of depression on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression Scale to either a…

  2. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  3. K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…

  4. Pictorial versus Verbal Rating Scales in Music Preference Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Simpson, Charles S.; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Compares pictorial and verbal rating scales as measures of music preference opinions. Examines internal consistency and test-retest reliability of each type of scale, the overall preference scores generated through the use of each to measure preference for the same music stimuli, and student preferences for each type after using them. (DSK)

  5. Calibrating Borg scale ratings of hand force exertion.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, Peregrin

    2006-09-01

    A study was conducted to assess the efficacy of calibrating subjective worker ratings of hand exertions to reduce error in estimates of applied force. Twenty volunteer subjects applied pinch and power grip forces corresponding to their perceptions of different Borg CR-10 scale levels using both "grip-to-scale" and "guided-grip" procedures. These data were used separately to define relationships between scale ratings and actual force application. Two gripping tasks were performed and corresponding subjective hand force ratings were calibrated using the grip-to-scale calibration data. Results showed that the mean estimation error for a 44.5 N (10 lb) power grip task was significantly reduced from 142.8 (+/-69.0) to 62.3 (+/-58.3) N. The guided-grip calibration method also significantly reduced rating error for the power grip task, however the estimates were biased toward zero. Neither calibration procedure improved rating accuracy of an 8.9 N (2 lb) pinch grip task. The study results indicate that calibration of hand force ratings using the grip-to-scale procedure may improve the accuracy of hand exertion measurements using the Borg CR-10 scale.

  6. The Clarification of Depression and Social Support's Contribution to the Prediction of Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and the Rate of CD4 in People with HIV.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali; Joulaei, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the antiretroviral therapy, the number of the people with HIV is increasing; therefore, identifying the factors affecting HIV is of great importance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the antiretroviral medication adherence and the rate of CD4 with depression and social support in the people with HIV. The research method was a descriptive study kind of correlation. The statistical population included all patients with HIV in Shiraz, of whom, 220 people who had referred to the Behavioral Diseases Consultation Center were selected using the available sampling method. Philips et al.'s Social Support Questionnaire, Beck's Depression Questionnaire II, and ACTG Medication Adherence Questionnaire were used as the research tools. Results were analyzed using the stepwise regression and stepwise hierarchical multiple regression. Regression analysis showed that social support and depression variables could predict totally 47% (P<0.001) of changes of medication adherence variable, and depression could predict only 2% (P<0.01) of rate variance of CD4. PMID:27157183

  7. The Clarification of Depression and Social Support’s Contribution to the Prediction of Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and the Rate of CD4 in People with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali; Joulaei, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    With the development of the antiretroviral therapy, the number of the people with HIV is increasing; therefore, identifying the factors affecting HIV is of great importance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the antiretroviral medication adherence and the rate of CD4 with depression and social support in the people with HIV. The research method was a descriptive study kind of correlation. The statistical population included all patients with HIV in Shiraz, of whom, 220 people who had referred to the Behavioral Diseases Consultation Center were selected using the available sampling method. Philips et al.’s Social Support Questionnaire, Beck’s Depression Questionnaire II, and ACTG Medication Adherence Questionnaire were used as the research tools. Results were analyzed using the stepwise regression and stepwise hierarchical multiple regression. Regression analysis showed that social support and depression variables could predict totally 47% (P<0.001) of changes of medication adherence variable, and depression could predict only 2% (P<0.01) of rate variance of CD4. PMID:27157183

  8. Interrater Agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iovannone, Rose; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Wang, Wei; Dunlap, Glen; Kincaid, Don

    2014-01-01

    Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence…

  9. Format Effects in Two Teacher Rating Scales of Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan

    1981-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate the effect of differences in format on the precision of teacher ratings and thus on the reliability and validity of two teacher rating scales of children's hyperactive behavior. Attributes assessed were motor restlssness, inattentiveness, impulsivity, and aggressiveness/emotional stability. (Author/DB)

  10. Self-Control in Children: Development of a Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Wilcox, Lance E.

    1979-01-01

    Referred children were rated as significantly less self-controlled on the self control rating scale (SCRS) than were matched nonreferred children. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures test latencies and behavioral observations. The SCRS appeared to be a reliable and valid index of self-control. (Author)

  11. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  12. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time. PMID:27713925

  13. HEATING RATE SCALING OF TURBULENCE IN THE PROTON KINETIC REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2015-06-10

    Three-dimensional numerical hybrid simulations with particle protons and quasi-neutralizing, fluid electrons are conducted for a freely decaying turbulence. The main results are obtained from a series of runs as a function of the initial total rms fluctuation amplitude. In the turbulent phase and at a corresponding nonlinear time dependent on the amplitude, the scaling of the proton perpendicular heating rate is examined as a function of the spectral value of the electron bulk perpendicular speed integrated in wavenumbers about the inverse thermal proton gyroradius. The perpendicular direction is relative to the background magnetic field. The obtained spectral value is normalized to the proton thermal speed and ranges from 0.06 to 0.16. The scaling of the perpendicular heating rate with this spectral value is fitted with a power law, which has an index of −3.3 ± 0.2. The fit is consistent with the scaling of the total heating rate as a function of total rms amplitude, which has an index of −3.06 ± 0.12. The power-law index is near the turbulent hydrodynamic-like prediction for the energy cascade rate as a function of amplitude. The heating rate, then, obeys a power law with amplitude or spectral value regardless of whether that quantity is evaluated at large scales or at the proton gyroradius scales.

  14. Critical scaling with strain rate in overdamped sheared disordered solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Joel; Salerno, Kenneth; Robbins, Mark

    In the limit of quasistatic shear, disordered solids demonstrate non-equilibrium critical behavior including power-law distributions of avalanches. Using molecular dynamics simulations of 2D and 3D overdamped binary LJ glasses, we explore the critical behavior in the limit of finite strain rate. We use finite-size scaling to find the critical exponents characterizing shear stress, kinetic energy, and measures of temporal and spatial correlations. The shear stress of the system rises as a power β of the strain rate. Larger system size extends this power law to lower rates. This behavior is governed by a power law drop of the dynamic correlation length with increasing shear stress defined by the exponent ν. This finite-size effect also impacts the scaling of the RMS kinetic energy with strain rate as avalanches begin nucleating simultaneously leading to continuous deformation of the solid. As system size increases, avalanches begin overlapping at lower rates. The correlation function of non-affine displacement exhibits novel anisotropic power law scaling with the magnitude of the wave vector. Its strain rate dependence is used to determine the scaling of the dynamic correlation length. Support provided by: DMR-1006805; NSF IGERT-0801471; OCI-0963185; CMMI-0923018.

  15. Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Comella, Cynthia L.; Fox, Susan H.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M.; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R.; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J.; Galpern, Wendy R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27088112

  16. Correlative study of 3 pain rating scales among obstetric patients.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, A O; Olowe, O O

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between pain scores obtained on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) the Box Numerical Scale (BNS) and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) was studied. The subjects were 35 volunteer female patients who had their babies through caesarian section 1-3 days prior to the study. Demographic data and pain scores were collected through a questionnaire, which was available in both English and Yoruba, the two most commonly spoken languages in Ibadan where the study was carried out. Data were analysed using Pearson Product, Moment Correlation Coefficient, and One-way Analysis of Variance. Results indicated that there was no significant difference between the pain scores obtained on the 3 pain rating scales. Significant correlations existed between pain scores obtained on the VAS and VRS (r = 0.48, p = 0.003); VAS and BNS (r = 0.74, P = 0.000); BNS and VRS (r = 0.74, P = 0.000). High educational attainment improved correlation between the scales in this study. It was concluded that the three pain rating scales measure the same construct, and could be used for pain measurement in obstetrically related conditions in this environment.

  17. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  18. The Effects of Adherence to Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Factors Influencing Drug Adherence in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of knee osteoarthritis patients according to drug adherence; and to find out the factors the affecting those outcomes. We analyzed the drug adherence and clinical outcomes in 1,334 primary knee osteoarthritis patients who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for 3 weeks. Clinical outcomes of Pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and EQ-5D were compared at baseline and 3 weeks’ follow-up between the two groups of adherent group and non-adherent group (1,167 vs. 167 patients). Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors affecting the adherence, and the reasons for the non-adherence were asked. The follow-up clinical outcomes of NRS and KOOS symptom, pain and activity of daily life were significantly higher in the adherence group (P = 0.003, P = 0.048, P = 0.005, and P = 0.003, respectively). The adherence was better in the elderly and in the male group (P = 0.042 and P = 0.034, respectively) and the top reason for no strict adherence was “symptom improved” (21.5%) followed by side effects. In this study, the patients with better adherence to NSAIDs showed better outcomes compared to those with poor adherence. This study can contribute to the patient education for the pharmacological treatment in knee OA patients. PMID:27134504

  19. Scaling of geochemical reaction rates via advective solute transport.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A G; Ghanbarian, B; Skinner, T E; Ewing, R P

    2015-07-01

    Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed a theory of non-reactive solute transport based on applying critical path analysis to the cluster statistics of percolation. The fractal structure of the clusters can be used to generate solute distributions in both time and space. Solute velocities calculated from the temporal evolution of that distribution have the same time dependence as reaction-rate scaling in a wide range of field studies and laboratory experiments, covering some 10 decades in time. The present theory thus both explains a wide range of experiments, and also predicts changes in the scaling behavior in individual systems with increasing time and/or length scales. No other theory captures these variations in scaling by invoking a single physical mechanism. Because the successfully predicted chemical reactions include known results for silicate weathering rates, our theory provides a framework for understanding changes in the global carbon cycle, including its effects on extinctions, climate change, soil production, and denudation rates. It further provides a basis for understanding the fundamental time scales of hydrology and shallow geochemistry, as well as the basis of industrial agriculture. PMID:26232976

  20. Life events, coping, and antihypertensive medication adherence among older adults: the cohort study of medication adherence among older adults.

    PubMed

    Holt, Elizabeth W; Muntner, Paul; Joyce, C; Morisky, Donald E; Webber, Larry S; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2012-10-01

    The authors examined the association between life events and antihypertensive medication adherence in older adults and the moderating role of coping. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted by using data (n = 1,817) from the Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults (recruitment conducted from August 2006 through September 2007). Life events occurring in the 12 months preceding the study interview were assessed via the Holmes Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), and coping levels were assessed via an adapted version of the John Henry Active Coping Scale. Low adherence to antihypertensive medication was defined as scores less than 6 on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (known as "MMAS-8"). Of study participants, 13.2% had low adherence, and 27.2% and 5.0% had medium (150-299) and high (≥300) SRRS scores, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios for low adherence associated with medium and high, versus low, SRRS were 1.50 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.02) and 2.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 3.58), respectively. When multivariable models were stratified by coping level, the association between life events and adherence was evident only among participants with low coping levels. PMID:23035146

  1. Heterogeneity of cells may explain allometric scaling of metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    The origin of allometric scaling of metabolic rate is a long-standing question in biology. Several models have been proposed for explaining the origin; however, they have advantages and disadvantages. In particular, previous models only demonstrate either two important observations for the allometric scaling: the variability of scaling exponents and predominance of 3/4-power law. Thus, these models have a dispute over their validity. In this study, we propose a simple geometry model, and show that a hypothesis that total surface area of cells determines metabolic rate can reproduce these two observations by combining two concepts: the impact of cell sizes on metabolic rate and fractal-like (hierarchical) organization. The proposed model both theoretically and numerically demonstrates the approximately 3/4-power law although several different biological strategies are considered. The model validity is confirmed using empirical data. Furthermore, the model suggests the importance of heterogeneity of cell size for the emergence of the allometric scaling. The proposed model provides intuitive and unique insights into the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology, despite several limitations of the model.

  2. Broadband Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners for Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.; Gross, Amber D.; McReynolds, Brandy M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in…

  3. Child Mania Rating Scale: Development, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Henry, David B.; Devineni, Bhargavi; Carbray, Julie A.; Birmaher, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a reliable and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania, based on DSM-IV symptoms. Method: A 21-item Child Mania Rating Scale-Parent version (CMRS-P) was completed by parents of 150 children (42.3% female) ages 10.3 plus or minus 2.9 years (healthy controls = 50; bipolar disorder = 50;…

  4. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  5. Diagnostic Assessment of Writing: A Comparison of Two Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Alderson (2005) suggests that diagnostic tests should identify strengths and weaknesses in learners' use of language and focus on specific elements rather than global abilities. However, rating scales used in performance assessment have been repeatedly criticized for being imprecise and therefore often resulting in holistic marking by raters…

  6. Construction and Validation of the Play Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1984-01-01

    The Play Rating Scale was developed to observe young children's behaviors in four different areas of play: physical, block, manipulative, and dramatic. In each area, observations focus on frequency, ability, and creativity in communicating ideas; social levels of participation; and leadership capability. A total of 2,400 three-, four- and…

  7. The Influence of Negatively Worded Scale Items on Overall Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ory, John C.; Valois, Robert F.

    Two studies investigate whether the placement and/or wording (either positively or negatively) of diagnostic rating scale items influenced student responses to the global items in the evaluation of a course of instruction. The Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign was used to…

  8. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  9. Mixed Rasch Modeling of the Self-Rating Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Min, Sae-Young

    2007-01-01

    In this study, mixed Rasch modeling was used on the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), a widely used measure of depression, among a non-Western sample of 618 Korean college students. The results revealed three latent classes and confirmed the unidimensionality of the SDS. In addition, there was a significant effect for gender in terms of class…

  10. FAPRS Manual: Manual for the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Follette, William C.

    2008-01-01

    The Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Rating Scale (FAPRS) is behavioral coding system designed to capture those essential client and therapist behaviors that occur during Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP). The FAPRS manual presents the purpose and rules for documenting essential aspects of FAP. The FAPRS codes are exclusive and exhaustive…

  11. The Utility of Clinicians Ratings of Anxiety Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…

  12. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  13. A Comparison of the Counselor Rating Form and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce E.

    1982-01-01

    Compared two measures of perceived counselor expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness: the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) and the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS). Results showed expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness as measured by both instruments are not independent and are components of a single dimension of perceived…

  14. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shi-Min; Peng, Hu; Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2007-10-01

    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  15. Broadband behavior rating scales as screeners for autism?

    PubMed

    Myers, Carl L; Gross, Amber D; McReynolds, Brandy M

    2014-06-01

    In order to start providing important early intervention services to preschoolers and toddlers with autism, those children first need to be identified. Despite the availability of specialized autism assessment instruments, there is a need for effective screeners at the early childhood level. Three broadband behavior rating scales were evaluated in this study to determine if any of the scales on the instruments could adequately distinguish between children with autism from other clinically referred children. There were four scales from two instruments that resulted in mean scores outside the average range and had statistically significant differences. However, the small mean score differences and analyses of sensitivity and specificity suggest those scales have limited practical usefulness when used by clinicians.

  16. A Confirmatory Study of Rating Scale Category Effectiveness for the Coaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for measures of coaching efficacy derived from the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES) by testing the rating scale categorizations suggested in previous research. Previous research provided evidence for the effectiveness of a four-category (4-CAT) structure for high school and collegiate sports coaches; it also…

  17. Characterizing the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Hafenrichter, Everett Shingo; Pahl, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser diode ignition experiments were conducted in an effort to characterize the effects of scale and heating rate on micro-scale explosive ignition criteria. Over forty experiments were conducted with various laser power densities and laser spot sizes. In addition, relatively simple analytical and numerical calculations were performed to assist with interpretation of the experimental data and characterization of the explosive ignition criteria.

  18. Ten-Year Review of Rating Scales, VII: Scales Assessing Functional Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Nancy C.; Collett, Brent R.; Myers, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This is the seventh in a series of 10-year reviews of rating scales. Here the authors present scales measuring functional impairment, a sequela of mental illness. The measurement of functional impairment has assumed importance with the recognition that symptom resolution does not necessarily correlate with functional improvement.…

  19. Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Luiz G. A.; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Mendes, Renio S.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

  20. Polymer reversal rate calculated via locally scaled diffusion map.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwei; Rohrdanz, Mary A; Maggioni, Mauro; Clementi, Cecilia

    2011-04-14

    A recent study on the dynamics of polymer reversal inside a nanopore by Huang and Makarov [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 114903 (2008)] demonstrated that the reaction rate cannot be reproduced by projecting the dynamics onto a single empirical reaction coordinate, a result suggesting the dynamics of this system cannot be correctly described by using a single collective coordinate. To further investigate this possibility we have applied our recently developed multiscale framework, locally scaled diffusion map (LSDMap), to obtain collective reaction coordinates for this system. Using a single diffusion coordinate, we obtain a reversal rate via Kramers expression that is in good agreement with the exact rate obtained from the simulations. Our mathematically rigorous approach accounts for the local heterogeneity of molecular configuration space in constructing a diffusion map, from which collective coordinates emerge. We believe this approach can be applied in general to characterize complex macromolecular dynamics by providing an accurate definition of the collective coordinates associated with processes at different time scales.

  1. Variation of foraging rate and wing loading, but not resting metabolic rate scaling, of insect pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terblanche, John S.; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Morphological, physiological and behavioural variation with body size (i.e. scaling) may affect costs of living in a particular environment for insects and, ultimately, pollination or foraging success. However, few studies have directly assessed the scaling of these traits at the species level. Using two similar-sized pollinator species (the hawkmoth Macroglossum trochilus and the fly Moegistorhynchus longirostrus), we compare intraspecific scaling relationships of resting metabolic rate (RMR), foraging rate (FR) and wing loading (WL) to address this paucity of data. Scaling of RMR was similar for both taxa although the intercepts for the relationships differed. However, these two species showed variation in WL scaling relationships and fundamentally different FR scaling. For M. longirostrus, FR scaling was positive but non-significantly related to body mass while for M. trochilus FR scaling was negative. This suggests that variation in FR and WL, but not RMR scaling, among these flies and hawkmoths may impose significant energetic costs which could affect animal-plant interactions in the wild.

  2. Cross Informant Agreement of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale - 2nd Edition (BERS-2) Parent and Youth Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synhorst, Lori L.; Buckley, Jacquelyn A.; Reid, Robert; Epstein, Michael E.; Ryser, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are important tools in the process of assessing students' emotional and behavioral needs. Best practices in behavioral assessment dictate that the perspectives of multiple informants (e.g., teacher, parent, youth) should be considered. Overall, agreement between multiple informants is modest at best and is especially low…

  3. Scaling ablation rates for picosecond lasers using burst micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, Ralf; Haloui, Hatim; Seifert, Albert; Weis, Alexander; Nebel, Achim

    2010-02-01

    High-precision micromachining with picosecond lasers became an established process. Power scaling led to industrial lasers, generating average power levels well above 50 W for applications like structuring turbine blades, micro moulds, and solar cells. In this paper we report, how a smart distribution of energy into groups of pulses can significantly improve ablation rates for some materials, also providing a better surface quality. Machining micro moulds in stainless steel, a net ablation rate of ~1 mm3/min is routinely achieved, e.g. using pulse energy of 200 μJ at a repetition rate of 200 kHz. This is industrial standard, and demonstrates an improvement by two orders of magnitude over the recent years. When the energy was distributed to a burst of 10 pulses (25 μJ), repeated with 200 kHz, the ablation rate of stainless steel was 5 times higher with the same 50 W average power. Bursts of 10 pulses repeated with 1 MHz (5 μJ) even resulted in an ablation rate as high as 12 mm3/min. In addition, optimized pulse delays achieved a reduction of the surface roughness by one order of magnitude, providing Ra values as low as 200 nm. Similar results were performed machining silicon, scaling the ablation rate from 1.2 mm3/min (1 pulse, 250 μJ, 200 kHz) to 15 mm3/min (6 pulses, 8 μJ, 1 MHz). Burst machining of ceramics, copper and glass did not change ablation rates, only improved surface quality. For glass machining, we achieved record-high ablation rates of >50 mm3/min, using a new state-of-the-art laser which could generate >70 W of average power and repetition rates as high as 2 MHz.

  4. Scale-aware saliency for application to frame rate upconversion.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Natan; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-04-01

    Our understanding of human visual perception has been paramount in the development of tools for digital video processing. For this reason, saliency detection, i.e., the determination of visual importance in a scene, has come to the forefront in recent literature. In the proposed work, a new method for scale-aware saliency detection is introduced. Scale determination is afforded through a scale-space model utilizing color and texture cues. Scale information is fed back to a discriminant saliency engine by automatically tuning center-surround parameters through a soft weighting. Excellent results are demonstrated for the proposed method through its performance against a database of measured human fixations. Further evidence of the proposed algorithm's performance is demonstrated through an application to frame rate upconversion. The ability of the algorithm to detect salient objects at multiple scales allows for class-leading performance both objectively, in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio/structural similarity index, and subjectively. Finally, the need for operator tuning of saliency parameters is dramatically reduced by the inclusion of scale information. The proposed method is well suited for any application requiring automatic saliency determination for images or video. PMID:22167626

  5. Recent developments in cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of nuclide production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.

  6. Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklu, T.; Desalegn, F.; Tesfay, M.; Klinkenberg, E.; Mulugeta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Mekelle Zone, Tigray Region, in Ethiopia. Objective: To investigate adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Design: A cross-sectional study in health facilities providing anti-tuberculosis treatment was conducted. Adherence was measured in three ways: through self-reported missed doses, by visual analogue scale whereby patients rate their own adherence and by record review. A patient was considered to be adherent if 90% or more of the prescribed medication was taken. Result: Of 278 TB patients included, 101 were in the intensive and 177 in the continuation phase. Respectively 67 (24.1%), 130 (46.8%) and 80 (28.8%) patients had smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB. Self-report of missed doses and record review indicated adherence of respectively 273 (97.3%) and 271 (97.5%) patients. By visual analogue scale, 250 (91.6%) patients rated themselves as adherent. History of drug side effects (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.08–0.77) and knowledge about TB prevention (aOR 0.19, 95%CI 0.05–0.8) were independently associated with being adherent in this setting. Conclusion: Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was high in our study. Adherence support should be given to the poor, the elderly, patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, alcohol abusers and smokers. Health education on TB prevention should be given to all TB patients regularly. PMID:26478511

  7. Characterizing heart rate variability by scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Tung, Wen-wen

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies on heart rate variability (HRV) using chaos theory, fractal scaling analysis, and many other methods, while fruitful in many aspects, have produced much confusion in the literature. Especially the issue of whether normal HRV is chaotic or stochastic remains highly controversial. Here, we employ a new multiscale complexity measure, the scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE), to characterize HRV. SDLE has been shown to readily characterize major models of complex time series including deterministic chaos, noisy chaos, stochastic oscillations, random 1/f processes, random Levy processes, and complex time series with multiple scaling behaviors. Here we use SDLE to characterize the relative importance of nonlinear, chaotic, and stochastic dynamics in HRV of healthy, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation subjects. We show that while HRV data of all these three types are mostly stochastic, the stochasticity is different among the three groups.

  8. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS): status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    The Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease prepared a critique of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Strengths of the UPDRS include its wide utilization, its application across the clinical spectrum of PD, its nearly comprehensive coverage of motor symptoms, and its clinimetric properties, including reliability and validity. Weaknesses include several ambiguities in the written text, inadequate instructions for raters, some metric flaws, and the absence of screening questions on several important non-motor aspects of PD. The Task Force recommends that the MDS sponsor the development of a new version of the UPDRS and encourage efforts to establish its clinimetric properties, especially addressing the need to define a Minimal Clinically Relevant Difference and a Minimal Clinically Relevant Incremental Difference, as well as testing its correlation with the current UPDRS. If developed, the new scale should be culturally unbiased and be tested in different racial, gender, and age-groups. Future goals should include the definition of UPDRS scores with confidence intervals that correlate with clinically pertinent designations, "minimal," "mild," "moderate," and "severe" PD. Whereas the presence of non-motor components of PD can be identified with screening questions, a new version of the UPDRS should include an official appendix that includes other, more detailed, and optionally used scales to determine severity of these impairments. PMID:12815652

  9. Exercise and Motor Training in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review of Participant Characteristics, Intervention Delivery, Retention Rates, Adherence, and Adverse Events in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Natalie E.; Sherrington, Catherine; Suriyarachchi, Gayanthi D.; Paul, Serene S.; Song, Jooeun; Canning, Colleen G.

    2012-01-01

    There is research evidence that exercise and motor training are beneficial for people with Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinicians seek to implement optimal programs. This paper summarizes important factors about the nature and reporting of randomized controlled trials of exercise and/or motor training for people with PD which are likely to influence the translation of research into clinical practice. Searches identified 53 relevant trials with 90 interventions conducted for an average duration of 8.3 (SD 4.2) weeks. Most interventions were fully supervised (74%) and conducted at a facility (79%). Retention rates were high with 69% of interventions retaining ≥85% of their participants; however adherence was infrequently reported, and 72% of trials did not report adverse events. Overall, the labor-intensive nature of most interventions tested in these trials and the sparse reporting of adherence and adverse events are likely to pose difficulties for therapists attempting to balance benefits and costs when selecting protocols that translate to sustainable clinical practice for people with PD. PMID:22191077

  10. Exercise and motor training in people with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review of participant characteristics, intervention delivery, retention rates, adherence, and adverse events in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Allen, Natalie E; Sherrington, Catherine; Suriyarachchi, Gayanthi D; Paul, Serene S; Song, Jooeun; Canning, Colleen G

    2012-01-01

    There is research evidence that exercise and motor training are beneficial for people with Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinicians seek to implement optimal programs. This paper summarizes important factors about the nature and reporting of randomized controlled trials of exercise and/or motor training for people with PD which are likely to influence the translation of research into clinical practice. Searches identified 53 relevant trials with 90 interventions conducted for an average duration of 8.3 (SD 4.2) weeks. Most interventions were fully supervised (74%) and conducted at a facility (79%). Retention rates were high with 69% of interventions retaining ≥85% of their participants; however adherence was infrequently reported, and 72% of trials did not report adverse events. Overall, the labor-intensive nature of most interventions tested in these trials and the sparse reporting of adherence and adverse events are likely to pose difficulties for therapists attempting to balance benefits and costs when selecting protocols that translate to sustainable clinical practice for people with PD.

  11. Adherence to cardiovascular medications in the South Asian population: A systematic review of current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Akeroyd, Julia M; Chan, Winston J; Kamal, Ayeesha K; Palaniappan, Latha; Virani, Salim S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review methods of assessing adherence and strategies to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease (CVD) medications, among South Asian CVD patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of English language studies that examined CVD medication adherence in South Asian populations from 1966 to April 1, 2015 in SCOPUS and PubMed. Working in duplicate, we identified 61 studies. After exclusions, 26 studies were selected for full text review. Of these, 17 studies were included in the final review. We abstracted data on several factors including study design, study population, method of assessing adherence and adherence rate. RESULTS: These studies were conducted in India (n = 11), Pakistan (n = 3), Bangladesh (n = 1), Nepal (n = 1) and Sri Lanka (n = 1). Adherence rates ranged from 32%-95% across studies. Of the 17 total publications included, 10 focused on assessing adherence to CVD medications and 7 focused on assessing the impact of interventions on medication adherence. The validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was used as the primary method of assessing adherence in five studies. Three studies used validated questionnaires similar to the MMAS, and one study utilized Medication Event Monitoring System caps, with the remainder of the studies utilizing pill count and self-report measures. As expected, studies using non-validated self-report measures described higher rates of adherence than studies using validated scale measurements and pill count. The included intervention studies examined the use of polypill therapy, provider education and patient counseling to improve medication adherence. CONCLUSION: The overall medication adherence rates were low in the region, which suggest a growing need for future interventions to improve adherence. PMID:26730300

  12. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  13. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  14. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  15. Rating scale for psychogenic movement disorders: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Vanessa K; Cubo, Esther; Comella, Cynthia L; Goetz, Christopher G; Leurgans, Sue

    2005-12-01

    We developed and tested the clinimetric properties of a scale for psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs). PMDs are disabling but lack any generally accepted treatment strategies. To develop treatments, means of assessing disease severity must be provided. No scale to assess PMDs existed. The PMD scale developed here rates 10 phenomena (rest tremor, action tremor, dystonia, chorea, bradykinesia, myoclonus, tics, athetosis, ballism, cerebellar incoordination), 2 functions (gait, speech), and 14 body regions. To study interrater agreement, three movement disorder neurologists independently rated 88 videotapes of PMD patients. Data analysis was performed using a kappa coefficient of agreement, Kendall's coefficient of concordance, Spearman correlations, and intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity and scale responsiveness were tested as well. All phenomena and speech and gait dysfunction occurred in the patient sample. A wide range of affected body regions, severity, and incapacitation was captured. Ratings showed excellent interrater reliability for presence or absence of each phenomenon (kappa range, 0.63 to 0.86). Kendall's concordance coefficients for phenomenology, function, and total PMD scores were 0.92, 0.93, and 0.91. Spearman correlations between raters ranged from 0.86 to 0.90. The scale was responsive to changes that occurred as a result of a neuropsychiatric intervention. The PMD scale adequately captures the complex movements of PMDs and can be used to assess PMDs and test the efficacy of intervention strategies.

  16. Decadal to Millennial scale erosion rates in the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andermann, C.; Bonnet, S.; Gloaguen, R.; Crave, A.; Merchel, S.; Braucher, R.; Bourles, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    On a sub-millennial time scale the spatial distribution of erosion is controlled to first order by tectonics, relief, and possibly precipitation, and secondly by vegetation, lithology, temperature and human activity. The Himalayas form a very distinct orographic barrier with a pronounced rainfall gradient from the South to the North and have a very rugged terrain, causing highly dynamic surface processes and fast erosion rates. Thus, the Himalayas provide an ideal site of investigation to study erosion and constrain its controlling factors. In this contribution we present an integrated comparison of mean catchment erosion rates, calculated from in-situ produced 10Be cosmogenic isotope concentration in river sands (representative for millennial time scales) and suspended sediment measurements (integrating the annual to decadal time spans). We discuss erosion rates and patterns in the context of precipitation-landscape features of the studied catchments. The samples cover all major rivers, and several minor tributaries of the Narayani watershed (30,000 \\ km2) in central Nepal. They represent all lithologies, topographic units and climate regimes across the Himalayan range. The erosion rates, both from cosmogenic nuclide analysis and suspended sediment measurements, range from 0.1 to 4 mm/yr. These agree well between the two methods and also with already published data for the major outlet stations at the Himalayan front. However, in the Middle and High Himalayas the cosmogenic erosion rates are significantly higher than those from suspended sediment measurements. While on the short term (intra-annual) a clear relation between precipitation and erosion can be observed, the cosmogenic erosion rates show no clear dependency with the basin wide precipitation pattern. Furthermore, no relation could be observed with the dominant lithological units and the degree of glaciation. Our observations confirm the overall established relationship between erosion rates, relief and

  17. Psychosocial Predictors of Non-Adherence and Treatment Failure in a Large Scale Multi-National Trial of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV: Data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Biello, Katie B.; Smeaton, Laura; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Walawander, Ann; Lama, Javier R.; Rana, Aadia; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Kayoyo, Virginia M.; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Joglekar, Anjali; Celentano, David; Martinez, Ana; Remmert, Jocelyn E.; Nair, Aspara; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Background PEARLS, a large scale trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV (n = 1,571, 9 countries, 4 continents), found that a once-daily protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (ATV+DDI+FTC), but not a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI/NRTI) regimen (EFV+FTC/TDF), had inferior efficacy compared to a standard of care twice-daily NNRTI/NRTI regimen (EFV+3TC/ZDV). The present study examined non-adherence in PEARLS. Methods Outcomes: non-adherence assessed by pill count and by self-report, and time to treatment failure. Longitudinal predictors: regimen, quality of life (general health perceptions  =  QOL-health, mental health  =  QOL-mental health), social support, substance use, binge drinking, and sexual behaviors. “Life-Steps” adherence counseling was provided. Results In both pill-count and self-report multivariable models, both once-a-day regimens had lower levels of non-adherence than the twice-a-day standard of care regimen; although these associations attenuated with time in the self-report model. In both multivariable models, hard-drug use was associated with non-adherence, living in Africa and better QOL-health were associated with less non-adherence. According to pill-count, unprotected sex was associated with non-adherence. According to self-report, soft-drug use was associated with non-adherence and living in Asia was associated with less non-adherence. Both pill-count (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09, p<.01) and self-report (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.13, p<.01) non-adherence were significant predictors of treatment failure over 72 weeks. In multivariable models (including pill-count or self-report nonadherence), worse QOL-health, age group (younger), and region were also significant predictors of treatment failure. Conclusion In the context of a large, multi-national, multi-continent, clinical trial there were variations in adherence over time, with more

  18. Escape Rates in a Stochastic Environment with Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgoston, Eric; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a stochastic environment with two time scales and outline a general theory that compares two methods to reduce the dimension of the original system. The first method involves the computation of the underlying deterministic center manifold followed by a naive replacement of the stochastic term. The second method allows one to more accurately describe the stochastic effects and involves the derivation of a normal form coordinate transform that is used to find the stochastic center manifold. The results of both methods are used along with the path integral formalism of large fluctuation theory to predict the escape rate from one basin of attraction to another. The general theory is applied to the example of a surface flow described by a generic, singularly perturbed, damped, nonlinear oscillator with additive, Gaussian noise. We show how both nonlinear reduction methods compare in escape rate scaling. Additionally, the center manifolds are shown to predict high prehistory probability regions of escape. The theoretical results are confirmed using numerical computation of the mean escape time and escape prehistory, and we briefly discuss the extension of the theory to stochastic control.

  19. Concordance of adherence measurement using self-reported adherence questionnaires and medication monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan; Koleva, Yordanka; Fonseca, Vivian; Kalsekar, Anupama; Pawaskar, Manjiri

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review was to identify and examine the literature on the association between medication adherence self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and medication monitoring devices. The primary literature search was performed for 1980-2009 using PubMed, PubMed In Process and Non-Indexed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Ovid HealthStar, EMBASE (Elsevier) and Cochrane Databases and using the following search terms: 'patient compliance', 'medication adherence', 'treatment compliance', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'drugs', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance' and 'medications'. We identified studies that included SRQs and electronic monitoring devices to measure adherence and focused on the SRQs that were found to be moderately to highly correlated with the monitoring devices. Of the 1679 citations found via the primary search, 41 full-text articles were reviewed for correlation between monitoring devices and SRQs. A majority (68%) of articles reported high (27%), moderate (29%) or significant (12%) correlation between monitoring devices (37 using Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS®] and four using other devices) and SRQs (11 identified and numerous other unnamed SRQs). The most commonly used SRQs were the Adult/Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG/PACTG; 24.4%, 10/41) followed by the 4-item Morisky (9.8%, 4/41), Brief Medication Questionnaire (9.8%, 4/41) and visual analogue scale (VAS; 7.3%, 3/41). Although study designs differed across the articles, SRQs appeared to report a higher rate of medication adherence (+14.9%) than monitoring devices. In conclusion, several medication adherence SRQs were validated using electronic monitoring devices. A majority of them showed high or moderate correlation with medication adherence measured using monitoring devices, and could be considered for measuring patient

  20. Intent-to-adhere and adherence to malaria prevention recommendations in two travel clinics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Irit; Grefat, Rami; Ephros, Moshe; Rishpon, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    Malaria infects 30,000 travelers annually worldwide. At greatest risk are those who travel for long duration. Prevention of malaria includes chemoprophylaxis. This prospective study on 121 travelers who visited two travel clinics shows that adherence to prophylactic treatment was low, especially in long duration trips, and that adherence rate could be predicted by the much more available intent-to-adhere rate.

  1. Deriving health state utilities for the numerical pain rating scale

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of patient reported outcome measures within cost-effectiveness analysis has become commonplace. However, specific measures are required that produce values, referred to as 'utilities', that are capable of generating quality adjusted life years. One such measure - the EQ-5D - has come under criticism due to the inherent limitations of its three-level response scales. In evaluations of chronic pain, the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) which has eleven levels is routinely used which has a greater measurement range, but which can not be used in cost-effetiveness analyses. This study derived utility values for a series of EQ-5D health states that replace the pain dimensions with the NPRS, thereby allowing a potentially greater range of pain intensities to be captured and included in economic analyses. Methods Interviews were undertaken with 100 member of the general population. Health state valuations were elicited using the time trade-off approach with a ten year time horizon. Additionally, respondents were asked where the EQ-5D response scale descriptors of moderate and extreme pain lay on the 11-point NPRS scale. Results 625 valuations were undertaken across the study sample with the crude mean health state utilities showing a negative non-linear relationship with respect to increasing pain intensity. Relative to a NPRS of zero (NPRS0), the successive pain levels (NPRS1-10) had mean decrements in utility of 0.034, 0.043, 0.061, 0.121, 0.144, 0.252, 0.404, 0.575, 0.771 and 0.793, respectively. When respondents were asked to mark on the NPRS scale the EQ-5D pain descriptors of moderate and extreme pain, the median responses were '4' and '8', respectively. Conclusions These results demonstrate the potential floor effect of the EQ-5D with respect to pain and provide estimates of health reduction associated with pain intensity described by the NPRS. These estimates are in excess of the decrements produced by an application of the EQ-5D scoring tariff

  2. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Davidson, Ana D; Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2011-02-22

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue.

  3. Factor analysis of the Iowa family interaction rating scales.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N; Trail, Thomas E; Karney, Benjamin R

    2011-12-01

    Observational coding systems are uniquely suited for investigating interactional processes in couples and families, but their validity in diverse populations is unknown. We addressed this issue by applying factor analysis to interactional data collected from couples in low-income neighborhoods and coded with the widely used Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS). Our sample of 414 low-income, ethnically diverse newlywed couples each provided 24-min samples of problem-solving and social support behavior. Interrater reliabilities were strong, and the resultant factors--reflecting positive, negative, and effective communication--were very similar to those obtained with White middle-class samples. Additionally, couples were more negative, less positive, and less effective in problem-solving conversations than in socially supportive conversations, further supporting the validity of the IFIRS in this population. We conclude by discussing the strengths and shortcomings of the IFIRS when used in a low-income, ethnically diverse population.

  4. Universal scaling of production rates across mammalian lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Davidson, Ana D.; Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Over many millions of years of independent evolution, placental, marsupial and monotreme mammals have diverged conspicuously in physiology, life history and reproductive ecology. The differences in life histories are particularly striking. Compared with placentals, marsupials exhibit shorter pregnancy, smaller size of offspring at birth and longer period of lactation in the pouch. Monotremes also exhibit short pregnancy, but incubate embryos in eggs, followed by a long period of post-hatching lactation. Using a large sample of mammalian species, we show that, remarkably, despite their very different life histories, the scaling of production rates is statistically indistinguishable across mammalian lineages. Apparently all mammals are subject to the same fundamental metabolic constraints on productivity, because they share similar body designs, vascular systems and costs of producing new tissue. PMID:20798111

  5. Investigation of oxygen transfer rates in full scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cornel, P; Wagner, M; Krause, S

    2003-01-01

    In membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment the secondary clarifier is replaced by a membrane filtration. The advantage of this process is a complete removal of solids from the effluent and a small footprint due to possible high biomass concentrations (MLSS). As oxygen supply counts for more than 70% of total energy cost in municipal WWTPs the design of the aeration system is vital for efficient operation. In this respect the alpha-value is an important influencing factor. The alpha-value depends on the MLSS-concentration as shown in various publications and confirmed by own measurements in two full scale municipal MBRs with MLSS ranging from 7 and 17 kg/m3. Furthermore it must be taken into account that alpha-values are not static values; they vary with loading rates, surfactant concentrations, air flow rates, MLSS concentrations, etc. The average alpha-value at typical 12 kg/m3 MLSS for municipal MBRs is about 0.6 +/- 0.1. As submerged configured MBRs are equipped with an additional coarse bubble "crossflow" aeration system for fouling control, supplementary energy is consumed. Therefore MBRs need more energy compared to conventional treatment plants. Measurements of both aeration systems show that the fine bubble aeration system is more efficient by a factor of three concerning oxygen supply compared to the coarse bubble system.

  6. Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…

  7. Improving medication adherence in migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Rains, Jeanetta A; Nicholson, Robert A; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    Medication adherence is integral to successful treatment of migraine and other headache. The existing literature examining medication adherence in migraine is small, and the methodologies used to assess adherence are limited. However, these studies broadly suggest poor adherence to both acute and preventive migraine medications, with studies using more objective monitoring reporting lower adherence rates. Methods for improving medication adherence are described, including organizational strategies, provider-monitoring and self-monitoring of adherence, regimen strategies, patient education, self-management skills training (e.g., stimulus control, behavioral contracts), and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques. The article concludes by discussing the future of research regarding adherence to medications for migraine and other headaches.

  8. Large-scale dimension densities for heart rate variability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Corinna; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    In this work, we reanalyze the heart rate variability (HRV) data from the 2002 Computers in Cardiology (CiC) Challenge using the concept of large-scale dimension densities and additionally apply this technique to data of healthy persons and of patients with cardiac diseases. The large-scale dimension density (LASDID) is estimated from the time series using a normalized Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, which leads to a suitable correction of systematic errors produced by boundary effects in the rather large scales of a system. This way, it is possible to analyze rather short, nonstationary, and unfiltered data, such as HRV. Moreover, this method allows us to analyze short parts of the data and to look for differences between day and night. The circadian changes in the dimension density enable us to distinguish almost completely between real data and computer-generated data from the CiC 2002 challenge using only one parameter. In the second part we analyzed the data of 15 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), 15 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 15 elderly healthy subjects (EH), as well as 18 young and healthy persons (YH). With our method we are able to separate completely the AF (ρlsμ=0.97±0.02) group from the others and, especially during daytime, the CHF patients show significant differences from the young and elderly healthy volunteers (CHF, 0.65±0.13 ; EH, 0.54±0.05 ; YH, 0.57±0.05 ; p<0.05 for both comparisons). Moreover, for the CHF patients we find no circadian changes in ρlsμ (day, 0.65±0.13 ; night, 0.66±0.12 ; n.s.) in contrast to healthy controls (day, 0.54±0.05 ; night, 0.61±0.05 ; p=0.002 ). Correlation analysis showed no statistical significant relation between standard HRV and circadian LASDID, demonstrating a possibly independent application of our method for clinical risk stratification.

  9. High rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Maciej; White, Christobelle; Patel, Prashanth; Masca, Nicholas; Damani, Ravi; Hepworth, Joanne; Samani, Nilesh J; Gupta, Pankaj; Madira, Webster; Stanley, Adrian; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Non-adherence to therapy is an important cause of suboptimal blood pressure control but few practical tools exist to accurately and routinely detect it. We used a simple urine-based assay to evaluate the prevalence of antihypertensive treatment non-adherence and its impact on blood pressure in a specialist hypertension centre. Methods 208 hypertensive patients (125 new referrals, 66 follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control and 17 renal denervation referrals) underwent assessment of antihypertensive drug intake using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis at the time of clinical appointment. A total of 40 most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications (or their metabolites) were screened for in spot urine samples. Results Overall, 25% of patients were totally or partially non-adherent to antihypertensive treatment (total non-adherence 10.1%, partial non-adherence 14.9%). The highest prevalence of partial and total non-adherence was among follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control (28.8%) and those referred for consideration of renal denervation (23.5%), respectively. There was a linear relationship between blood pressure and the numerical difference in detected/prescribed antihypertensive medications—every unit increase in this difference was associated with 3.0 (1.1) mm Hg, 3.1 (0.7) mm Hg and 1.9 (0.7) mm Hg increase in adjusted clinic systolic blood pressure, clinic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and 24 h mean daytime DBP (p=0.0051, p=8.62×10−6, p=0.0057), respectively. Conclusions Non-adherence to blood pressure lowering therapy is common, particularly in patients with suboptimal blood pressure control and those referred for renal denervation. HP LC-MS/MS urine analysis could be used to exclude non-adherence and better stratify further investigations and intervention. PMID:24694797

  10. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  11. Does adherence therapy improve medication adherence among patients with schizophrenia? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Anna; Kozel, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    Non-adherence to medication is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Adherence therapy aims to improve medication adherence of these patients by applying techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy, psycho-education, and motivational interviewing. Even though adherence therapy is frequently discussed and researched, its effectiveness is still uncertain. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of adherence therapy on the medication adherence of patients with schizophrenia. To this end, six electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized, controlled trials on adherence therapy from January 2002 to March 2013. Four trials met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into the review. The findings suggest that adherence therapy does not improve patients' medication adherence in comparison to treatment as usual or a control intervention. However, all the studies reviewed showed high-adherence ratings at baseline. Thus, further well-designed studies that target adherence therapy to patients who are non-adherent to their medication are needed for a more profound understanding of its effectiveness. In addition, if adherence therapy is aimed not only at improving medication adherence, but also to reach an agreement whereby the patient's decision not to take his medication is accepted, the shared decision-making process needs to be assessed as well.

  12. Application of Psychometric Theory to the Measurement of Voice Quality Using Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Sapienza, Christine M.; Nandur, Vuday

    2005-01-01

    Rating scales are commonly used to study voice quality. However, recent research has demonstrated that perceptual measures of voice quality obtained using rating scales suffer from poor interjudge agreement and reliability, especially in the midrange of the scale. These findings, along with those obtained using multidimensional scaling (MDS), have…

  13. Rating Scale Items: A Brief Review of Nomenclature, Components, and Formatting to Inform the Development of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Boice, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Ratings scales are a common component of many multisource, multimethod frameworks for socioemotional and behavior assessment of children. There is a modest literature base to support the use of attitudinal, behavioral, and personality rating scales. Much of that historic literature focuses on the characteristics and interpretations of specific…

  14. Psychometric Properties of ADHD Rating Scales among Children with Mental Retardation I: Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael L.; Fee, Virginia E.; Netterville, Amanda K.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scales in children with mental retardation was assessed. Parents, teachers, and teaching assistants completed ADHD rating scales on 48 children aged 5-12 diagnosed with mental retardation. Measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners Rating Scales, the…

  15. Rater Experience, Rating Scale Length, and Judgments of L2 Pronunciation: Revisiting Research Conventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia; Thomson, Ron I.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the effects of rating scale length and rater experience on listeners' judgments of second-language (L2) speech. Twenty experienced and 20 novice raters, who were randomly assigned to 5-point or 9-point rating scale conditions, judged speech samples of 38 newcomers to Canada on numerical rating scales for…

  16. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  17. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distribution of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  18. Scaling and universality in heart rate variability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Ch; Rosenblum, M. G.; Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, J. E.; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    We find that a universal homogeneous scaling form describes the distributions of cardiac variations for a group of healthy subjects, which is stable over a wide range of time scales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with a common cardiopulmonary instability associated with sleep apnea. Subtle differences in the distributions for the day- and night-phase dynamics for healthy subjects are detected.

  19. The word-graphic rating scale as a measure of children's and adolescents' pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Tesler, M D; Savedra, M C; Holzemer, W L; Wilkie, D J; Ward, J A; Paul, S M

    1991-10-01

    A program of studies was designed to select and test a pain intensity scale for inclusion in a multidimensional pain assessment tool for children and adolescents. The focus was on determining each scale's validity, reliability, ease of use, preference, and the lack of age, gender, and ethnic biases. Five pain scales were evaluated in four separate studies: a word-graphic rating scale, a visual analogue scale, a graded-graphic rating scale, a magnitude estimation scale (0 to 10), and a color scale. Subjects (N = 1,223) were 8 to 17 years of age and, in three of the studies, were hospitalized and judged to be in pain. In Study 1, well children used the scales to assess pain in an analogue situation selecting the color scale easiest to use and best liked. Convergent validity for the five scales was supported. In Study 2, hospitalized children, who were experiencing pain, overwhelmingly selected the word-graphic rating scale as their choice. A pilot version of a multidimensional pain assessment tool incorporating the word-graphic rating scale was tested in Study 3 using a repeated measures design. The scale demonstrated sensitivity to changes in postoperative pain intensity over time. In Study 4, convergent validity of the five scales and test-retest reliability of the word-graphic rating scale were supported. The series of four studies provides strong evidence to support use of the word-graphic rating scale to measure pain intensity in pediatric populations.

  20. Evaluation of adherence to oral antiviral hepatitis B treatment using structured questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Leesa; Selinger, Christian P; Lee, Alice Unah

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess adherence rates to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and determine factors associated with adherence. METHODS: The questionnaire study was conducted in the liver clinics at Concord Repatriation General Hospital. All patients who were currently taking one or more NUCs were asked to complete a structured, self-administered 32-item questionnaire. Adherence was measured using visual analogue scales. The patient’s treating clinician was also asked to assess their patient’s adherence via a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients completed the questionnaire. Sixty six percent of the patients (n = 49) reported optimal adherence whilst 25 (33.8%) graded their adherence to NUCs as suboptimal. Thirty four (43%) patients reported to have omitted taking their NUCs sometime in the past. Recent non-adherence was uncommon. Amongst the patients who reported skipping medications, the most common reason cited was ”forgetfulness“ (n = 27, 56.25%). Other common reasons included: ran out of medications (n = 5, 10.42%), being too busy (n = 4, 8.33%) and due to a change in daily routine (n = 5, 10.42%). Patients who reported low adherence to other prescription pills were also more likely to miss taking NUCs (P = 0.04). Patients who were under the care of a language-discordant clinician were also more likely to report suboptimal adherence to NUCs (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Adherence rates were much less than that expected by the physician and has potential adverse affect on long term outcome. Communication and education appear central and strategies need to be implemented to improve ongoing adherence. PMID:22400085

  1. Patient Characteristics and Variability in Adherence and Competence in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, James F.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E.; Bullis, Jacqueline; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott; Barlow, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Although associations with outcome have been inconsistent, therapist adherence and competence continues to garner attention, particularly within the context of increasing interest in the dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of evidence-based treatments. To date, research on therapist adherence and competence has focused on average levels across therapists. With a few exceptions, research has failed to address multiple sources of variability in adherence and competence, identify important factors that might account for variability, or take these sources of variability into account when examining associations with symptom change. Objective (a) statistically demonstrate between- and within-therapist variability in adherence and competence ratings and examine patient characteristics as predictors of this variability and (b) examine the relationship between adherence/competence and symptom change. Method Randomly selected audiotaped sessions from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder were rated for therapist adherence and competence. Patients completed a self-report measure of panic symptom severity prior to each session and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Personality Disorder Scale prior to the start of treatment. Results Significant between- and within-therapist variability in adherence and competence were observed. Adherence and competence deteriorated significantly over the course of treatment. Higher patient interpersonal aggression was associated with decrements in both adherence and competence. Neither adherence nor competence predicted subsequent panic severity. Conclusions Variability and “drift” in adherence and competence can be observed in controlled trials. Training and implementation efforts should involve continued consultation over multiple cases in order to account for relevant patient factors and promote sustainability across sessions and patients. PMID:23339537

  2. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  3. Modeling relative frost weathering rates at geomorphic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Alan W.; Marshall, Jill A.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2016-11-01

    Frost damage is a powerful agent of geomorphic change. Cracks can grow when the ice pressure in pores reaches a threshold that depends on matrix properties and crack geometry. Mineral surfaces that are preferentially wetted by liquid water rather than ice are coated by premelted liquid at a pressure that is lower than the ice pressure. Because this pressure difference increases as the temperature cools, when the ice pressure is effectively pinned at the cracking threshold, temperature gradients induce gradients in liquid pressure that draw water towards colder temperatures. Porosity increases and frost damage accumulates in regions where water supplies crack growth. To apply this understanding over the large spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to evolving landscapes, we develop a simple model that tracks porosity changes. Our central assumption is that frost damage is correlated with porosity increases under conditions where frost cracking takes place. Accordingly, we account for the permeability reductions with decreased temperature that accompany ice growth along porous pathways and derive general expressions for the porosity change through time at particular depths, as well as the total porosity increase through all depths beneath a point at the ground surface over the time during which cracking occurs each year. To illustrate the resulting patterns of frost weathering, we consider a general case in which the permeability has a power law dependence on temperature and the annual surface-temperature variation is sinusoidal. We find that the degree of frost damage generally decreases with depth, except at localized depths where damage is elevated because the rock spends longer times near the threshold for cracking, leading to enhanced water supply in comparison with neighboring regions. The magnitude of the net expansion that results from porosity changes at all depths beneath the ground surface is increased for seasonal thermal cycles with larger

  4. The Brief Alcoholism Rating Scale: A New Test for Diagnosing

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, K. R.; Smith, Selwyn M.; Bulmer, D. A.; Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new scale, comprising 100 criteria based on medical history, physical examination and routine laboratory data, independent of a drinking history, can help physicians in the detection, diagnosis and early treatment of alcoholism. The scale also permits objective classification of alcoholism into mild, moderate and severe categories and overcomes the patient's denial—a major obstacle to early diagnosis. Results suggest that the instrument is accurate: 94% of patients were classified correctly by the scale. Further validation studies in clinical practice are necessary. PMID:21286108

  5. Bisphosphonates adherence for treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a disease of bone metabolism in which bisphosphonates (BPS) are the most common medications used in its treatment, whose main objective is to reduce the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis. Methods Systematic review of articles on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis, indexed on MEDLINE (via PubMed) databases, from inception of databases until January 2013. Search terms were “Adherence, Medication” (MeSH term), “Bisphosphonates” (MeSH term), and “Osteoporosis” (MeSH term). Results Of the 78 identified studies, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Identified studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding adherence and associated factors, adherence and fracture, adherence and BPs dosage. The studies are mostly observational, conducted with women over 45 years old, showing low rates of adherence to treatment. Several factors may influence adherence: socio-economic and cultural, participation of physicians when guidance is given to the patient, the use of bone turnover markers, and use of generic drugs. The monthly dosage is associated with greater adherence compared to weekly dosage. Conclusions Considering the methodological differences between the studies, the results converge to show that adherence to treatment of osteoporosis with BPs is still inadequate. Further experimental studies are needed to evaluate the adherence and suggest new treatment options. PMID:23705998

  6. Reliability and Validity of Teacher Rating Procedures in the Assessment of Hyperactivity as a Function of Rating Scale Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Lambert, Nadine M.

    The effects of varying the formats of behavior rating scale items on teacher ratings of student hyperactivity were investigated. Two hundred forty-two teachers were asked to rate a variety of children; some had been identified as hyperactive by physicians, parents, or teachers; some were not considered hyperactive; and others were randomly…

  7. A Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales Approach to Institutional Self-Assessment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports a study which used the effectiveness criteria contained in the Competing Values Model of Organizational Effectiveness to produce a set of organizational effectiveness self-rating scales for Hong Kong higher educational institutions. Scales were developed using the behaviorally anchored rating scales procedure. Highlights the qualitative…

  8. Determining the Scoring Validity of a Co-Constructed CEFR-Based Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deygers, Bart; Van Gorp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Considering scoring validity as encompassing both reliable rating scale use and valid descriptor interpretation, this study reports on the validation of a CEFR-based scale that was co-constructed and used by novice raters. The research questions this paper wishes to answer are (a) whether it is possible to construct a CEFR-based rating scale with…

  9. Using Rasch Rating Scale Methodology to Examine a Behavioral Screener for Preschoolers at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Greer, Fred W.; Kamphaus, R. W.; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A screening instrument used to identify young children at risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool was examined. The Rasch Rating Scale Method was used to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items, respondents, and the response scale.…

  10. Dysautonomia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation--critique and recommendations by movement disorders task force on rating scales for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Evatt, Marian L; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Chou, Kelvin L; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-04-15

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)--sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated "Recommended" if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested or Recommended

  11. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  12. Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups. PMID:20407392

  13. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS.

  14. Collaboration between family physicians and community pharmacists to enhance adherence to chronic medications

    PubMed Central

    Laubscher, Tessa; Evans, Charity; Blackburn, Dave; Taylor, Jeff; McKay, Shari

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To ascertain the opinions of family physicians about medication adherence in patients with chronic diseases and the role of community pharmacists in improving adherence to chronic medications, as well as their opinions on increased collaboration with pharmacists to enhance medication adherence. DESIGN A self-administered postal survey of 19 questions, with opinions collected by ordinal (5-point Likert scale) and open responses. SETTING Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred and eighty-six family physicians working in Saskatchewan in January 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Descriptive statistics of physicians’ opinions on the following: medication adherence in patients with chronic diseases; their current interaction with community pharmacists; and potential collaborative strategies to promote medication adherence. RESULTS The response rate was 39.4%. Approximately 75% of the physicians acknowledged that nonadherence to chronic medications was a problem among their patients. Medication costs and side effects were identified as the 2 most common reasons for medication nonadherence. Only one-quarter of physicians communicated regularly with community pharmacists about adherence issues; most of these physicians were rural physicians. Most physicians agreed that increased collaboration with pharmacists would improve adherence, although support for potential interactions with pharmacists varied. Concerns were expressed about time required by physicians and financial reimbursement. Physicians in practice for less than 10 years and those practising in rural areas were more willing to share clinical information and communicate with pharmacists to promote medication adherence. CONCLUSION Saskatchewan family physicians appreciate the importance of medication nonadherence but currently seldom interact with community pharmacists on this issue. They believe that pharmacists have a role in supporting patients with medication adherence and indicate a willingness

  15. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  16. Measurement Quality of the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale: An Investigation Using Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dezhi; Hu, Bi Ying; Fan, Xitao; Li, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    Adapted from the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised, the Chinese Early Childhood Program Rating Scale (CECPRS) is a culturally comparable measure for assessing the quality of early childhood education and care programs in the Chinese cultural/social contexts. In this study, 176 kindergarten classrooms were rated with CECPRS on eight…

  17. The SNAP Rating Scale for the Diagnosis of the Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; And Others

    The correlation of ratings from the SNAP Rating Scale with the ratings from the established Conners' Ratinq Scale are discussed as a method for assessing the validity of the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for attention deficient disorder with hyper-activity (ADDH). The questionnaire of SNAP items and…

  18. The Pupil Rating Scale (Revised) as a Predictor of Referral for Central Auditory Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, S. John

    A study was conducted to determine which factors on the Pupil Rating Scale (Revised) developed by H. Myklebust (1965) were identified by classroom teachers as being deficient in referring students for central auditory testing. The Pupil Rating Scale is a behavioral checklist for classroom teachers to use to rate students in five broad categories…

  19. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  20. Examining rating scales using Rasch and Mokken models for rater-mediated assessments.

    PubMed

    Wind, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects based on latent trait models (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider ratings in terms of the structure of the rating scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine rating scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of rating scale effectiveness based on Rasch models and models adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of rating scale effectiveness based on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of rating scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. PMID:24950531

  1. [Treatment adherence and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Tahri, Nabil

    2007-09-01

    For inflammatory bowel disease, unlike other chronic illnesses, there are sparse data available about patients' adherence to medication. The few studies vary widely, but noncompliance rates tend to be high, about 30-40%. Psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, and poor patient-physician relationships are the most common causes of these patients' lack of adherence. Failure to adhere to prescribed medications increases risk of relapse and of colorectal cancer. Strategies that can improve adherence include establishing a partnership with the patient, simplifying the treatment regimen and increasing awareness through education and feedback.

  2. Does Scale Length Matter? A Comparison of Nine- versus Five-Point Rating Scales for the Mini-CEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Educators must often decide how many points to use in a rating scale. No studies have compared interrater reliability for different-length scales, and few have evaluated accuracy. This study sought to evaluate the interrater reliability and accuracy of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) scores, comparing the traditional mini-CEX…

  3. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy impact on clinical and economic outcomes for Medicaid enrollees with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shun; Rust, George; Cardarelli, Kathryn; Felizzola, Jesus; Fransua, Mesfin; Stringer, Harold G.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of antiretroviral treatment adherence among Hepatitis C co-infected HIV patients on survival and clinical outcomes. We analyzed Medicaid claims data from fourteen southern states from 2005-2007, comparing survival and clinical outcomes and cost of treatment for HIV and hepatitis-C co-infected patients (N=4,115) at different levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy.More than one in five patients (20.5%) showed less than 50% adherence to antiretroviral treatment, but there were no racial-ethnic or gender disparities. Significant survival benefit was demonstrated at each incremental level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (one-year mortality ranging from 3.5% in the highest adherence group to 26.0% in the lowest). Low adherence patients also had higher rates of hospitalization and emergency department visits. Relative to patients with high (>95%) ART-adherence, those with less than 25% treatment adherence had four-fold greater risk of death (adjusted odds ratio 4.22 [95% CI, 3.03,5.87]). Non-drug Medicaid expenditures were lower for high adherence patients, but cost of medications drove total Medicaid expenditures higher for high-adherence patients. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved (relative to the <25% low-adherence group) ranged from $21,874 for increasing adherence to 25-50% to $37,229 for increasing adherence to 75-95%. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV and hepatitis C co-infection is associated with lower adverse clinical outcomes at a Medicaid cost per QALY commensurate with other well-accepted treatment and prevention strategies. Further research is needed to identify interventions which can best achieve optimal ART adherence at a population scale. PMID:25814041

  4. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shupe, Matthew

    2013-05-22

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  5. Patient Medication Adherence and Physician Prescribing among Congestive Heart Failure Patients of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Alakhali, K M; Daniel, P S; Noohu, A M; Sirajudeen, S A

    2013-09-01

    Congestive heart failure has been associated with high morbidity and mortality requiring hospitalisation and is further complicated by noncompliance and under prescriptions. We aim to determine medication adherence and percentage deviation among Asians population in general and Yemenis in particular. A cross-sectional, prospective observational study with purposive sampling was conducted at two cardiac outpatient centers in 70 congestive heart failure patients for a period of 3 months. An Arabic translated Morisky 4 item scale assessed the adherence of patients. Deviation in prescribing was determined by chart review. All 70 patients had mean age of 56.6±16 years. Morisky 4 item scale predicted low adherence (n=33; 47.1%) and overall nonadherencerate (n=38; 54.2%) was slightly higher than adherence. Percentage nonadherence versus adherence was high with diuretics (53 vs. 46%) and, digoxin (40 vs. 29%). The adherence percentage of angiotensin receptor blockers (9%) and beta blockers (8%) was low. Diuretics were the most prescribed drugs (n=69; 99%), followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n=51; 73%), cardiac glycoside (n=48; 69%), few patients were on angiotensin receptor blockers (n=8; 11%) and (n=9; 13%) beta blockers. The maximum prescribing rate deviation was seen with angiotensin receptor blockers (-89%) and beta blockers (-87%) followed by nitrates (-77%). Digoxin (-31%) and angiotensin converting enzymes (-27%) deviated comparatively less. Prescribing as well as utilisation rates generally were low resulting in nonachievement of therapeutic goals which could be resolved using multimodel approach. PMID:24403656

  6. Medication adherence, knowledge about psychosis, and insight among patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Wa Sherry; Hui, Lai Ming Christy; Wong, Hoi Yan Gloria; Lee, Ho Ming Edwin; Chang, Wing Chung; Chen, Yu Hai Eric

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between knowledge about psychosis, insight, and medication adherence among patients at an early stage of a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. Eighty patients were recruited from a specialized outpatient clinic. Knowledge was assessed with the modified Knowledge About Schizophrenia Test (KAST). Medication adherence was determined with the Chinese abridged Medication Adherence Ratings Scale. Insight was measured with the abridged Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). The KAST total score was correlated with the SUMD. A trend correlation between KAST subscores of cause and SUMD was found. The nonadherence rate was 43.8%. The medication-adherent patients had lower SUMD (z = -4.338, p < 0.0001) and higher KAST subscore of cause (z = -2.767, p = 0.006). These two variables explained 38.9% of the variance in adherence behavior, with SUMD being the mediator. This study highlights the importance of patients' understanding of etiology of the illness and its relationship with insight and medication adherence.

  7. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  8. Scale-specific and scale-independent measures of heart rate variability as risk indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Levitan, J.; Havlin, S.; Saermark, K.; Moelgaard, H.; Bloch Thomsen, P. E.; Moller, M.; Hintze, U.; Huikuri, H. V.

    2001-03-01

    We study the correlation properties of heartbeat fluctuations using scale-specific variance (root-mean-square fluctuation) and scaling (correlation) exponents as measures of healthy and cardiac impaired individuals. Our results show that the variance and the scaling exponent are uncorrelated. We find that the variance measure at certain scales is well suited to separate healthy subjects from heart patients. However, for mortality prediction the scaling exponents outperform the variance measure. Our study is based on a database containing recordings from 428 individuals after myocardial infarct (MI) and on a database containing 105 healthy subjects and 11 heart patients. The results have been obtained by applying two recently developed methods (DFA -Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and WAV -Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis) which are shown to be highly correlated.

  9. Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory Mary K.

    1977-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…

  10. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  11. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  12. Reliability and Structural Validity of The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Erin E.; Diperna, James C.; Missall, Kristen; Volpe, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are few strengths-based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at-risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic…

  13. The Working Memory Rating Scale: A Classroom-Based Behavioral Assessment of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Kirkwood, Hannah; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS), an observer-based rating scale that reflects behavioral difficulties of children with poor working memory. The findings indicate good internal reliability and adequate psychometric properties for use as a screening tool by teachers. Higher…

  14. A Short Form of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 278 children at Time 1 (144 male and 134 female) from School Years 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom serve as participants. The children complete self-rated scales of school adjustment, and their teachers complete the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment (TRSSA) twice across a 1-year period. At Time 1, children's performance on…

  15. Optimizing the Compatibility between Rating Scales and Measures of Productive Second Language Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model,…

  16. Adherence to Pharmacotherapy and Medication-Related Beliefs in Patients with Hypertension in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Malaga, German

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize adherence to pharmacological medication and beliefs towards medication in a group of patients with hypertension in a large national hospital. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional survey among patients with hypertension attending the outpatient clinic of a large national hospital. Exposure of interest was the patient's beliefs towards general medication and antihypertensive drugs, i.e. beliefs of harm, overuse, necessity and concern, measured using the Beliefs about Medication questionnaire. Main outcome was adherence measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Poisson distribution logistic regression, prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results Data from 115 participants, 67% females and mean age 62.7 years were analyzed. Low adherence was found in 57.4%. Highest scores were on the ideas of necessity and one of the most rated statements was “physicians would prescribe less medication if they spent more time with patients”. Beliefs of harm about medications and concerns about antihypertensive drugs were higher in the low adherence group (p<0.01). Those who scored higher on ideas of harm were 52% less likely of being high adherents (PR 0.48; 95% CI 0.25–0.93) and those with higher scores on concerns were 41% less likely of being high adherents (PR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39–0.91). Patients whose ideas of necessity outweighed their concerns were more likely to be adherent (PR 2.65; 95% CI 1.21–5.81). Conclusions Low adherence to antihypertensive medication is common. High scores on ideas of harm, concern and a high necessity-concern differential were predictors of medication adherence. PMID:25470372

  17. Area Scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory as Predictors of School Performance and Rating Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Alan W.; Abrahams, Norman M.

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the area (homogeneous) scales of the Navy Vocational Interest Inventory (NVII) as predictors of Class "A" school achievement and as measures of rating differentiation by comparing specific occupational scales with more general interest measures--the NVII area scales. The NVII was…

  18. Development and Validation of a Rating Scale for Wind Jazz Improvisation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and validate a rating scale for collegiate wind jazz improvisation performance. The 14-item Wind Jazz Improvisation Evaluation Scale (WJIES) was constructed and refined through a facet-rational approach to scale development. Five wind jazz students and one professional jazz educator were asked to record…

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Borg and OMNI Rating of Perceived Exertion Scales in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Pivarnik, James M.; Womack, Christopher J.; Reeves, Mathew J.; Malina, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the reliability and validity of the Borg and OMNI rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales in adolescent girls during treadmill exercise. Girls were randomly assigned to one of the RPE scales during various treadmill exercise conditions. Results indicated that the OMNI cycle pictorial scale was reliable and valid for use with…

  20. Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for Preschool Children: A Revised, Brief, Age-Specific Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) is one of the most commonly used measures of child behavior problems. However, the scale length and the appropriateness of some of the items on the scale may reduce the usefulness of the CTRS-R for use with preschoolers. In this study, a Graded Response Model analysis based on Item Response Theory…

  1. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  2. A current and historical perspective on disparities in US childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine adherence and in rates of invasive pneumococcal disease: Considerations for the routinely-recommended, pediatric PCV dosing schedule in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, John M; Utt, Eric A; Hill, Nina M; Welch, Verna L; Power, Edward; Sylvester, Gregg C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that reducing the US 4-dose PCV13 schedule to a 3-dose schedule may provide cost savings, despite more childhood pneumococcal disease. The study also stressed that dose reduction should be coupled with improved PCV adherence, however, US PCV uptake has leveled-off since 2008. An estimated 24–36% of US children aged 5–19 months are already receiving a reduced PCV schedule (i.e., missing ≥1 dose). This raises a practical concern that, under a reduced, 3-dose schedule, a similar proportion of children may receive ≤2 doses. It is also unknown if a reduced, 3-dose PCV schedule in the United States will afford the same disease protection as 3-dose schedules used elsewhere, given lower US PCV adherence. Finally, more assurance is needed that, under a reduced schedule, racial, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities in PCV adherence will not correspond with disproportionately higher rates of pneumococcal disease among poor or minority children. PMID:26376039

  3. Pore-Scale Process Coupling and Effective Surface Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Subsurface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript provides a review of pore-scale researches in literature including experimental and numerical approaches, and scale-dependent behavior of geochemical and biogeochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media. A mathematical equation that can be used to predict the scale-dependent behavior of geochemical reaction rates in heterogeneous porous media has been derived. The derived effective rate expression explicitly links the effective reaction rate constant to the intrinsic rate constant, and to the pore-scale variations in reactant concentrations in porous media. Molecular simulations to calculate the intrinsic rate constants were provided. A few examples of pore-scale simulations were used to demonstrate the application of the equation to calculate effective rate constants in heterogeneous materials. The results indicate that the deviation of effective rate constant from the intrinsic rate in heterogeneous porous media is caused by the pore-scale distributions of reactants and their correlation, which are affected by the pore-scale coupling of reactions and transport.

  4. Optimizing the compatibility between rating scales and measures of productive second language competence.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model, they successfully defined a meaningful continuum of English communicative competence. In some cases, the expectations of the Rasch model needed to be weighed against the specific assessment needs of the university entrance examination. This investigation also found that the degree of compatibility between the number of points allotted to the different rating scales and the various requirements of an introduction speech played a considerable role in determining the extent to which the different rating scales conformed to the expectations of the Rasch model. Compatibility thus becomes an important factor to consider for optimal rating scale performance.

  5. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants.

  6. Dietary adherence and acceptability of five different diets, including vegan and vegetarian diets, for weight loss: The New DIETs study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wendy J; McGrievy, Michael E; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine dietary adherence and acceptability among participants from the New DIETs study who were randomized to one of four plant-based diets (vegan, vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) or an omnivore diet. Primary outcomes at two- and six months included dietary adherence (24-hour dietary recalls), weight loss and changes in animal product intake (mg cholesterol) by adherence status, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Power of Food Scale (PFS), dietary acceptability (Food Acceptability Questionnaire), and impact of diet preference on adherence. No differences were found in dietary adherence or changes in FAQ, TFEQ, or PFS among the groups. At six months, non-adherent vegan and vegetarian participants (n=16) had a significantly greater decrease in cholesterol intake (-190.2 ± 199.2 mg) than non-adherent pesco-vegetarian/semi-vegetarian (n=15, -2.3 ± 200.3 mg, P=0.02) or omnivore participants (n=7, 17.0 ± 36.0, P=0.04). Non-adherent vegan/vegetarian participants lost significantly more weight at six months (-6.0 ± 6.7%) than non-adherent omnivore participants (-0.4 ± 0.6%, P=0.04). Dietary preference had no impact on adherence at six months. Due to equal rates of adherence and acceptability among the diet groups, instructing participants to follow vegan or vegetarian diets may have a greater impact on weight loss and animal product intake than providing instruction in more moderate approaches even among non-adherent participants. PMID:26164391

  7. Rating scale for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: scale development and clinimetric testing.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Vittoria; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Condino, Francesca; Mauvais, Hélène Somma; Farnarier, Guy; Labate, Angelo; Latella, Maria Adele; Gasparini, Sara; Branca, Damiano; Pucci, Franco; Vazzana, Francesco; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to develop a clinimetric scale evaluating motor phenomena, associated features, and severity of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Sixty video/EEG-recorded PNES induced by suggestion maneuvers were evaluated. We examined the relationship between results from this scale and results from the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale to validate this technique. Interrater reliabilities of the PNES scale for three raters were analyzed using the AC1 statistic, Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The relationship between the CGI and PNES scales was evaluated with Spearman correlations. The AC1 statistic demonstrated good interrater reliability for each phenomenon analyzed (tremor/oscillation, tonic; clonic/jerking, hypermotor/agitation, atonic/akinetic, automatisms, associated features). KCC and the ICC showed moderate interrater agreement for phenomenology, associated phenomena, and total PNES scores. Spearman's correlation of mean CGI score with mean total PNES score was 0.69 (P<0.001). The scale described here accurately evaluates the phenomenology of PNES and could be used to assess and compare subgroups of patients with PNES.

  8. Convergent Validity with the BERS-2 Teacher Rating Scale and the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen; Mooney, Paul; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to extend instrument validation research for a strength-based emotional and behavior rating scale, the "Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition" (BERS-2; Epstein, M. H. (2004). "Behavioral and emotional rating scale" (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED) through the use of convergent…

  9. Geometrical scaling and modal decay rates in periodic arrays of deeply subwavelength Terahertz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Isić, Goran Gajić, Radoš

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that due to the high conductivity of noble metals at terahertz frequencies and scalability of macroscopic Maxwell equations, a geometrical downscaling of a terahertz resonator results in the linear upscaling of its resonance frequency. However, the scaling laws of modal decay rates, important for the resonator excitation efficiency, are much less known. Here, we investigate the extent to which the scale-invariance of decay rates is violated due to the finite conductivity of the metal. We find that the resonance quality factor or the excitation efficiency may be substantially affected by scaling and show that this happens as a result of the scale-dependence of the metal absorption rate, while the radiative decay and the dielectric cavity absorption rates are approximately scale-invariant. In particular, we find that by downscaling overcoupled resonators, their excitation efficiency increases, while the opposite happens with undercoupled resonators.

  10. Improving Patient's Primary Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Leguelinel-Blache, Géraldine; Dubois, Florent; Bouvet, Sophie; Roux-Marson, Clarisse; Arnaud, Fabrice; Castelli, Christel; Ray, Valérie; Kinowski, Jean-Marie; Sotto, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quality of transitions of care is one of the first concerns in patient safety. Redesigning the discharge process to incorporate clinical pharmacy activities could reduce the incidence of postdischarge adverse events by improving medication adherence. The present study investigated the value of pharmacist counseling sessions on primary medication adherence after hospital discharge. This study was conducted in a 1844-bed hospital in France. It was divided in an observational period and an interventional period of 3 months each. In both periods, ward-based clinical pharmacists performed medication reconciliation and inpatient follow-up. In interventional period, initial counseling and discharge counseling sessions were added to pharmaceutical care. The primary medication adherence was assessed by calling community pharmacists 7 days after patient discharge. We compared the measure of adherence between the patients from the observational period (n = 201) and the interventional period (n = 193). The rate of patients who were adherent increased from 51.0% to 66.7% between both periods (P < 0.01). When discharge counseling was performed (n = 78), this rate rose to 79.7% (P < 0.001). The multivariate regression performed on data from both periods showed that age of at least 78 years old, and 3 or less new medications on discharge order were predictive factors of adherence. New medications ordered at discharge represented 42.0% (n = 1018/2426) of all medications on discharge order. The rate of unfilled new medications decreased from 50.2% in the observational period to 32.5% in the interventional period (P < 10−7). However, patients included in the observational period were not significantly more often readmitted or visited the emergency department than the patients who experienced discharge counseling during the interventional period (45.3% vs. 46.2%; P = 0.89). This study highlights that discharge counseling sessions are

  11. Depression Rating Scales in Parkinson’s Disease: Critique and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Barone, Paolo; Brown, Richard G.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; McDonald, William M.; Starkstein, Sergio; Weintraub, Daniel; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbid condition in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and a major contributor to poor quality of life and disability. However, depression can be difficult to assess in patients with PD due to overlapping symptoms and difficulties in the assessment of depression in cognitively impaired patients. As several rating scales have been used to assess depression in PD (dPD), the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to assess their clinimetric properties and make clinical recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the use of depression scales in PD and determine which scales should be selected for this review. The scales reviewed were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Scale (Ham-D), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Montgomery-As-berg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part I, Cornell Scale for the Assessment of Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Seven clinical researchers with clinical and research experience in the assessment of dPD were assigned to review the scales using a structured format. The most appropriate scale is dependent on the clinical or research goal. However, observer-rated scales are preferred if the study or clinical situation permits. For screening purposes, the HAM-D, BDI, HADS, MADRS, and GDS are valid in dPD. The CES-D and CSDD are alternative instruments that need validation in dPD. For measurement of severity of depressive symptoms, the Ham-D, MADRS, BDI, and SDS scales are recommended. Further studies are needed to validate the CSDD, which could be particularly useful for the assessment of severity of dPD in patients with comorbid dementia. To account for overlapping motor and nonmotor symptoms of depression, adjusted instrument cutoff scores may

  12. Rating Scale Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipriani, Daniel J.; Hensen, Francine E.; McPeck, Danielle L.; Kubec, Gina L. D.; Thomas, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Parents and caregivers faced with the challenges of transferring children with disability are at risk of musculoskeletal injuries and/or emotional stress. The Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale for Transfers (CSEST) is a 14-item questionnaire that measures self-efficacy for transferring under common conditions. The CSEST yields reliable data and valid…

  13. A Comparison of Pain Assessment Measures in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Visual Analog Scale Versus Numeric Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Myrvik, Matthew P; Drendel, Amy L; Brandow, Amanda M; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-04-01

    Given the availability of various pain severity scales, greater understanding of the agreement between pain scales is warranted. We compared Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain severity ratings in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) to identify the relationship and agreement between pain scale ratings. Twenty-eight patients (mean ± SD age, 14.65 ± 3.12 y, 50% female) receiving pain interventions within the emergency department completed serial VAS and NRS pain severity ratings every 30 minutes. Data were used to calculate the relationship (Spearman correlation) and agreement (Bland-Altman approach) between the VAS and NRS. One hundred twenty-eight paired VAS-NRS measurements were obtained. VAS and NRS ratings were significantly correlated for the initial assessment (rs = 0.88, P < 0.001) and all assessments (rs = 0.87, P < 0.001). Differences between VAS and NRS means were -0.52 (P = 0.006) for the initial assessment and -0.86 (P < 0.001) across all assessments. The difference between VAS and NRS ratings decreased as pain severity increased across all assessments (P = 0.027), but not the initial assessment. Within pediatric patients with SCD, VAS and NRS ratings were found to trend together; however, VAS scores were found to be significantly lower than NRS scores across assessments. The agreement between the 2 measures improved at increasing levels of pain severity. These findings demonstrate that the VAS and NRS are similar, but cannot be used interchangeably when assessing self-reported pain in SCD.

  14. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-07-15

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  15. Development and Validation of a Clinical Scale for Rating the Severity of Blepharospasm

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Hallett, Mark; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Gigante, Angelo F.; Ferrazzano, Gina; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Existing scales for rating the severity of blepharospasm (BSP) are limited by a number of potential drawbacks. We therefore developed and validated a novel scale for rating the severity of BSP. The development of the scale started with careful examination of the clinical spectrum of the condition by a panel of experts who selected phenomenological aspects thought to be relevant to disease severity. Thereafter, selected items were first checked for reliability, then reliable items were combined to generate the scale, and clinimetric properties of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the confidence with which the scale could be used by people without high levels of movement disorders skill was assessed. The new scale, based on objective criteria, yielded moderate to almost perfect reliability, acceptable internal consistency, satisfactory scaling assumptions, lack of floor and ceiling effects, partial correlations with a prior severity scale and with a quality of life scale, and good sensitivity to change. Despite a few limitations, the foregoing features make the novel scale more suitable than existing scales to assess the severity of BSP in natural history and pathophysiologic studies as well as in clinical trials. PMID:25847472

  16. Two self-rating scales for depression in Hmong refugees: assessment in clinical and nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1986-01-01

    An exploratory cross-cultural study was undertaken of two widely used self-rating scales: the Zung and the Depression Scale on the 90 Item Symptom Checklist, or SCL-Depression. Both scales were translated into Hmong and tested in two samples of Hmong refugees in the U.S.A. One sample (n = 86) consisted of a field survey of all Hmong people living in Minnesota. Of the 86, 15 sought treatment and were diagnosed as having major depression during the year following their self rating, so that a comparison of patients' scores with nonpatients' scores was possible. The other sample consisted of another 51 Hmong psychiatric patients with major depression. This second group was also assessed by four psychiatric rating scales (i.e. Hamilton Depression Scale, brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Inpatient Multidimensional Rating Scale, and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation) and two measures of treatment intensity (i.e. number of visits, duration of treatment). In the general Hmong population (n = 86), both self-rating scales were highly intercorrelated, and strongly associated with patient status. In the patient sample (n = 51), only the SCL-Depression showed any correlations with psychiatric rating scales or with treatment variables. This is contrary to the anticipated outcome, as it had been expected that the Zung would perform better than the SCL-Depression. In addition, duration of treatment was inversely correlated with the SCL-Depression, also opposite to our prediction. Probable causes for these unexpected results are presented. An item analysis was undertaken, comparing 71 Hmong survey subjects who were not treated for depression with 51 Hmong psychiatric patients who were treated for depression. Most Zung and SCL-Depression items showed significantly higher symptom levels in the depressed patients. However, non-depressed controls unexpectedly reported significantly higher symptom levels on certain items. No significant differences were observed on several

  17. Adherence to Treatment and Factors Affecting Adherence of Epileptic Patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasiso, Temesgen Yohannes; Desse, Tigestu Alemu

    2016-01-01

    Background Non adherence of epileptic patients to antiepileptic medication often leads to an increased risk of seizures and worsening of disease, death and increased health care costs. Objective to assess adherence to treatment and factors affecting adherence of epileptic patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Methods and Materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on epileptic patients from February 9 to 22, 2015. Data were collected from patients ≥18 years old. Adherence was measured using the eight-item Morisky’s medication adherence scale. All consecutive patients coming to epilepsy clinic during the study period were interviewed until the calculated sample size (210) was obtained. We collected patient demographics, perception about epilepsy and adherence to medication(s). We used chi-square tests and a binary logistic regression model for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results out of a total of 210 participants, 194 were willing to participate and were studied. Of the 194 participants, 109 (56.2%) were males. The mean age of the participants was 33.62±11.44 years; range 18 to 66 years. The majority, 123(63.41%), of the participants were taking two antiepileptic medications. Sixty two (32%) of the participants were adherent to their treatment. The most common reported reasons for non-adherence were forgetfulness 49(75.4%) and run out of pills 7(10.8%). Factors that affect medication adherence are epilepsy treatment for <1 year (P = 0.011), epilepsy treatment for 1–3 years (P = 0.002), epilepsy treatment for 3–5 years (P = 0.007), being married (P = 0.006), grade 9–12 education (P = 0.028), college or university education (P = 0.002) and absence of co-morbidity (P = 0.008). Conclusions The rate of adherence observed in this study was low. The most common reason for non- adherence was forgetfulness. Therefore, the hospital should devise strategies to improve adherence of epileptic patients

  18. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals was described. In the first stage of the project, an initial scale encompassing a large number of behavior problems was used to rate 418 residents. The scale was then reduced to an intermediate version, and in the second stage, 509 moderately to profoundly retarded individuals were rated. Separate factor analyses of the data from the two samples resulted in a five-factor scale comprising 58 items. The factors of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist have been labeled as follows: (I) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (II) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (III) Stereotypic Behavior; (IV) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and (V) Inappropriate Speech. Average subscale scores were presented for the instrument, and the results were compared with empirically derived rating scales of childhood psychopathology and with factor analytic work in the field of mental retardation.

  19. The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Aman, M G; Singh, N N; Stewart, A W; Field, C J

    1985-03-01

    The development of a scale to assess drug and other treatment effects on severely mentally retarded individuals was described. In the first stage of the project, an initial scale encompassing a large number of behavior problems was used to rate 418 residents. The scale was then reduced to an intermediate version, and in the second stage, 509 moderately to profoundly retarded individuals were rated. Separate factor analyses of the data from the two samples resulted in a five-factor scale comprising 58 items. The factors of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist have been labeled as follows: (I) Irritability, Agitation, Crying; (II) Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; (III) Stereotypic Behavior; (IV) Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; and (V) Inappropriate Speech. Average subscale scores were presented for the instrument, and the results were compared with empirically derived rating scales of childhood psychopathology and with factor analytic work in the field of mental retardation. PMID:3993694

  20. A Rasch Rating Scale Modeling of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale in a Sample of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Do-Hong; Wang, Chuang; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale in a sample of international students studying in the U.S. universities using Rasch analysis. The results indicated that the original five-category rating structure may not function effectively for the international student sample. The…

  1. Weight loss intervention adherence and factors promoting adherence: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Bird, Yelena; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adhering to weight loss interventions is difficult for many people. The majority of those who are overweight or obese and attempt to lose weight are simply not successful. The objectives of this study were 1) to quantify overall adherence rates for various weight loss interventions and 2) to provide pooled estimates for factors associated with improved adherence to weight loss interventions. Methods We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all studies published between January 2004 and August 2015 that reviewed weight loss intervention adherence. Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria and checking the methodological quality, 27 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall adherence rate was 60.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 53.6–67.2). The following three main variables were found to impact adherence: 1) supervised attendance programs had higher adherence rates than those with no supervision (rate ratio [RR] 1.65; 95% CI 1.54–1.77); 2) interventions that offered social support had higher adherence than those without social support (RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.24–1.34); and 3) dietary intervention alone had higher adherence than exercise programs alone (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.19–1.35). Conclusion A substantial proportion of people do not adhere to weight loss interventions. Programs supervising attendance, offering social support, and focusing on dietary modification have better adherence than interventions not supervising attendance, not offering social support, and focusing exclusively on exercise. PMID:27574404

  2. Potential Savings From Increasing Adherence to Inhaled Corticosteroid Therapy in Medicaid-Enrolled Children

    PubMed Central

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; McRoy, Luceta; Pisu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Many asthma-related exacerbations could be prevented by consistent use of daily inhaled corticosteroid therapy (ICS-Rx). Objectives We sought to measure the potential cost savings that could accrue from increasing ICS-Rx adherence in children. Study Design We measured observed costs for a cohort of 43,156 Medicaid-enrolled children in 14 southern states whose initial ICS-Rx was prescribed in 2007. Methods Adherence rates and associated costs were calculated from Medicaid claims. Children were categorized as high or low adherence based on the ratio of ICS-Rx claims filled to total asthma drug claims. Branching tree simulation was used to project the potential cost savings achieved by increasing the proportion of children with ICS-Rx to total asthma Rx ratios greater than 0.5 to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Results Increasing the proportion of children who maintain higher adherence after initial ICS-Rx to 40% would generate savings of $95 per child per year. An intervention costing $10 per member per month that resulted in even half of the children maintaining high adherence would generate a 98% return on investment for managed care plans or state Medicaid programs. Net costs decreased incrementally at each level of increase in ICS-Rx adherence. The projected Medicaid cost savings for these 14 states in 2007 ranged from $8.2 million if 40% of the children achieved high adherence, to $57.5 million if 80% achieved high adherence. Conclusions If effective large-scale interventions can be found, there are substantial cost savings to be gained from even modest increases in real-world adherence to ICS-Rx among Medicaid-enrolled children with asthma. PMID:25880622

  3. Apathy and anhedonia rating scales in Parkinson's disease: critique and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Leentjens, Albert F G; Dujardin, Kathy; Marsh, Laura; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Richard, Irene H; Starkstein, Sergio E; Weintraub, Daniel; Sampaio, Cristina; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Oliver; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2008-10-30

    Apathy is a common condition in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is generally defined as a lack of motivation. It is associated with more severe cognitive dysfunction and a decrease in activities of daily living (ADL) performance. Anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure, can be a symptom of both depressive and apathetic syndromes. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to assess the clinimetric properties of apathy and anhedonia scales in PD patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify scales that have either been validated or used in PD patients. Apathy scales identified for review include the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), the Apathy Scale (AS), the Apathy Inventory (AI), and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS). In addition, item 4 (motivation/initiative) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and item 7 (apathy) of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were included. Anhedonia scales identified for review were the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and the Chapman scales for physical and social anhedonia. Only the AS is classified as "recommended" to assess apathy in PD. Although item 4 of the UPDRS also meets the criteria to be classified as recommended, it should be considered for screening only because of the obvious limitations of a single item construct. For the assessment of anhedonia, only the SHAPS meets the criteria of "Suggested." Information on the validity of apathy and anhedonia scales is limited because of the lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria for these conditions.

  4. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales.

  5. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  6. A Measure for the Reliability of a Rating Scale Based on Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laenen, Annouschka; Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A new measure for reliability of a rating scale is introduced, based on the classical definition of reliability, as the ratio of the true score variance and the total variance. Clinical trial data can be employed to estimate the reliability of the scale in use, whenever repeated measurements are taken. The reliability is estimated from the…

  7. Use of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a new quantitative method of employee performance evaluation, is advocated for teacher evaluation. Development of a BARS consists generally of five steps: a representative sample of potential raters generates the scales; the group identifies the broad qualities to be evaluated; the group formulates…

  8. A Program for Constructing and Scoring Several Types of Rating Scales and Checklists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a set of 11 menu-driven procedures written in BASICA for MS-DOS based microcomputers for constructing several types of rating scales, attitude scales, and checklists, and for scoring responses to the constructed instruments. The uses of the program are described in detail. (SLD)

  9. Screening Accuracy of Level 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scales: A Review of Selected Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Megan; Lecavalier, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the state of Level 2, caregiver-completed rating scales for the screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in individuals above the age of three years. We focused on screening accuracy and paid particular attention to comparison groups. Inclusion criteria required that scales be developed post ICD-10, be…

  10. Impact of adherence to GOLD guidelines on 6-minute walk distance, MRC dyspnea scale score, lung function decline, quality of life, and quality-adjusted life years in a Shanghai suburb.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Q; Zhu, Y X; Chen, X L; Xu, X; Li, F; Fu, H J; Shen, C Y; Lu, Y Y; Zhuang, Q J; Xu, G; Cai, Y Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, S S; Zhu, M Y; Li, S H

    2015-01-01

    We performed a 1-year cluster-randomized field trial to assess the effect of standardized management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on lung function and quality of life (QOL) measures in patients in China. We used the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) treatment guidelines and assessed indexes including pulmonary function, QOL, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, 6-min walk distance (6-MWD), number of emergency visits, and frequency of hospitalization. Of a total of 711 patients with chronic cough and asthma, 132 were diagnosed as having COPD and 102 participated in this study [intervention group (N = 47); control group (N = 55)]. We found that adherence to GOLD guidelines had a perceivable impact on 6-MWD, MRC dyspnea scale score, and QOL. The average QALY increased by 1.42/person/year in the intervention group, but declined by 0.95/person/year in the control group. We conclude that standardized management improves disease severity, QOL, and QALY in COPD patients when treatment protocols adhere to GOLD guidelines.

  11. Treatment adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yunfei; Yin, Rulan; Fu, Ting; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Guo, Genkai; Li, Liren; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) may lead to joint damage and function loss. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore Chinese RA patients’ adherence rates and investigate potential risk factors for nonadherence. Methods A total of 122 RA patients were recruited from the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from January 2014 to April 2015. Patients were asked to complete a set of standardized self-report questionnaires (Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Short Form-36 questionnaire, 28-joint Disease Activity Score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Visual Analog Scale). Independent samples t-tests, chi-square analyses, and logistic regression modeling were used to analyze these data. Results Based on Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology, 38% of the patients adhered to DMARDs. Adherence was associated with education, income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs. Other demographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with adherence. Logistic regression models identified income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs as predictors of medication nonadherence. Conclusion In this study, 62% of patients with RA were not adherent to their DMARD prescription. Education, income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs were associated with medication adherence, and income, depression, and the total number of DMARDs were independent predictors of medication adherence in patients with RA. These findings could help medical personnel develop helpful interventions to improve adherence in RA patients by paying more attention to the patients with these accompanying risk factors and, finally, improve RA patients’ quality of life. PMID:27217726

  12. Multi-scale fluctuations of bedload transport rates over steep slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.; Mettra, F.; Heyman, J.; Ancey, C.; Fu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The bedload transport rate is of large fluctuation across several time scales. Understanding bedload transport fluctuation would be helpful for modeling the transport process. In this talk, we first report a multi-scale phenomenon of fluctuation of bedload transport rate by an experimental study. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the fluctuations of bedload transport rates decay with the sampling time scales. A clear three-stage scale-dependent decaying process can be found. Then, an expression for the dependence of the fluctuation of bedload transport rates on the sampling time scales is derived from a stochastic theory (Ancey et al., 2008). The expression is consistent with experimental observations demonstrating that the bedload transport rates behave as a homogeneous Piosson process at the small time scales, which is consistent with Einstein's theory. However, at the media and large time scales, the internal memory of the stochastic sediment dynamics would induce more fluctuations. It is closely related to the collective entrainment mechanism of bedload transport which was newly introduced by Ancey's theory. Together with the very recent finding by Heyman et al. (2012), our theoretical expressions can calibrate all the necessary parameters in Ancey's theory by the experimental observation of bedload transport rates.; The fluctuation of bedload transport rates at different sampling time scales. Experimental conditionst; τs, Shields stress; Re, Reynolds number; Red, particle Reynolds number; Fr, Froud number;θ, slope angle (%); u, mean fluid velocity (m/s); h, mean water depth (cm); Qi, mean input solid discharge (particles/s); Qo, mean output solid discharge (particles/s).

  13. Medication adherence: WHO cares?

    PubMed

    Brown, Marie T; Bussell, Jennifer K

    2011-04-01

    The treatment of chronic illnesses commonly includes the long-term use of pharmacotherapy. Although these medications are effective in combating disease, their full benefits are often not realized because approximately 50% of patients do not take their medications as prescribed. Factors contributing to poor medication adherence are myriad and include those that are related to patients (eg, suboptimal health literacy and lack of involvement in the treatment decision-making process), those that are related to physicians (eg, prescription of complex drug regimens, communication barriers, ineffective communication of information about adverse effects, and provision of care by multiple physicians), and those that are related to health care systems (eg, office visit time limitations, limited access to care, and lack of health information technology). Because barriers to medication adherence are complex and varied, solutions to improve adherence must be multifactorial. To assess general aspects of medication adherence using cardiovascular disease as an example, a MEDLINE-based literature search (January 1, 1990, through March 31, 2010) was conducted using the following search terms: cardiovascular disease, health literacy, medication adherence, and pharmacotherapy. Manual sorting of the 405 retrieved articles to exclude those that did not address cardiovascular disease, medication adherence, or health literacy in the abstract yielded 127 articles for review. Additional references were obtained from citations within the retrieved articles. This review surveys the findings of the identified articles and presents various strategies and resources for improving medication adherence.

  14. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Virologic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M.; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R.; Peterson, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The often cited need to achieve ≥95% (nearly perfect) adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for successful virologic outcomes in HIV may present a barrier to initiation of therapy in the early stages of HIV. This meta-analysis synthesized 43 studies (27,905 participants) performed across >26 countries, to determine the relationship between cut-off point for optimal adherence to ART and virologic outcomes. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect model to calculate pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The mean rate of patients reporting optimal adherence was 63.4%. Compared with suboptimal adherence, optimal adherence was associated with a lower risk of virologic failure (0.34; 95% CI: 0.26–0.44). There were no significant differences in the pooled odds ratios among different optimal adherence thresholds (≥98–100%, ≥95%, ≥80–90%). Study design (randomized controlled trial vs observational study) (regression coefficient 0.74, 95% CI: 0.04–1.43, P < 0.05) and study region (developing vs developed countries; regression coefficient 0.56, 95% CI: 0.01–1.12, P < 0.05) remained as independent predictors of between-study heterogeneity, with more patients with optimal adherence from developing countries or randomized controlled trials experiencing virologic failure. The threshold for optimal adherence to achieve better virologic outcomes appears to be wider than the commonly used cut-off point (≥95% adherence). The cut-off point for optimal adherence could be redefined to a slightly lower level to encourage the prescribing ART at an early stage of HIV infection. PMID:27082595

  15. The INFVo perceptual rating scale for substitution voicing: development and reliability.

    PubMed

    Moerman, Mieke; Martens, Jean-Pierre; Crevier-Buchman, Lise; de Haan, Else; Grand, Stephanie; Tessier, Christophe; Woisard, Virginie; Dejonckere, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of inter-judge consistency for the different dimensions of a recently proposed new scale for the rating of substitution voices is presented. The IINFVo rating scale tries to score five parameters, namely impression, intelligibility, noise, fluency and voicing. Each parameter is scored between 0 (very good substitution voicing) and 10 (very deviant substitution voicing) on a visual analogue scale. Inter-judge consistencies were measured among semi-professional as well as among professional jury members. The consistencies among semi-professionals, expressed as Pearson correlation coefficients, ranged from moderate to good (0.57-0.68), whereas those among professionals were good to excellent (0.82-0.87) and compared favourably to consistency figures published for traditional perceptual evaluation scales such as the GRBAS scale for laryngeal dysphonia. Since there is a strong correlation between the scores of impression and intelligibility, and since intelligibility is hard to score by non-native listeners, we suggest taking the mean of the two scores as the "impression" of a modified dimensional INFVo rating scale. Our experiments demonstrate that the INFVo rating scale has good potential to become a routine perceptual evaluation method in a multidimensional assessment protocol for substitution voicing.

  16. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6). There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r = -0.231, P < 0.001) as well as diastolic BP (r = -0.280, P < 0.001). In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence. PMID:27069676

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  18. The conners' Abbreviated Teacher Rating Scale: a factor analysis study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1068 school children were rated by their teachers on the Conners' Abbreviated Teacher Rating Scale (CATRS). The data were subjected to factor analysis using the principal components solution with orthogonal rotation and the varimax criterion. Three factors with eigenvalues greater than unity were extracted. The factor structure of the CATRS in Brazil was compared to reports from other countries.

  19. The Impact of Silhouette Randomization on the Results of Figure Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Dodd, Lorna J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of silhouette randomization on the responses to rating scales developed to rate the perceived current and ideal body shape, as well as body dissatisfaction. Seventy students (30 men and 40 women), ages 18 to 43 (M [plus or minus] SD = 22.1 [plus or minus] 5.7) years, completed the Stunkard, Sorensen,…

  20. Evaluation of the Bess TRS-CA Using the Rasch Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating System for Children and Adolescents (BESS TRS-CA; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007) screener using Rasch Rating Scale model (RSM) methodology to provide additional information about psychometric properties of items. Data from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children…

  1. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  2. A New Method for Flow Rate Measurement in Millimeter-Scale Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Gao, Xuemin; Wang, Baoliang; Huang, Zhiyao; Li, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Combining the Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique and the principle of cross correlation flow measurement, a new method for flow rate measurement in millimeter-scale pipes was proposed. The research work included two parts. First, a new five-electrode C4D sensor was developed. Second, with two conductivity signals obtained by the developed sensor, the flow rate measurement was implemented by using the principle of cross correlation flow measurement. The experimental results showed that the proposed flow rate measurement method was effective, the developed five-electrode C4D sensor was successful, and the measurement accuracy was satisfactory. In five millimeter-scale pipes with different inner diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1.8, 3.0 and 3.9 mm respectively, the maximum relative difference of the flow rate measurement between the reference flow rate and the measured flow rate was less than 5%. PMID:23353139

  3. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however

  4. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  5. [Adherence to chronic medication: also a frequent problem in Belgium!].

    PubMed

    Liekens, S; Hulshagen, L; Dethier, M; Laekeman, G; Foulon, V

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence in chronic conditions such as asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer appears to be a frequent problem. However, the literature on adherence in patients who use inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), oral hypoglycemic agents, drugs for heart failure, antiretrovirals or oral chemotherapy, contains little or no relevant data for Belgium. In the context of a Master thesis in Pharmaceutical care at KU Leuven, a quantitative study was performed to determine the prevalence of adherence to chronic medication in Belgium. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a database containing refill data of a regional pharmacists' association (KLAV). Out of the 603 pharmacies affiliated with this association, all 50 pharmacies where HIV medication was delivered, were selected. Dispensing data from the selected pharmacies were collected from 01/07/2008 to 31/12/2009 for five pathologies, i.e.; asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure, HIV and cancer. Adherence (TT) was calculated with the Medication Refill Adherence (MRA) method. In order to determine whether there were associations between age, gender, drug class and adherence, Chi-square tests were used. Compared with the other patients, cancer patients were the most adherent in taking their drugs (median adherence rate = 88%). In addition, this was the only group in which the median adherence rate was above the set limit of 80%. The patients who were prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were the least adherent (median adherence rate = 38%). More than 50% of patients with asthma/COPD, heart failure and diabetes were classified as "under-users". Furthermore, the results showed a significant association within asthma patients between gender and adherence. In asthma, type 2 diabetes, heart failure and HIV patients there was a significant relationship between age and adherence and drug class and adherence. As the current study has some limitations, the results should be handled with caution. Nevertheless

  6. On the depth and scale of metabolic rate variation: scaling of oxygen consumption rates and enzymatic activity in the Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A

    2007-01-01

    Recent ecological theory depends, for predictive power, on the apparent similarity of metabolic rates within broad taxonomic or functional groups of organisms (e.g. invertebrates or ectotherms). Such metabolic commonality is challenged here, as I demonstrate more than 200-fold variation in metabolic rates independent of body mass and temperature in a single class of animals, the Cephalopoda, over seven orders of magnitude size range. I further demonstrate wide variation in the slopes of metabolic scaling curves. The observed variation in metabolism reflects differential selection among species for locomotory capacity rather than mass or temperature constraints. Such selection is highest among epipelagic squids (Lolignidae and Ommastrephidae) that, as adults, have temperature-corrected metabolic rates higher than mammals of similar size.

  7. Assessing adherence factors in patients under topical treatment: development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ).

    PubMed

    Zschocke, Ina; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Lotzin, Annett; Karakasili, Eleni; Reich, Kristian

    2014-04-01

    Medication adherence rates strongly depend on favorable disease outcomes. It is known that medication adherence rates are lower for topical treatment than for systemic treatment. However, to date no validated instrument for the assessment of adherence factors in topical treatment is available. The aim of this study was to develop a new questionnaire to assess adherence risk factors in topical treatment. The development of the Topical Therapy Adherence Questionnaire (TTAQ) and Patient Preference Questionnaire (PPQ) was based on a systematic literature review, and qualitative patient focus interviews and expert focus groups' input. The psychometric properties and comprehensibility of the TTAQ and PPQ were assessed in a feasibility study with 59 psoriasis patients. Our first preliminary results indicate that the TTAQ and PPQ are psychometrically sound and reliable measures for the assessment of factors influencing topical treatment adherence. The questionnaires are currently being further developed and various parameters (e.g., time point of assessment) are currently being tested in an exploratory pilot study with ca. 2,000 psoriasis patients receiving topical treatment in a European clinical trial. The use of the final versions of TTAQ and PPQ in clinical practice may facilitate the early identification of specific non-adherence factors in patients under topical treatment, which could enable designing and applying adherence-enhancing interventions according to the patient's individual needs.

  8. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  9. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  10. The effects of temperature and activity on intraspecific scaling of metabolic rates in a lungless salamander.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Matthew E; Clay, Timothy A; Peterman, William E

    2013-04-01

    The scaling of metabolic rate with body mass holds substantial predictive power as many biological processes depend on energy. A significant body of theory has been developed based on the assumption that metabolic rate scales with body mass as a power function with an exponent of 0.75, and that this scaling relationship is independent of temperature. Here we test this hypothesis at the intraspecific level in a lungless salamander using data on both standard and maximal metabolic rates (SMR and MMR, respectively). We also address a recently proposed alternative explanation that predicts systematic variation in this mass-scaling exponent, the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis (MLB). Consistent with predictions of the metabolic theory of ecology the mass scaling of SMR and MMR were independent of temperature, however, we find evidence that the mass-scaling exponent for SMR and MMR differ significantly from 0.75. Further, our data do not provide strong support for MLB. Mass-scaling exponents for MMR generally exceed those for SMR, although these differences are rarely statistically significant.

  11. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  12. Predicting Malawian Women’s Intention to Adhere to Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Ogbochi; Modeste, Naomi N.; Lee, Jerry W.; Gleason, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increase in scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), knowledge of the need for adherence to ART is pivotal for successful treatment outcomes. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2013. We administered theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and adherence questionnaires to 358 women aged 18-49 years, from a rural and urban ART-clinics in southern Malawi. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to predict intentions to adhere to ART. Results Regression models show that attitude (β=0.47), subjective norm (β=0.31) and perceived behavioural control (β=0.12) explain 55% of the variance in intentions to adhere to ART. The relationship between both food insecurity and perceived side effects with intentions to adhere to ART is mediated by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. Household (r=0.20) and individual (r=0.21) food insecurity were positively and significantly correlated with perceived behavioural control. Household food insecurity had a negative correlation with perceived side effects (r=-0.11). Perceived side effects were positively correlated with attitude (r=0.25). There was no statistically significant relationship between intentions to adhere to ART in the future and one month self-report of past month adherence. These interactions suggest that attitude predicted adherence only when food insecurity is high or perception of side effects is strong. Conclusions This study shows that modification might be needed when using TPB constructs in resource constraint environments. Significance for public health The knowledge of the rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used to evaluate planning and project, which could lead to better outcomes predicted by treatment efficacy data. In addition, knowledge of adherence behaviour could help the development of interventions focusing on collaboration between healthcare providers and Malawian government to

  13. Adherence to Insulin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarbacker, G Blair; Urteaga, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF Six million people with diabetes use insulin either alone or in combination with an oral medication. Many barriers exist that lead to poor adherence with insulin. However, there is an underwhelming amount of data on interventions to address these barriers and improve insulin adherence. Until pharmacological advancements create easier, more acceptable insulin regimens, it is imperative to involve patients in shared decision-making. PMID:27574371

  14. Adherence to diabetes medication in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gorczynski, Paul; Patel, Hiren; Ganguli, Rohan

    2014-02-01

    Introduction: Despite the importance of medication adherence for the effective treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), little research has examined adherence with diabetes medication treatment in schizophrenia. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1) evaluate rates of adherence and determinants of adherence with medication for T2DM in individuals with schizophrenia, and, where possible, 2) examine the relationship between medication adherence and glycemic control. Methods: Studies were included if they presented information on dosing regimens and adherence or compliance rates for T2DM and included samples where at least 50% of the participants were individuals with schizophrenia. Results: Six studies were included in this review that predominantly examined men over the age of 50 years. Studies confirmed that many individuals with schizophrenia were not adhering to their diabetes medication as adherence rates ranged from 51-85%. Two studies that compared medication adherence in individuals with and without schizophrenia found those with the mental illness had higher rates of adherence. One study reported that blood glucose control levels were not statistically different between those who did and did not adhere to their medication, indicating more research is necessary in this area. Factors that improved adherence included disease and medical service and medication related factors. Conclusions: Interventions to increase diabetes medication adherence in schizophrenia need to address disease and medical service and medication related factors. Further research needs to examine diabetes medication adherence in women, younger individuals, and those recently diagnosed with diabetes as these individuals have been underrepresented in the literature.

  15. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and

  16. Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

    2012-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

  17. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, W Brent

    2009-03-03

    The overall goal of the project was to bridge the gap between our knowledge of small-scale geochemical reaction rates and reaction rates meaningful for modeling transport at core scales. The working hypothesis was that reaction rates, determined from laboratory measurements based upon reactions typically conducted in well mixed batch reactors using pulverized reactive media may be significantly changed in in situ porous media flow due to rock microstructure heterogeneity. Specifically we hypothesized that, generally, reactive mineral surfaces are not uniformly accessible to reactive fluids due to the random deposition of mineral grains and to the variation in flow rates within a pore network. Expected bulk reaction rates would therefore have to be correctly up-scaled to reflect such heterogeneity. The specific objective was to develop a computational tool that integrates existing measurement capabilities with pore-scale network models of fluid flow and reactive transport. The existing measurement capabilities to be integrated consisted of (a) pore space morphology, (b) rock mineralogy, and (c) geochemical reaction rates. The objective was accomplished by: (1) characterizing sedimentary sandstone rock morphology using X-ray computed microtomography, (2) mapping rock mineralogy using back-scattered electron microscopy (BSE), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and CMT, (3) characterizing pore-accessible reactive mineral surface area, and (4) creating network models to model acidic CO{sub 2} saturated brine injection into the sandstone rock samples.

  18. Adapting CEF-Descriptors for Rating Purposes: Validation by a Combined Rater Training and Scale Revision Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Martin, Guido

    2012-01-01

    We explore how a local rating scale can be based on the Common European Framework CEF-proficiency scales. As part of the scale validation (Alderson, 1991; Lumley, 2002), we examine which adaptations are needed to turn CEF-proficiency descriptors into a rating scale for a local context, and to establish a practicable method to revise the initial…

  19. The intraspecific scaling of metabolic rate with body mass in fishes depends on lifestyle and temperature.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Atkinson, David; Glazier, Douglas S

    2010-02-01

    Metabolic energy fuels all biological processes, and therefore theories that explain the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass potentially have great predictive power in ecology. A new model, that could improve this predictive power, postulates that the metabolic scaling exponent (b) varies between 2/3 and 1, and is inversely related to the elevation of the intraspecific scaling relationship (metabolic level, L), which in turn varies systematically among species in response to various ecological factors. We test these predictions by examining the effects of lifestyle, swimming mode and temperature on intraspecific scaling of resting metabolic rate among 89 species of teleost fish. As predicted, b decreased as L increased with temperature, and with shifts in lifestyle from bathyal and benthic to benthopelagic to pelagic. This effect of lifestyle on b may be related to varying amounts of energetically expensive tissues associated with different capacities for swimming during predator-prey interactions.

  20. Rating Scales for Diagnostic Assessment of Writing: What Should They Look Like and Where Should the Criteria Come from?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoch, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Rating scales act as the de facto test construct in a writing assessment, although inevitably as a simplification of the construct (North, 2003). However, it is often not reported how rating scales are constructed. Unless the underlying framework of a rating scale takes some account of linguistic theory and research in the definition of…

  1. An Investigation of the Reliability and Factor Structure of Four New Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Siegle, Del; Reis, Sally M.; Gavin, M. Katherine; Sytsma Reed, Rachael E.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher rating scales have been used widely throughout the United States as part of a comprehensive plan for identifying potentially gifted and talented students. The Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics for Superior Students (SRBCSS) are among the most frequently used teacher rating scales to assess the characteristics of and nominate…

  2. Motion sickness in cats - A symptom rating scale used in laboratory and flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suri, K. B.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The cat is proposed as a model for the study of motion and space sickness. Development of a scale for rating the motion sickness severity in the cat is described. The scale is used to evaluate an antimotion sickness drug, d-amphetamine plus scopolamine, and to determine whether it is possible to predict sickness susceptibility during parabolic flight, including zero-G maneuvers, from scores obtained during ground based trials.

  3. STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE NATURE OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC SCALING RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F. E-mail: jforbrich@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: joao.alves@univie.ac.at

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate scaling relations between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for both local Galactic clouds and a sample of external galaxies. We specifically consider relations between the star formation rates and measurements of dense, as well as total, molecular gas masses. We argue that there is a fundamental empirical scaling relation that directly connects the local star formation process with that operating globally within galaxies. Specifically, the total star formation rate in a molecular cloud or galaxy is linearly proportional to the mass of dense gas within the cloud or galaxy. This simple relation, first documented in previous studies, holds over a span of mass covering nearly nine orders of magnitude and indicates that the rate of star formation is directly controlled by the amount of dense molecular gas that can be assembled within a star formation complex. We further show that the star formation rates and total molecular masses, characterizing both local clouds and galaxies, are correlated over similarly large scales of mass and can be described by a family of linear star formation scaling laws, parameterized by f{sub DG}, the fraction of dense gas contained within the clouds or galaxies. That is, the underlying star formation scaling law is always linear for clouds and galaxies with the same dense gas fraction. These considerations provide a single unified framework for understanding the relation between the standard (nonlinear) extragalactic Schmidt-Kennicutt scaling law, that is typically derived from CO observations of the gas, and the linear star formation scaling law derived from HCN observations of the dense gas.

  4. Assessing medication adherence in the elderly: which tools to use in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    MacLaughlin, Eric J; Raehl, Cynthia L; Treadway, Angela K; Sterling, Teresa L; Zoller, Dennis P; Bond, Chester A

    2005-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed medication regimens is difficult for all patients and particularly challenging for the elderly. Medication adherence demands a working relationship between a patient or caregiver and prescriber that values open, honest discussion about medications, i.e. the administration schedule, intended benefits, adverse effects and costs. Although nonadherence to medications may be common among the elderly, fundamental reasons leading to nonadherence vary among patients. Demographic characteristics may help to identify elderly patients who are at risk for nonadherence. Inadequate or marginal health literacy among the elderly is common and warrants assessment. The number of co-morbid conditions and presence of cognitive, vision and/or hearing impairment may predispose the elderly to nonadherence. Similarly, medications themselves may contribute to nonadherence secondary to adverse effects or costs. Especially worrisome is nonadherence to 'less forgiving' drugs that, when missed, may lead to an adverse event (e.g. withdrawal symptoms) or disease exacerbation. Traditional methods for assessing medication adherence are unreliable. Direct questioning at the patient interview may not provide accurate assessments, especially if closed-ended, judgmental questions are posed. Prescription refill records and pill counts often overestimate true adherence rates. However, if elders are asked to describe how they take their medicines (using the Drug Regimen Unassisted Grading Scale or MedTake test tools), adherence problems can be identified in a non-threatening manner. Medication nonadherence should be suspected in elders who experience a decline in functional abilities. Predictors of medication nonadherence include specific disease states, such as cardiovascular diseases and depression. Technological aids to assessing medication adherence are available, but their utility is, thus far, primarily limited to a few research studies. These computerised devices, which

  5. Cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wu; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Chang, Eddie

    2006-07-31

    Neuronal networks have been widely used for neurophysiology, drug discovery and toxicity testing. An essential prerequisite for future widespread application of neuronal networks is the development of efficient cryopreservation protocols to facilitate their storage and transportation. Here is the first report on cryopreservation of mammalian adherent neuronal networks. Dissociated spinal cord cells were attached to a poly-d-lysine/laminin surface and allowed to form neuronal networks. Adherent neuronal networks were embedded in a thin film of collagen gel and loaded with trehalose prior to transfer to a freezing medium containing DMSO, FBS and culture medium. This was followed by a slow rate of cooling to -80 degrees C for 24 h and then storage for up to 2 months in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The three components: DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading combined provided the highest post-thaw viability, relative to individual or two component protocols. The post-thaw cells with this protocol demonstrated similar neuronal and astrocytic markers and morphological structure as those detected in unfrozen cells. Fluorescent dye FM1-43 staining revealed active recycling of synaptic vesicles upon depolarizing stimulation in the post-thaw neuronal networks. These results suggest that a combination of DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading can significantly improve conventional slow-cooling methods in cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

  6. Evolution in time and scales of the stability of heart interbeat rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.; Reyes-Ramírez, I.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2010-12-01

    We approach heart interbeat rate by observing the evolution of its stability on scales and time, using tools for the analysis of frequency standards. In particular, we employ the dynamic Allan variance, which is used to characterize the time-varying stability of an atomic clock, to analyze heart interbeat time series for normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Our stability analysis shows that healthy dynamics is characterized by at least two stability regions along different scales. In contrast, diseased patients exhibit at least three different stability regions; over short scales the fluctuations resembled white-noise behavior whereas for large scales a drift is observed. The inflection points delimiting the first two stability regions for both groups are located around the same scales. Moreover, we find that CHF patients show lower variation of the stability in time than healthy subjects.

  7. The use of a cartoon rating scale as a measure for the humor construct.

    PubMed

    Lowis, M J; Nieuwoudt, J M

    1995-03-01

    A new scale based on the rating of newspaper cartoons was administered to 129 White South Africans, after which a statistical analysis indicated high reliability for the instrument. A principal components analysis yielded seven factors, one of which appeared to relate to family relationships and the derision or misfortune of one of its members. Although there was a significant and positive link between chronological age and funniness ratings, no valid relations were found with other life measures or with scores on three other humor scales.

  8. Measuring pretest-posttest change with a Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E W; Chiu, C W

    1999-01-01

    When measures are taken on the same individual over time, it is difficult to determine whether observed differences are the result of changes in the person or changes in other facets of the measurement situation (e.g., interpretation of items or use of rating scale). This paper describes a method for disentangling changes in persons from changes in the interpretation of Likert-type questionnaire items and the use of rating scales (Wright, 1996a). The procedure relies on anchoring strategies to create a common frame of reference for interpreting measures that are taken at different times and provides a detailed illustration of how to implement these procedures using FACETS.

  9. Cannabis use and involuntary admission may mediate long-term adherence in first-episode psychosis patients: a prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine factors associated with treatment adherence in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients followed up over 8 years, especially involuntary first admission and stopping cannabis use. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients collected data on symptoms, adherence, functioning, and substance use. Adherence to treatment was the main outcome variable and was categorized as ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Cannabis use during follow-up was stratified as continued use, stopped use, and never used. Bivariate and logistic regression models identified factors significantly associated with adherence and changes in adherence over the 8-year follow-up period. Results Of the 98 FEP patients analyzed at baseline, 57.1% had involuntary first admission, 74.4% bad adherence, and 52% cannabis use. Good adherence at baseline was associated with Global Assessment of Functioning score (p = 0.019), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (p = 0.017) and voluntary admission (p < 0.001). Adherence patterns over 8 years included: 43.4% patients always bad, 26.1% always good, 25% improved from bad to good. Among the improved adherence group, 95.7% had involuntary first admission and 38.9% stopped cannabis use. In the subgroup of patients with bad adherence at baseline, involuntary first admission and quitting cannabis use during follow up were associated with improved adherence. Conclusions The long-term association between treatment adherence and type of first admission and cannabis use in FEP patients suggest targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24289797

  10. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole Is Tuned by Membrane Trafficking Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yee-Hung Mark; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2014-01-01

    Organelles serve as biochemical reactors in the cell, and often display characteristic scaling trends with cell size, suggesting mechanisms that coordinate their sizes. In this study, we measure the vacuole-cell size scaling trends in budding yeast using optical microscopy and a novel, to our knowledge, image analysis algorithm. Vacuole volume and surface area both show characteristic scaling trends with respect to cell size that are consistent among different strains. Rapamycin treatment was found to increase vacuole-cell size scaling trends for both volume and surface area. Unexpectedly, these increases did not depend on macroautophagy, as similar increases in vacuole size were observed in the autophagy deficient mutants atg1Δ and atg5Δ. Rather, rapamycin appears to act on vacuole size by inhibiting retrograde membrane trafficking, as the atg18Δ mutant, which is defective in retrograde trafficking, shows similar vacuole size scaling to rapamycin-treated cells and is itself insensitive to rapamycin treatment. Disruption of anterograde membrane trafficking in the apl5Δ mutant leads to complementary changes in vacuole size scaling. These quantitative results lead to a simple model for vacuole size scaling based on proportionality between cell growth rates and vacuole growth rates. PMID:24806931

  11. Organelle size scaling of the budding yeast vacuole is tuned by membrane trafficking rates.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yee-Hung Mark; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-05-01

    Organelles serve as biochemical reactors in the cell, and often display characteristic scaling trends with cell size, suggesting mechanisms that coordinate their sizes. In this study, we measure the vacuole-cell size scaling trends in budding yeast using optical microscopy and a novel, to our knowledge, image analysis algorithm. Vacuole volume and surface area both show characteristic scaling trends with respect to cell size that are consistent among different strains. Rapamycin treatment was found to increase vacuole-cell size scaling trends for both volume and surface area. Unexpectedly, these increases did not depend on macroautophagy, as similar increases in vacuole size were observed in the autophagy deficient mutants atg1Δ and atg5Δ. Rather, rapamycin appears to act on vacuole size by inhibiting retrograde membrane trafficking, as the atg18Δ mutant, which is defective in retrograde trafficking, shows similar vacuole size scaling to rapamycin-treated cells and is itself insensitive to rapamycin treatment. Disruption of anterograde membrane trafficking in the apl5Δ mutant leads to complementary changes in vacuole size scaling. These quantitative results lead to a simple model for vacuole size scaling based on proportionality between cell growth rates and vacuole growth rates.

  12. Isometric size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Ortega, María; Cermeño, Pedro; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Marañón, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance has long been known to follow regular, predictable patterns in near steady-state ecosystems, but its origin has remained elusive. To explore the linkage between the size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of natural phytoplankton communities, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and cell abundance across a cell volume range of over six orders of magnitude in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. We found an approximately isometric relationship between carbon fixation rate and cell size (mean slope value: 1.16; range: 1.03–1.32), negating the idea that Kleiber's law is applicable to unicellular autotrophic protists. On the basis of the scaling of individual resource use with cell size, we predicted a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. This prediction was confirmed by the observed slopes of the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and cell size, which have a mean value of −1.15 (range: −1.29 to −0.97), indicating that the size abundance distribution largely results from the size-scaling of metabolic rate. Our results imply that the total energy processed by carbon fixation is constant along the phytoplankton size spectrum in near steady-state marine ecosystems. PMID:22171079

  13. Isometric size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Huete-Ortega, María; Cermeño, Pedro; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Marañón, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance has long been known to follow regular, predictable patterns in near steady-state ecosystems, but its origin has remained elusive. To explore the linkage between the size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of natural phytoplankton communities, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and cell abundance across a cell volume range of over six orders of magnitude in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. We found an approximately isometric relationship between carbon fixation rate and cell size (mean slope value: 1.16; range: 1.03-1.32), negating the idea that Kleiber's law is applicable to unicellular autotrophic protists. On the basis of the scaling of individual resource use with cell size, we predicted a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. This prediction was confirmed by the observed slopes of the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and cell size, which have a mean value of -1.15 (range: -1.29 to -0.97), indicating that the size abundance distribution largely results from the size-scaling of metabolic rate. Our results imply that the total energy processed by carbon fixation is constant along the phytoplankton size spectrum in near steady-state marine ecosystems.

  14. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Time Scaling of the Rates of Produced Fluids in Laboratory Displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, Catherine; Chen, Min; Yortsos, Yanis C.; Kamath, Jairam

    2001-02-27

    In this report, the use of an asymptotic method, based on the time scaling of the ratio of produced fluids, to infer the relative permeability exponent of the displaced phase near its residual saturation, for immiscible displacements in laboratory cores was proposed. Sufficiently large injection rates, the existence of a power law can be detected, and its exponent inferred, by plotting in an appropriate plot the ratio of the flow rates of the two fluids at the effluent for some time after breakthrough.

  16. An objective method for assessing adherence to prophylaxis in adults with severe haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Ho, S; Gue, D; McIntosh, K; Bucevska, M; Yang, M; Jackson, S

    2014-01-01

    Severe haemophilia is often managed by prophylactic factor infusions in developed countries. The benefits of secondary prophylaxis in adults are currently being studied and adherence to the prescribed prophylactic factor regimen is vital to decreasing bleeding episodes. The aim of this study was to measure discrepancy between the physicians' prescription for prophylactic factor usage, and the actual factor usage obtained through infusion logs. During this method subjects with severe haemophilia A or B (FVIII or FIX ≤2%), from a single haemophilia clinic with complete medical and infusion records from July 01, 2009 to June 30, 2011, were evaluated. Continuous prophylaxis ≥4 weeks were included in the analysis. A scoring system for adherence to prescribed dosing and frequency was developed. A global scale of adherence was performed by two independent nurses using visual analogue scale. Thirty-one subjects, all with haemophilia A, with a median age of 26 years (range 18-56) were included. Results showed that the median (IQR) adherence rate to prescribed frequency and dosage, respectively, was 76% (67;85) and 93% (73;97). In multivariate analysis, only the length of time on prophylaxis during the study period showed a positive correlation with adherence whereas age, number of co-infections, number of bleeds and number of joints with chronic arthropathy did not. Global nursing assessments were in general agreement with the score. In conclusion, we observed a moderately good level of adherence based on score and by the nurse global assessment. Better adherence was found in subjects with longer exposure to prophylaxis.

  17. Patient Perceptions of Voice Therapy Adherence

    PubMed Central

    van Leer, Eva; Connor, Nadine P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Patient perspectives of behavioral voice therapy, including perspectives of treatment adherence, have not been formally documented. Because treatment adherence is to a large extent determined by patient beliefs, assessment of patient perspectives is integral to the study of adherence. Methods Fifteen patients who had undergone at least 2 sessions of direct voice therapy for a variety of voice disorders/complaints were interviewed about their perspectives on voice therapy, with a particular focus on adherence. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for content according to qualitative methods. Results Three common content themes emerged from the transcripts: Voice Therapy is Hard, Make it Happen, and The Match Matters. Findings are compared to reports of patient experiences in other behavioral interventions such as diet and exercise, and related to existing theoretical models of behavior change and the therapeutic process. Conclusion This study yields information toward the development of scales to measure adherence-related constructs and strategies to improve treatment adherence in voice therapy. PMID:19775866

  18. Adherence to Sublingual Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Leo, Gualtiero; Ridolo, Erminia

    2016-02-01

    Adherence is a major issue in any medical treatment. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is particularly affected by a poor adherence because a flawed application prevents the immunological effects that underlie the clinical outcome of the treatment. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1990s, and the early studies suggested that adherence and compliance to such a route of administration was better than the traditional subcutaneous route. However, the recent data from manufacturers revealed that only 13% of patients treated with SLIT reach the recommended 3-year duration. Therefore, improved adherence to SLIT is an unmet need that may be achieved by various approaches. The utility of patient education and accurate monitoring during the treatment was demonstrated by specific studies, while the success of technology-based tools, including online platforms, social media, e-mail, and a short message service by phone, is currently considered to improve the adherence. This goal is of pivotal importance to fulfill the object of SLIT that is to modify the natural history of allergy, ensuring a long-lasting clinical benefit, and a consequent pharmaco-economic advantage, when patients complete at least a 3-year course of treatment. PMID:26758865

  19. The development of a noise annoyance scale for rating residential noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jong Kwan; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2005-09-01

    In this study, 5-point and 7-point verbal noise annoyance scales were developed. The 5-point annoyance scale for outside environmental noise was developed from a survey conducted in four Korean cities. An auditory experiment using residential noises such as airborne, bathroom drainage, and traffic noises was conducted to compare the effectiveness of the 5-point and 7-point scales for rating residential indoor noise. Result showed that the 7-point scale yielded more detailed responses to indoor residential noise. In addition, auditory experiments were conducted to develop a noise annoyance scale for the classification of common residential noises. The modifiers used in the scales were selected according to the method proposed by ICBEN (International Commission on the Biological 12Effect of Noise) Team 6. As a result, the difference between the intensity of 21 modifiers investigated in the survey and the auditory experiment was very small. It was also found that the intensity of the selected modifiers in the 7-point noise annoyance scale was highly correlated with noise levels, and that the intensity difference between each pair of successive levels in the 7-point annoyance scale was almost identical.

  20. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale – Self-report & clinician-rated versions

    PubMed Central

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  1. Detection of changes in the fractal scaling of heart rate and speed in a marathon race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Meyer, Yves; Wesfreid, Eva

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect changes in the fractal scaling behavior of heart rate and speed fluctuations when the average runner’s speed decreased with fatigue. Scaling analysis in heart rate (HR) and speed (S) dynamics of marathon runners was performed using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the wavelet based structure function. We considered both: the short-range ( α1) and the long-range ( α2) scaling exponents for the DFA method separated by a change-point, n0=64=5.3 min (box length), the same for all the races. The variability of HR and S decreased in the second part of the marathon race, while the cardiac cost time series (i.e. the number of cardiac beats per meter) increased due to the decreasing speed behavior. The scaling exponents α1 and α2 of HR and α1 of S, increased during the race ( p<0.01) as did the HR wavelet scaling exponent ( τ). These findings provide evidence of the significant effect of fatigue induced by long exercise on the heart rate and speed variability.

  2. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  3. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Application of Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warash, Barbara G.; Ward, Corina; Rotilie, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a one day training on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) corresponded to pre-k classroom changes. Teachers attended an ECERS-R module training and six months later completed a questionnaire to report any classroom changes. The questionnaire consisted of listing the subscales and…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  6. ECERS-E: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Curricular Extension to ECERS-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylva, Kathy; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This is the third edition of the ECERS-E, formerly called "Assessing Quality in the Early Years: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-E)." The ECERS-E is an instrument for measuring quality in literacy, numeracy, science and diversity as observable in pre-school in relation to child cognitive and social/behavioural developmental…

  7. Evaluating Sensitivity to Behavioral Change Using Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the researchers evaluated the sensitivity of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) for assessing behavior change in response to an intervention. Included in the analyses were data from 20 completed behavioral consultation cases involving a diverse sample of elementary participants and contexts using a common…

  8. Item-Based Psychometrics of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia J.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS) is an assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in preschoolers with well-established reliability and validity for educational and clinical application in children with and without disabilities. The present study provides further evidence of psychometric rigor for items and…

  9. Development of an Analytical Rating Scale for Japanese L1 Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki; Hirose, Keiko

    1999-01-01

    Developed an analytic rating scale for Japanese university students' first-language (L1) expository writing. Devised a questionnaire to investigate Japanese L1 teachers' criteria for evaluating expository writing, and, based on questionnaire results, eliminated or reorganized the descriptions under six analytic criteria. (Author/VWL)

  10. Absolute and Relative Reliability of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered and Severity Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) and severity rating (SR) scales are measures in common use to quantify stuttering severity and its changes during basic and clinical research conditions. However, their reliability has not been assessed with indices measuring both relative and absolute reliability. This study was designed to provide…

  11. Intake Screening with the Self-Rating Depression Scale in a University Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy B.; Rosenstein, Ilene; Granaas, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the psychometric properties of the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) using an ethnically diverse sample of 324 counseling center clients. Results provide moderate support for the SDS. Differences across demographic groups and considerations for intake screening are discussed. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  12. Factor Structure and Differential Validity of the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Young, Tony R.

    2004-01-01

    The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is one of the most widely used measures in psychiatric outcome and clinical psychopharmacology research. To date, however, research on the psychometric properties of the expanded version of the BPRS (BPRS-E) has been limited. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 360) using maximum likelihood extraction with…

  13. Validation of the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Parent Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Audrey Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The current dissertation gathered empirical evidence of convergent and predictive validity for the Self-Regulation Strategies Inventory-Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), which measures parents' perception of their child's use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies during mathematics activities. The SRSI-PRS, which is part of the larger SRSI…

  14. Quality of Child Care Using the Environment Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Cárcamo, Rodrigo A.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides a systematic examination of child care quality around the globe, using the Environment Rating Scales (ERS). Additional goals of this study are to examine associations between ERS process quality and structural features (group size, caregiver-child ratio) that underpin quality and between ERS and more proximal aspects of…

  15. Using Rating Scale and Nomination Techniques to Measure Friendship and Popularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied the associations between measures of friendship and popularity derived from nomination and rating scales procedures with a sample of school-age and early adolescent boys and girls. Found that each of these techniques can provide parallel measures of popularity (sociometric preference) and friendship (whether the child is participating in a…

  16. Psychometric Properties of a Proposed Short Form of the BASC Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Daniel J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    A 25 item short form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool (TRS-P) was developed by the BASC authors to serve as an emotional/behavioral indicator for an academic intervention study targeting preschool-aged students. The BASC screener is thought to fulfill a need for an abbreviated behavior rating…

  17. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  18. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  19. Measuring Depression at the End of Life: Is the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale a Valid Instrument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olden, Megan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2009-01-01

    Depression at the end of life is a common mental health issue with serious implications for quality of life and decision making. This study investigated the reliability and validity of one of the most frequently used measures of depression, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in 422 patients with terminal cancer admitted to a palliative…

  20. Direct Behavior Rating Scales as Screeners: A Preliminary Investigation of Diagnostic Accuracy in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Welsh, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scales for use in school-based behavior screening of second-grade students. Results indicated that each behavior target was a moderately to highly accurate predictor of behavioral risk. Optimal universal screening cut scores…

  1. Evidence Based Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Social Phobia: A Critical Review of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulbure, Bogdan T.; Szentagotai, Aurora; Dobrean, Anca; David, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the empirical support of various assessment instruments, the evidence based assessment approach expands the scientific basis of psychotherapy. Starting from Hunsley and Mash's evaluative framework, we critically reviewed the rating scales designed to measure social anxiety or phobia in youth. Thirteen of the most researched social…

  2. Measurement Error of Scores on the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale across Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Henson, Robin K.

    2001-01-01

    Submitted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (F. Richardson and R. Suinn, 1972) to a reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MARS scores across administrations and identify characteristics predictive of score reliability variations. Results for 67 analyses generally support the internal…

  3. The Validity of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale with Incarcerated Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Jack D.; Bogan, Joseph B.

    1976-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale reliably predicts the adjustment capacity of various S types to a variety of situations. The present study investigated the efficacy of the RPRS to suggest the adjustment capacity of prisoners to various aspects of their institutional environment. (Editor)

  4. Factor Structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale and Its Relation to Therapeutic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Stephen M.; Edinger, Jack D.

    1976-01-01

    This study evaluated the factor structure of the Rorschach Prognostic Rating Scale (RPRS) in order to: (a) test the assumption that the RPRS represents a unitary response system and (b) determine the efficacy of employing population specific factor scores as predictors of therapy outcome. (Author/NG)

  5. Measuring Pretest-Posttest Change with a Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Chiu, Chris W. T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a method for disentangling changes in persons from changes in the interpretation of Likert-type questionnaire items and the use of rating scales. The procedure relies on anchoring strategies to create a common frame of reference for interpreting measures taken at different times. Illustrates the use of these procedures using the FACETS…

  6. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  7. The Factor Structure and Sources of Variation Underlying the Social Learning Environment Rating Scales: Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warshow, Joyce P.; Bepko, Raymond A.

    Seventeen intermediate level classes for the educable mentally retarded were involved in an investigation of the factor structure of the Social Learning Environment Rating Scale (SLERS), an instrument designed to quantify teacher-student behavior based on the Social Learning Curriculum (SLC). The 17 classes were observed implementing six…

  8. Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Devereux Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, William M.; Bernstein, Sydna M.

    1982-01-01

    The factorial validity and internal consistency reliability of the Devereux Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale were examined with a random sample of elementary school children. Given the problem of multicollinearity that was shown to exist among subscales, the authors suggest caution in the interpretation of Devereux subscales as discrete…

  9. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  10. Measurement Invariance of the Chinese Gifted Rating Scales: Teacher and Parent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Li, Huijun

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) has been validated in several countries; however, no study has examined the rater invariance of this measure. The present study built on previous validity studies and examined configural and metric invariance between parent and teacher raters using the Chinese version of the GRS-S Teacher and Parent…

  11. Validation of an Interview-Based Rating Scale Developed in Japan for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tani, Iori; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Adachi, Jun; Hara, Koichi; Ogasawara, Megumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Kamio, Yoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Taku; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), an interview-based instrument for evaluating PDDs, has been developed in Japan with the aim of providing a method that (1) can be used to evaluate PDD symptoms and related support needs and (2) is simpler and easier than the currently used "gold standard"…

  12. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  13. Factor Analysis of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale for Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Cynthia; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Strength-based assessment of behaviors in preschool children provides evidence of emotional and behavioral skills in children, rather than focusing primarily on weaknesses identified by deficit-based assessments. The Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales (PreBERS) is a normative assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths in…

  14. Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)

  15. Technical Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale--Second Edition--Teacher Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and validity of scores on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-second edition-teacher version (DBRS-II-T) was analyzed. The DBRS-II-T was designed to assess teacher observations of students referred for behavioral difficulties. The five-factor model fit the data poorly, but convergent and diagnostic validities were excellent.…

  16. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Rating Scale: Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hommersen, Paul; Murray, Candice; Ohan, Jeneva L.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the psychometric properties of a parent-completed rating scale based on the criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision" ("DSM-IV-TR"). Mothers of 294 boys and 48 girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  17. Diagnostic Group Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings on the BRIEF and Conners' Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Riccio, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral rating scales are common instruments used in evaluations of ADHD and executive function. It is important to explore how different diagnostic groups perform on these measures, as this information can be used to provide criterion-related validity evidence for the measures. Method: Data from 92 children and adolescents were used…

  18. Validity of the Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the validity of a 4-point rating scale used to measure the level of preschool children's orientation to literacy during shared book reading. Validity was explored by (a) comparing the children's level of literacy orientation as measured with the "Children's Orientation to Book Reading Rating…

  19. Erosive Augmentation of Solid Propellant Burning Rate: Motor Size Scaling Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, Norman S.

    1990-01-01

    Two different independent variable forms, a difference form and a ratio form, were investigated for correlating the normalized magnitude of the measured erosive burning rate augmentation above the threshold in terms of the amount that the driving parameter (mass flux or Reynolds number) exceeds the threshold value for erosive augmentation at the test condition. The latter was calculated from the previously determined threshold correlation. Either variable form provided a correlation for each of the two motor size data bases individually. However, the data showed a motor size effect, supporting the general observation that the magnitude of erosive burning rate augmentation is reduced for larger rocket motors. For both independent variable forms, the required motor size scaling was attained by including the motor port radius raised to a power in the independent parameter. A boundary layer theory analysis confirmed the experimental finding, but showed that the magnitude of the scale effect is itself dependent upon scale, tending to diminish with increasing motor size.

  20. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  1. Heart failure patient adherence: epidemiology, cause, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Corotto, Paul S; McCarey, Melissa M; Adams, Suzanne; Khazanie, Prateeti; Whellan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Poor adherence to therapeutic regimens is a significant impediment to improving clinical outcomes in the HF population. Typical rates of adherence to prescribed medications, low-sodium diets, and aerobic exercise programs remain lower than that needed to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with HF. Factors contributing to poor adherence include multiple comorbidities, clinical depression, and decreased cognitive functioning. HF education and programs to enhance self-management skills have improved patient quality of life but have yet to decrease mortality or rehospitalization rates significantly. Telemonitoring to improve adherence behaviors and self-management interventions within broader HF management programs have demonstrated significant clinical improvements in this population.

  2. The scaling of contact rates with population density for the infectious disease models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Contact rates and patterns among individuals in a geographic area drive transmission of directly-transmitted pathogens, making it essential to understand and estimate contacts for simulation of disease dynamics. Under the uniform mixing assumption, one of two mechanisms is typically used to describe the relation between contact rate and population density: density-dependent or frequency-dependent. Based on existing evidence of population threshold and human mobility patterns, we formulated a spatial contact model to describe the appropriate form of transmission with initial growth at low density and saturation at higher density. We show that the two mechanisms are extreme cases that do not capture real population movement across all scales. Empirical data of human and wildlife diseases indicate that a nonlinear function may work better when looking at the full spectrum of densities. This estimation can be applied to large areas with population mixing in general activities. For crowds with unusually large densities (e.g., transportation terminals, stadiums, or mass gatherings), the lack of organized social contact structure deviates the physical contacts towards a special case of the spatial contact model - the dynamics of kinetic gas molecule collision. In this case, an ideal gas model with van der Waals correction fits well; existing movement observation data and the contact rate between individuals is estimated using kinetic theory. A complete picture of contact rate scaling with population density may help clarify the definition of transmission rates in heterogeneous, large-scale spatial systems.

  3. Atomic Scale Modeling of High Strain Rate Deformation and Failure of HCP Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenchery, Karoon; Agarwal, Garvit; Dongare, Avinash

    2015-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of the microstructure effects on the defect evolution at the atomic resolution and the related contribution to plasticity at the macro-scales is needed to obtain a reliable performance of metallic materials in extreme environments. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to characterize the dynamic evolution of defect/damage structures during the deformation and failure behavior of HCP (Mg, Ti) metallic systems (single crystal and nanocrystalline at high strain rates as well as under shock loading conditions. The evolution of various types of dislocations, twins, faults, etc. and the related deformation and failure response (nucleation and growth of voids/cracks) will be discussed. The effects of strain rates on relationships between the microstructure and the strength of these materials at high strain rates and the underlying micromechanisms related to deformation and failure will be discussed.

  4. Subgrid-scale model for the scalar dissipation rate in nonpremixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bushe, W. K.; Cook, A. W.

    1998-08-31

    A subgrid-scale model is presented for the scalar dissipation rate in nonpremixed turbulent reacting flows. Inputs to the model are the filtered density, the Favre- filtered temperature and the Favre-filtered misture-fraction. The model contains a coefficient which is determined by assuming a form for the scalar energy spectrum. Inputs to the presumed spectrum are the integral and dissipation length scales of the scalar field. These quantities are estimated locally from the Favre-filtered velocity field, resulting in a model coefficient which is spatially and temporally dependent. The model is tested a priori using data from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DXS) of a temporal reacting mixing layer. Estimated values of the dissipation rate are found in good agreement with dissipation rates computed directly from the DXS data. Furthermore, the presumed spectrum methodology is found to accurately predict the mean value of the model coefficient as well as its spatial and temporal variations.

  5. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the GRS-S Spanish Form. Results indicated strong internal consistency for teacher ratings with alphas ranging from .98 to .99. Intercorrelations between scales are moderate to strong, ranging from .88 to .97. Factor testing of two separate models supported a six factor model proposed by authors of the GRS-S. Results provided initial support for the GRS-S Spanish translated version as a reliable and potentially useful screening measure to assist in the identification of island Puerto Rican gifted students. PMID:26388705

  6. Standardized clinical outcome rating scale for depression for use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Posternak, Michael A; Chelminski, Iwona; Friedman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The integration of research into clinical practice to conduct effectiveness studies faces multiple obstacles. One obstacle is the burden of completing research measures of outcome. A simple, reliable, and valid measure that could be rated at every visit, incorporated into a clinician's progress note, and reflect the DSM-IV definition of a major depressive episode (including partial and full remission from the episode) would enhance the ability to conduct effectiveness research. The goal of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of such a measure. Three hundred and three psychiatric outpatients who were being treated for a DSM-IV major depressive episode were rated on the Standardized Clinical Outcome Rating for Depression (SCOR-D), 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning. We examined the correlation between the SCOR-D and the other measures, and conducted an analyses of variance to compare mean values on these measures for each rating point on the SCOR-D. The inter-rater reliability of the SCOR-D dimensional ratings and categorical determination of remission were high. The SCOR-D was highly correlated with the other scales, and there were significant differences on the other measures of depression severity between each adjacent rating level of the SCOR-D. The SCOR-D is a brief standardized outcome measure linked to the DSM-IV approach toward defining remission that can be incorporated into routine clinical practice without adding undue burden to the treating clinician with some evidence of reliability and validity. This measure could make it more feasible to conduct effectiveness studies in clinical practice.

  7. Equipercentile linking of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale in a catchment area.

    PubMed

    Leucht, Stefan; Engel, Rolf R; Davis, John M; Kissling, Werner; Meyer Zur Capellen, Katrin; Schmauß, Max; Messer, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses tried to explain the meaning of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score (BPRS) and its percentage change from baseline by equipercentile linking with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). A major limitation was that they were conducted in clinical trial populations limiting generalisability to 'real-world' patients. We therefore replicated the findings in a large sample covering patients admitted to a state hospital with a catchment area. BPRS and CGI ratings at admission (n=1772) and at discharge from all patients with schizophrenic disorders (ICD-10 F20.0-F20.9) admitted between 2005 and 2008 were compared using equipercentile linking. Being considered "mildly ill" according to the CGI severity score approximately corresponded to a BPRS total score of 25, "moderately ill" to a BPRS of 33-35, "markedly ill" to a BPRS of 50 and severely ill to a BPRS of 70. To be "minimally improved" according to the CGI change score was associated with a mean BPRS reduction of 13%; and "much improved" with 50% BPRS reduction. The linking functions were not identical, but overall comparable to those in previous randomised trial samples. The suggestion that a 50% BPRS reduction from baseline is a clinically meaningful definition of response in acutely ill patients was reinforced.

  8. A comparison between three rating scales for perceived exertion and two different work tests.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Kaijser, L

    2006-02-01

    In the present article, three scales developed by Borg are compared on bicycle ergometer work. In the first study, comparing the Borg Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Category scales with Ratio properties (CR10) scales, 40 healthy subjects (12 men and eight women for each scale) with a mean age of about 30 years (SD approximately 6) participated. A work-test protocol with step-wise increase of work loads every minute was used (20 W increase for men and 15 W for women). Ratings and heart rates (HRs) were recorded every minute and blood lactates every third minute. Data obtained with the RPE scale were described with linear regressions, with individual correlations of about 0.98. Data obtained with the CR10 scale could also be described by linear regressions, but when described by power functions gave exponents of about 1.2 (SD approximately 0.4) (with one additional constant included in the power function). This was significantly lower than the exponent of between 1.5 and 1.9 that has previously been observed. Mean individual correlations were 0.98. Blood lactate concentration grew with monotonously increasing functions that could be described by power functions with a mean exponent of about 2.6 (SD approximately 0.6) (with two additional constants included in the power functions). In the second study, where also the more recently developed Borg CR100 scale (centiMax) was included, 24 healthy subjects (12 men and 12 women) with a mean age of about 29 years (SD approximately 3) participated in a work test with a step-wise increase of work loads (25 W) every third minute. Ratings and HRs were recorded. RPE values were described by linear regressions with individual correlations of about 0.97. Data from the two CR scales were described by power functions with mean exponents of about 1.4 (SD approximately 0.5) (with a-values in the power functions). Mean individual correlations were about 0.98. In both studies, a tendency for a deviation from linearity between

  9. Adherence to treatment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Egedy, Maud; Frappier, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Health care professionals must be alert to the high prevalence of low adherence to treatment during adolescence. Low adherence increases morbidity and medical complications, contributes to poorer quality of life and an overuse of the health care system. Many different factors have an impact on adherence. However, critical factors to consider in teens are their developmental stage and challenges, emotional issues and family dysfunction. Direct and indirect methods have been described to assess adherence. Eliciting an adherence history is the most useful way for clinicians to evaluate adherence, and could be the beginning of a constructive dialogue with the adolescent. Interventions to improve adherence are multiple – managing mental health issues appropriately, building a strong relationship, customizing the treatment regimen if possible, empowering the adolescent to deal with adherence issues, providing information, ensuring family and peer support, and motivational enhancement therapy. Evaluation of adherence at regular intervals should be an important aspect of health care for adolescents. PMID:19119348

  10. Medication adherence behaviors of Medicare beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Carr-Lopez, Sian M; Shek, Allen; Lastimosa, Janine; Patel, Rajul A; Woelfel, Joseph A; Galal, Suzanne M; Gundersen, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication adherence is crucial for positive outcomes in the management of chronic conditions. Comprehensive medication consultation can improve medication adherence by addressing intentional and unintentional nonadherence. The Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit has eliminated some cost barriers. We sought to examine variables that impact self-reported medication adherence behaviors in an ambulatory Medicare-beneficiary population and to identify the factors that influence what information is provided during a pharmacist consultation. Methods Medicare beneficiaries who attended health fairs in northern California were offered medication therapy management (MTM) services during which demographic, social, and health information, and responses to survey questions regarding adherence were collected. Beneficiaries were also asked which critical elements of a consultation were typically provided by their community pharmacist. Survey responses were examined as a function of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors. Results Of the 586 beneficiaries who were provided MTM services, 575 (98%) completed the adherence questions. Of responders, 406 (70%) reported taking medications “all of the time”. Of the remaining 169 (30%), the following reasons for nonadherence were provided: 123 (73%) forgetfulness; 18 (11%) side effects; and 17 (10%) the medication was not needed. Lower adherence rates were associated with difficulty paying for medication, presence of a medication-related problem, and certain symptomatic chronic conditions. Of the 532 who completed survey questions regarding the content of a typical pharmacist consultation, the topics included: 378 (71%) medication name and indication; 361 (68%) administration instructions; 307 (58%) side effects; 257 (48%) missed-dose instructions; and 245 (46%) interactions. Subsidy recipients and non-English speakers were significantly less likely to be counseled on drug name, indication, and side

  11. Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Implications for Future Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Terri E.; Sawyer, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a critical problem with adherence rates ranging from 30–60%. Poor adherence to CPAP is widely recognized as a significant limiting factor in treating OSA, reducing the overall effectiveness of the treatment and leaving many OSA patients at heightened risk for comorbid conditions, impaired function and quality of life. The extant literature examining adherence to CPAP provides critical insight to measuring adherence outcomes, defining optimal adherence levels, and predicting CPAP adherence. This research has revealed salient factors that are associated with or predict CPAP adherence and may guide the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Over the past 10 years, intervention studies to promote CPAP adherence have incorporated a multitude of strategies including education, support, cognitive behavioral approaches, and mixed strategies. This review of the current state of science of CPAP adherence will (1) synthesize the extant literature with regard to measuring, defining, and predicting CPAP adherence, (2) review published intervention studies aimed at promoting CPAP adherence, and (3) suggest directions for future empiric study of adherence to CPAP that will have implications for translational science. Our current understanding of CPAP adherence suggests that adherence is a multi-factorial, complex clinical problem that requires similarly designed approaches to effectively address poor CPAP adherence in the OSA population. PMID:20308750

  12. Using Rating Scales for the Assessment of Physical Self-Concept: Why the Number of Response Categories Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

  13. Assessing Learners' Writing Skills in a SLA Study: Validating the Rating Process across Tasks, Scales and Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhta, Ari; Alanen, Riikka; Tarnanen, Mirja; Martin, Maisa; Hirvelä, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    There is still relatively little research on how well the CEFR and similar holistic scales work when they are used to rate L2 texts. Using both multifaceted Rasch analyses and qualitative data from rater comments and interviews, the ratings obtained by using a CEFR-based writing scale and the Finnish National Core Curriculum scale for L2 writing…

  14. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Kang Uk; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to measure inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and factor solutions of the Korean version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). Methods The Korean version of the CLANG for assessing thought, language, and communication, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used to evaluate language disorder, formal thought disorder, positive and negative symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, in 167 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The factor solution was obtained by the direct oblimin method. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off score for discriminating schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Results Inter-rater reliability was considered moderate (intraclass coefficient=0.67, F=3.30, p=0.04), and test-retest reliability was considered high (r=0.94, p<0.001). Five factors, namely, pragmatics, disclosure, production, prosody, and association, were identified. An optimal cut-off score of 7 points with 84.5% sensitivity and 81.7% specificity was proposed for distinguishing schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26792040

  16. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Sandy, C.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.; Zishiri, C.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe.

  17. Declining tuberculosis case notification rates with the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Sandy, C.; Mutasa-Apollo, T.; Zishiri, C.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Zimbabwe has a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) driven tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaled up in the public sector since 2004. Objective: To determine whether national ART scale-up was associated with annual national TB case notification rates (CNR), stratified by disease type and category, between 2000 and 2013. Design: This was a retrospective study using aggregate data from global reports. Results: The number of people living with HIV and retained on ART from 2004 to 2013 increased from 8400 to 665 299, with ART coverage increasing from <0.5% to 48%. TB CNRs, all types and categories, increased from 2000 to 2003, and declined thereafter from 2004 to 2013. The decreases in annual TB notifications between the highest rates (before 2004) and lowest rates (2013) were all forms of TB (56%), new TB (60%), previously treated TB (53%), new smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) (40%), new smear-negative/smear-unknown PTB (58%) and extra-pulmonary TB (58%). Conclusion: Significant declines in TB CNRs were observed during ART scale-up, especially for smear-negative PTB and extra-pulmonary TB. These encouraging national trends support the continued scale-up of ART for people living with HIV as a way of tackling the twin epidemics of HIV/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and TB in Zimbabwe. PMID:27695678

  18. A new rating scale for adult ADHD based on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90-R).

    PubMed

    Eich, Dominique; Angst, Jules; Frei, Anja; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Gamma, Alex

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is increasingly recognized as a clinically important syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric performance of a new scale for adult ADHD based on the widely used Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). Scale performance was assessed in a clinical study including 100 ADHD patients and 65 opiate-dependent patient controls, and in the Zurich study, an epidemiological age cohort followed over 30 years of adult life. Assessments included a ROC analysis of sensitivity and specificity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, external validity and measurement invariance over nine testing occasions. The new scale showed a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 54%, respectively, internal consistency over 0.8 (McDonald's omega, Cronbach's alpha), one-year test-retest reliabilities over 0.7, statistically significant and substantial correlations with two other validated self-rating scales of adult ADHD (R = 0.5 and 0.66, respectively), and an acceptable degree of longitudinal stability (i.e., measurement invariance). The proposed scale must be further evaluated, but these preliminary results indicate it could be a useful rating instrument for adult ADHD in situations where SCL-90-R data, but no specific ADHD assessment, are available, such as in retrospective data analysis or in prospective studies with limited methodical resources. PMID:22212725

  19. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  20. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  1. Measuring the Rates of Spontaneous Mutation From Deep and Large-Scale Polymorphism Data

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Philipp W.

    2009-01-01

    The rates and patterns of spontaneous mutation are fundamental parameters of molecular evolution. Current methodology either tries to measure such rates and patterns directly in mutation-accumulation experiments or tries to infer them indirectly from levels of divergence or polymorphism. While experimental approaches are constrained by the low rate at which new mutations occur, indirect approaches suffer from their underlying assumption that mutations are effectively neutral. Here I present a maximum-likelihood approach to estimate mutation rates from large-scale polymorphism data. It is demonstrated that the method is not sensitive to demography and the distribution of selection coefficients among mutations when applied to mutations at sufficiently low population frequencies. With the many large-scale sequencing projects currently underway, for instance, the 1000 genomes project in humans, plenty of the required low-frequency polymorphism data will shortly become available. My method will allow for an accurate and unbiased inference of mutation rates and patterns from such data sets at high spatial resolution. I discuss how the assessment of several long-standing problems of evolutionary biology would benefit from the availability of accurate mutation rate estimates. PMID:19528323

  2. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  3. Application of the Repetitions in Reserve-Based Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, John; Storey, Adam; Zourdos, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION ARE A VALID METHOD OF ESTIMATING THE INTENSITY OF A RESISTANCE TRAINING EXERCISE OR SESSION. SCORES ARE GIVEN AFTER COMPLETION OF AN EXERCISE OR TRAINING SESSION FOR THE PURPOSES OF ATHLETE MONITORING. HOWEVER, A NEWLY DEVELOPED SCALE BASED ON HOW MANY REPETITIONS ARE REMAINING AT THE COMPLETION OF A SET MAY BE A MORE PRECISE TOOL. THIS APPROACH ADJUSTS LOADS AUTOMATICALLY TO MATCH ATHLETE CAPABILITIES ON A SET-TO-SET BASIS AND MAY MORE ACCURATELY GAUGE INTENSITY AT NEAR-LIMIT LOADS. THIS ARTICLE OUTLINES HOW TO INCORPORATE THIS NOVEL SCALE INTO A TRAINING PLAN. PMID:27531969

  4. High mutational rates of large-scale duplication and deletion in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Nathan; Tucker, Abraham E.; Jackson, Craig E.; Sung, Way; Lucas Lledó, José Ignacio; Schrider, Daniel R.; Schaack, Sarah; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Ackerman, Matthew; Younge, Andrew J.; Shaw, Joseph R.; Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the genome-wide rate and spectrum of mutations is necessary to understand the origin of disease and the genetic variation driving all evolutionary processes. Here, we provide a genome-wide analysis of the rate and spectrum of mutations obtained in two Daphnia pulex genotypes via separate mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments. Unlike most MA studies that utilize haploid, homozygous, or self-fertilizing lines, D. pulex can be propagated ameiotically while maintaining a naturally heterozygous, diploid genome, allowing the capture of the full spectrum of genomic changes that arise in a heterozygous state. While base-substitution mutation rates are similar to those in other multicellular eukaryotes (about 4 × 10−9 per site per generation), we find that the rates of large-scale (>100 kb) de novo copy-number variants (CNVs) are significantly elevated relative to those seen in previous MA studies. The heterozygosity maintained in this experiment allowed for estimates of gene-conversion processes. While most of the conversion tract lengths we report are similar to those generated by meiotic processes, we also find larger tract lengths that are indicative of mitotic processes. Comparison of MA lines to natural isolates reveals that a majority of large-scale CNVs in natural populations are removed by purifying selection. The mutations observed here share similarities with disease-causing, complex, large-scale CNVs, thereby demonstrating that MA studies in D. pulex serve as a system for studying the processes leading to such alterations. PMID:26518480

  5. High mutational rates of large-scale duplication and deletion in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Keith, Nathan; Tucker, Abraham E; Jackson, Craig E; Sung, Way; Lucas Lledó, José Ignacio; Schrider, Daniel R; Schaack, Sarah; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Ackerman, Matthew; Younge, Andrew J; Shaw, Joseph R; Lynch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the genome-wide rate and spectrum of mutations is necessary to understand the origin of disease and the genetic variation driving all evolutionary processes. Here, we provide a genome-wide analysis of the rate and spectrum of mutations obtained in two Daphnia pulex genotypes via separate mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments. Unlike most MA studies that utilize haploid, homozygous, or self-fertilizing lines, D. pulex can be propagated ameiotically while maintaining a naturally heterozygous, diploid genome, allowing the capture of the full spectrum of genomic changes that arise in a heterozygous state. While base-substitution mutation rates are similar to those in other multicellular eukaryotes (about 4 × 10(-9) per site per generation), we find that the rates of large-scale (>100 kb) de novo copy-number variants (CNVs) are significantly elevated relative to those seen in previous MA studies. The heterozygosity maintained in this experiment allowed for estimates of gene-conversion processes. While most of the conversion tract lengths we report are similar to those generated by meiotic processes, we also find larger tract lengths that are indicative of mitotic processes. Comparison of MA lines to natural isolates reveals that a majority of large-scale CNVs in natural populations are removed by purifying selection. The mutations observed here share similarities with disease-causing, complex, large-scale CNVs, thereby demonstrating that MA studies in D. pulex serve as a system for studying the processes leading to such alterations. PMID:26518480

  6. Comparison of two self-rating scales to detect depression: HADS and PHQ-9

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Maja; Chotai, Jayanti; Nordstöm, Annika; Bodlund, Owe

    2009-01-01

    Background More than half of patients with depression go undetected. Self-rating scales can be useful in screening for depression, and measuring severity and treatment outcome. Aim This study compares the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) with regard to their psychometric properties, and investigates their agreement at different cut-off scores. Method Swedish primary care patients and psychiatric outpatients (n = 737) who reported symptoms of depression completed the self-rating scales. Data were collected from 2006 to 2007. Analyses with respect to internal consistency, factor analysis, and agreement (Cohen's κ) at recommended cut-offs were performed. Results Both scales had high internal consistency (α = 0.9) and stable factor structures. Using severity cut-offs, the PHQ-9 (≥5) diagnosed about 30% more patients than the HADS depression subscale (HADS-D; ≥8). They recognised the same prevalence of mild and moderate depression, but differed in relation to severe depression. When comparing recommended screening cut-offs, HADS-D ≥11 (33.5% of participants) and PHQ-9 ≥10 (65.9%) agreement was low (κ = 0.35). Using the lower recommended cut-off in the HADS-D (≥8), agreement with PHQ-9 ≥10 was moderate (κ = 0.52). The highest agreement (κ = 0.56) was found comparing HADS-D ≥8 with PHQ-9 ≥12. This also equalised the prevalence of depression found by the scales. Conclusion The HADS and PHQ-9 are both quick and reliable. The HADS has the advantage of evaluating both depression and anxiety, and the PHQ-9 of being strictly based upon the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The agreement between the scales at the best suitable cut-off is moderate, although the identified prevalence was similar. This indicates that the scales do not fully identify the same cases. This difference needs to be further explored. PMID:19761655

  7. Evaluation of the numeric rating scale for perception of effort during isometric elbow flexion exercise.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulou, Sofia; Nowicky, Alexander V

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the numerical rating scale (0-10 NRS) for rating perception of effort during isometric elbow flexion in healthy people. 33 individuals (32 ± 8 years) participated in the study. Three re-test measurements within one session and three weekly sessions were undertaken to determine the reliability of the scale. The sensitivity of the scale following 10 min isometric fatiguing exercise of the elbow flexors as well as the correlation of the effort with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the flexor muscles were tested. Perception of effort was tested during isometric elbow flexion at 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% MVC. The 0-10 NRS demonstrated an excellent test-retest reliability [intra class correlation (ICC) = 0.99 between measurements taken within a session and 0.96 between 3 consecutive weekly sessions]. Exploratory curve fitting for the relationship between effort ratings and voluntary force, and underlying EMG showed that both are best described by power functions (y = ax ( b )). There were also strong correlations (range 0.89-0.95) between effort ratings and EMG recordings of all flexor muscles supporting the concurrent criterion validity of the measure. The 0-10 NRS was sensitive enough to detect changes in the perceived effort following fatigue and significantly increased at the level of voluntary contraction used in its assessment (p < 0.001). These findings suggest the 0-10 NRS is a valid and reliable scale for rating perception of effort in healthy individuals. Future research should seek to establish the validity of the 0-10 NRS in clinical settings.

  8. Challenges in measuring medication adherence: experiences from a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kay; Mc Namara, Kevin P; George, Johnson

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of adherence is complex and many methods, both direct and indirect are used; there is no universal gold standard. In this article, we share our experiences in a randomised controlled study, the Hypertension Adherence Program in Pharmacy trial, evaluating a community pharmacy-based intervention for improving adherence to antihypertensive medication. Several objective and subjective measures of adherence (Morisky score, TABS score, MedsIndex, Medicines Possession Ratio) were used, but produced varying results, limiting confidence in the conclusions that could be drawn. Despite using a specifically designed data mining software program to identify potentially nonadherent patients from dispensing records, many participants were found to be adherent by the self reported Morisky scale. A lesson to be learned when targeting people for interventions to improve adherence is that information from dispensing records should be supplemented by other methods in order to identify patients most in need of assistance.

  9. How do socio-demographic and clinical factors interact with adherence attitude profiles in schizophrenia? A cluster-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Beck, Eva-Marina; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Wirtz, Markus; Kossowsky, Joe; Vauth, Roland

    2011-05-15

    Knowledge regarding socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of medication nonadherence does not always help in addressing adherence in individual patients. Classifying patients according to subjective adherence influencing factors may aid practitioners in choosing adequate strategies for improving medication adherence. A total of 171 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were classified according to factors influencing their medication adherence assessed using the Rating of Medication Influences Scale. Additionally, psychotic symptoms, depression, and insight, also known to influence pharmacological treatment motivation, were assessed. A cluster analysis yielded 3 groups that were distinguished both by the relative ranking of adherence influences and by specific associations with risk factors of nonadherence. For the "Interpersonal, Future-oriented Group" (n=59, 35% of the sample), interpersonal factors (positive therapeutic relationship, positive attitudes of significant others towards medication), immediate positive consequences of the medication intake (daily benefits, no perceived pressure to take medication), and avoiding future negative consequences of non-compliance, such as relapse and re-hospitalization, were essential for adherence. The "Autonomous, Future-oriented Group" (n=69, 40% of the sample) appraised interpersonal factors as being less important as compared to the other groups. This group exhibited significantly fewer depressive symptoms than the first group and had significantly more stable partnerships as compared to the other groups. The "Autonomous, Present-oriented Group" (n=43, 25% of the sample) was mainly motivated by immediate positive consequences and displayed higher levels of cognitive disorganization and negative symptoms than the second group, as well as the lowest level of insight of all groups. Treatment strategies addressing adherence enhancement in schizophrenia may profit by considering both the patient

  10. Adherence to Varenicline Among African American Smokers: An Exploratory Analysis Comparing Plasma Concentration, Pill Count, and Self-report

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Yturralde, Olivia; Jacob, Peyton; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Nollen, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is important to evaluating its effectiveness. Blood levels are considered the most accurate measure of adherence but are invasive and costly. Pill counts and self-report are more practical, but little is known about their relationship to blood levels. This study compared the validity of pill count and self-report against plasma varenicline concentration for measuring pharmacotherapy adherence. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized pilot study of varenicline for smoking cessation among African American smokers. Adherence was measured on Day 12 via plasma varenicline concentration, pill count, 3-day recall, and a visual analogue scale (VAS; adherence was represented on a line with two extremes “no pills” and “all pills”). Results: The sample consisted of 55 African American moderate to heavy smokers (average 16.8 cigarettes/day, SD = 5.6) and 63.6% were female. Significant correlations (p < .05) were found between plasma varenicline concentration and pill count (r = .56), 3-day recall (r = .46), and VAS (r = .29). Using plasma varenicline concentration of 2.0 ng/ml as the cutpoint for adherence, pill count demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.85, p = .01) and had 88% sensitivity (95% CI = 75.0–95.0) and 80% specificity (95% CI = 30.0–99.0) for detecting adherence. Conclusions: Of 3 commonly used adherence measures, pill count was the most valid for identifying adherence in this sample of African American smokers. Pill count has been used across other health domains and could be incorporated into treatment to identify nonadherence, which, in turn, could maximize smoking cessation pharmacotherapy use and improve abstinence rates. PMID:22367976

  11. Construct Validation of Analytic Rating Scales in a Speaking Assessment: Reporting a Score Profile and a Composite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    This is a construct validation study of a second language speaking assessment that reported a language profile based on analytic rating scales and a composite score. The study addressed three key issues: score dependability, convergent/discriminant validity of analytic rating scales and the weighting of analytic ratings in the composite score.…

  12. An Application of the Facet-Factorial Approach to Scale Construction in Development of a Rating Scale for High School Marching Band Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument through facet-factorial analysis to assess high school marching band performance. Forty-one items were chosen to define subscales for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Music and 31 items for the Marching Band Performance Rating Scale - Visual. To examine the stability…

  13. Mobile App Rating Scale: A New Tool for Assessing the Quality of Health Mobile Apps

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, David J; Zelenko, Oksana; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Mani, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps for health and well being promotion has grown exponentially in recent years. Yet, there is currently no app-quality assessment tool beyond “star”-ratings. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, multidimensional measure for trialling, classifying, and rating the quality of mobile health apps. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify articles containing explicit Web or app quality rating criteria published between January 2000 and January 2013. Existing criteria for the assessment of app quality were categorized by an expert panel to develop the new Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subscales, items, descriptors, and anchors. There were sixty well being apps that were randomly selected using an iTunes search for MARS rating. There were ten that were used to pilot the rating procedure, and the remaining 50 provided data on interrater reliability. Results There were 372 explicit criteria for assessing Web or app quality that were extracted from 25 published papers, conference proceedings, and Internet resources. There were five broad categories of criteria that were identified including four objective quality scales: engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality; and one subjective quality scale; which were refined into the 23-item MARS. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90) and interrater reliability intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = .79). Conclusions The MARS is a simple, objective, and reliable tool for classifying and assessing the quality of mobile health apps. It can also be used to provide a checklist for the design and development of new high quality health apps. PMID:25760773

  14. Pulmonary diffusional screening and the scaling laws of mammalian metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen; Mayo, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that the mammalian metabolic rate is linearly proportional to the surface areas of mitochondria, capillary, and alveolar membranes. However, the scaling exponents of these surface areas to the mammals' body mass (approximately 0.9-1) are higher than exponents of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) to body mass (approximately 0.75), although similar to the one of exercise metabolic rate (EMR); the underlying physiological cause of this mismatch remains unclear. The analysis presented here shows that discrepancies between the scaling exponents of RMR and the relevant surface areas may originate from, at least for the system of alveolar membranes in mammalian lungs, the facts that (i) not all of the surface area is involved in the gas exchange and (ii) that larger mammals host a smaller effective surface area that participates in the material exchange rate. A result of these facts is that lung surface areas unused at rest are activated under heavy breathing conditions (e.g., exercise), wherein larger mammals support larger activated surface areas that provide a higher capability to increase the gas-exchange rate, allowing for mammals to meet, for example, the high energetic demands of foraging and predation.

  15. Pulmonary diffusional screening and the scaling laws of mammalian metabolic rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chen; Mayo, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical considerations suggest that the mammalian metabolic rate is linearly proportional to the surface areas of mitochondria, capillary, and alveolar membranes. However, the scaling exponents of these surface areas to the mammals' body mass (approximately 0.9-1) are higher than exponents of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) to body mass (approximately 0.75), although similar to the one of exercise metabolic rate (EMR); the underlying physiological cause of this mismatch remains unclear. The analysis presented here shows that discrepancies between the scaling exponents of RMR and the relevant surface areas may originate from, at least for the system of alveolar membranes in mammalian lungs, the facts that (i) not all of the surface area is involved in the gas exchange and (ii) that larger mammals host a smaller effective surface area that participates in the material exchange rate. A result of these facts is that lung surface areas unused at rest are activated under heavy breathing conditions (e.g., exercise), wherein larger mammals support larger activated surface areas that provide a higher capability to increase the gas-exchange rate, allowing for mammals to meet, for example, the high energetic demands of foraging and predation.

  16. Bioreactor scale-up and oxygen transfer rate in microbial processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ochoa, Felix; Gomez, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    In aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a key substrate; due to its low solubility in broths (aqueous solutions), a continuous supply is needed. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) must be known, and if possible predicted to achieve an optimum design operation and scale-up of bioreactors. Many studies have been conducted to enhance the efficiency of oxygen transfer. The dissolved oxygen concentration in a suspension of aerobic microorganisms depends on the rate of oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the liquid, on the rate at which oxygen is transported into the cells (where it is consumed), and on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by the microorganism for growth, maintenance and production. The gas-liquid mass transfer in a bioprocess is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactors. These conditions are known to be a function of energy dissipation that depends on the operational conditions, the physicochemical properties of the culture, the geometrical parameters of the bioreactor and also on the presence of oxygen consuming cells. Stirred tank and bubble column (of various types) bioreactors are widely used in a large variety of bioprocesses (such as aerobic fermentation and biological wastewater treatments, among others). Stirred tanks bioreactors provide high values of mass and heat transfer rates and excellent mixing. In these systems, a high number of variables affect the mass transfer and mixing, but the most important among them are stirrer speed, type and number of stirrers and gas flow rate used. In bubble columns and airlifts, the low-shear environment compared to the stirred tanks has enabled successful cultivation of shear sensitive and filamentous cells. Oxygen transfer is often the rate-limiting step in the aerobic bioprocess due to the low solubility of oxygen in the medium. The correct measurement and/or prediction of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, (k(L)a), is a crucial step in the design, operation and scale-up of

  17. Thermoneutral zone and scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 4-species animal model suitable for experimental study of the effect of change in gravitational loading on the scale relationship between metabolic rate and total body mass is used to study the effect of temperature on metabolic rate in six male animals, 8-10 months of age, of each of the four species in the ambient temperature range 20-36 C. The measurements taken permitted partitioning of total body heat output into sensible heat loss by radiation, conduction and convection, and into latent heat loss by evaporation of water from the body surface. It is shown that the condition of thermoneutrality is important for metabolic scale effect studies, and that the thermoneutral zone for the species considered here is a narrow one.

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    PubMed

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator. PMID:25923855

  19. Measuring change across multiple occasions using the Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E W; Chiu, C W

    1999-01-01

    When latent trait models are used to measure change across time, it is difficult to disentangle changes in one facet of the measurement context from changes in other facets. Hence, it is difficult to diagnose change. Wright (1999b) proposed an algorithm for disentangling change, and previously the authors applied this algorithm to measuring change across two occasions (Wolfe and Chiu, 1999). In this article we extend Wright's algorithm to disentangle changes in measures across three occasions. We describe a standard Rasch rating scale analysis of a multi-occasion evaluation that produces confusing results when subjected to a series of "separate" calibrations. Then, we apply Wright's correction to the same data to show that the algorithm reveals changes that are more similar to ones that would be expected. Our demonstration shows that Wright's procedure can reduce misfit to the Rasch Rating Scale Model as well as changing the interpretation of change within the measurement context.

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  1. Predictors of adherence to diabetes medications: the role of disease and medication beliefs.

    PubMed

    Mann, Devin M; Ponieman, Diego; Leventhal, Howard; Halm, Ethan A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the effectiveness of drug therapy in diabetes management high rates of poor adherence persist. The purpose of this study was to identify potentially modifiable patient disease and medication beliefs associated with poor medication adherence among people with diabetes. A cohort of patients with diabetes was recruited from an urban primary-care clinic in New York City. Patients were interviewed in English or Spanish about: disease beliefs, medication beliefs, regimen complexity, diabetes knowledge, depression, self-efficacy, and medication adherence (Morisky scale). Logistic regression was used to identify multivariate predictors of poor medication adherence (Morisky > 1). Patients (n = 151) had diabetes for an average of 13 years with a mean HgA1C of 7.6 (SD 1.7). One-in-four (28%) were poor adherers to their diabetes medicines. In multivariate analyses, predictors of poor medication adherence were: believing you have diabetes only when your sugar is high (OR = 7.4;2-27.2), saying there was no need to take medicine when the glucose was normal (OR = 3.5;0.9-13.7), worrying about side-effects of diabetes medicines (OR = 3.3;1.3-8.7), lack of self-confidence in controlling diabetes (OR = 2.8;1.1-7.1), and feeling medicines are hard to take (OR = 14.0;4.4-44.6). Disease and medication beliefs inconsistent with a chronic disease model of diabetes were significant predictors of poor medication adherence. These suboptimal beliefs are potentially modifiable and are logical targets for educational interventions to improve diabetes self-management. PMID:19184390

  2. Meta-analysis of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis (N=17,620; k=26) of factor analyses of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was conducted. Analysis of the 12 items from Overall et al.'s (J. E. Overall, L. E. Hollister, & P. Pichot, 1974) 4 subscales found support for his 4 subscales. Analysis of all 18 BPRS items found 4 components similar to those of Overall et al. In a…

  3. The role of reactant unmixedness, strain rate, and length scale on premixed combustor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelsen, S.; LaRue, J.; Vilayanur, S.; Guillaume, D.

    1995-12-31

    Lean premixed combustion provides a means to reduce pollutant formation and increase combustion efficiency. However, fuel-air mixing is rarely uniform in space and time. This nonuniformity in concentration will lead to relative increases in pollutant formation and decreases in combustion efficiency. The nonuniformity of the concentration at the exit of the premixer has been defined by Lyons (1981) as the ``unmixedness.`` Although turbulence properties such as length scales and strain rate are known to effect unmixedness, the exact relationship is unknown. Evaluating this relationship and the effect of unmixedness in premixed combustion on pollutant formation and combustion efficiency are an important part of the overall goal of US Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program and are among the goals of the program described herein. The information obtained from ATS is intended to help to develop and commercialize gas turbines. The contributions to the program which the University of California (Irvine) Combustion Lab (UCICL) will provide are: (1) establish the relationship of inlet unmixedness, length scales, and mean strain rate to performance, (2) determine the optimal levels of inlet unmixedness, length scales, and mean strain rates to maximize combustor performance, and (3) identify efficient premixing methods for achieving the necessary inlet conditions. The program during this reporting period is focused on developing a means to measure and qualify different degrees of temporal and spatial unmixedness. Laser diagnostic methods for planer unmixedness measurements are being developed and preliminary results are presented herein. These results will be used to (1), aid in the design of experimental premixers, and (2), determine the unmixedness which will be correlated with the emissions of the combustor. This measure of unmixedness coupled with length scale, strain rate and intensity information is required to attain the UCI goals.

  4. Relating Spontaneously Reported Extrapyramidal Adverse Events to Movement Disorder Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Karayal, Onur N.; Kolluri, Sheela; Vanderburg, Douglas; Kemmler, Georg; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background: While antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and akathisia remain important concerns in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, the relationship between movement disorder rating scales and spontaneously reported EPS-related adverse events (EPS-AEs) remains unexplored. Methods: Data from four randomized, placebo- and haloperidol-controlled ziprasidone trials were analyzed to examine the relationship between spontaneously reported EPS-AEs with the Simpson Angus Scale (SAS) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS). Categorical summaries were created for each treatment group to show the frequencies of subjects with EPS-AEs in each of the SAS and BARS categories at weeks 1, 3, and 6, and agreement between ratings was quantified by means of weighted kappa (κ). Results: In general, we found greater frequencies of EPS-AEs with increasing severity of the SAS and BARS scores. The EPS-AEs reported with a “none” SAS score ranged from 0 to 22.2%, with a “mild” SAS score from 3.3 to 29.0%, and with a “moderate” SAS score from 0 to 100%. No subjects in any treatment group reported “severe” SAS scores or corresponding EPS-AEs. Agreement between SAS scores and EPS-AEs was poor for ziprasidone and placebo (κ < 0.2) and only slightly better for haloperidol. The EPS-AEs reported with “non questionable” BARS scores ranged from 1.9 to 9.8%, with “mild moderate” BARS scores from 12.8 to 54.6%, and with “marked severe” scores from 0 to 100%. Agreement was modest for ziprasidone and placebo (κ < 0.4) and moderate for haloperidol (κ < 0.6). Conclusions: These findings may reflect either underreporting of AEs by investigators and subjects or erroneous rating scale evaluations. PMID:26116494

  5. Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlebowski, Colby; Green, James A.; Barton, Marianne L.; Fein, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) as a tool for ASD diagnoses for 2-year-old (n = 376) and 4-year-old (n = 230) children referred for possible autism. The cut-off score to distinguish autistic disorder from PDD-NOS was 32 in the 2-year-old sample (consistent with Lord in "J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discipl,"…

  6. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  7. Sensitivity of Flow and Sediment Transport in Meandering Rivers to Scale Effects and Flow Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Shams, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2008-06-01

    Sensitivity of flow and sediment transport in a meandering river to variations in scaling and flow rate was studied. The FLUENT™ code was used for evaluating the river flow characteristics, including the mean velocity field and the Reynolds stress components, as well as for particle trajectory analysis. Particular attention was given to the sensitivity of the sedimentation patterns of different size particles in the river bend for various scales. Simulation studies were performed for both a model river and a physical river. The physical river was geometrically similar to the model river, with a scaling ratio of 1:100, but with identical Froude number. The flow and particle deposition patterns in the physical and model rivers were compared. It was shown that the mean flow quantities exhibit dynamic similarity, but the turbulence parameters and the particle sedimentation features in the physical river were different from the model. The secondary flows and particle transport patterns were also found to be sensitive to variation in the scale and flow rate.

  8. Uplink Downlink Rate Balancing and Throughput Scaling in FDD Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergel, Itsik; Perets, Yona; Shamai, Shlomo

    2016-05-01

    In this work we extend the concept of uplink-downlink rate balancing to frequency division duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems. We consider a base station with large number antennas serving many single antenna users. We first show that any unused capacity in the uplink can be traded off for higher throughput in the downlink in a system that uses either dirty paper (DP) coding or linear zero-forcing (ZF) precoding. We then also study the scaling of the system throughput with the number of antennas in cases of linear Beamforming (BF) Precoding, ZF Precoding, and DP coding. We show that the downlink throughput is proportional to the logarithm of the number of antennas. While, this logarithmic scaling is lower than the linear scaling of the rate in the uplink, it can still bring significant throughput gains. For example, we demonstrate through analysis and simulation that increasing the number of antennas from 4 to 128 will increase the throughput by more than a factor of 5. We also show that a logarithmic scaling of downlink throughput as a function of the number of receive antennas can be achieved even when the number of transmit antennas only increases logarithmically with the number of receive antennas.

  9. A Review. A Criterion-related Study of Three Sets of Rating Scales Used for Measuring and Evaluating the Instrumental Achievement of First and Second Year Clarinet Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radocy, Rudolf E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a study that examined the validity of different rating scales for measuring instrumental achievement with the clarinet. Rejects the contention that the new rating scales are superior to the Clarinet Performance Rating Scale. (BSR)

  10. Fine-Scale Crossover Rate Variation on the Caenorhabditis elegans X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Max R.; Rockman, Matthew V.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genotypic diversity within species. Recombination rates vary substantially across taxa, and the distribution of crossovers can differ significantly among populations and between sexes. Crossover locations within species have been found to vary by chromosome and by position within chromosomes, where most crossover events occur in small regions known as recombination hotspots. However, several species appear to lack hotspots despite significant crossover heterogeneity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was previously found to have the least fine-scale variation in crossover distribution among organisms studied to date. It is unclear whether this pattern extends to the X chromosome given its unique compaction through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase in hermaphrodites. We generated 798 recombinant nested near-isogenic lines (NILs) with crossovers in a 1.41 Mb region on the left arm of the X chromosome to determine if its recombination landscape is similar to that of the autosomes. We find that the fine-scale variation in crossover rate is lower than that of other model species, and is inconsistent with hotspots. The relationship of genomic features to crossover rate is dependent on scale, with GC content, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy being negatively associated with crossovers. We also find that the abundances of 4- to 6-bp DNA motifs significantly explain crossover density. These results are consistent with recombination occurring at unevenly distributed sites of open chromatin. PMID:27172189

  11. Two-Locus Likelihoods Under Variable Population Size and Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, John A; Spence, Jeffrey P; Chan, Jeffrey; Song, Yun S

    2016-07-01

    Two-locus sampling probabilities have played a central role in devising an efficient composite-likelihood method for estimating fine-scale recombination rates. Due to mathematical and computational challenges, these sampling probabilities are typically computed under the unrealistic assumption of a constant population size, and simulation studies have shown that resulting recombination rate estimates can be severely biased in certain cases of historical population size changes. To alleviate this problem, we develop here new methods to compute the sampling probability for variable population size functions that are piecewise constant. Our main theoretical result, implemented in a new software package called LDpop, is a novel formula for the sampling probability that can be evaluated by numerically exponentiating a large but sparse matrix. This formula can handle moderate sample sizes ([Formula: see text]) and demographic size histories with a large number of epochs ([Formula: see text]). In addition, LDpop implements an approximate formula for the sampling probability that is reasonably accurate and scales to hundreds in sample size ([Formula: see text]). Finally, LDpop includes an importance sampler for the posterior distribution of two-locus genealogies, based on a new result for the optimal proposal distribution in the variable-size setting. Using our methods, we study how a sharp population bottleneck followed by rapid growth affects the correlation between partially linked sites. Then, through an extensive simulation study, we show that accounting for population size changes under such a demographic model leads to substantial improvements in fine-scale recombination rate estimation. PMID:27182948

  12. Two-Locus Likelihoods Under Variable Population Size and Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Estimation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, John A; Spence, Jeffrey P; Chan, Jeffrey; Song, Yun S

    2016-07-01

    Two-locus sampling probabilities have played a central role in devising an efficient composite-likelihood method for estimating fine-scale recombination rates. Due to mathematical and computational challenges, these sampling probabilities are typically computed under the unrealistic assumption of a constant population size, and simulation studies have shown that resulting recombination rate estimates can be severely biased in certain cases of historical population size changes. To alleviate this problem, we develop here new methods to compute the sampling probability for variable population size functions that are piecewise constant. Our main theoretical result, implemented in a new software package called LDpop, is a novel formula for the sampling probability that can be evaluated by numerically exponentiating a large but sparse matrix. This formula can handle moderate sample sizes ([Formula: see text]) and demographic size histories with a large number of epochs ([Formula: see text]). In addition, LDpop implements an approximate formula for the sampling probability that is reasonably accurate and scales to hundreds in sample size ([Formula: see text]). Finally, LDpop includes an importance sampler for the posterior distribution of two-locus genealogies, based on a new result for the optimal proposal distribution in the variable-size setting. Using our methods, we study how a sharp population bottleneck followed by rapid growth affects the correlation between partially linked sites. Then, through an extensive simulation study, we show that accounting for population size changes under such a demographic model leads to substantial improvements in fine-scale recombination rate estimation.

  13. Comparing Time-Dependent Geomagnetic and Atmospheric Effects on Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rate Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    A recently published cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) (Lifton et al., 2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 386, 149-160: termed the LSD model) provides two main advantages over previous scaling models: identification and quantification of potential sources of bias in the earlier models, and the ability to generate nuclide-specific scaling factors easily for a wide range of input parameters. The new model also provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of advances in model inputs. In this work, the scaling implications of two recent time-dependent spherical harmonic geomagnetic models spanning the Holocene will be explored. Korte and Constable (2011, Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 188, 247-259) and Korte et al. (2011, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) recently updated earlier spherical harmonic paleomagnetic models used by Lifton et al. (2014) with paleomagnetic measurements from sediment cores in addition to archeomagnetic and volcanic data. These updated models offer improved accuracy over the previous versions, in part to due to increased temporal and spatial data coverage. With the new models as input, trajectory-traced estimates of effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC- the standard method for ordering cosmic ray data) yield significantly different time-integrated scaling predictions when compared to the earlier models. These results will be compared to scaling predictions using another recent time-dependent spherical harmonic model of the Holocene geomagnetic field by Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 388, 98-109), based solely on archeomagnetic and volcanic paleomagnetic data, but extending to 14 ka. In addition, the potential effects of time-dependent atmospheric models on LSD scaling predictions will be presented. Given the typical dominance of altitudinal over

  14. Predictors of Symptomatic Change and Adherence in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Routine Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Samir; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Kaldo, Viktor; Andersson, Evelyn; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Lindefors, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Objective A central goal of health care is to improve patient outcomes. Although several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapist guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify individual characteristics and treatment program related factors that could help clinicians predict treatment outcomes and adherence for individuals with SAD. Method The sample comprised longitudinal data collected during a 4-year period of adult individuals (N = 764) treated for SAD at a public service psychiatric clinic. Weekly self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) scores were provided. Rates of symptomatic change during treatment and adherence levels were analysed using multilevel modelling. The following domains of prognostic variables were examined: (a) socio-demographic variables; (b) clinical characteristics; (c) family history of mental illness; and (d) treatment-related factors. Results Higher treatment credibility and adherence predicted a faster rate of improvement during treatment, whereas higher overall functioning level evidenced a slower rate of improvement. Treatment credibility was the strongest predictor of greater adherence. Having a family history of SAD-like symptoms was also associated with greater adherence, whereas Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, male gender, and family history of minor depression predicted lower adherence. Also, the amount of therapist time spent per treatment module was negatively associated with adherence. Conclusions Results from a large clinical sample indicate that the credibility of ICBT is the strongest prognostic factor explaining individual differences in both adherence level and symptomatic improvement. Early screening of ADHD-like symptoms may help clinicians identify patients who might need extra support or an adjusted

  15. Experimental investigation of fuel regression rate in a HTPB based lab-scale hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xintian; Tian, Hui; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2014-12-01

    The fuel regression rate is an important parameter in the design process of the hybrid rocket motor. Additives in the solid fuel may have influences on the fuel regression rate, which will affect the internal ballistics of the motor. A series of firing experiments have been conducted on lab-scale hybrid rocket motors with 98% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidizer and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) based fuels in this paper. An innovative fuel regression rate analysis method is established to diminish the errors caused by start and tailing stages in a short time firing test. The effects of the metal Mg, Al, aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene (C14H10), and carbon black (C) on the fuel regression rate are investigated. The fuel regression rate formulas of different fuel components are fitted according to the experiment data. The results indicate that the influence of C14H10 on the fuel regression rate of HTPB is not evident. However, the metal additives in the HTPB fuel can increase the fuel regression rate significantly.

  16. Spinal segmental stabilisation exercises for chronic low back pain: programme adherence and its influence on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Anne F; Helbling, Daniel; Pulkovski, Natascha; Sprott, Haiko

    2009-12-01

    Exercise rehabilitation is one of the few evidence-based treatments for chronic non-specific low back pain (cLBP), but individual success is notoriously variable and may depend on the patient's adherence to the prescribed exercise regime. This prospective study examined factors associated with adherence and the relationship between adherence and outcome after a programme of physiotherapeutic spine stabilisation exercises. A total of 32/37 patients with cLBP completed the study (mean age, 44.0 (SD = 12.3) years; 11/32 (34%) male). Adherence to the 9-week programme was documented as: percent attendance at therapy, percent adherence to daily home exercises (patient diary) and percent commitment to rehabilitation (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS)). The average of these three measures formed a multidimensional adherence index (MAI). Psychological disturbance, fear-avoidance beliefs, catastrophising, exercise self-efficacy and health locus of control were measured by questionnaire; disability in everyday activities was scored with the Roland-Morris disability scale and back pain intensity with a 0-10 graphic rating scale. Overall, adherence to therapy was very good (average MAI score, 85%; median (IQR), 89 (15)%). The only psychological/beliefs variable showing a unique significant association with MAI was exercise self-efficacy (Rho = 0.36, P = 0.045). Pain intensity and self-rated disability decreased significantly after therapy (each P < 0.01). Adherence to home exercises showed a moderate, positive correlation with the reduction in average pain (Rho = 0.54, P = 0.003) and disability (Rho = 0.38, P = 0.036); higher MAI scores were associated with greater reductions in average pain (Rho = 0.48, P = 0.008) and a (n.s.) tendency for greater reductions in disability (Rho = 0.32, P = 0.07) Neither attendance at therapy nor SIRAS were significantly related to any of the outcomes. The benefits of rehabilitation depended to a large extent on the patient

  17. Adherence and Patients' Experiences with the Use of Capecitabine in Daily Practice

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Lonneke; Boons, Christel C. L. M.; Mangnus, Dirk; Van de Ven, Peter M.; Van den Berg, Pieter H.; Beeker, Aart; Swart, Eleonora L.; Honeywell, Richard J.; Peters, Godefridus J.; Boven, Epie; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Capecitabine is a widely prescribed oral anticancer agent. We studied medication adherence and explored its use in daily practice from a patients' perspective. Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 92) starting capecitabine were followed up to five 3-week cycles. Adherence was assessed using a pill count, pharmacy data and dosing information from the patients' medical file. Self-reported adherence was measured using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). At baseline and during week 2 of cycles 1, 3, and 5, patients filled out questionnaires about quality of life, symptoms, attitude toward medicines and disease and use in daily practice. Simultaneously, blood samples were taken to determine the area under the curve (AUC) of 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and α-fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL) by a population pharmacokinetic model. Associations between AUCs and patient-reported symptoms were tested for cycles 3 and 5. Results: Most patients (84/92; 91%) had an adherence rate of ≥95 and ≤ 105%. The percentage of patients reporting any non-adherence behavior measured with MARS increased from 16% at cycle 1 to 29% at cycle 5. Symptoms were reported frequently and the dosing regimen was adjusted by the physician at least once in 62% of patients. In multivariate analysis the probability of an adjustment increased with the number of co-medication (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.39) and a stronger emotional response to the disease (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10–1.59). The AUC of 5′-DFUR was associated with weight loss (OR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.19), AUC of FBAL with hand-foot syndrome (OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83–0.99), rhinorrhea (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03–1.42 weight loss (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00–1.20) and depression (OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99). Side effects were reported by one third of patients as the reason to discontinue treatment. Conclusion: Adherence to capecitabine was generally high. Nevertheless, adherence measured with MARS

  18. Unified Huntington's disease rating scale for advanced patients: validation and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Youssov, Katia; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Maison, Patrick; Boissé, Marie-Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Roos, Raymund A C; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-10-01

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) adequately measures decline in patients at early and moderate stages of Huntington's disease (HD). In advanced patients, floor effects hamper the evaluation, thus calling for an adjusted scale. We designed the UHDRS-For Advanced Patients (UHDRS-FAP), in order to improve longitudinal assessment of patients at advanced disease stage. Sixty-nine patients with a Total Functional Capacity (TFC)  ≤  5 were recruited in France and in the Netherlands. Among them, 45 patients were followed longitudinally (mean 1.6  ±  1.2 years) with the UHDRS-FAP; 30 were also assessed with the UHDRS. Cross-sectional analyses evaluated psychometric properties and interrater reliability of the scale. Longitudinal analyses evaluated the sensitivity to decline compared to the UHDRS. Internal consistency was higher for motor and cognitive scores than for somatic and behavioral scores (0.84, 0.91, 0.70, and 0.49, respectively). Interrater reliability was  ≥  0.88 in all scores. The somatic score, specific to the UHDRS-FAP, declined over time, as well as motor and cognitive performance with both scales. Although performance with the 2 scales correlated, the UHDRS-FAP appeared more sensitive to change and was the only scale that detected decline in patients with a TFC  ≤  1. Neither scale detected a significant decline in behavioral scores. The UHDRS-FAP is reliable and more sensitive to change than the original UHDRS for cognitive and motor domains. It offers items relevant for daily care. Behavioral scores tended to decline but this may reflect the decline in the communicative abilities of the patients.

  19. The unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale for advanced patients: validation and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Youssov, Katia; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Maison, Patrick; Boissé, Marie-Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Roos, Raymund A C; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) adequately measures decline in patients at early and moderate stages of Huntington's disease (HD). In patients with advanced HD, floor effects hamper the evaluation, thus calling for an adjusted scale. We designed the UHDRS-For Advanced Patients (UHDRS-FAP) to improve longitudinal assessment of patients at the advanced disease stage. Sixty-nine patients with a Total Functional Capacity score ≤ 5 were recruited in France and the Netherlands. Among them, 45 patients were followed longitudinally (mean ± standard deviation, 1.6 ± 1.2 years) with the UHDRS-FAP; 30 patients also were assessed with the UHDRS. In cross-sectional analyses, the psychometric properties and inter-rater reliability of the scale were evaluated. Longitudinal analyses were used to evaluate the sensitivity to decline of the UHDRS-FAP compared with the UHDRS. Internal consistency was higher for motor (0.84) and cognitive (0.91) scores than for somatic (0.70) and behavioral (0.49) scores. Inter-rater reliability was ≥ 0.88 for all scores. The somatic score, which was specific to the UHDRS-FAP, declined over time along with motor and cognitive performance on both scales. Although performance with the two scales was correlated, the UHDRS-FAP appeared to be more sensitive to change and was the only scale that detected decline in patients with a Total Functional Capacity score ≤ 1. Neither scale detected a significant decline in behavioral scores. The results indicate that the UHDRS-FAP is reliable and more sensitive to change than the original UHDRS for cognitive and motor domains. It offers items that are relevant for daily care. Behavioral scores tended to decline, but this may reflect the decline in patients' communicative abilities.

  20. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Catherine A

    2013-02-28

    Geochemical reactions in deep subsurface environments are complicated by the consolidated nature and mineralogical complexity of sedimentary rocks. Understanding the kinetics of these reactions is critical to our ability to make long-term predictions about subsurface processes such as pH buffering, alteration in rock structure, permeability changes, and formation of secondary precipitates. In this project, we used a combination of experiments and numerical simulation to bridge the gap between our knowledge of these reactions at the lab scale and rates that are meaningful for modeling reactive transport at core scales. The focus is on acid-driven mineral dissolution, which is specifically relevant in the context of CO2-water-rock interactions in geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The project led to major findings in three areas. First, we modeled reactive transport in pore-network systems to investigate scaling effects in geochemical reaction rates. We found significant scaling effects when CO2 concentrations are high and reaction rates are fast. These findings indicate that the increased acidity associated with geological sequestration can generate conditions for which proper scaling tools are yet to be developed. Second, we used mathematical modeling to investigate the extent to which SO2, if co-injected with CO2, would acidify formation brines. We found that there exist realistic conditions in which the impact on brine acidity will be limited due to diffusion rate-limited SO2 dissolution from the CO2 phase, and the subsequent pH shift may also be limited by the lack of availability of oxidants to produce sulfuric acid. Third, for three Viking sandstones (Alberta sedimentary basin, Canada), we employed backscattered electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to statistically characterize mineral contact with pore space. We determined that for reactive minerals in sedimentary consolidated rocks, abundance alone is not a good predictor of

  1. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age. PMID:18212472

  2. Scaling of metabolic rate on body mass in small laboratory mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The scaling of metabolic heat production rate on body mass is investigated for five species of small laboratory mammal in order to define selection of animals of metabolic rates and size range appropriate for the measurement of changes in the scaling relationship upon exposure to weightlessness in Shuttle/Spacelab experiment. Metabolic rates were measured according to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production for individual male and female Swiss-Webster mice, Syrian hamsters, Simonsen albino rats, Hartley guinea pigs and New Zealand white rabbits, which range in mass from 0.05 to 5 kg mature body size, at ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The metabolic intensity, defined as the heat produced per hour per kg body mass, is found to decrease dramatically with age until the animals are 6 to 8 months old, with little or no sex difference. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, the relation of metabolic rate to total body mass is found to obey a power law of index 0.676, which differs significantly from the classical value of 0.75. When the values for the mice are removed, however, an index of 0.749 is obtained. It is thus proposed that six male animals, 8 months of age, of each of the four remaining species be used to study the effects of gravitational loading on the metabolic energy requirements of terrestrial animals.

  3. Scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2014-01-01

    Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic nuclide production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate nuclide-specific scaling

  4. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  5. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). PMID:26945159

  6. Experimental demonstration of photon efficient coherent temporal combining for data rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, D. J.; Yarnall, T. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Schieler, C. M.; Robinson, B. S.; Hamilton, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The next generation free-space optical (FSO) communications infrastructure will need to support a wide range of links from space-based terminals at LEO, GEO, and deep space to the ground. Efficiently enabling such a diverse mission set requires a common ground station architecture capable of providing excellent sensitivity (i.e., few photons-per-bit) while supporting a wide range of data rates. One method for achieving excellent sensitivity performance is to use integrated digital coherent receivers. Additionally, coherent receivers provide full-field information, which enables efficient temporal coherent combining of block repeated signals. This method allows system designers to trade excess link margin for increased data rate without requiring hardware modifications. We present experimental results that show a 45-dB scaling in data rate over a 41-dB range of input powers by block-repeating and combining a PRBS sequence up to 36,017 times.

  7. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001).

  8. The Development and Validation of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason Y.; Worrell, Frank C.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Patient memory for treatment information is poor, and worse memory for treatment information is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. Memory support techniques have been harnessed to improve patient memory for treatment. However, a measure of memory support used by treatment providers during sessions has yet to be established. The present study reports on the development and psychometric properties of the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS) – an observer-rated scale designed to measure memory support. Forty-two adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to either cognitive therapy plus memory support (CS+MS; n = 22) or cognitive therapy as-usual (CT-as-usual; n = 20). At post-treatment, patients freely recalled treatment points via the Patient Recall Task. Sessions (n = 171) were coded for memory support using the MSRS, 65% of which were also assessed for the quality of cognitive therapy via the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). A unidimensional scale composed of 8 items was developed using exploratory factor analysis, though a larger sample is needed to further assess the factor structure of MSRS scores. High inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities of MSRS scores were observed across seven MSRS coders. MSRS scores were higher in the CT+MS condition compared to CT-as-usual, demonstrating group differentiation ability. MSRS scores were positively associated with Patient Recall Task scores but not associated with CTRS scores, demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Results indicate that the MSRS yields reliable and valid scores for measuring treatment providers’ use of memory support while delivering cognitive therapy. PMID:26389597

  9. Comparisons of Instantaneous TRMM Ground Validation and Satellite Rain Rate Estimates at Different Spatial Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive inter-comparison of instantaneous rain rates observed by the two rain sensors aboard the TRMM satellite with ground data from two regional sites established for long-term ground validation: Kwajalein Atoll and Melbourne, Florida. The satellite rain algorithms utilize remote observations of precipitation collected by the TRMM microwave imager (TMI) and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite. Three standard Level I1 rain products are generated from operational applications of the TMI, PR and Combined (COM) rain algorithms using rain information collected from the TMI and the PR along the orbital track of the TRMM satellite. In the first part of the study, 0.25 x 0.25 instantaneous rain rates obtained from the TRMM 3668 product were analyzed and compared to instantaneous GV rain rates gridded at a scale of 0.5deg x 0.5. In the second part of the study, TMI, PR, COM and GV rain rates were spatio-temporally matched and averaged at the scale of TMI footprint (- 150 sq km). This study covered a six-year period 1999-2004 and consisted of over 50,000 footprints for each GV site. In the first analysis our results showed that all of the respective rain rate estimates agree well, with some exceptions. The more salient differences were associated with heavy rain events in which one or more of the algorithms failed to properly retrieve these extreme events. Also, it appears that there is a preferred mode of precipitation for TMI rain rates at or near 2 mm/hr over the ocean. This mode was noted over ocean areas of Kwajalein and Melbourne and has been observed in TRMM tropical-global ocean areas as well.

  10. 99Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Miller, Micah D.; Varga, Tamas; Resch, Charles T.

    2015-10-15

    Abstract: An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate pertechnetate (Tc(VII)) retardation, reduction, and rate scaling in three sediments from Ringold formation at U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford site, where 99Tc is a major contaminant in groundwater. Tc(VII) was reduced in all the sediments in both batch reactors and diffusion columns, with a faster rate in a sediment containing a higher concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II). Tc(VII) migration in the diffusion columns was reductively retarded with retardation degrees correlated with Tc(VII) reduction rates. The reduction rates were faster in the diffusion columns than those in the batch reactors, apparently influenced by the spatial distribution of redox-reactive minerals along transport paths that supplied Tc(VII). X-ray computed tomography and autoradiography were performed to identify the spatial locations of Tc(VII) reduction and transport paths in the sediments, and results generally confirmed the newly found behavior of reaction rate changes from batch to column. The results from this study implied that Tc(VII) migration can be reductively retarded at Hanford site with a retardation degree dependent on reactive Fe(II) content and its distribution in sediments. This study also demonstrated that an effective reaction rate may be faster in transport systems than that in well-mixed reactors.

  11. Passive scalar mixing: Analytic study of time scale ratio, variance, and mix rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Some very reasonable approximations, consistent with numerical and experimental evidence, were applied to the skewness and palinstrophy coefficients in the dissipation equations to produce a simple closed moment model for mixing. Such a model, first suggested on the grounds of a Taylor microscale self-similarity of the scalar field, was studied numerically by Gonzalez and Fall ["The approach to self-preservation of scalar fluctuation decay in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 654 (1998)]. Here, in a somewhat old fashioned and physically meaningful style, analytic solutions to the four coupled nonlinear moment equations for mixing by decaying and forced stationary turbulence, are given. Analytic expressions for the variance ⟨c2⟩, the mixing rate ɛc, and the time scale ratio r(t ) are derived and compared in different mixing situations. The solutions show the sensitive dependence on the initial relative length ratio as studied experimentally by Warhaft and Lumley ["An experimental study of the decay of temperature fluctuations in grid-generated turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 88, 659 (1978)], and simulated by Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)]. The length scale ratio saturation effect predicted by Durbin ["Analysis of the decay of temperature fluctuations in isotropic turbulence," Phys. Fluids 25, 1328 (1982)], resolving the apparent contradiction with the results of Sreenivasan, Tavoularis, and Corrsin ["Temperature fluctuations and scales in grid generated turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 100, 597 (1980)] is predicted. For stationary turbulence the solutions indicate, in contradistinction to the power law "stirring" result predicted by a stochastic Lagrangian analysis, that the mixing is asymptotically exponential as shown in the phenomenological analysis of Corrsin ["The isotropic turbulent mixer," AIChE J. 10, 870 (1964)]. That the time scale ratio solution also depends on

  12. Medication adherence: process for implementation

    PubMed Central

    Mendys, Phil; Zullig, Leah L; Burkholder, Rebecca; Granger, Bradi B; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2014-01-01

    Improving medication adherence is a critically important, but often enigmatic objective of patients, providers, and the overall health care system. Increasing medication adherence has the potential to reduce health care costs while improving care quality, patient satisfaction and health outcomes. While there are a number of papers that describe the benefits of medication adherence in terms of cost, safety, outcomes, or quality of life, there are limited reviews that consider how best to seamlessly integrate tools and processes directed at improving medication adherence. We will address processes for implementing medication adherence interventions with the goal of better informing providers and health care systems regarding the safe and effective use of medications. PMID:25114513

  13. Implications of two Holocene time-dependent geomagnetic models for cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is a major influence on in situ cosmogenic nuclide production rates at a given location (in addition to atmospheric pressure and, to a lesser extent, solar modulation effects). A better understanding of how past fluctuations in these influences affected production rates should allow more accurate application of cosmogenic nuclides. As such, this work explores the cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling implications of two recent time-dependent spherical harmonic geomagnetic models spanning the Holocene. Korte and Constable (2011, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter.188, 247-259) and Korte et al. (2011, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) recently updated earlier spherical harmonic paleomagnetic models with new paleomagnetic data from sediment cores in addition to new archeomagnetic and volcanic data. These updated models offer improved resolution and accuracy over the previous versions, in part due to increased temporal and spatial data coverage. In addition, Pavón-Carrasco et al. (2014, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 388, 98-109) developed another time-dependent spherical harmonic model of the Holocene geomagnetic field, based solely on archeomagnetic and volcanic paleomagnetic data from the same underlying paleomagnetic database as the Korte et al. models, but extending to 14 ka. With the new models as input, trajectory-traced estimates of effective vertical cutoff rigidity (RC - the standard method for ordering cosmic ray data) yield significantly different time-integrated scaling predictions when compared to each other and to results using the earlier models. In addition, predictions of each new model using RC are tested empirically using recently published production rate calibration data for both 10Be and 3He, and compared to predictions using corresponding time-varying geocentric dipolar RC formulations and a static geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model. Results for the few calibration sites from geomagnetically sensitive regions suggest that the

  14. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study.

  15. The use of the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS) in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Morrison, P; Gaskill, D; Meehan, T; Lunney, P; Lawrence, G; Collings, P

    2000-12-01

    Forty-four mental health clients completed the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS)--a self-rating scale to assess the prevalence and intensity of neuroleptic side-effects. In the month prior to the study, 50% of the clients surveyed had experienced more than half of the side-effects outlined on the 41-item scale. A prevalence profile allowed us to rank the frequency of individual side-effects across the sample. Some side-effects such as 'difficulty concentrating', 'difficulty remembering', 'tiredness' and 'restlessness' were experienced by most of the clients in the study while 'unusual skin marks', 'difficulty passing water', 'rashes' were experienced by a few. A prevalence profile may be a useful guide in developing strategies for managing side-effects more effectively in small groups of clients. In addition, the use of the LUNSERS in clinical practice would enable case managers to establish baseline measures for individual clients and evaluate changes in medication and other non-medical strategies for reducing unwanted side-effects. The identification and assessment of antipsychotic side-effects is an important area for client and professional carer education.

  16. Free energy of cluster formation and a new scaling relation for the nucleation rate

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond

    2014-05-21

    Recent very large molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation with (1 − 8) × 10{sup 9} Lennard-Jones atoms [J. Diemand, R. Angélil, K. K. Tanaka, and H. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] allow us to accurately determine the formation free energy of clusters over a wide range of cluster sizes. This is now possible because such large simulations allow for very precise measurements of the cluster size distribution in the steady state nucleation regime. The peaks of the free energy curves give critical cluster sizes, which agree well with independent estimates based on the nucleation theorem. Using these results, we derive an analytical formula and a new scaling relation for nucleation rates: ln J{sup ′}/η is scaled by ln S/η, where the supersaturation ratio is S, η is the dimensionless surface energy, and J{sup ′} is a dimensionless nucleation rate. This relation can be derived using the free energy of cluster formation at equilibrium which corresponds to the surface energy required to form the vapor-liquid interface. At low temperatures (below the triple point), we find that the surface energy divided by that of the classical nucleation theory does not depend on temperature, which leads to the scaling relation and implies a constant, positive Tolman length equal to half of the mean inter-particle separation in the liquid phase.

  17. A rating scale for the assessment of objective and subjective formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD).

    PubMed

    Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Fährmann, Paul; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Grosvald, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Nagels, Arne

    2014-12-01

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a core syndrome of schizophrenia. However, patients with other diagnoses, such as mania and depression amongst others, also present with FTD. We introduce a novel, comprehensive clinical rating scale, capturing the full variety of FTD phenomenology including subjective experiences. The 30-item Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) scale is based on a detailed review of the literature, encompassing all formal thought disorder symptoms reported from the early 20th century onwards. Objectively observable symptoms as well as subjective phenomena were included. Two hundred and ten participants (146 patients ICD-10 diagnoses: depression n=63, schizophrenia n=63, mania n=20; 64 healthy control subjects) were interviewed and symptoms rated with the TALD, TLC, HAMD, YMRS and SAPS/SANS. A principal component analyses was performed for the TALD to differentiate sub-syndromes. The principal component analysis revealed four FTD factors; objective and subjective as well as positive and negative factor dimensions. The correlation analyses with the TLC and the SAPS/SANS FTD sub-scores demonstrated the factor validity for the objective factors. The different diagnoses showed a distinct pattern of symptom severity in each of the factors, with mania patients exhibiting the highest value in the positive, objective dimension. The scale showed good psychometric results, which makes it a practicable, nosologically-open instrument for the detailed assessment of all FTD dimensions. The results strengthen the importance of subjective symptom assessment reported by the patient.

  18. Towards tailored and targeted adherence assessment to optimise asthma management.

    PubMed

    van Boven, Job F M; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; van der Molen, Thys; Chavannes, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to emphasise the need for a more comprehensive and tailored approach to manage the broad nature of non-adherence, to personalise current asthma management. Although currently several methods are available to measure the extent of asthma patients' adherence, the vast majority do not incorporate confirmation of the actual inhalation, dose and inhalation technique. Moreover, most current measures lack detailed information on the individual consequences of non-adherence and on when and how to take action if non-adherence is identified. Notably, one has to realise there are several forms of non-adherence (erratic non-adherence, intelligent non-adherence and unwitting non-adherence), each requiring a different approach. To improve asthma management, more accurate methods are needed that integrate measures of non-adherence, asthma disease control and patient preferences. Integrating information from the latest inhaler devices and patient-reported outcomes using mobile monitoring- and feedback systems ('mHealth') is considered a promising strategy, but requires careful implementation. Key issues to be considered before large-scale implementation include patient preferences, large heterogeneity in patient and disease characteristics, economic consequences, and long-term persistence with new digital technologies.

  19. Towards tailored and targeted adherence assessment to optimise asthma management

    PubMed Central

    van Boven, Job FM; Trappenburg, Jaap CA; van der Molen, Thys; Chavannes, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to emphasise the need for a more comprehensive and tailored approach to manage the broad nature of non-adherence, to personalise current asthma management. Although currently several methods are available to measure the extent of asthma patients’ adherence, the vast majority do not incorporate confirmation of the actual inhalation, dose and inhalation technique. Moreover, most current measures lack detailed information on the individual consequences of non-adherence and on when and how to take action if non-adherence is identified. Notably, one has to realise there are several forms of non-adherence (erratic non-adherence, intelligent non-adherence and unwitting non-adherence), each requiring a different approach. To improve asthma management, more accurate methods are needed that integrate measures of non-adherence, asthma disease control and patient preferences. Integrating information from the latest inhaler devices and patient-reported outcomes using mobile monitoring- and feedback systems (‘mHealth’) is considered a promising strategy, but requires careful implementation. Key issues to be considered before large-scale implementation include patient preferences, large heterogeneity in patient and disease characteristics, economic consequences, and long-term persistence with new digital technologies. PMID:26181850

  20. Population-Scale Sequencing Data Enable Precise Estimates of Y-STR Mutation Rates.

    PubMed

    Willems, Thomas; Gymrek, Melissa; Poznik, G David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Erlich, Yaniv

    2016-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are mutation-prone loci that span nearly 1% of the human genome. Previous studies have estimated the mutation rates of highly polymorphic STRs by using capillary electrophoresis and pedigree-based designs. Although this work has provided insights into the mutational dynamics of highly mutable STRs, the mutation rates of most others remain unknown. Here, we harnessed whole-genome sequencing data to estimate the mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) with 2-6 bp repeat units that are accessible to Illumina sequencing. We genotyped 4,500 Y-STRs by using data from the 1000 Genomes Project and the Simons Genome Diversity Project. Next, we developed MUTEA, an algorithm that infers STR mutation rates from population-scale data by using a high-resolution SNP-based phylogeny. After extensive intrinsic and extrinsic validations, we harnessed MUTEA to derive mutation-rate estimates for 702 polymorphic STRs by tracing each locus over 222,000 meioses, resulting in the largest collection of Y-STR mutation rates to date. Using our estimates, we identified determinants of STR mutation rates and built a model to predict rates for STRs across the genome. These predictions indicate that the load of de novo STR mutations is at least 75 mutations per generation, rivaling the load of all other known variant types. Finally, we identified Y-STRs with potential applications in forensics and genetic genealogy, assessed the ability to differentiate between the Y chromosomes of father-son pairs, and imputed Y-STR genotypes.

  1. Population-Scale Sequencing Data Enable Precise Estimates of Y-STR Mutation Rates.

    PubMed

    Willems, Thomas; Gymrek, Melissa; Poznik, G David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Erlich, Yaniv

    2016-05-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are mutation-prone loci that span nearly 1% of the human genome. Previous studies have estimated the mutation rates of highly polymorphic STRs by using capillary electrophoresis and pedigree-based designs. Although this work has provided insights into the mutational dynamics of highly mutable STRs, the mutation rates of most others remain unknown. Here, we harnessed whole-genome sequencing data to estimate the mutation rates of Y chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) with 2-6 bp repeat units that are accessible to Illumina sequencing. We genotyped 4,500 Y-STRs by using data from the 1000 Genomes Project and the Simons Genome Diversity Project. Next, we developed MUTEA, an algorithm that infers STR mutation rates from population-scale data by using a high-resolution SNP-based phylogeny. After extensive intrinsic and extrinsic validations, we harnessed MUTEA to derive mutation-rate estimates for 702 polymorphic STRs by tracing each locus over 222,000 meioses, resulting in the largest collection of Y-STR mutation rates to date. Using our estimates, we identified determinants of STR mutation rates and built a model to predict rates for STRs across the genome. These predictions indicate that the load of de novo STR mutations is at least 75 mutations per generation, rivaling the load of all other known variant types. Finally, we identified Y-STRs with potential applications in forensics and genetic genealogy, assessed the ability to differentiate between the Y chromosomes of father-son pairs, and imputed Y-STR genotypes. PMID:27126583

  2. Very Small Scale Clustering and Merger Rate of Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masjedi, Morad; Hogg, David W.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Blanton, Michael R.; Zehavi, Idit; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bell, Eric F.; Schneider, Donald P.; Warren, Michael S.; Brinkmann, Jon

    2006-06-01

    We present the small-scale (0.01 Mpcscales smaller than 55" prevents measurements of the correlation function for LRGs on scales smaller than ~0.3 Mpc by the usual methods. In this work, we cross-correlate the spectroscopic sample with the imaging sample, with a weighting scheme to account for the collisions, extensively tested against mock catalogs. We correct for photometric biases in the SDSS imaging of close galaxy pairs. We find that the correlation function ξ(r) is surprisingly close to a r-2 power law over more than 4 orders of magnitude in separation r. This result is too steep at small scales to be explained in current versions of the halo model for galaxy clustering. We infer an LRG-LRG merger rate of <~0.6×104 Gyr-1 Gpc-3 for this sample. This result suggests that the LRG-LRG mergers are not the main mode of mass growth for LRGs at z<0.36.

  3. Pressure Decay Testing Methodology for Quantifying Leak Rates of Full-Scale Docking System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Penney, Nicholas; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. This system, called the Low Impact Docking System, is a mechanism designed to connect the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the International Space Station, the lunar lander (Altair), and other future Constellation Project vehicles. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this docking system. This seal will be relatively large with an outside diameter in the range of 54 to 58 in. (137 to 147 cm). As part of this effort, a new test apparatus has been designed, fabricated, and installed to measure leak rates of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Using this test apparatus, a pressure decay testing and data processing methodology has been developed to quantify full-scale seal leak rates. Tests performed on untreated 54 in. diameter seals at room temperature in a fully compressed state resulted in leak rates lower than the requirement of less than 0.0025 lbm, air per day (0.0011 kg/day).

  4. Scaling laws for the bifurcation escape rate in a nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defoort, M.; Puller, V.; Bourgeois, O.; Pistolesi, F.; Collin, E.

    2015-11-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical studies of the fluctuation-induced escape time from a metastable state of a nanomechanical Duffing resonator in a cryogenic environment. By tuning in situ the nonlinear coefficient γ we could explore a wide range of the parameter space around the bifurcation point, where the metastable state becomes unstable. We measured in a relaxation process the distribution of the escape times. We have been able to verify its exponential distribution and extract the escape rate Γ . We investigated the scaling of Γ with respect to the distance to the bifurcation point and γ , finding an unprecedented quantitative agreement with the theoretical description of the stochastic problem. Simple power scaling laws turn out to hold in a large region of the parameter space, as anticipated by recent theoretical predictions. These unique findings, implemented in a model dynamical system, are relevant to all systems experiencing underdamped saddle-node bifurcation.

  5. Scaling laws for the bifurcation escape rate in a nanomechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Defoort, M; Puller, V; Bourgeois, O; Pistolesi, F; Collin, E

    2015-11-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical studies of the fluctuation-induced escape time from a metastable state of a nanomechanical Duffing resonator in a cryogenic environment. By tuning in situ the nonlinear coefficient γ we could explore a wide range of the parameter space around the bifurcation point, where the metastable state becomes unstable. We measured in a relaxation process the distribution of the escape times. We have been able to verify its exponential distribution and extract the escape rate Γ. We investigated the scaling of Γ with respect to the distance to the bifurcation point and γ, finding an unprecedented quantitative agreement with the theoretical description of the stochastic problem. Simple power scaling laws turn out to hold in a large region of the parameter space, as anticipated by recent theoretical predictions. These unique findings, implemented in a model dynamical system, are relevant to all systems experiencing underdamped saddle-node bifurcation. PMID:26651634

  6. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  7. Cooling rate dependence of solidification for liquid aluminium: a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Z Y; Dong, K J; Tian, Z A; Liu, R S; Wang, Z; Wang, J G

    2016-06-29

    The effect of the cooling rate on the solidification process of liquid aluminium is studied using a large-scale molecular dynamics method. It is found that there are various types of short-range order (SRO) structures in the liquid, among which the icosahedral (ICO)-like structures are dominant. These SRO structures are in dynamic fluctuation and transform each other. The effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure is very weak at high temperatures and in supercooled liquids, and it appears only below the liquid-solid transition temperature. Fast cooling rates favour the formation of amorphous structures with ICO-like features, while slow cooling rates favour the formation of FCC crystalline structures. Furthermore, FCC and HCP structures can coexist in crystalline structures. It is also found that nanocrystalline aluminium can be achieved at appropriate cooling rates, and its formation mechanism is thoroughly investigated by tracing the evolution of nanoclusters. The arrangement of FCC and HCP atoms in the nanograins displays various twinned structures as observed using visualization analysis, which is different from the layering or phase separation structures observed in the solidification of Lennard-Jones fluids and some metal liquids. PMID:27302145

  8. Identifying Differential Item Functioning of Rating Scale Items with the Rasch Model: An Introduction and an Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2006-01-01

    This study (a) provided a conceptual introduction to differential item functioning (DIF), (b) introduced the multifaceted Rasch rating scale model (MRSM) and an associated statistical procedure for identifying DIF in rating scale items, and (c) applied this procedure to previously collected data from American coaches who responded to the coaching…

  9. Test Review: Michael H. Epstein and Lori Synhorst "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" Austin, TX--PRO-ED, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevon, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale" (PreBERS), a 42-item family member--or school personnel--completed rating scale designed to measure the behavioral and emotional strengths of preschool children ages 3-0 to 5-11. According to the manual, results can be used to identify preschoolers with limited…

  10. Creating Abbreviated Rating Scales to Monitor Classroom Inattention-Overactivity, Aggression, and Peer Conflict: Reliability, Validity, and Treatment Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Rating scales developed to measure child emotional and behavioral problems typically are so long as to make their use in progress monitoring impractical in typical school settings. This study examined two methods of selecting items from existing rating scales to create shorter instruments for use in assessing response to intervention. The…

  11. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  12. How Many Fidgets in a Pretty Much: A Critique of Behavior Rating Scales for Identifying Students with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Maag, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Article describes behavior rating scales and the difficulties in the use of cutoff scores to identify students as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Also described are how problems with interobserver agreement hamper the validity of rating scales and the subsequent conclusions that can be drawn about students' behavior. (RJM)

  13. Developing a Saudi Version of the New Four Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakheit, Salah Edin Farah Attallah

    2015-01-01

    The scales for rating the behavioral characteristics of superior students (SRBCSS), which were developed by Renzulli and his colleagues, are considered the most widespread and the most important scales used in the identification of gifted and superior students. Recently, four new scales were added. The aim of this research was to examine the…

  14. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... during the month, and disregard wells that produced less than 15 days during the month. (b) Wells...-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... during the month, and disregard wells that produced less than 15 days during the month. (b) Wells...-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  16. 43 CFR 3162.7-4 - Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... during the month, and disregard wells that produced less than 15 days during the month. (b) Wells...-scale leases (public land only). 3162.7-4 Section 3162.7-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Royalty rates on oil; sliding and step-scale leases (public land only). Sliding- and step-scale...

  17. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  18. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  19. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    PubMed Central

    Moudi, Zahra; Tavousi, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. Objectives This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS). Patients and Methods For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation) via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient) were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. Results The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items (“partner” subscale) of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the “baby” subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of “nurse,” “physician,” and “baby,” which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the “self” subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0.72, P < 0

  20. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD.

  1. [Standardization of the Greek version of Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)].

    PubMed

    Samakouri, M; Bouhos, G; Kadoglou, M; Giantzelidou, A; Tsolaki, K; Livaditis, M

    2012-01-01

    Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), introduced by Zung, has been widely used in research and in clinical practice for the detection of anxiety. The present study aims at standardizing the Greek version of SAS. SAS consists of 20 items rated on a 1-4 likert type scale. The total SAS score may vary from 20 (no anxiety at all) to 80 (severe anxiety). Two hundred and fifty four participants (114 male and 140 female), psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals, aged 45.40±11.35 years, completed the following: (a) a demographic characteristics' questionnaire, (b) the SAS Greek version, (c) the Spielberg's Modified Greek State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI-Gr.-X) and (d) the Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS). Seventy six participants answered the SAS twice within a 12th-day median period of time. The following parameters were calculated: (a) internal consistency of the SAS in terms of Cronbach's α co-efficient, (b) its test-retest reliability in terms of the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and (c) its concurrent and convergent validities through its score's Spearman's rho correlations with both the state and trait subscales of STAI-Gr X and the ZDRS. In addition, in order to evaluate SAS' discriminant validity, the scale's scores of the three groups of participants (psychiatric patients, physically ill and general population individuals) were compared among each other, in terms of Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. SAS Cronbach's alpha equals 0.897 while ICC regarding its test-retest reliability equals 0.913. Spearman's rho concerning validity: (a) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr.-X (state), equals it 0.767, (b) when SAS is compared to STAI-Gr. X (trait), it equals 0.802 and (c) when SAS is compared to ZDRS, it equals 0.835. The mentally ill scored significantly higher in SAS compared to both the healthy and the general population. In conclusion, the SAS Greek version presents very satisfactory psychometric properties regarding

  2. Adherence to Adjuvant Hormone Therapy in Low-income Women with Breast Cancer: The Role of Provider-Patient Communication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yihang; Malin, Jennifer L.; Diamant, Allison L; Thind, Amardeep; Maly, Rose C

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of patient-provider communication on adherence to tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI) 36 months after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis in a low-income population of women. Methods California statewide surveys were conducted among 921 low-income women with BC at 6-, 18-, and 36-months after BC diagnosis. A subset of 303 women with stage I–III BC who initiated hormone treatment after diagnosis was identified. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted adherence rates were calculated. The main outcome measure was self-reported hormone use at 36 months after BC diagnosis and the chief independent variables were patient-centered communication after diagnosis by patient report as measured by the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) and patients’ self-efficacy in patient-physician interactions (PEPPI). Results Overall adherence to TAM/AI was relatively high (88%). Adjusted rates of adherence were 59% and 94% for patients with the lowest vs. highest scores on the CAHPS communication scale (AOR=1.22, P=0.006) and 72% vs. 91% for patients with the lowest and highest rating of PEPPI (AOR=1.04, P=0.04). Having at least one comorbid condition also increased the odds of adherence to hormonal therapy (AOR=3.14, P=0.03). Having no health insurance and experiencing side-effects from hormone treatment were barriers for adherence (AOR=0.12, P=0.001; AOR=0.26, P=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Patient-centered communication and perceived self-efficacy in patient-physician interaction were significantly associated with patient adherence to ongoing TAM/AI therapy among low-income women with BC. Interventions on patient-provider communication may provide opportunities to improve patient outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:23263740

  3. A review of modifying factors affecting usage of diagnostic rating scales in concussion management.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alexa; Rasouli, Jonathan; Gometz, Alex; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2014-07-01

    Sport-related concussion has gained increasing recognition as a result of recent legislation, public health initiatives and media coverage. Moreover, there have been substantial paradigm shifts in the management of concussion. This article will discuss the variables that affect the use of diagnostic rating scales such as ImPACT and SCAT in the current management of concussed individuals. Specifically, patient-specific modifying factors affecting test interpretation, including age, gender, fitness level, psychiatric conditions, learning disorders and other components of medical history will be addressed, as well as methodological concerns with baseline testing. PMID:24908218

  4. Comparing quantum versus Markov random walk models of judgements measured by rating scales

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z.; Busemeyer, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum and Markov random walk models are proposed for describing how people evaluate stimuli using rating scales. To empirically test these competing models, we conducted an experiment in which participants judged the effectiveness of public health service announcements from either their own personal perspective or from the perspective of another person. The order of the self versus other judgements was manipulated, which produced significant sequential effects. The quantum and Markov models were fitted to the data using the same number of parameters, and the model comparison strongly supported the quantum over the Markov model. PMID:26621984

  5. Direct rate measurements of eruption plumes at Augustine volcano: A problem of scaling and uncontrolled variables

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, W.I.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Eppler, D.; Barr, S.; Miller, T.; Chuan, R.L.; Symonds, R.B.

    1988-05-10

    The March--April 1986 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, provided an opportunity to directly measure the flux of gas, aerosol, and ash particles during explosive eruption. Most previous direct measurements of volcanic emission rates are on plumes from fuming volcanoes or on very small eruption clouds. Direct measurements during explosive activity are needed to understand the scale relationships between passive degassing or small eruption plumes and highly explosive events. Conditions on April 3, 1986 were ideal: high winds, clear visibility, moderate activity. Three measurements were made: (1) an airborne correlation spectrometer (Cospec) provided mass flux rates of SO/sub 2/; (2) treated filter samples chemically characteized the plume and (3) a quartz crystal microcascade impactor provided particle size distribution. Atmospheric conditions on April 3 caused the development of a lee wave plume, which allowed us to constrain a model of plume dispersion leading to a forecast map of concentrations of SO/sub 2/ at greater distances from the vent.

  6. Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21: measurement and structural invariance across ratings of men and women.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Summers, Mathew; Summers, Avril; Wolf, Anna; Summers, Jeff

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the measurement and structural invariance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) across ratings provided by men (N = 227) and women (N = 460). Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported full metric invariance and intercepts invariance for 20 of the 21 items. Invariance for all item intercepts was supported by multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) procedure that controlled for the effects of age. Multiple-group CFA supported invariance for all factor variances and covariances. This procedure and the MIMIC analyses found equivalency for all latent mean scores. These findings indicate good support for measurement and structural invariance of the DASS-21 rating across men and women. The psychometric and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J.; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult’s financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question. PMID:25866438

  8. Materials Adherence Experiment: Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.P.; Landis, G.A.; Oberle, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    NASA`s Mars Pathfinder mission, launched December 4, 1996, reflects a new philosophy of exploiting new technologies to reduce mission cost and accelerate the pace of space exploration. Pathfinder will demonstrate a variety of new technologies aimed at reducing the cost of Mars exploration. Chief among these will be the demonstration of a solar-powered spacecraft on the surface of Mars. The Materials Adherence Experiment on Pathfinder was designed to measure the degradation of solar arrays due to dust settling out of the atmosphere and blocking light to the solar array, lowering the array power output.

  9. Pulling on adhered vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ana-Suncana; Goennenwein, Stefanie; Lorz, Barbara; Seifert, Udo; Sackmann, Erich

    2004-03-01

    A theoretical model describing pulling of vesicles adhered in a contact potential has been developed. Two different regimes have been recognized. For weak to middle-strength adhesive potentials, locally stable shapes are found in a range of applied forces, separated from the free shape by an energy barrier. The phase diagram contains regions with either a unique bound shape or an additional meta-stable shape. Upon pulling, these shapes unbind discontinuously since the vesicle disengage from the surface while still possessing a finite adhesion area (Smith 2003a). In a strong adhesion regime, a competition between adhesion and tether formation is observed. A critical onset force is identified where a tether spontaneously appears as a part of a second order shape transition. Further growth of a tether is followed by a detachment process which terminates at a finite force when a vesicle continuously unbinds from the substrate (Smith 2003b). Both critical forces, as well as all shape parameters, are calculated as a function of the reduced volume and the strength of adhesive potential. Analogous experimental study has been performed where a vertical magnetic tweezers are used in combination with micro-interferometric and confocal techniques to reproduce the same symmetry as in the theoretical investigation. Giant vesicles are bound to the substrate by numerous specific bonds formed between ligands and receptors incorporated into the vesicle and the substrate, respectively. Application of a constant force is inducing a new thermodynamic equilibrium of the system where the vesicle is partially unbound from the substrate (Goennenwein 2003). The shapes of vesicles are compared prior and during application of the force. Very good agreement is obtained, particularly in the middle-strength adhesion regime (Smith 2003c). References: 1. A.-S. Smith, E. Sackmann, U. Seifert: Effects of a pulling force on the shape of a bound vesicle, Europhys. Lett., 64, 2 (2003). 2. A.-S. Smith

  10. The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale: An Anatomically Defined and Image-Based Tool.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul D; Rademaker, Alfred W; Leder, Steven B

    2015-10-01

    The Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale was developed, standardized, and validated to provide reliable, anatomically defined, and image-based assessment of post-swallow pharyngeal residue severity as observed during fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). It is a five-point ordinal rating scale based on residue location (vallecula and pyriform sinus) and amount (none, trace, mild, moderate, and severe). Two expert judges reviewed a total of 261 FEES evaluations and selected a no residue exemplar and three exemplars each of trace, mild, moderate, and severe vallecula and pyriform sinus residue. Hard-copy color images of the no residue, 12 vallecula, and 12 pyriform sinus exemplars were randomized by residue location for hierarchical categorization by 20 raters with a mean of 8.3 years of experience (range 2-27 years) performing and interpreting FEES. Severity ratings for all images were performed by the same 20 raters, 2 weeks apart, and with the order of image presentations randomized. Intra-rater test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity were determined by pooled multi-category multi-rater kappa statistics. Residue ratings were excellent for intra-rater reliability for vallecula (kappa = 0.957 ± 0.014) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.854 ± 0.021); very good to excellent for inter-rater reliability for vallecula (kappa = 0.868 ± 0.011) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.751 ± 0.011); and excellent for validity for vallecula (kappa = 0.951 ± 0.014) and pyriform sinus (kappa = 0.908 ± 0.017). Clinical uses include accurate classification of vallecula and pyriform sinus residue severity patterns as none, trace, mild, moderate, or severe for diagnostic purposes, determination of functional therapeutic change, and precise dissemination of shared information. Scientific uses include tracking outcome measures, demonstrating efficacy of interventions to reduce pharyngeal residue, investigating morbidity and mortality

  11. Synoptic-scale variability of satellite-derived sea-ice deformation rates in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, A.; Głowacki, O.

    2012-04-01

    Observational data show that deformation of the compact sea ice covering the central Arctic takes place within elongated, narrow zones separating semi-rigid floes. Localization of deformation, and a related intermittent character of internal stress in the ice, cannot be satisfactorily reproduced with present state-of-the-art numerical models, especially those based on various versions of viscous-plastic rheology. Similarly, sea-ice models do not reproduce properly the observed power-law tails of deformation-rate probability distributions (pdfs), with a slope depending on the scale of the observation. In order to be able to improve the models, one needs: (i) relevant quantitative measures of ice deformation rates that the models should aim to reproduce; (ii) a better understanding of the time variability of those measures (existing studies are usually limited to the analysis of single events) and their dependence on changes of the external forcing and of the properties of the ice itself. In this study, we use gridded sea-ice total deformation rates from the RGPS data provided by the RADARSAT-1 satellite, available for 11 winter seasons with a time resolution of 3 days and a spatial resolution of 12.55 km. The analysis is based on deformation-rate pdfs obtained by means of a rank-order analysis of the data for each snapshot in the dataset. We analyze the time variability of: (i) the slope of the power-law tails of the pdfs, estimated with a maximum-likelihood method; and (ii) the moments of the pdfs for a range of exponents q and spatial scales L from the original mesh size to approximately 1000 km. In all analyzed cases, the slope of the moments as a function of the length scale L increases (faster than linearly) with increasing power q. However, the tempo of this increase can be very different. Generally, there are two distinct, dominating patterns of variability, with the first pattern describing the overall level of deformation, and the second one being generally

  12. Control of metabolic rate is a hidden variable in the allometric scaling of homeotherms.

    PubMed

    Chaui-Berlinck, José Guilherme; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Monteiro, Luiz Henrique Alves; Bicudo, José Eduardo Pereira Wilken

    2005-05-01

    The allometric scaling exponent of the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR) and body mass for homeotherms has a long history and has been subject to much debate. Provided the external and internal conditions required to measure SMR are met, it is tacitly assumed that the metabolic rate (B) converges to SMR. If SMR does indeed represent a local minimum, then short-term regulatory control mechanisms should not operate to sustain it. This is a hidden assumption in many published articles aiming to explain the scaling exponent in terms of physical and morphological constraints. This paper discusses the findings of a minimalist body temperature (Tb) control model in which short-term controlling operations, related to the difference between Tb and the set-point temperatures by specific gains and time delays in the control loops, are described by a system of differential equations of Tb, B and thermal conductance. We found that because the gains in the control loops tend to increase as body size decreases (i.e. changes in B and thermal conductance are speeded-up in small homeotherms), the equilibrium point of the system potentially changes from asymptotically stable to a centre, transforming B and Tb in oscillating variables. Under these specific circumstances the very concept of SMR no longer makes sense. A series of empirical reports of metabolic rate in very small homeotherms supports this theoretical prediction, because in these animals B seems not to converge to a SMR value. We conclude that the unrestricted use of allometric equations to relate metabolic rate to body size might be misleading because metabolic control itself experiences size effects that are overlooked in ordinary allometric analysis.

  13. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  14. Time-Scaling in Atomistics and the Rate-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-06-01

    Conventional molecular dynamics simulations enable the elucidation of an astonishing array of phenomena inherent in the mechanical and chemical behavior of materials. Unfortunately, current computational limitations preclude accounting for processes whose transition times exceed, at best, microseconds. This limitation severely impacts, among others, a realistic assessment of slow-strain-rate mechanical behavior. In this work, using a simple paradigmatical model of a metallic nanopillar that is often the subject of experimental works, we attempt to circumvent the time-scale bottleneck of conventional molecular dynamics and provide novel physical insights into the rate-dependence of mechanical behavior of nanostructures. Using a collection of algorithms that include a recently developed potential energy surface sampling method-the so-called autonomous basin climbing approach, kinetic Monte Carlo, and others, we assess the nanopillar mechanical behavior under strain rates ranging from 1 to 10(8) s(-1). While our results for high-strain rate behavior are consistent with conventional molecular dynamics, we find that the response of nanostructures to slow compression is "liquid-like" and accompanied by extensive surface reconstructions. PMID:27167716

  15. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

  16. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the…

  17. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  18. The assessment of dyspnea during the vigorous intensity exercise by three Dyspnea Rating Scales in inactive medical personnel.

    PubMed

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida

    2013-07-24

    It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it's known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than 15

  19. The allometry of the smallest: superlinear scaling of microbial metabolic rates in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    García, Francisca C; García-Martín, Enma Elena; Taboada, Fernando González; Sal, Sofía; Serret, Pablo; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2016-05-01

    Prokaryotic planktonic organisms are small in size but largely relevant in marine biogeochemical cycles. Due to their reduced size range (0.2 to 1 μm in diameter), the effects of cell size on their metabolism have been hardly considered and are usually not examined in field studies. Here, we show the results of size-fractionated experiments of marine microbial respiration rate along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean. The scaling exponents obtained from the power relationship between respiration rate and size were significantly higher than one. This superlinearity was ubiquitous across the latitudinal transect but its value was not universal revealing a strong albeit heterogeneous effect of cell size on microbial metabolism. Our results suggest that the latitudinal differences observed are the combined result of changes in cell size and composition between functional groups within prokaryotes. Communities where the largest size fraction was dominated by prokaryotic cyanobacteria, especially Prochlorococcus, have lower allometric exponents. We hypothesize that these larger, more complex prokaryotes fall close to the evolutionary transition between prokaryotes and protists, in a range where surface area starts to constrain metabolism and, hence, are expected to follow a scaling closer to linearity. PMID:26636550

  20. The allometry of the smallest: superlinear scaling of microbial metabolic rates in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    García, Francisca C; García-Martín, Enma Elena; Taboada, Fernando González; Sal, Sofía; Serret, Pablo; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2016-05-01

    Prokaryotic planktonic organisms are small in size but largely relevant in marine biogeochemical cycles. Due to their reduced size range (0.2 to 1 μm in diameter), the effects of cell size on their metabolism have been hardly considered and are usually not examined in field studies. Here, we show the results of size-fractionated experiments of marine microbial respiration rate along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean. The scaling exponents obtained from the power relationship between respiration rate and size were significantly higher than one. This superlinearity was ubiquitous across the latitudinal transect but its value was not universal revealing a strong albeit heterogeneous effect of cell size on microbial metabolism. Our results suggest that the latitudinal differences observed are the combined result of changes in cell size and composition between functional groups within prokaryotes. Communities where the largest size fraction was dominated by prokaryotic cyanobacteria, especially Prochlorococcus, have lower allometric exponents. We hypothesize that these larger, more complex prokaryotes fall close to the evolutionary transition between prokaryotes and protists, in a range where surface area starts to constrain metabolism and, hence, are expected to follow a scaling closer to linearity.

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale With Online Graduate Students.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    The Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale was examined using data from a convenience sample of 450 female and 65 male students enrolled in online, graduate-level introductory statistics courses. The mean age of the students was 33.1 (SD = 8.2), and 58.3% had completed six or fewer online courses. The majority of students were enrolled in education or counseling degree programs. Confirmatory factor analysis using unweighted least squares estimation was used to test three proposed models, and alpha coefficients were used to examine the internal consistency. The confirmatory factor analysis results supported the six-factor structure and indicated that proper models should include correlations among the six factors or two second-order factors (anxiety and attitude). Internal consistency estimates ranged from .82 to .95 and were consistent with values reported by previous researchers. The findings suggest that, when measuring statistics anxiety of online students using Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale, researchers and instructors can use scores from the individual subscales or generate two composite scores, anxiety and attitude, instead of a total score. PMID:27154380

  2. The allometry of the smallest: superlinear scaling of microbial metabolic rates in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    García, Francisca C; García-Martín, Enma Elena; Taboada, Fernando González; Sal, Sofía; Serret, Pablo; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic planktonic organisms are small in size but largely relevant in marine biogeochemical cycles. Due to their reduced size range (0.2 to 1 μm in diameter), the effects of cell size on their metabolism have been hardly considered and are usually not examined in field studies. Here, we show the results of size-fractionated experiments of marine microbial respiration rate along a latitudinal transect in the Atlantic Ocean. The scaling exponents obtained from the power relationship between respiration rate and size were significantly higher than one. This superlinearity was ubiquitous across the latitudinal transect but its value was not universal revealing a strong albeit heterogeneous effect of cell size on microbial metabolism. Our results suggest that the latitudinal differences observed are the combined result of changes in cell size and composition between functional groups within prokaryotes. Communities where the largest size fraction was dominated by prokaryotic cyanobacteria, especially Prochlorococcus, have lower allometric exponents. We hypothesize that these larger, more complex prokaryotes fall close to the evolutionary transition between prokaryotes and protists, in a range where surface area starts to constrain metabolism and, hence, are expected to follow a scaling closer to linearity. PMID:26636550

  3. Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.

  4. Evaporation of Liquid Droplet in Nano and Micro Scales from Statistical Rate Theory.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; He, Bin; Wei, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The statistical rate theory (SRT) is applied to predict the average evaporation flux of liquid droplet after the approach is validated in the sessile droplet experiments of the water and heavy water. The steady-state experiments show a temperature discontinuity at the evaporating interface. The average evaporation flux is evaluated by individually changing the measurement at a liquid-vapor interface, including the interfacial liquid temperature, the interfacial vapor temperature, the vapor-phase pressure, and the droplet size. The parameter study shows that a higher temperature jump would reduce the average evaporation flux. The average evaporation flux can significantly be influenced by the interfacial liquid temperature and the vapor-phase pressure. The variation can switch the evaporation into condensation. The evaporation flux is found to remain relative constant if the droplet is larger than a micro scale, while the smaller diameters in nano scale can produce a much higher evaporation flux. In addition, a smaller diameter of droplets with the same liquid volume has a larger surface area. It is suggested that the evaporation rate increases dramatically as the droplet shrinks into nano size.

  5. Assessment of Drug-Associated Extrapyramidal Symptoms in People With Intellectual Disability: A Comparison of an Informant-Based Scale With Clinical Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    de Kuijper, Gerda M; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2016-10-01

    Drug-associated extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in people with intellectual disability (ID) may be difficult to recognize, and clinicians' assessments may be hampered by lack of patients' capacities to adequately cooperate and by lack of reliable instruments to measure EPS in this population. Therefore, we compared assessments based on professional caregivers' observations with the informant-based validated Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) scale with assessments by clinicians using a set of clinical rating scales, most of which have not been validated for use in this population. We also compared 2 dyskinesia scales by replacing the widely used but not validated Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale with the validated Dyskinesia Identification System Condensed User Scale (DISCUS) in half of the set of scales. We used linear regression to analyze associations between EPS as measured with MEDS and EPS as measured with the sets of scales at item and at scale level.Of the 30 MEDS items, 6 were associated with items of the other scales. At scale level, we found no significant associations. Comparison of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale with the DISCUS indicated that the DISCUS may be preferable for use in people with ID.Results may be explained by shortcomings in education and training of caregivers and by lack of reliable assessments and rating scales for EPS in people with ID.We conclude that there is an urgent need for education and training of care professionals and clinicians in this area and for studies investigating the psychometric properties of rating scales. PMID:27529770

  6. Associations Between Personality Traits and Adherence to Antidepressants Assessed Through Self-Report, Electronic Monitoring, and Pharmacy Dispensing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Antoine C G; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed by a single method. Hence, we investigated associations between the Big Five personality traits and adherence assessed by self-report, electronic drug use monitoring, and dispensing data. Using the Big Five Inventory, we assessed the personality traits "openness," "conscientiousness," "extraversion," "agreeableness," and "neuroticism" of patients treated with antidepressants who were invited through community pharmacies. Self-reported adherence was assessed with the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (score >24), electronic monitoring with medication event monitoring system (MEMS) devices (therapy days missed ≤ 10% and < 4 consecutive days missed), and dispensing data (medication possession ratio ≥ 80%). One hundred four women and 33 men participated (mean age, 51; standard deviation, 14). Paroxetine was most frequently prescribed (N = 53, 38%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that of the personality traits, the third and fourth quartiles of "conscientiousness" were associated with better self-reported adherence (odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-9.86 and odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.08; P ≤ 0.05). No relationships were found between personality traits and adherence assessed through electronic drug use monitoring or dispensing data. We therefore conclude that adherence to antidepressant therapy seems to be largely unrelated to personality traits. PMID:27454894

  7. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  8. Natural-Scale Lava Flow Experiments on Video: Variations with Temperature, Slope, and Effusion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.; Wysocki, R.; Edwards, B. R.; Lev, E.

    2013-12-01

    Investigations of active basaltic lava flows and analog materials show that flow dynamics and final flow morphology are strongly determined by the rapidly evolving rheology of the lava crust which constrains the downslope advance of the lava flow. The non-dimensional factor Ψ (ratio of the time scale of crust formation to advective heat loss) provides a useful means of comparing different flows. The key parameters that control Ψ include the melt viscosity, temperature, effusion rate, and slope. Experimental lava flows, up to several meters long created in the Syracuse University Lava Project permit these variables to be investigated independently and in combination in volume-limited flows (<450 kg, 0.5 m3). Video results show lava is very sensitive to relatively small variations in these variables under experimental conditions. For example, experiments 1.1 Ga Keewenan basalt from the Mid-Continent Rift and 200 Ma basalt from the Palisades Sill show very different flow rates and flow morphologies for meter-scale flows on dry sand slopes between 5° and 20°, with all other variables held constant. Similar differences result from varying the effusion rate (~10-4m3s-1) or temperature (1050°-1250°C) on a constant slope. In addition, videos document the development of a wide range of reproducible lava flow structures found in natural lava flows including folds, shear zones, lava tubes, inflated lobes, break-outs, and bubbles (limu o'Pele), that provide additional information on lava crust development. New, continuous flow (cooling-limited) experiments show downslope variations under constant flow conditions.

  9. Which Rating Scales are Regarded as ‘The Standard’ in Clinical Trials for Schizophrenia? A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takefumi

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reviewed which rating scales past studies adopted as an outcome measure in clinical trials for schizophrenia, for which a consensus has been lacking. Methods A PubMed search was conducted using keywords ‘outcome’, ‘rating scales’, and ‘schizophrenia’. Studies published in 1999, 2004 and 2009 were examined to globally see if a trend has changed over the last decade. Results One-hundred fifty articles were inspected. As for psychopathology, the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) has been by far the most frequently utilized scale (46%, 79%, and 78% in the respective years), followed by the brief psychiatric rating scale. Affective/anxiety symptoms have been only rarely recorded. Extrapyramidal symptoms have been assessed mostly with the Simpson Angus scale (SAS), more frequently in combination with the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) and Barnes akathisia scale (BARS) recently. Non-motor adverse effects have been typically reported without a usage of formal rating scales. Depending on the interest of investigation, other critical domains of the illness including functioning, cognition and subjective perspectives have been sporadically reported through the rating scales. The assessment scales were similarly utilized across the years, except for a numerical rise in scale utilization to rate the latter three domains in 2009. Conclusions The PANSS and set of AIMS, BARS and SAS, which are expected to take about 60 minutes to complete, are frequently utilized and may be regarded as a ‘standard’ in clinical trials for schizophrenia. Clinical implication of the findings and practical challenges with the existing scales are discussed. PMID:22506437

  10. Century-scale variability of Coralline Algal Calcification Rates in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, J.; Chan, P.; Adey, W.; Hetzinger, S.; Williams, B.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ocean acidification may inhibit calcification pathways of marine plants and animals. Recently, it has been suggested that aragonitic tropical corals and other marine calcifiers already exhibit declining calcification rates. Greater oceanic CO2 uptake at mid-to-high latitudes may result in greater inhibition of calcium carbonate secretion in subarctic organisms than in those at lower latitudes. Such inhibition may be particularly evident in the metabolically expensive high Mg-calcite skeletons of the shallow-water, habitat-forming coralline algae. It has been shown that biogenic high Mg-calcites exceed the solubility of aragonite at approximately 12 mol% MgCO3. Here we present the first century-scale records of calcification rates in the coralline alga Clathromorphum sp. from the North Pacific/Bering Sea region and the subarctic NW Atlantic. Clathromorphum forms annual growth increments in its massive skeleton and is known to have a lifespan of up to several centuries. The seasonal MgCO3 range in Clathromorphum from our subarctic collection sites fluctuates between 10-15 mol%. Century-long time series of calcification rates - the product of skeletal density and linear extension - were generated at submonthly resolution using Micro Computer Tomography. Results indicate that coralline algal calcification rates display multidecadal cycles that covary with regional climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Unlike studies of other marine calcifiers, this study has not detected a significant decline in calcification rates during the past decades. This is likely attributable to Clathromorphum calcification being metabolically driven, with the organism maintaining significant physiological control over both placement and dissolution of carbonate. Most carbonate in Clathromorphum cells is deposited along an inner wall embedded in an organic matrix of very small, radially-placed high magnesium calcite crystals.

  11. Reply to 'Comments on upscaling geochemical reaction rates usingpore-scale network modeling' by Peter C. Lichtner and Qinjun Kang

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Li; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2006-05-03

    Our paper "Upscaling geochemical reaction rates usingpore-scale network modeling" presents a novel application of pore-scalenetwork modeling to upscale mineral dissolution and precipitationreaction rates from the pore scale to the continuum scale, anddemonstrates the methodology by analyzing the scaling behavior ofanorthite and kaolinite reaction kinetics under conditions related to CO2sequestration. We conclude that under highly acidic conditions relevantto CO2 sequestration, the traditional continuum-based methodology may notcapture the spatial variation in concentrations from pore to pore, andscaling tools may be important in correctly modeling reactive transportprocesses in such systems. This work addresses the important butdifficult question of scaling mineral dissolution and precipitationreaction kinetics, which is often ignored in fields such as geochemistry,water resources, and contaminant hydrology. Although scaling of physicalprocesses has been studied for almost three decades, very few studieshave examined the scaling issues related to chemical processes, despitetheir importance in governing the transport and fate of contaminants insubsurface systems.

  12. The Influence of Alternative Scale Formats on the Generalizability of Data Obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Christ, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    The current study served to extend previous research on scaling construction of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) in order to explore the potential flexibility of DBR to fit various intervention contexts. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students viewed the same classroom footage but rated student behavior using one of eight randomly assigned…

  13. Cochlea-scaled spectral entropy predicts rate-invariant intelligibility of temporally distorted sentences1

    PubMed Central

    Stilp, Christian E.; Kiefte, Michael; Alexander, Joshua M.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence, mostly drawn from experiments using only a single moderate rate of speech, suggests that low-frequency amplitude modulations may be particularly important for intelligibility. Here, two experiments investigated intelligibility of temporally distorted sentences across a wide range of simulated speaking rates, and two metrics were used to predict results. Sentence intelligibility was assessed when successive segments of fixed duration were temporally reversed (exp. 1), and when sentences were processed through four third-octave-band filters, the outputs of which were desynchronized (exp. 2). For both experiments, intelligibility decreased with increasing distortion. However, in exp. 2, intelligibility recovered modestly with longer desynchronization. Across conditions, performances measured as a function of proportion of utterance distorted converged to a common function. Estimates of intelligibility derived from modulation transfer functions predict a substantial proportion of the variance in listeners’ responses in exp. 1, but fail to predict performance in exp. 2. By contrast, a metric of potential information, quantified as relative dissimilarity (change) between successive cochlear-scaled spectra, is introduced. This metric reliably predicts listeners’ intelligibility across the full range of speaking rates in both experiments. Results support an information-theoretic approach to speech perception and the significance of spectral change rather than physical units of time. PMID:20968382

  14. Full-Scale System for Quantifying Loads and Leak Rates of Seals for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Robbie, Malcolm G.; Erker, Arthur H.; Drlik, Gary J.; Mayer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced space-rated vacuum seals in support of future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and other destinations. These seals may be 50 to 60 in. (127 to 152 cm) in diameter and must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions to the International Space Station or the Moon. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them during docking or mating, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow two mated systems to separate when required. NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a new test apparatus to measure leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed in seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange configurations at temperatures from -76 to 140 F (-60 to 60 C) under operational pressure gradients. Nominal and off-nominal mating conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features of the test apparatus as well as techniques used to overcome some of the design challenges.

  15. Design and optimization for variable rate selective excitation using an analytic RF scaling function.

    PubMed

    Gai, Neville D; Zur, Yuval

    2007-11-01

    At higher B(0) fields, specific absorption rate (SAR) deposition increases. Due to maximum SAR limitation, slice coverage decreases and/or scan time increases. Conventional selective RF pulses are played out in conjunction with a time independent field gradient. Variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) is a technique that modifies the original RF and gradient waveforms such that slice profile is unchanged. The drawback is that the slice profile for off-resonance spins is distorted. A new VERSE algorithm based on modeling the scaled waveforms as a Fermi function is introduced. It ensures that system related constraints of maximum gradient amplitude and slew rate are not exceeded. The algorithm can be used to preserve the original RF pulse duration while minimizing SAR and peak b1 or to minimize the RF pulse duration. The design is general and can be applied to any symmetrical or asymmetrical RF waveform. The algorithm is demonstrated by using it to (a) minimize the SAR of a linear phase RF pulse, (b) minimize SAR of a hyperbolic secant RF pulse, and (c) minimize the duration of a linear phase RF pulse. Images with a T1-FLAIR (T1 FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery) sequence using a conventional and VERSE adiabatic inversion RF pulse are presented. Comparison of images and scan parameters for different anatomies and coils shows increased scan coverage and decreased SAR with the VERSE inversion RF pulse, while image quality is preserved.

  16. Investigation on laboratory and pilot-scale airlift sulfide oxidation reactor under varying sulfide loading rate.

    PubMed

    Pokasoowan, Chanya; Kanitchaidecha, Wilawan; K C, Bal Krishna; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2009-01-01

    Airlift bioreactor was established for recovering sulfur from synthetic sulfide wastewater under controlled dissolved oxygen condition. The maximum recovered sulfur was 14.49 g/day when sulfide loading rate, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH values were 2.97 kgHS(-)/m(3)-day, 0.2-1.0 mg/L and 7.2-7.8, respectively. On the other hand, the increase in recovered sulfur reduced the contact surface of sulfide oxidizing bacteria which affects the recovery process. This effect caused to reduce the conversion of sulfide to sulfur. More recovered sulfur was produced at high sulfide loading rate due to the change of metabolic pathway of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria which prevented the toxicity of sulfide in the culture. The maximum activity in this system was recorded to be about 3.28 kgS/kgVSS-day. The recovered sulfur contained organic compounds which were confirmed by the results from XRD and CHN analyzer. Afterwards, by annealing the recovered sulfur at 120 degrees C for 24 hrs under ambient Argon, the percentage of carbon reduced from 4.44% to 0.30%. Furthermore, the percentage of nitrogen and hydrogen decreased from 0.79% and 0.48% to 0.00% and 0.14%, respectively. This result showed the success in increasing the purity of recovered sulfur by using the annealing technique. The pilot-scale biological sulfide oxidation process was carried out using real wastewater from Thai Rayon Industry in Thailand. The airlift reactor successfully removed sulfide more than 90% of the influent sulfide at DO concentration of less than 0.1 mg/L, whereas the elementary sulfur production was 2.37 kgS/m(3)-day at sulfide loading rate of 2.14 kgHS(-)/m(3)-day. The sulfur production was still increasing as the reactor had not yet reached its maximum sulfide loading rate. PMID:19085599

  17. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task: Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.

  18. Growth rate distribution of NH4Cl dendrite and its scaling structure.

    PubMed

    Miki, Hiroshi; Honjo, Haruo

    2012-12-01

    Scaling structure of the growth rate distribution on the interface of a dendritic pattern is investigated. The distribution is evaluated for an NH4Cl quasi-two-dimensional crystal by numerically solving the Laplace equation with the boundary condition taking account of the surface tension effect. It is found that the distribution has multifractality and the surface tension effect is almost ineffective in the unscreened large growth region. The values of the minimum singular exponent and the fractal dimension are smaller than those for the diffusion-limited aggregation pattern. The Makarov's theorem, the information dimension equals one, and the Turkevich-Scher conjecture between the fractal dimension and the minimum singularity exponent hold. PMID:23367960

  19. Growth rate distribution of NH4Cl dendrite and its scaling structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hiroshi; Honjo, Haruo

    2012-12-01

    Scaling structure of the growth rate distribution on the interface of a dendritic pattern is investigated. The distribution is evaluated for an NH4Cl quasi-two-dimensional crystal by numerically solving the Laplace equation with the boundary condition taking account of the surface tension effect. It is found that the distribution has multifractality and the surface tension effect is almost ineffective in the unscreened large growth region. The values of the minimum singular exponent and the fractal dimension are smaller than those for the diffusion-limited aggregation pattern. The Makarov's theorem, the information dimension equals one, and the Turkevich-Scher conjecture between the fractal dimension and the minimum singularity exponent hold.

  20. Scaling the energy conversion rate from magnetic field reconnection to different bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.

    2010-10-15

    Magnetic field reconnection is often invoked to explain electromagnetic energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres, stellar coronae, and other astrophysical objects. Because of the huge dynamic range of magnetic fields in these bodies, it is important to understand energy conversion as a function of magnetic field strength and related parameters. It is conjectured theoretically and shown experimentally that the energy conversion rate per unit area in reconnection scales as the cube of an appropriately weighted magnetic field strength divided by the square root of an appropriately weighted density. With this functional dependence, the energy release in flares on the Sun, the large and rapid variation of the magnetic flux in the tail of Mercury, and the apparent absence of reconnection on Jupiter and Saturn, may be understood. Electric fields at the perihelion of the Solar Probe Plus mission may be tens of V/m.

  1. False discovery rate estimation for large-scale homogeneous discrete p-values.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale homogeneous discrete p-values are encountered frequently in high-throughput genomics studies, and the related multiple testing problems become challenging because most existing methods for the false discovery rate (FDR) assume continuous p-values. In this article, we study the estimation of the null proportion and FDR for discrete p-values with common support. In the finite sample setting, we propose a novel class of conservative FDR estimators. Furthermore, we show that a broad class of FDR estimators is simultaneously conservative over all support points under some weak dependence condition in the asymptotic setting. We further demonstrate the significant improvement of a newly proposed method over existing methods through simulation studies and a case study.

  2. Changes in self-rating of symptoms: a comparison of questionnaire graphic scales with test cards.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Edington, A; Kellner, R

    1979-01-01

    Forty-five in-patients, with primary diagnoses of neurosis or personality disorder, completed the test cards and booklet versions of the Symptom Rating Test--Day (SRT). In order to facilitate retroactive interference the Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) were administered between the two forms of the SRT. On the next day the patients were given the SRT (Week). The initial SRT, MAS and MPI testing was repeated one week later. On the assumption that positional set is an important consideration predictions were made as to the expected differences between the test cards and booklet modes of SRT administration. The results add support to the practical use of the SRT in its more recent standardized format. PMID:760909

  3. False discovery rate estimation for large-scale homogeneous discrete p-values.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale homogeneous discrete p-values are encountered frequently in high-throughput genomics studies, and the related multiple testing problems become challenging because most existing methods for the false discovery rate (FDR) assume continuous p-values. In this article, we study the estimation of the null proportion and FDR for discrete p-values with common support. In the finite sample setting, we propose a novel class of conservative FDR estimators. Furthermore, we show that a broad class of FDR estimators is simultaneously conservative over all support points under some weak dependence condition in the asymptotic setting. We further demonstrate the significant improvement of a newly proposed method over existing methods through simulation studies and a case study. PMID:26492596

  4. An initiative to improve adherence to evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of URIs, sinusitis, and pharyngitis

    PubMed Central

    Alweis, Richard; Greco, Michael; Wasser, Thomas; Wenderoth, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Upper respiratory infections, acute sinus infections, and sore throats are common symptoms that cause patients to seek medical care. Despite well-established treatment guidelines, studies indicate that antibiotics are prescribed far more frequently than appropriate, raising a multitude of clinical issues. Methods The primary goal of this study was to increase guideline adherence rates for acute sinusitis, pharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). This study was the first Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle in a quality improvement program at an internal medicine resident faculty practice at a university-affiliated community hospital internal medicine residency program. To improve guideline adherence for respiratory infections, a package of small-scale interventions was implemented aimed at improving patient and provider education regarding viral and bacterial infections and the necessity for antibiotics. The data from this study was compared with a previously published study in this practice, which evaluated the adherence rates for the treatment guidelines before the changes, to determine effectiveness of the modifications. After the first PDSA cycle, providers were surveyed to determine barriers to adherence to antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Results After the interventions, antibiotic guideline adherence for URI improved from a rate of 79.28 to 88.58% with a p-value of 0.004. The increase of adherence rates for sinusitis and pharyngitis were 41.7–57.58% (p=0.086) and 24.0–25.0% (p=0.918), respectively. The overall change in guideline adherence for the three conditions increased from 57.2 to 78.6% with the implementations (p<0.001). In planning for future PDSA cycles, a fishbone diagram was constructed in order to identify all perceived facets of the problem of non-adherence to the treatment guidelines for URIs, sinusitis, and pharyngitis. From the fishbone diagram and the provider survey, several potential directions for future work

  5. Cut-off values of blessed dementia rating scale and its clinical application in elderly Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-Han; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Tai, Chih-Ta; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2006-08-01

    Although the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), a clinical screening instrument, has been applied extensively, no suitable cut-off values and clinical application have been proposed, particularly in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the precursor of dementia. The BDRS, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) were administrated in people aged 65 years and above, who were enrolled from southern Taiwan with multistep stratified random sampling and followed-up for 2 years. All subjects (total number = 3,027), with new onset of MCI (defined as CDR = 0.5) in the first year and dementia (defined as CDR > or = 1) in the second and third years were subjected to statistical analysis. In distinguishing normal from MCI, except in the literate group aged 65-74 years, MMSE was superior to BDRS, with cut-off values of 1 in both literate groups aged 65-74 years and > or = 75 years, and 1.5 and 2 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. In distinguishing MCI from dementia, BDRS had cut-off values of 2.5 in both literate groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, and 2.5 and 3 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. These values were better than those for MMSE in all groups. BDRS might be considered as a better tool than MMSE to screen for MCI and dementia in the increasing proportion of literate elderly aged 65-74 years in the aging population. PMID:16911919

  6. Correlation between the modified Kupperman Index and the Menopause Rating Scale in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Tao, MinFang; Shao, HongFang; Li, ChangBing; Teng, YinCheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The severity of menopausal symptoms can vary according to ethnicity and geography. Two common menopausal symptom scales, the modified Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS), are accepted internationally. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between these scales and their relevance to women in the People’s Republic of China. Methods We enrolled treatment-naïve women who visited the menopause outpatient department at a major teaching hospital in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. The women were required to complete two questionnaires, ie, the modified KI and the MRS. We assessed the correlation between the tools using a correlation analysis. Results We enrolled 277 women of average age 51.5 ± 4.8 years. There was a strong positive correlation between total scores on the modified KI and the MRS (0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.69–0.79) and subscores for the somatic and psychological domains (0.74 and 0.77, respectively), with a moderate correlation for urogenital symptoms. According to the modified KI, 15 (5.4%) women were categorized as asymptomatic, and when using the MRS, 33 (11.9%) were categorized as asymptomatic. Women categorized as having none/minimal symptoms by the MRS were diagnosed as having mild to severe symptoms using the modified KI. The highest agreement (74%) was found when symptoms were moderate. Conclusion The modified KI and the MRS do correlate in Chinese women, but the modified KI is more likely to identify menopausal symptoms than the MRS in screening if there is doubt about the diagnosis of menopause. PMID:23569361

  7. An adaptation of the Interpersonal Problem Areas Rating Scale: pilot and interrater agreement study

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Ana Claudia Fontes; Frank, Ellen; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Houck, Patricia R

    2012-01-01

    Objective This article describes the adaptation of a rating scale of interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas to include a fifth problem area appropriate to bipolar disorder and an interrater agreement study in identifying interpersonal problem areas and selecting a primary treatment focus if patients were to engage in treatment. Method Five research interpersonal psychotherapists assessed nine audiotapes of a single interview with five bipolar and four unipolar patients in which the interpersonal inventory and identification of problem areas were undertaken. Results Raters agreed on presence and absence of problem areas in seven tapes. Kappas for identification of problem areas were 1.00 (grief), 0.77 (role dispute), 0.61 (role transition), 0.57 (interpersonal deficits) and 1.00 (loss of healthy self). Kappa for agreement on a primary clinical focus if patients were to engage in interpersonal psychotherapy treatment was 0.64. Conclusions The adaptation of the original scale to include an area pertinent to bipolar disorder proved to be applicable and relevant for use with this population. The results show substantial interrater agreement in identifying problem areas and potential treatment focus. PMID:19142412

  8. Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

  9. The development of a rating scale for the prediction of success in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dash, J D; Brown, R A

    1977-07-01

    A valid and reliable rating instrument was developed that has predictive value with regard to the ability to lose weight. The major constructs that the test was intended to measure were knowledge of the pragmatics of weight reduction and obesity and the role of fantasy in weight loss. Test items were drawn from research findings in the obesity literature and from subject matter experts in the fields of nutrition, internal medicine and clinical psychology. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the new instrument range from .64 to .95. Construct validity was ascertained through administration of the scale to groups of high school students (N=20), college nutrition students (N=30) and successful and unsuccessful dieters (Ns=28 and 20, respectively). It appears that the scale, The Dash-Brown Survey of Fact and Fiction in Weight Reduction (DBS), may be employed usefully to assess the remediability of obesity for potential dieters. The data further suggest that cognitive awareness of diet-related issues is significant in weight reduction.

  10. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings. PMID:18444095

  11. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  12. Assessment of Anxiety in Clinical Trials with Depressed Patients Using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, C.; Guelfi, J.D.; Sheehan, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) is an outcome measure widely used in major depressive disorder (MDD) clinical trials. The objective of this analysis was to assess the validity of the anxiety/somatisation factor of the HAMD17 as a measure of anxiety in patients with MDD. Methods We pooled data from 1466 outpatients with MDD from four 8-week controlled studies of duloxetine. We performed a factor analysis of the HAMD17 to investigate the anxiety/somatisation factor. Results The HAMD17 factor analysis yielded 6 factors, but did not yield the pre-specified anxiety/somatisation factor. This latter factor showed weak correlation with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale total and subscale scores at baseline (0.46), but higher correlation coefficients over the trials up to 0.81. We identified another anxiety factor that included the hypochondriasis item in this sample. Conclusion Findings from this large sample suggest that the factor structure of the HAMD17 is unstable in MDD and that the anxiety/somatisation subscale should not be routinely used for anxiety assessment in depressed patients.

  13. Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kidong; Millet, Larry J.; Kim, Namjung; Li, Huan; Jin, Xiaozhong; Popescu, Gabriel; Aluru, N. R.; Hsia, K. Jimmy; Bashir, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of physical properties of cells such as their mass and stiffness has been of great interest and can have profound implications in cell biology, tissue engineering, cancer, and disease research. For example, the direct dependence of cell growth rate on cell mass for individual adherent human cells can elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell cycle progression. Here we develop an array of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) resonant mass sensors that can be used to directly measure the biophysical properties, mass, and growth rate of single adherent cells. Unlike conventional cantilever mass sensors, our sensors retain a uniform mass sensitivity over the cell attachment surface. By measuring the frequency shift of the mass sensors with growing (soft) cells and fixed (stiff) cells, and through analytical modeling, we derive the Young’s modulus of the unfixed cell and unravel the dependence of the cell mass measurement on cell stiffness. Finally, we grew individual cells on the mass sensors and measured their mass for 50+ hours. Our results demonstrate that adherent human colon epithelial cells have increased growth rates with a larger cell mass, and the average growth rate increases linearly with the cell mass, at 3.25%/hr. Our sensitive mass sensors with a position-independent mass sensitivity can be coupled with microscopy for simultaneous monitoring of cell growth and status, and provide an ideal method to study cell growth, cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. PMID:21068372

  14. Lanthanum carbonate oral powder: satisfaction, preference and adherence in French and Spanish patients with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Michael; de Sequera, Patricia; Clair, François; Pedersini, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Phosphate binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, control elevated serum-phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Lanthanum carbonate is available in oral powder and tablet form. The aim of this survey was to investigate satisfaction with, preference for, and adherence to lanthanum carbonate oral powder in patients with ESRD. Scope Patients from France and Spain who had been taking lanthanum carbonate powder for at least 4 weeks, and who had experience of other phosphate binders of any formulation, were asked to complete an online or telephone survey. Treatment satisfaction was measured using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9; preference was measured using 5-point Likert scale agreement ratings; and adherence was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Data were evaluated using bivariate analyses. Findings Overall, 160 patients participated (80 per country). Lanthanum carbonate powder was reported to have a higher effectiveness rating (p<0.05), be more convenient (p<0.05), and provide a higher level of satisfaction (p<0.01) than previous binders. There was an overall preference for lanthanum carbonate powder over previous binders of any formulation (p<0.001). Adherence to medication was similar for all binders analysed: 66.3% of French patients adhered to lanthanum carbonate powder, and 65.0% adhered to previous binder treatment (p=not significant); 52.5% of Spanish patients adhered to lanthanum carbonate powder, and 56.3% adhered to previous binder treatment (p=not significant). Limitations The survey enrolled patients who had already experienced phosphate binders before the study began. Information on patient preferences for and adherence to previous phosphate binders was therefore based on the patients’ memories of these experiences, which may have been subject to change over time. Although most participants completed the online survey in this study, a telephone survey was used for

  15. ENHANCE—(Electronic Hydroxyurea Adherence): A Protocol to Increase Hydroxyurea Adherence in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Deena J; O’Brien, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea (HU) is the only disease-modifying medication for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). HU can reduce SCD-related complications but only 35% to 50% of pediatric patients adhere to HU at the rates achieved in clinical trials and this limits its clinical effectiveness. Mobile Directly Observed Therapy (Mobile DOT) is a pilot-tested, electronic, multidimensional, HU adherence intervention that targets many components of the Health Behavior Model. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of Mobile DOT on HU adherence in children with SCD. The objective of our study is to inform the development of future adherence interventions and pediatric SCD protocols. Methods This is a single-arm crossover study of pediatric patients with SCD. Participants self-record videos of their daily HU administrations and receive text message alerts to take HU, feedback on their HU adherence, and incentives when they achieve adherence goals during the 6-month Mobile DOT phase. Participants’ HU adherence during the Mobile DOT phase is compared with their baseline HU adherence (6 months prior to study entry) and to their HU adherence 6 months after completing the Mobile DOT phase. The primary outcome of this study is HU adherence measured by medication possession ratio. Results The trial is ongoing. Preliminary review of participant satisfaction results suggest that most participants can complete Mobile DOT in less than 5 minutes per day and are satisfied with the intervention. Conclusions If effective, the Mobile DOT strategy will increase HU adherence and this could improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce costs of care. PMID:27697749

  16. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  17. Development and Validation of the User Version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS)

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Kavanagh, David J; Wilson, Hollie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) provides a reliable method to assess the quality of mobile health (mHealth) apps. However, training and expertise in mHealth and the relevant health field is required to administer it. Objective This study describes the development and reliability testing of an end-user version of the MARS (uMARS). Methods The MARS was simplified and piloted with 13 young people to create the uMARS. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the uMARS was then examined in a second sample of 164 young people participating in a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth app. App ratings were collected using the uMARS at 1-, 3,- and 6-month follow up. Results The uMARS had excellent internal consistency (alpha = .90), with high individual alphas for all subscales. The total score and subscales had good test-retest reliability over both 1-2 months and 3 months. Conclusions The uMARS is a simple tool that can be reliably used by end-users to assess the quality of mHealth apps. PMID:27287964

  18. Psychometric Analysis of the Emotional Tone Rating Scale: A Measure of Person-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Boyle, Diane K.; Herman, Ruth E.; Coleman, Carissa K.; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric analysis of the Emotional Tone Rating Scale (ETRS) was completed using ratings of naïve listeners who evaluated staff-resident communication in three nursing homes. Interrater consistency was high with ICC (2, 1) for agreement = 0.95 and consistency = 0.95. Factor analysis revealed two factors—person-centered communication and controlling communication—that explained 84.8% of the variance. Person-centered communication included seven descriptors (items) with loadings ranging from 0.84 to 0.98 and a coefficient alpha of 0.98. Controlling communication included five items that loaded from −0.63 to .99 with a coefficient alpha of 0.94. These factors were negatively correlated p = −.64 and demonstrated good ranges, standard deviations, and high item-total correlations. Person-centered communication correlated with higher resident engagement in conversation in contrast to controlling communication. The ETRS provides a measure of person-centered communication that can be used to evaluate interactions between nursing staff and older adults who reside in long term care settings. PMID:23519545

  19. Monitoring of cache miss rates for accurate dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Leo C.; Poellabauer, Christian; Schwan, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Modern mobile processors offer dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, which can be used to reduce the energy requirements of embedded and real-time applications by exploiting idle CPU resources, while still maintaining all applications' real-time characteristics. However, accurate predictions of task run-times are key to computing the frequencies and voltages that ensure that all tasks' real-time constraints are met. Past work has used feedback-based approaches, where applications' past CPU utilizations are used to predict future CPU requirements. Inaccurate predictions in these approaches can lead to missed deadlines, less than expected energy savings, or large overheads due to frequent voltage and frequency changes. Previous solutions ignore other `indicators' of future CPU requirements, such as the frequency of I/O operations, memory accesses, or interrupts. This paper addresses this shortcoming for memory-intensive applications, where measured task run-times and cache miss rates are used as feedback for accurate run-time predictions. Cache miss rates indicate the frequency of memory accesses and enable us to derive the latencies introduced by these operations. The results shown in this paper indicate improvements in the number of deadlines met and the amount of energy saved.

  20. Monitoring of cache miss rates for accurate dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Leo C.; Poellabauer, Christian; Schwan, Karsten

    2004-12-01

    Modern mobile processors offer dynamic voltage and frequency scaling, which can be used to reduce the energy requirements of embedded and real-time applications by exploiting idle CPU resources, while still maintaining all applications' real-time characteristics. However, accurate predictions of task run-times are key to computing the frequencies and voltages that ensure that all tasks' real-time constraints are met. Past work has used feedback-based approaches, where applications' past CPU utilizations are used to predict future CPU requirements. Inaccurate predictions in these approaches can lead to missed deadlines, less than expected energy savings, or large overheads due to frequent voltage and frequency changes. Previous solutions ignore other `indicators' of future CPU requirements, such as the frequency of I/O operations, memory accesses, or interrupts. This paper addresses this shortcoming for memory-intensive applications, where measured task run-times and cache miss rates are used as feedback for accurate run-time predictions. Cache miss rates indicate the frequency of memory accesses and enable us to derive the latencies introduced by these operations. The results shown in this paper indicate improvements in the number of deadlines met and the amount of energy saved.

  1. Comparison of DSM-III-R and childhood autism rating scale diagnoses of autism.

    PubMed

    Van Bourgondien, M E; Marcus, L M; Schopler, E

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the issue of whether DSM-III-R (American Psychological Association [APA], 1987) over- or underdiagnoses autism by comparing this diagnostic system to a well-established objective measure of diagnosis, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). A secondary goal was to determine which of the 16 criteria are the best discriminators of autism. DSM-III-R, CARS, and clinical diagnoses of 138 consecutive admissions to a statewide program for the diagnosis and treatment of autistic and related communication-handicapped individuals (Division TEACCH in North Carolina) were compared. Results indicated a generally high degree of agreement on the diagnosis of autism using the three systems. Within this treatment-oriented program, the CARS and clinical ratings diagnosed a greater number of cases as autistic than did the DSM-III-R criteria, suggesting that DSM-III-R slightly underdiagnosed autism. The criteria that most strongly related to the diagnosis of autism regardless of the system were lack of awareness of others, abnormal social play, an impaired ability to make friends, abnormal nonverbal communication, stereotypic body movements, and restricted range of interests. PMID:1483973

  2. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

  3. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyekyung; Kim, Yeonhee; Rhie, Sandy Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL) associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160) aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15). The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=−0.215, P=0.022), sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=−0.335, P=0.000), education level (β=−0.153, P=0.045), health-related problems (β=−0.239, P=0.004), and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018). Conclusion In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists should consider elderly patients’ individual characteristics such as educational background and specific patient-related health problems, provide sufficient information and explanation of medication, and ensure patient

  4. Item Response Theory Analyses of Adult Self-Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in the Current Symptoms Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2011-01-01

    The graded response model, which is based on item response theory, was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of adult self-ratings (N = 852) of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms presented in the Current Symptoms Scale. This scale has four ordered response categories. The…

  5. The Evaluation of Child Care Centers and the "Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale": An Environmental Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    This paper questions the physical environmental adequacy of the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS) developed by Thelma Harms, Debby Cryer, and Richard Clifford at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. ITERS is a 35-item scale designed to assess the quality of center-based infant and toddler care, and one of a family of child…

  6. An Investigation into the Factors Influencing Extreme-Response Style: Improving Meaning of Translated and Culturally Adapted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.

    2006-01-01

    Translation and cultural adaptation of rating scales are two critical components in testing culturally and/or linguistically heterogeneous populations. Despite the proper use of these scales, challenges typically arise from respondents' language, culture, ratiocination, and characteristics of measurement processes. This study investigated factors…

  7. Exploring reliability of scar rating scales using photographs of burns from children aged up to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Simons, Megan; Ziviani, Jenny; Thorley, Michelle; McNee, Jessamine; Tyack, Zephanie

    2013-01-01

    Assessing burn scars from photographs is a common practice given the growing trend to support health service delivery via electronic media (eg, email, videoconferencing). Scar rating scales, originally designed for in-person assessment, have been used to rate scars from photographic images. Evidence for the reliability of this practice is lacking. Five raters completed three scar rating scales (Patient and Observer Scar Scale, Manchester Scar Scale, modified Vancouver Scar Scale), both in-person and using photographs on 12 participants (seven male, five female) with 18 scar areas (3 × 3 cm). Interrater reliability for the scar parameters of vascularity, color, contour, pliability, and overall opinion achieved intraclass correlation coefficient values of between 0.71 and 0.87 (in-person) and 0.72 and 0.77 (using photographs) for multiple raters. The level of agreement between in-person and photographic assessment was below acceptable levels, which brings into question construct validity when scar rating scales are used in a way for which they were not designed. Reliability estimates in this study were likely reduced by the underrepresentation of scars in the more severe range. This limitation needs to be addressed in future research. Advances are required in the development and refinement of burn scar rating scales, specifically for photographic use, given their routine use in clinical care.

  8. STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

    2009-04-14

    Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

  9. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-02-25

    High level waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the cold cap. The bubbles coalesce into cavities that escape around the edges of the cold cap. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. More information is needed about the formation and behavior of the foam layer to control, limit and possibly avoid foaming, thus allowing for a higher rate of melting. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory scale assembly with a sealed silica-glass crucible. A high alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min-1. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap and foam during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the cold cap increased as the cold cap expanded. Under the cold cap, the bubbles coalesced into oblong cavities. These cavities allowed the evolved gases to escape around the edges of the cold cap through the molten glass into the melter plenum.

  10. Controls and rates of acid production in commercial-scale sulfur blocks.

    PubMed

    Birkham, T K; Hendry, M J; Barbour, S L; Lawrence, J R

    2010-01-01

    Acidic drainage (pH 0.4-1.0) from oxidizing elemental sulfur (S(0)) blocks is an environmental concern in regions where S(0) is stockpiled. In this study, the locations, controls, and rates of H(2)SO(4) production in commercial-scale S(0) blocks ( approximately 1-2 x 10(6) m(3)) in northern Alberta, Canada, were estimated. In situ modeling of O(2) concentrations ([O(2)]) suggest that 70 to >97% of the annual H(2)SO(4) production occurs in the upper 1 m of the blocks where temperatures increase to >15 degrees C during the summer. Laboratory experiments show that S(0) oxidation rates are sensitive to temperature (Q(10) = 4.3) and dependent on the activity of autotrophic S(0)-oxidizing microbes. The annual efflux of SO(4) in drainage water from a S(0) block (5.5 x 10(5) kg) was within the estimated range of SO(4) production within the block (2.7 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(6) kg), suggesting that H(2)SO(4) production and removal rates were approximately equal during the study period. The low mean relative humidity within the block (68%; SD = 17%; n = 21) was attributed to osmotic suction from elevated H(2)SO(4) concentrations and suggests a mean in situ pH of approximately -2.1. The low pH of drainage waters was attributed to the mixing of fresh infiltrating water and low-pH in situ water. Heat generation during S(0) oxidation was an important factor in maintaining elevated temperatures (mean, 11.1 degrees C) within the block. The implications of this research are relevant globally because construction methods and the physical properties of S(0) blocks are similar worldwide.

  11. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  12. Comparisons of Instantaneous TRMM Ground Validation and Satellite Rain Rate Estimates at Different Spatial Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive inter-comparison of instantaneous rain estimates from the two rain sensors aboard the TRMM satellite with ground data from thee designated Ground Validation Sites: Kwajalein Atoll, Melbourne, Florida and Houston, Texas. The satellite rain retrievals utilize rain observations collected by the TRMM microwave imager (TMI) and the Precipitation Radar (PR) aboard the TRMM satellite. Three standard instantaneous rain products are the generated from the rain information retrieved from the satellite using the TMI, PR and Combined (COM) rain algorithms. The validation data set used in this study was obtained from instantaneous rain rates inferred from ground radars at each GV site. The first comparison used 0.5(sup 0) x 0.5(sup 0) gridded data obtained from the TRMM 3668 product, and similarly gridded GV data obtained from ground-based radars. The comparisons were made at the same spatial and temporal scales in order to eliminate sampling biases in our comparisons. An additional comparison was made by averaging rain rates for the PR, COM and GV estimates within each TMI footprint (approx. 150 square kilometers). For this analysis, unconditional mean rain rates from PR, COM and GV estimates were calculated within each TMI footprint that was observed within 100 km from the respective GV site (and also observed by the PR). This analysis used all the available matching data from the period 1999-2004, representing a sample size of over 50,000 footprints for each site. In the first analysis our results showed that all of the respective rain rate estimates agree well, with some exceptions. The more salient differences were associated with heavy rain events in which one or more of the algorithms failed to properly retrieve these extreme events. Also, it appears that there is a preferred mode of precipitation for TMI rain rates at or near 2 mm per hour over the ocean. This mode was noted over ocean areas of Melbourne, Florida and Kwajalein

  13. Treatment adherence in multiple sclerosis: a survey of Belgian neurologists

    PubMed Central

    Decoo, Danny; Vokaer, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor treatment adherence is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This survey evaluated neurologists’ perception of treatment adherence among MS patients. Materials and methods This questionnaire-based survey of Belgian neurologists treating MS patients was conducted between June and July 2014. Face-to-face interviews with the neurologists were based on a semistructured questionnaire containing questions regarding the perception of the treatment-adherence level. Results A total of 41 neurologists participated in the survey. Of these, 88% indicated frequent discussions about treatment adherence as beneficial for treatment efficacy. The mean time spent on the treatment-adherence discussion during the initial consultation was 11 minutes, with 24% of doctors spending 5 minutes and 24% of doctors spending 10 minutes discussing this issue. The majority of neurologists (56%) perceived the adherence level in MS as good, and 12% perceived it as excellent. The majority of neurologists (64%) indicated intolerance as a main cause of poor adherence, and all neurologists reported insufficient efficacy as a consequence of nonadherence. The importance of adherence in the neurologists’ practice was evaluated on a scale of 1–10, with 1= “not very important” and 10= “very important”: 44% of doctors indicated a score of 10, and the mean score was 9.0. Conclusion Belgian neurologists consider treatment adherence in MS as essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of nonadherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. PMID:26640373

  14. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  15. Development of a New Attention Rating Scale for Children with Intellectual Disability: The Scale of Attention in Intellectual Disability (SAID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Nerelie C.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.; Cornish, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are thought to be as common among children with intellectual disability (ID) as they are in children without ID. Despite this, there is a lack of scales to specifically assess ADHD symptomatology in children and adolescents with ID. This article describes the development and evaluation of…

  16. Alcohol challenge and sensitivity to change of The Essential Tremor Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS)

    PubMed Central

    Voller, Bernhard; Lines, Emily; McCrossin, Gayle; Artiles, Aaron; Tinaz, Sule; Lungu, Codrin; Hallett, Mark; Haubenberger, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Background The Essential Tremor (ET) Rating Assessment Scale (TETRAS) has shown excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. To assess the scale’s ability to detect changes in tremor severity, we compared TETRAS performance with standard postural tremor accelerometry during a standardized ethanol challenge. Methods Fifteen adult ET patients received a single oral ethanol dose calculated to reach 0.05 g/dl breath alcohol content (brAC) on two different study days. Two investigators independently assessed the effects with accelerometry on one day and with TETRAS on another day. Measurements were taken at 8 time-points (2 time-points baseline and 6 time-points up to 2 hours post ethanol). Further outcome measures included brAC readings at the same time points. Results Because correlation between TETRAS and accelerometry revealed a logarithmic relation, for all comparisons, accelerometry data were log-transformed and a cumulative score logACC(R+L) was calculated. Correlation between logACC(R+L) and TETRAS was significant (r= 0.57, p<0.01). Repeated measures ANOVA for both TETRAS and accelerometry before and after ethanol showed a significant effect of time-point (F=34.6, p<0.01; F=13.5, p<0.01). Corrected post-hoc tests showed a difference between baseline and each of the following 6 time-points. TETRAS and brAC were significantly correlated (r=−0.29, p<0.01). Intra-rater test-retest analysis between baseline measures showed high correlation (ICC=0.974, p<0.001). The ethanol challenge showed excellent reproducibility. Conclusion We demonstrated sensitivity of the TETRAS performance scale to change after a therapeutic intervention. Our study provides responsiveness validity for TETRAS, further establishing its potential as a valid instrument for ET evaluation in both clinical and research settings. PMID:24123358

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale in Severely Obese Patients.

    PubMed

    Paiva-Medeiros, Paula Francielle; Duarte-Guerra, Leorides Severo; Santo, Marco Aurélio; Lotufo-Neto, Francisco; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition worldwide and has frequent association with major depression. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was applied to obese patients in order to detect briefly and systematically depressive symptoms. The objectives were: to estimate the reliability of the MADRS and to investigate the criterion validity of MADRS. The best cut-off point to detect depressive symptoms was determined in comparison with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnosis (SCID-I). The sample was recruited consecutively from the waiting list of a bariatric surgery service of the university clinic. Trained clinical psychologists applied the assessment instruments. The final sample was comprised of 374 class III obese adults (women 79.9 %, mean age 43.3 years [SD 11.6], mean body mass index 47.0 kg/m2 [SD 7.1]). The mean total score of the MADRS was 7.73 (SD 11.33) for the total sample, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .93. Women presented higher mean score than men (8.08 versus 6.33; p = .23). The best cut-off point was 13/14 in accordance with the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, yielding a sensitivity of .81 and specificity of .85. The overall ability to discriminate depression according to area under the curve was .87. The results showed that the MADRS is a reliable and valid scale to detect depressive symptoms among patients seeking treatment in preoperative period, displaying adequate psychometric properties. PMID:26364907

  18. The German Version of the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS): Reliability and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Gregor; Marx, Lisa; Spenthof, Ines; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fear of eye gaze and avoidance of eye contact are core features of social anxiety disorders (SAD). To measure self-reported fear and avoidance of eye gaze, the Gaze Anxiety Rating Scale (GARS) has been developed and validated in recent years in its English version. The main objectives of the present study were to psychometrically evaluate the German translation of the GARS concerning its reliability, factorial structure, and validity. Methods Three samples of participants were enrolled in the study. (1) A non-patient sample (n = 353) completed the GARS and a set of trait questionnaires to assess internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factorial structure, and concurrent and divergent validity. (2) A sample of patients with SAD (n = 33) was compared to a healthy control group (n = 30) regarding their scores on the GARS and the trait measures. Results The German GARS fear and avoidance scales exhibited excellent internal consistency and high stability over 2 and 4 months, as did the original version. The English version’s factorial structure was replicated, yielding two categories of situations: (1) everyday situations and (2) situations involving high evaluative threat. GARS fear and avoidance displayed convergent validity with trait measures of social anxiety and were markedly higher in patients with GSAD than in healthy controls. Fear and avoidance of eye contact in situations involving high levels of evaluative threat related more closely to social anxiety than to gaze anxiety in everyday situations. Conclusions The German version of the GARS has demonstrated reliability and validity similar to the original version, and is thus well suited to capture fear and avoidance of eye contact in different social situations as a valid self-report measure of social anxiety and related disorders in the social domain for use in both clinical practice and research. PMID:26937638

  19. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  20. Criterion Noise in Ratings-Based Recognition: Evidence from the Effects of Response Scale Length on Recognition Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Aaron S.; Tullis, Jonathan G.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces "decision noise" and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether…