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Sample records for adhering escherichia coli

  1. Escherichia coli adherence to HEp-2 cells with prefixed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Lopez, H M; Gonzalez-Lugo, G M

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new method which uses cold absolute methanol-prefixed cells for adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. We found that a method using bacteria grown in Penassay broth to 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/ml and incubated with prefixed cells for 3 h at 37 degrees C, showed 100% sensitivity and specificity against a method using live cells. PMID:7615770

  2. A novel cryohemagglutinin associated with adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Wakisaka, N; Nakae, T

    1997-01-01

    Strain O42 (serotype O44:H18) of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) has been shown to be pathogenic in volunteer experiments. This strain exhibited plasmid (pO42)-encoded D-mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity (MRHA) that was detected only at low temperatures (e.g., 0 degrees C) and only with human erythrocytes. The production of this cryogenic MRHA (cryo-MRHA) was observed when the bacteria were grown in liquid media and was strictly regulated by bacterial growth temperatures. Transposon-insertion mutagenesis revealed that this MRHA is associated with (i) bacterial clump formation in liquid cultures, (ii) bacterial adherence to HEp-2 cells as well as (Formalin-fixed) human colonic mucosa, and (iii) production of a 16-kDa outer membrane protein. The PCR designed on the basis of the determined cryo-MRHA-associated DNA sequence sharply distinguished strain O42 from eight other EAggEC strains whose MRHAs were detected at both cold and room temperatures to the same (or similar) extent. Strain O42 possessed a surface layer that may enhance the pO42-mediated adherence. The data suggest that a plasmid-encoded cryo-MRHA is a candidate for a major adhesin of EAggEC strain O42. PMID:9234817

  3. Pathogenesis of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2005-04-01

    Over the last few years, dramatic increases in our knowledge about diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) pathogenesis have taken place. The typical class of DAEC includes E. coli strains harboring AfaE-I, AfaE-II, AfaE-III, AfaE-V, Dr, Dr-II, F1845, and NFA-I adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC); these strains (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) allow binding to human decay-accelerating factor (DAF) (Afa/Dr(DAF) subclass) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (Afa/Dr(CEA) subclass). The atypical class of DAEC includes two subclasses of strains; the atypical subclass 1 includes E. coli strains that express AfaE-VII, AfaE-VIII, AAF-I, AAF-II, and AAF-III adhesins, which (i) have an identical genetic organization and (ii) do not bind to human DAF, and the atypical subclass 2 includes E. coli strains that harbor Afa/Dr adhesins or others adhesins promoting diffuse adhesion, together with pathogenicity islands such as the LEE pathogenicity island (DA-EPEC). In this review, the focus is on Afa/Dr DAEC strains that have been found to be associated with urinary tract infections and with enteric infection. The review aims to provide a broad overview and update of the virulence aspects of these intriguing pathogens. Epidemiological studies, diagnostic techniques, characteristic molecular features of Afa/Dr operons, and the respective role of Afa/Dr adhesins and invasins in pathogenesis are described. Following the recognition of membrane-bound receptors, including type IV collagen, DAF, CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, by Afa/Dr adhesins, activation of signal transduction pathways leads to structural and functional injuries at brush border and junctional domains and to proinflammatory responses in polarized intestinal cells. In addition, uropathogenic Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following recognition of beta(1) integrin as a receptor, enter epithelial cells by a zipper-like, raft- and microtubule-dependent mechanism. Finally, the presence of other, unknown virulence factors and the

  4. In vitro adherence of type 1-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to human ureteral mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, K; Yamamoto, T; Yokota, T; Kitagawa, R

    1989-01-01

    Type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infections adhered in vitro to the epithelial cell surface of an excised human ureter. The bacteria also adhered to a mucous coating and to Formalin-fixed human ureteral mucosa. D-Mannose strongly inhibited such adherence. The bacteria in their nonfimbriated phase lacked the ability to adhere. We concluded that type 1 fimbriae play a role, at least in part, in upper urinary tract infections in humans. Images PMID:2568346

  5. Adherence to Hospital Antibiotic Policy for Treatment of Escherichia coli ESBL in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, K. Gnana; Deshpande, Shreeram A.; Aravazhi, Anbu N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Escherichia coli are the most common uropathogen worldwide accounting for 80% of the Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). Nosocomial infections caused by Multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria expressing Extended Spectrum β Lactamase enzyme, pose a serious therapeutic challenge to clinicians due to limited therapeutic options. Stringent adherence to Hospital Antibiotic Policy in treating Urinary Escherichia coli ESBLs is a borne necessity. Aim A clinical audit was undertaken in the form of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the compliance on appropriate antibiotic prescription and strict adherence to Hospital Antibiotic Policy for therapeutic management of the patients infected with urinary Escherichia coli ESBL producers. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional medical audit on adherence to treatment of Escherichia coli ESBL producers from in-patients diagnosed to have urinary tract infections for a duration of 7 months was conducted as a prospective study. Clinical data, culture and sensitivity reports of the patient diagnosed with urinary Escherichia coli ESBLs were compared with the treatment chart to ensure strict adherence to hospital antibiotic policy for appropriate therapy by physicians. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS version 20 software. Results The incidence of uncomplicated cystitis, pyelonephritis and complicated pyelonephritis cases were 65.24% (107 out of 164), 20.7% (34 out of 164) and 14.02% (23 out of 164) respectively. Resistance to individual fluoroquinolones like norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were found to be 60%, 59% and 47.5% respectively. As per hospital antibiotic policy, fluoroquinolones were prescribed in only 23% of the patients for the treatment of urinary Escherichia coli ESBLs. Conclusion Irrational utilization of antibiotics and non-adherence to antibiotic policy could have been the significant risk factors for drug resistance. Optimized antibiotic use, Microbiology laboratory support and periodic

  6. Capsule reduces adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to isolated intestinal epithelial cells of pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Runnels, P L; Moon, H W

    1984-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that heat-stable (A-type) capsule on piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli enhances colonization of enterotoxigenic E. coli in the small intestine and enhances virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In this report, four encapsulated enterotoxigenic E. coli strains and one encapsulated nonenterotoxigenic strain of E. coli and their nonencapsulated mutants were tested for adhesion to isolated intestinal epithelial cells or brush borders from neonatal pigs. The enterotoxigenic E. coli also expressed the K99 pilus antigen. The nonencapsulated mutants of the four enterotoxigenic E. coli adhered in higher numbers than did the encapsulated parental strains. Both the encapsulated and nonencapsulated forms of enterotoxigenic E. coli 431 grown at 18 degrees C (K99 production suppressed) adhered poorly to the isolated cells. The nonenterotoxigenic E. coli 1793 which does not express K99 antigen also adhered poorly in both encapsulated and nonencapsulated forms. Fab fragments of anticapsular immunoglobulin G failed to block the effect of capsule on adherence of strain 431. The results indicated that K99 was the principal mediator of in vitro adhesion of the enterotoxigenic E. coli strains and that capsule impedes the in vitro adhesion. They also suggested that the capsular enhancement of colonization by such strains in vivo probably is by some mechanism other than enhanced adhesion to epithelium. PMID:6147310

  7. Capsule reduces adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to isolated intestinal epithelial cells of pigs.

    PubMed

    Runnels, P L; Moon, H W

    1984-09-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that heat-stable (A-type) capsule on piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli enhances colonization of enterotoxigenic E. coli in the small intestine and enhances virulence of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In this report, four encapsulated enterotoxigenic E. coli strains and one encapsulated nonenterotoxigenic strain of E. coli and their nonencapsulated mutants were tested for adhesion to isolated intestinal epithelial cells or brush borders from neonatal pigs. The enterotoxigenic E. coli also expressed the K99 pilus antigen. The nonencapsulated mutants of the four enterotoxigenic E. coli adhered in higher numbers than did the encapsulated parental strains. Both the encapsulated and nonencapsulated forms of enterotoxigenic E. coli 431 grown at 18 degrees C (K99 production suppressed) adhered poorly to the isolated cells. The nonenterotoxigenic E. coli 1793 which does not express K99 antigen also adhered poorly in both encapsulated and nonencapsulated forms. Fab fragments of anticapsular immunoglobulin G failed to block the effect of capsule on adherence of strain 431. The results indicated that K99 was the principal mediator of in vitro adhesion of the enterotoxigenic E. coli strains and that capsule impedes the in vitro adhesion. They also suggested that the capsular enhancement of colonization by such strains in vivo probably is by some mechanism other than enhanced adhesion to epithelium.

  8. Adherence of Escherichia coli in pathogenesis of endometritis and effects of estradiol examined by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Y

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli was inoculated into the uterine lumen of ovariectomized rats, and the endometrial surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Adherence of E. coli to the epithelium and destruction of the surface leading to purulent endometritis were noticed. When rats were treated previously with estradiol, adherence of E. coli was not detected.

  9. Characteristics of adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to human and animal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Endo, S; Yokota, T; Echeverria, P

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain (serotype O127a:H2) that had been isolated from a child with diarrhea in Thailand and that was negative for the virulence factors of the four categories of diarrheagenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic) and that showed an aggregative pattern of adherence to HeLa cells was investigated for adherence to native or Formalin-fixed human and animal mucosa. The hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability of the bacteria were resistant to D-mannose and were strictly regulated by environmental conditions. Genetic data supported the close relation between the hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability. In accordance with the adherence pattern on tissue-cultured cells, the bacteria adhered to human and animal mucosa, as evidenced by a direct gold-labeling analysis. In human intestines, Formalin-fixed mucous coatings, epithelial cells of colonic mucosa, epithelial cells of ileal single lymphoid follicles and Peyer's patches, and the absorptive cells of jejunal or ileal villi provided adherence targets. Adherence to M cells in the Peyer's patch-associated epithelium was also confirmed. The adherence levels to native jejunal or ileal human villi were low, as was the case with the corresponding Formalin-fixed villi. In human urinary tract, the superficial epithelial cells of both native and Formalin-fixed ureter provided striking adherence targets. In animal (porcine and rabbit) small intestines, the bacteria adhered to the native villi to a lesser extent than to the Formalin-fixed villi. The adherence levels were compared with those of enterotoxigenic E. coli with colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I pili or CFA/II pili. The data suggested unique mucosa adherence characteristics of the enteroaggregative E. coli strain. The possibility of the adherence ability as a virulence factor was discussed. Images PMID:1680107

  10. In vitro evaluation of the impact of silver coating on Escherichia coli adherence to urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Adam T; Brisson, Brigitte A; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J Scott

    2015-05-01

    A silver-coated urinary catheter was compared to a non-silver-coated urinary catheter for the ability to reduce adherence of 6 isolates of Escherichia coli. Catheters were incubated with E. coli strains for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Broth was sampled at all time points to determine CFU/mL. Catheters were subjected to sonication to determine adhered bacteria at all time points, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to semi-quantitatively assess biofilm formation. Silver-coated catheters had significantly less adhered bacteria than non-silver-coated catheters at times 24, 48, and 72 h. Subjectively, silver-coated urinary catheters had less biofilm formation than non-silver-coated urinary catheters as assessed by SEM. Silver coating of catheters was associated with reduced adherence of E. coli in an in vitro evaluation. Testing of catheters in dogs in vivo is required to determine if there is a reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  11. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia coli from children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Pieri, Fabio A.; Penatti, Marilene; Orlandi, Patrícia P.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli . Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli . Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0%) were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6%) of these amplified bfpA gene . EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1%) samples; of those 41(25%), 32 (19%) and 16 (9.7%) amplified eagg , aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea ( P = 0.00006). DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC. PMID:26221098

  12. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia coli from children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Pieri, Fabio A; Penatti, Marilene; Orlandi, Patrícia P

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli . Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli . Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0%) were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6%) of these amplified bfpA gene . EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1%) samples; of those 41(25%), 32 (19%) and 16 (9.7%) amplified eagg , aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea ( P = 0.00006). DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC.

  13. Quantitation of the Adherence of an Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Isolated Rabbit Intestinal Brush Borders

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Christopher P.; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Formal, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    Two assays were developed to quantitate the adherence of an Escherichia coli strain (RDEC-1) known to colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine of rabbits to brush borders isolated from rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. In the first assay, the mean adherence per rabbit brush border was determined by counting the number of organisms adhering to each of 40 brush borders under phase microscopy. The mean adherence of RDEC-1 (11.5 ± 0.7 per rabbit brush border) was significantly greater than adherence of two nonpathogenic strains: HS (2.7 ± 0.4 per rabbit brush border) and 640 (0.8 ± 0.1 per rabbit brush border). A similar distinction between the adherence of RDEC-1 and the control (nonadherent) organisms could be made more rapidly by determining the percentage of the total number of brush borders which had 10 or more adherent organisms; this second assay was used to define the optimum conditions for adherence. Maximum adherence was seen within 15 min. Adherence was temperature dependent, with adherence after 1 min at 37°C being fourfold greater than that at 4°C. The pH optimum for adherence was between 6.5 and 7.0, and adherence was abolished below pH 5.0. With the first, more sensitive assay, the effect of electrolytes and a number of hexoses and hexosamines on adherence was analyzed. RDEC-1 adherence was inhibited at high ionic strengths; however, adherence was not influenced at moderately high concentrations (20 mg/ml) by either d-mannose or l-fucose, in contrast to the case for other reported enteric pathogens. These two quantitative in vitro assays for adherence produce consistent results and have been used to partially characterize the adherence of RDEC-1 to rabbit brush borders. Images PMID:44705

  14. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of diarrhea associated with enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative and diffuse-adherent Escherichia coli in Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salwa F; Shaheen, Hind I; Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; Mostafa, Manal; Putnam, Shannon D; Kamal, Karim A; Sayed, Abdel Nasser El; Frenck, Robert W; Sanders, John W; Klena, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    A total of 220 enteroadherent Escherichia coli were identified from 729 Egyptian children with diarrhea using the HEp-2 adherence assay. Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC = 38) was common among children <6 months old and provoked vomiting, while diffuse-adhering E.coli (DAEC = 109) induced diarrheal episodes of short duration, and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC = 73) induced mild non-persistent diarrhea. These results suggest that EPEC is associated with infantile diarrhea in Egyptian children.

  15. Bison and bovine rectoanal junctions exhibit similar cellular architecture and Escherichia coli O157 adherence patterns.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Indira T; Stasko, Judith A

    2013-12-28

    Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) has been isolated from bison retail meat, a fact that is important given that bison meat has been implicated in an E. coli O157-multistate outbreak. In addition, E. coli O157 has also been isolated from bison feces at slaughter and on farms. Cattle are well documented as E. coli O157 reservoirs, and the primary site of E. coli O157 persistence in such reservoirs is the rectoanal junction (RAJ), located at the distal end of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Since bison and cattle share many genetic similarities manifested as common lineage, susceptibility to infection and the nature of immune responses to infectious agents, we decided to evaluate whether the RAJ of these animals were comparable both in terms of cellular architecture and as sites for adherence of E. coli O157. Specifically, we compared the histo-morphologies of the RAJ and evaluated the E. coli O157 adherence characteristics to the RAJ squamous epithelial (RSE) cells, from these two species. We found that the RAJ of both bison and cattle demonstrated similar distribution of epithelial cell markers villin, vimentin, cytokeratin, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Interestingly, N-cadherin predominated in the stratified squamous epithelium reflecting its proliferative nature. E. coli O157 strains 86-24 SmR and EDL 933 adhered to RSE cells from both animals with similar diffuse and aggregative patterns, respectively. Our observations further support the fact that bison are likely 'wildlife' reservoirs for E. coli O157, harboring these bacteria in their gastrointestinal tract. Our results also extend the utility of the RSE-cell assay, previously developed to elucidate E. coli O157-cattle RAJ interactions, to studies in bison, which are warranted to determine whether these observations in vitro correlate with those occurring in vivo at the RAJ within the bison gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Bison and bovine rectoanal junctions exhibit similar cellular architecture and Escherichia coli O157 adherence patterns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) has been isolated from bison retail meat, a fact that is important given that bison meat has been implicated in an E. coli O157-multistate outbreak. In addition, E. coli O157 has also been isolated from bison feces at slaughter and on farms. Cattle are well documented as E. coli O157 reservoirs, and the primary site of E. coli O157 persistence in such reservoirs is the rectoanal junction (RAJ), located at the distal end of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Since bison and cattle share many genetic similarities manifested as common lineage, susceptibility to infection and the nature of immune responses to infectious agents, we decided to evaluate whether the RAJ of these animals were comparable both in terms of cellular architecture and as sites for adherence of E. coli O157. Specifically, we compared the histo-morphologies of the RAJ and evaluated the E. coli O157 adherence characteristics to the RAJ squamous epithelial (RSE) cells, from these two species. Results We found that the RAJ of both bison and cattle demonstrated similar distribution of epithelial cell markers villin, vimentin, cytokeratin, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Interestingly, N-cadherin predominated in the stratified squamous epithelium reflecting its proliferative nature. E. coli O157 strains 86–24 SmR and EDL 933 adhered to RSE cells from both animals with similar diffuse and aggregative patterns, respectively. Conclusion Our observations further support the fact that bison are likely ‘wildlife’ reservoirs for E. coli O157, harboring these bacteria in their gastrointestinal tract. Our results also extend the utility of the RSE-cell assay, previously developed to elucidate E. coli O157-cattle RAJ interactions, to studies in bison, which are warranted to determine whether these observations in vitro correlate with those occurring in vivo at the RAJ within the bison gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24373611

  17. Differential adherence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli harboring saa to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudia; Nakasone, Noboru; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Higa, Naomi; Rivas, Marta; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2008-10-01

    The majority of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from severe STEC disease are those harboring the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), which encodes factors involved in adherence to epithelial cells. However, LEE-negative STEC are increasingly isolated from clinical cases. STEC autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa) is widely used as a marker of adhesin in the absence of LEE. In the present study, we compared the adherence of 32 saa-harboring STEC strains to cultured epithelial cells in the absence or presence of d-mannose. In the absence of d-mannose, 19 strains were adherent to HEp-2 and Caco-2 cells, while 12 were non-adherent. One strain showed detachment of epithelial cells. The adherence of 13 strains was sensitive to the presence of d-mannose. The saa mutant of strain T141, in which adherence was mannose resistant, did not show a significant decrease in adherence compared to the wild type, suggesting a Saa-independent mechanism of adherence. saa-harboring STEC exhibited differential binding properties to epithelial cells, which could not be attributed to the number of C-terminal repeats of Saa, or to the expression of Saa as detected by Western blotting. Our results suggest that multiple adherence mechanisms are present in saa-harboring STEC, implying a high degree of diversity in this group of STEC.

  18. The majority of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains produce the E. coli common pilus when adhering to cultured epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Fabiola; Saldaña, Zeus; Islam, Sohidul; Monteiro-Neto, Valerio; Dall'Agnol, Monique; Eslava, Carlos A; Girón, Jorge A

    2010-11-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) have emerged as a significant worldwide cause of chronic diarrhea in the pediatric population and in HIV patients. The vast majority of EAEC strains do not produce the aggregative adherence fimbriae I-III (AAFs) so far reported and thus, what adherence factors are present in these strains remains unknown. Here, we investigated the prevalence of the chromosomal E. coli common pilus (ECP) genes and ECP production amongst 130 EAEC strains of diverse origin as well as the role of ECP in EAEC adherence. Through multiplex PCR analysis we found that 96% of EAEC strains contained the ecpA structural pilin gene whereas only 3.1% and 5.4% were positive for AAF fimbrial genes aggA or aafA, respectively. Among the ecpA(+) strains, 63% produced ECP when adhering to cultured epithelial cells. An ecpA mutant derived from prototypic strain 042 (AAF/II(+)) was not altered in adherence suggesting that the AAF/II, and not ECP, plays a major role in this strain. In contrast, strain 278-1 (AAF(-)) deleted of the ecpA gene was significantly reduced in adherence to cultured epithelial cells. In all, these data indicate a potential role of ECP in adherence for EAEC strains lacking the known AAFs and that in association with other adhesive determinants, ECP may contribute to their survival and persistence within the host and in the environment.

  19. Intestinal adherence associated with type IV pili of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Ledesma, Maria A.; Jordan, Dianna M.; Francetic, Olivera; Kaper, James B.; Puente, José Luis; Girón, Jorge A.

    2007-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) by colonizing the gut mucosa and producing Shiga toxins (Stx). The only factor clearly demonstrated to play a role in EHEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells is intimin, which binds host cell integrins and nucleolin, as well as a receptor (Tir) that it injects into the host cell. Here we report that EHEC O157:H7 produces adhesive type IV pili, which we term hemorrhagic coli pilus (HCP), composed of a 19-kDa pilin subunit (HcpA) that is encoded by the hcpA chromosomal gene. HCP were observed as bundles of fibers greater than 10 μm in length that formed physical bridges between bacteria adhering to human and bovine host cells. Sera of HUS patients, but not healthy individuals, recognized HcpA, suggesting that the pili are produced in vivo during EHEC infections. Inactivation of the hcpA gene in EHEC EDL933 resulted in significantly reduced adherence to cultured human intestinal and bovine renal epithelial cells and to porcine and bovine gut explants. An escN mutant, which is unable to translocate Tir, adhered less than the hcpA mutant, suggesting that adherence mediated by intimin-Tir interactions is a prelude to HCP-mediated adherence. An hcpA and stx1,2 triple mutant and an hcpA mutant had similar levels of adherence to bovine and human epithelial cells while a stx1,2 double mutant had only a minor defect in adherence, indicating that HCP-mediated adherence and cytotoxicity are independent events. Our data establish that EHEC O157:H7 HCP are intestinal colonization factors that are likely to contribute to the pathogenic potential of this food-borne pathogen. PMID:17948128

  20. Drug resistance and adherence to human intestines of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Echeverria, P; Yokota, T

    1992-04-01

    Clinical isolates of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) were tested for their in vitro susceptibilities to 27 antimicrobial agents. Marked drug resistance was observed with sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol in contrast to such antimicrobial agents as cefixime, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. One of the EAggEC strains carried a plasmid that conferred on its host resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, and spectinomycin and an ability to adhere to child ileal villi or HeLa cells in the characteristic aggregative pattern. This plasmid also mediated D-mannose-resistant hemagglutinin production and bacterial clump formation (autoagglutination). The data demonstrate appearance of marked drug resistance and an intestine-adherence and drug-resistance plasmid in the newest category of diarrheagenic E. coli.

  1. Afa, a diffuse adherence fibrillar adhesin associated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rogéria; Ordoñez, Juana G; de Oliveira, Rosana R; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Baldwin, Thomas J; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    O55 is one of the most frequent enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O serogroups implicated in infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis showed that this serogroup includes two major electrophoretic types (ET), designated ET1 and ET5. ET1 corresponds to typical EPEC, whilst ET5 comprises strains with different combinations of virulence genes, including those for localized adherence (LA) and diffuse adherence (DA). Here we report that ET5 DA strains possess a DA adhesin, designated EPEC Afa. An 11.6-kb chromosomal region including the DA adhesin operon from one O55:H(-) ET5 EPEC strain was sequenced and found to encode a protein with 98% identity to AfaE-1, an adhesin associated with uropathogenic E. coli. Although described as an afimbrial adhesin, we show that both AfaE-1 and EPEC Afa possess fine fibrillar structures. This is the first characterization and demonstration of an Afa adhesin associated with EPEC.

  2. In vitro evaluation of the impact of silver coating on Escherichia coli adherence to urinary catheters

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Adam T.; Brisson, Brigitte A.; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    A silver-coated urinary catheter was compared to a non-silver-coated urinary catheter for the ability to reduce adherence of 6 isolates of Escherichia coli. Catheters were incubated with E. coli strains for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Broth was sampled at all time points to determine CFU/mL. Catheters were subjected to sonication to determine adhered bacteria at all time points, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to semi-quantitatively assess biofilm formation. Silver-coated catheters had significantly less adhered bacteria than non-silver-coated catheters at times 24, 48, and 72 h. Subjectively, silver-coated urinary catheters had less biofilm formation than non-silver-coated urinary catheters as assessed by SEM. Silver coating of catheters was associated with reduced adherence of E. coli in an in vitro evaluation. Testing of catheters in dogs in vivo is required to determine if there is a reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. PMID:25969583

  3. Bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cell adhesion assay for studying Escherichia coli O157 adherence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An adherence assay, using recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells (RSEC), was developed for Escherichia coli O157 and related organisms. The assay was standardized in comparison with the routinely used HEp-2 cell adherence assay, in this “proof of concept” study. The novel RSEC adhesion assay ...

  4. Characterization of a novel hemagglutinin of diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli that has characteristics of diffusely adhering E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Wakisaka, N; Nakae, T; Kamano, T; Serichantalergs, O; Echeverria, P

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli 73-1 (serotype O73:H33) and 5-2 (serotype O89:H-) isolated from patients with diarrhea adhered to tissue culture cells (HeLa and HEp-2) as well as coverslips (plastic and glass) in a diffuse pattern. Adherence of strain 73-1 was mediated by a 110-kbp plasmid designated pEDA1 and correlated with D-mannose-resistant hemagglutinin (MRHA) detected with bovine, sheep, or human erythrocytes. The MRHA region was duplicated on pEDA1 and mediated the production of the 57-kDa outer membrane protein whose N-terminal amino acid sequence was hydrophobic. In accordance with MRHA and adherence, the 57-kDa outer membrane protein was observed best at 37 degrees C and to a lesser extent at 25 degrees C. In human intestine, adherence to mucus and colonic epithelium was obvious. No detectable pili were observed. The enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene, whose nucleotide sequence was 99.1% homologous to that of enteroaggregative E. coli, was present adjacent to the MRHA region on pEDA1. Strain 5-2 also exhibited MRHA activities and adherence and had sequences corresponding to those of the MRHA region and EAST1 gene. The data suggest that strain 73-1 (and strain 5-2), which has characteristics of both diffusely adhering E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, possesses a novel hemagglutinin associated with diffuse adherence. PMID:8751919

  5. Age-specific prevalence of Escherichia coli with localized and aggregative adherence in Venezuelan infants with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    González, R; Díaz, C; Mariño, M; Cloralt, R; Pequeneze, M; Pérez-Schael, I

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the epidemiological significance of HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli isolates in diarrheal disease, we performed a study with 513 Venezuelan infants with diarrhea and 241 age-matched controls to determine the prevalence of enteropathogenic E. coli (enteroadherent E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli) and their correlation with O:H serotypes. E. coli isolates exhibiting localized and aggregative adherence in the HEp-2 cell assay were significantly more frequently isolated from the patients (8.5 and 26.9%, respectively) than from the controls (1.7 and 15%, respectively). This difference was significant for the group 0 to 2 months of age but for older infants. Regardless of age, E. coli isolates with diffuse adherence were found at similar frequencies in both the patients and the controls. A striking correlation between classic O serogroups and localized adherence was also observed. These findings confirm the pathogenic role of E. coli with localized and aggregative adherence in diarrheal disease, as well as the epidemiological importance of O:H serotyping for characterizing localized-adhering E. coli.

  6. Age-specific prevalence of Escherichia coli with localized and aggregative adherence in Venezuelan infants with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    González, R; Díaz, C; Mariño, M; Cloralt, R; Pequeneze, M; Pérez-Schael, I

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiological significance of HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli isolates in diarrheal disease, we performed a study with 513 Venezuelan infants with diarrhea and 241 age-matched controls to determine the prevalence of enteropathogenic E. coli (enteroadherent E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli) and their correlation with O:H serotypes. E. coli isolates exhibiting localized and aggregative adherence in the HEp-2 cell assay were significantly more frequently isolated from the patients (8.5 and 26.9%, respectively) than from the controls (1.7 and 15%, respectively). This difference was significant for the group 0 to 2 months of age but for older infants. Regardless of age, E. coli isolates with diffuse adherence were found at similar frequencies in both the patients and the controls. A striking correlation between classic O serogroups and localized adherence was also observed. These findings confirm the pathogenic role of E. coli with localized and aggregative adherence in diarrheal disease, as well as the epidemiological importance of O:H serotyping for characterizing localized-adhering E. coli. PMID:9114389

  7. The effects of low-shear stress on Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Allen, Christopher A; Niesel, David W; Torres, Alfredo G

    2008-06-01

    The impact of low-shear stress (LSS) was evaluated on an Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli clinical isolate (AIEC strain O83:H1) from a Crohn's disease patient. High-aspect ratio vessels (HARVs) were used to model LSS conditions to characterize changes in environmental stress resistance and adhesion/invasive properties. Low-shear stress-grown cultures exhibited enhanced thermal and oxidative stress resistance as well as increased adherence to Caco-2 cells, but no changes in invasion were observed. An AIEC rpoS mutant was constructed to examine the impact of this global stress regulator. The absence of RpoS under LSS conditions resulted in increased sensitivity to oxidative stress while adherence levels were elevated in comparison with the wild-type strain. TnphoA mutagenesis and rpoS complementation were carried out on the rpoS mutant to identify those factors involved in the LSS-induced adherence phenotype. Mutagenesis results revealed that one insertion disrupted the tnaB gene (encoding tryptophan permease) and the rpoS tnaB double mutant exhibited decreased adherence under LSS. Complementation of the tnaB gene, or medium supplemented with exogenous indole, restored adhesion of the rpoS tnaB mutant under LSS conditions. Overall, our study demonstrated how mechanical stresses such as LSS altered AIEC phenotypic characteristics and identified novel functions for some RpoS-regulated proteins.

  8. Heterogeneity among Strains of Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli Isolated in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Lucia M.; Fabbricotti, Sandra H.; Ferreira, Antonio J. P.; Kato, Maria A. M. F.; Michalski, Jane; Scaletsky, Isabel C. A.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred twelve diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children in a case control study were evaluated for virulence-associated characteristics, serotyping, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profiles. Half of the strains hybridized with the probes for icuA (aerobactin) and fimH (type 1 pili); daaE (F1845 fimbriae), afa (afimbrial Dr adhesin), agg-3A (aggregative adhesion fimbria type III fimbriae), pap (P fimbriae), astA (EAST1 toxin), and shET1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1) sequences were present in <20% of the strains. The shET1 gene was noted most frequently in strains isolated from patients. A minority (7%) of the strains produced hemolysin or colicin or showed cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. Forty-five different serotypes were found. The majority (70%) of the strains presented multiple antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance and diffuse adherence were located on the same conjugative plasmids. These results suggest that the transfer of these potential virulence markers could be important in the epidemiology of diffusely adherent E. coli. PMID:15815034

  9. Flagellar Cap Protein FliD Mediates Adherence of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Enterocyte Microvilli

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Suely C. F.; Luiz, Wilson B.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.; Garcia, Bruna G.; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Sampaio, Jorge L. M.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of flagella correlates with different aspects of bacterial pathogenicity, ranging from adherence to host cells to activation of inflammatory responses by the innate immune system. In the present study, we investigated the role of flagella in the adherence of an atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strain (serotype O51:H40) to human enterocytes. Accordingly, isogenic mutants deficient in flagellin (FliC), the flagellar structural subunit; the flagellar cap protein (FliD); or the MotAB proteins, involved in the control of flagellar motion, were generated and tested for binding to differentiated Caco-2 cells. Binding of the aEPEC strain to enterocytes was significantly impaired in strains with the fliC and fliD genes deleted, both of which could not form flagella on the bacterial surface. A nonmotile but flagellated MotAB mutant also showed impaired adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In accordance with these observations, adhesion of aEPEC strain 1711-4 to Caco-2 cells was drastically reduced after the treatment of Caco-2 cells with purified FliD. In addition, incubation of aEPEC bacteria with specific anti-FliD serum impaired binding to Caco-2 cells. Finally, incubation of Caco-2 cells with purified FliD, followed by immunolabeling, showed that the protein was specifically bound to the microvillus tips of differentiated Caco-2 cells. The aEPEC FliD or anti-FliD serum also reduced the adherence of prototype typical enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our findings further strengthened the role of flagella in the adherence of aEPEC to human enterocytes and disclosed the relevant structural and functional involvement of FliD in the adhesion process. PMID:26831466

  10. Effect of Temperature on Fimbrial Gene Expression and Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hinthong, Woranich; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Kongngoen, Thida; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2015-07-23

    The influence of temperature on bacterial virulence has been studied worldwide from the viewpoint of climate change and global warming. The bacterium enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is the causative agent of watery diarrhea and shows an increasing incidence worldwide. Its pathogenicity is associated with the virulence factors aggregative adherence fimbria type I and II (AAFI and AAFII), encoded by aggA and aafA in EAEC strains 17-2 and 042, respectively. This study focused on the effect of temperature increases from 29 °C to 40 °C on fimbrial gene expression using real-time PCR, and on its virulence using an aggregative adherence assay and biofilm formation assay. Incubation at 32 °C caused an up-regulation in both EAEC strains 17-2 and strain 042 virulence gene expression. EAEC strain 042 cultured at temperature above 32 °C showed down-regulation of aafA expression except at 38 °C. Interestingly, EAEC cultured at a high temperature showed a reduced adherence to cells and an uneven biofilm formation. These results provide evidence that increases in temperature potentially affect the virulence of pathogenic EAEC, although the response varies in each strain.

  11. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walsham, Alistair D. S.; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L.; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26973622

  12. Curli modulates adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our recent studies have shown that Intimin and the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-encoded proteins do not play a role in Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to the bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells (RSE) cells. Hence, to define factors that play a contributory role, we investi...

  13. Mechanisms of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction by Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shawki, Ali; McCole, Declan F

    2017-01-01

    Pathobiont expansion, such as that of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), is an emerging factor associated with inflammatory bowel disease. The intestinal epithelial barrier is the first line of defense against these pathogens. Inflammation plays a critical role in altering the epithelial barrier and is a major factor involved in promoting the expansion and pathogenesis of AIEC. AIEC in turn can exacerbate intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction by targeting multiple elements of the barrier. One critical element of the epithelial barrier is the tight junction. Increasing evidence suggests that AIEC may selectively target protein components of tight junctions, leading to increased barrier permeability. This may represent one mechanism by which AIEC could contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. This review article discusses potential mechanisms by which AIEC can disrupt epithelial tight junction function and intestinal barrier function.

  14. Effect of washing, antibiotics and trypsin treatment of bovine embryos on the removal of adhering K99+ Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Otoi, T; Tachikawa, S; Kondo, S; Suzuki, T

    1993-12-01

    Bovine embryos with the intact zona pellucida were exposed in vitro to K99+ Escherichia coli (K99 E. coli). The recommended procedures for washing and treating embryos were then evaluated for their effectiveness in removing or killing the adherent bacteria. After 10-step washing, bacteria were recovered not only from the embryos exposed to E. coli suspensions but also from those treated with trypsin during washing. On the other hand, no bacteria were recovered from any embryos treated with antibiotics (gentamicin; 50 micrograms/ml) in culture medium before washing, indicating that the recommended washing procedures with appropriate antibiotics assure that zona pellucida-intact bovine embryos are free from E. coli.

  15. Representational difference analysis between Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli and nonpathogenic E. coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Potard, Anne-Beatrice; Tinsley, Colin; Scaletsky, Isabel; Le Bouguenec, Chantal; Guignot, Julie; Servin, Alain L; Nassif, Xavier; Bernet-Camard, Marie-Francoise

    2002-10-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains harboring Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) have been associated with diarrhea and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The present work is the first extensive molecular study of a Afa/Dr DAEC strain using the representational difference analysis technique. We have searched for DNA sequences present in strain C1845, recovered from a diarrheagenic child, but absent from a nonpathogenic K-12 strain. Strain C1845 harbors part of a pathogenicity island (PAI(CFT073)) and several iron transport systems found in other E. coli pathovars. We did not find genes encoding factors known to subvert host cell proteins, such as type III secretion system or effector proteins. Several C1845-specific sequences are homologous to putative virulence genes or show no homology with known sequences, and we have analyzed their distribution among Afa/Dr and non-Afa/Dr clinical isolates and among strains from the E. coli Reference Collection. Three C1845-specific sequences (MO30, S109, and S111) have a high prevalence (77 to 80%) among Afa/Dr strains and a low prevalence (12 to 23%) among non-Afa/Dr strains. In addition, our results indicate that strain IH11128, an Afa/Dr DAEC strain recovered from a patient with a UTI, is genetically closely related to strain C1845.

  16. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children and adults constitute two different populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) have been considered a diarrheagenic category of E. coli for which several potential virulence factors have been described in the last few years. Despite this, epidemiological studies involving DAEC have shown inconsistent results. In this work, two different collections of DAEC possessing Afa/Dr genes, from children and adults, were studied regarding characteristics potentially associated to virulence. Results DAEC strains were recovered in similar frequencies from diarrheic and asymptomatic children, and more frequently from adults with diarrhea (P < 0.01) than from asymptomatic adults. Association with diarrhea (P < 0.05) was found for SAT-positive strains recovered from children and for curli-positive strains recovered from adults. Mixed biofilms involving DAEC and a Citrobacter freundii strain have shown an improved ability to form biofilms in relation to the monocultures. Control strains have shown a greater diversity of Afa/Dr adhesins and higher frequencies of cellulose, TTSS, biofilm formation and induction of IL-8 secretion than strains from cases of diarrhea in children. Conclusions DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr genes isolated from children and adults represent two different bacterial populations. DAEC strains carrying genes associated to virulence can be found as part of the normal microbiota present in asymptomatic children. PMID:23374248

  17. Intestinal colonization and adhesion by enteroxigenic Escherichia coli: ultrastructural observations on adherence to ileal epithelium of the pig.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Nagy, B; Isaacson, R E

    1977-08-01

    Colonization of pig ileum by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that were enteropathogenic for pigs but that lacked K88 antigen (K88-) resulted in morphological characteristics similar to those reported for K88+ strains. Strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli from three different K88-serotypes adhered to the villous epithelium. In sections examined by transmission electron microscopy, adherent bacteria were separated from each other and from epithelial microvilli by peribacterial electron-lucent regions. The enterotoxigenic E. coli had appendages that extended into these regions. The appendages were morphologically characteristic for each strain. It is possible that these appendages were pili, polysaccharide K antigens, or structures resulting from some interaction between pili and polysaccharide. Certain pili or pilus-like structures may be virulence attributes that facilitate adhesion of enterotoxigenic E. coli to the intestinal epithelium.

  18. Pathogenic Role of Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli in Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Perna, Angelica; Marano, Angela; Lucariello, Angela; Rotondi Aufiero, Vera; Sorrentino, Alida; Melina, Raffaele; Guerra, Germano; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Iaquinto, Gaetano; De Luca, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains play an important role in Crohn's disease (CD). The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of two AIEC strains, LF82 and O83:H1, in CD patients. Organ cultures of colonic biopsies from patients were set up to assess the effects of LF82 and O83:H1 on the expression of CEACAM6, LAMP1, HLA-DR, ICAM1 by immunohistochemistry and of IL-8, IFNʏ, and TNF-α genes by RT-PCR. Moreover, on Caco2 cells, we analyzed the cell cycle, the expression of MGMT and DNMT1 genes, and DNA damage induced by LF82 and O83:H1, by FACS, RT-PCR, and DAPI staining, respectively. Epithelial and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNC) expression of CEACAM6 and LAMP1 were higher in biopsies cultured in the presence of both O83:H1 and LF82 than in biopsies cultured with non-pathogenic E. coli. Both AIEC strains induced increased expression of ICAM-1 on blood vessels and HLA-DR on LPMNC. We observed higher levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-8 transcripts in biopsies cultured with both AIEC strains than in those cultured with NP. Both LF82 and O83:H1, block the cell cycle into S phase, inducing DNA damage, and modulate the expression of DNMT1 and MGMT genes. Our data suggest that LF82 and 083:H1 strains of E. coli are able to increase in CD colonic biopsies the expression of all the pro-inflammatory cytokines and all the mucosal immune markers investigated. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2860-2868, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shi-Shun; Zhang, Zhen-Shu; Wang, Ji-De; Lai, Zhuo-Sheng; Wang, Qun-Ying; Pan, Ling-Jia; Ren, Yue-Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027 (B. ado 1027). METHODS: The binding of bacteria to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo was counted by adhesion assay. The inhibition of adherence of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 was evaluated quantitatively by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The purified adhesin at the concentration of 10 µg/mL, 20 µg/mL and 30 µg/mL except at 1 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL could inhibit significantly the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo. Moreover, we observed that a reduction in bacterial adhesion was occurred with increase in the concentration of adhesin, and MFI (Mean fluorescent intensity) was decreased with increase in the concentration of adhesin. CONCLUSION: The purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 can inhibit the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:15162538

  20. In vitro adherence patterns of Shigella serogroups to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells are similar to those of Escherichia coli O157

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Shigella species, which are human gastrointestinal pathogens, can adhere to cattle recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells using a recently standardized adherence assay, and to compare their adherence patterns to that of Escherichia coli O15...

  1. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  2. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  3. Structural insight into host recognition by aggregative adherence fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrea A; Yang, Yi; Pakharukova, Natalia; Garnett, James A; Lee, Wei-chao; Cota, Ernesto; Marchant, Jan; Roy, Saumendra; Tuittila, Minna; Liu, Bing; Inman, Keith G; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Mandomando, Inacio; Nataro, James P; Zavialov, Anton V; Matthews, Steve

    2014-09-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a leading cause of acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide. A recently emerged Shiga-toxin-producing strain of EAEC resulted in significant mortality and morbidity due to progressive development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The attachment of EAEC to the human intestinal mucosa is mediated by aggregative adherence fimbria (AAF). Using X-ray crystallography and NMR structures, we present new atomic resolution insight into the structure of AAF variant I from the strain that caused the deadly outbreak in Germany in 2011, and AAF variant II from archetype strain 042, and propose a mechanism for AAF-mediated adhesion and biofilm formation. Our work shows that major subunits of AAF assemble into linear polymers by donor strand complementation where a single minor subunit is inserted at the tip of the polymer by accepting the donor strand from the terminal major subunit. Whereas the minor subunits of AAF have a distinct conserved structure, AAF major subunits display large structural differences, affecting the overall pilus architecture. These structures suggest a mechanism for AAF-mediated adhesion and biofilm formation. Binding experiments using wild type and mutant subunits (NMR and SPR) and bacteria (ELISA) revealed that despite the structural differences AAF recognize a common receptor, fibronectin, by employing clusters of basic residues at the junction between subunits in the pilus. We show that AAF-fibronectin attachment is based primarily on electrostatic interactions, a mechanism not reported previously for bacterial adhesion to biotic surfaces.

  4. A Localized Adherence-Like Pattern as a Second Pattern of Adherence of Classic Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 Cells That Is Associated with Infantile Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Scaletsky, Isabel C. A.; Pedroso, Margareth Z.; Oliva, Carlos A. G.; Carvalho, Rozane L. B.; Morais, Mauro B.; Fagundes-Neto, Ulysses

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains that cause nonbloody diarrhea in infants are known to present three distinct patterns of adherence to epithelial cells, namely, localized (LA), diffuse (DA), and aggregative (AA) adherence. Strains with LA (typical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli [EPEC]) are well recognized as a cause of secretory diarrhea, but the role of strains with DA (DAEC) is controversial, and strains with AA (EAEC) have been more frequently related to persistent diarrhea whereas its relationship with acute diarrhea is not well defined. To determine the relationship of the different types of E. coli adherence patterns with acute diarrhea (lasting less than 14 days) and persistent diarrhea (lasting more than 14 days) in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 40 infants under 1 year of age with diarrhea and 40 age-matched control infants without any gastrointestinal symptoms. Twenty-eight (35.0%) of eighty cases yielded adherent E. coli (HEp-2 cells). Strains with localized and aggregative adherence were associated with acute and persistent diarrhea. A total of 11.2% of the adherent strains were typical EPEC serotypes and hybridized with the enteroadherence factor probe; 5.0% were EAEC and hybridized with the EAEC probe. DAEC strains were isolated from 10.0% of patients and 7.5% of controls and did not hybridize with the two probes used (daaC and AIDA-I). Strains with a localized adherence-like pattern (atypical EPEC) were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.028) in cultures from children with diarrhea (17.5%) than in controls (2.5%). PMID:10377120

  5. Bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cell adhesion assay for studying Escherichia coli O157 adherence.

    PubMed

    Kudva, I T; Dean-Nystrom, E A

    2011-11-01

    To develop a new adherence assay, using cattle recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells, for evaluating bacterial adherence to cells of bovine origin. Proof of concept was demonstrated using the human gastrointestinal pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, for which cattle are reservoirs. Adherence assays were conducted using both RSE and HEp-2 cells, in the presence and absence of D+Mannose. E. coli O157 specifically adhered in a type I fimbriae-independent manner to RSE cells in significantly higher numbers and also bound significantly higher numbers of RSE cells than diverse laboratory strains of nonpathogenic E. coli. The RSE cell adhesion assay output highly reproducible and interpretable results that compared very well with those obtained using the more extensively used HEp-2 cell adherence assay. The RSE cell adhesion assay provides a convenient means of directly defining and evaluating pathogen factors operating at the bovine recto-anal junction. The RSE cell adhesion assay further has the potential for extrapolation to diverse bacteria, including food-borne pathogens that colonize cattle via adherence to this particular anatomical site. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Biofilm formation as a novel phenotypic feature of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Crohn's disease (CD) is a high morbidity chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) has been recently implicated in the origin and perpetuation of CD. Because bacterial biofilms in the gut mucosa are suspected to play a role in CD and biofilm formation is a feature of certain pathogenic E. coli strains, we compared the biofilm formation capacity of 27 AIEC and 38 non-AIEC strains isolated from the intestinal mucosa. Biofilm formation capacity was then contrasted with the AIEC phenotype, the serotype, the phylotype, and the presence of virulence genes. Results Specific biofilm formation (SBF) indices were higher amongst AIEC than non-AIEC strains (P = 0.012). In addition, 65.4% of moderate to strong biofilms producers were AIEC, whereas 74.4% of weak biofilm producers were non-AIEC (P = 0.002). These data indicate that AIEC strains were more efficient biofilm producers than non-AIEC strains. Moreover, adhesion (P = 0.009) and invasion (P = 0.003) indices correlated positively with higher SBF indices. Additionally, motility (100%, P < 0.001), H1 type flagellin (53.8%, P < 0.001), serogroups O83 (19.2%, P = 0.008) and O22 (26.9%, P = 0.001), the presence of virulence genes such as sfa/focDE (38.5%, P = 0.003) and ibeA (26.9%, P = 0.017), and B2 phylotype (80.8%, P < 0.001) were frequent characteristics amongst biofilm producers. Conclusion The principal contribution of the present work is the finding that biofilm formation capacity is a novel, complementary pathogenic feature of the recently described AIEC pathovar. Characterization of AIEC specific genetic determinants, and the regulatory pathways, involved in biofilm formation will likely bring new insights into AIEC pathogenesis. PMID:19772580

  7. Genome-based Definition of an Inflammatory Bowel Disease-associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Pathovar.

    PubMed

    Desilets, Michael; Deng, Xianding; Deng, Xiangding; Rao, Chitong; Ensminger, Alexander W; Krause, Denis O; Sherman, Philip M; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal-associated Escherichia coli are commonly found in inflamed tissues during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These bacteria often possess an adherent and invasive phenotype but lack virulence-associated features of well-described intestinal E. coli pathogens, and are of diverse serology and phylotypes, making it difficult to correlate strain characteristics with exacerbations of disease. The genome sequences of 14 phenotypically assigned adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) isolates obtained from intestinal biopsies of patients with IBD were compared with the genome sequences of 37 other pathogenic and commensal E. coli available from public databases. Core genome-based phylogenetic analyses and genome-wide comparison of genetic content established the existence of a closely related cluster of AIEC strains with 3 distinct genetic insertions differentiating them from commensal E. coli. These strains are of the B2 phylotype have a variant type VI secretion system (T6SS-1), and are highly related to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, suggesting that these 2 clinically distinct pathovars have common virulence strategies. Four other mucosally adherent E. coli strains from patients with IBD were of diverse phylogenetic origins and lacked the 3 genetic features, suggesting that they are not related to the B2 AIEC cluster. Although AIEC are often considered as having a unique association with Crohn's disease, isolates from Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were genetically indistinguishable. B2 AIEC thus represent a closely related cluster of IBD-associated E. coli strains that are distinct from normal commensal isolates, and which should be considered separately from the phenotypically similar but genetically distinct non-B2 AIEC strains when considering their association with intestinal pathogenesis.

  8. Flagella interact with ionic plant lipids to mediate adherence of pathogenic Escherichia coli to fresh produce plants.

    PubMed

    Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Wolfson, Eliza B; Gally, David L; Mahajan, Arvind; Pedersen, Henriette L; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial attachment to plant and animal surfaces is generally thought to constitute the initial step in colonization, requiring adherence factors such as flagella and fimbriae. We describe the molecular mechanism underpinning flagella-mediated adherence to plant tissue for the foodborne pathogen, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli H7 flagella interacted with a sulphated carbohydrate (carrageenan) on a glycan array, which occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Adherence of E. coli O157 : H-expressing flagella of serotype H7, H6 or H48 to plants associated with outbreaks from fresh produce and to Arabidopsis thaliana, was dependent on flagella interactions with phospholipids and sulpholipids in plasma membranes. Adherence of purified H7 and H48 flagella to carrageenan was reduced at higher concentrations of KH2 PO4 or KCl, showing an ionic basis to the interactions. Purified H7 flagella were observed to physically interact with plasma membranes in spinach plants and in A.thaliana. The results show a specific interaction between E. coli H7, H6 and H48 flagella and ionic lipids in plant plasma membranes. The work extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning E.coli flagella targeting of plant hosts and suggests a generic mechanism of recognition common in eukaryotic hosts belonging to different biological kingdoms.

  9. The biogenic amine tyramine modulates the adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Mark

    2004-05-01

    The environmental factors that influence the ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to attach to the intestinal mucosa are incompletely understood. In the present study, the ability of one of the most common biogenic amines present in food, tyramine, to influence the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to adhere to murine cecal mucosa was examined. Ex vivo full-thickness sheets of murine cecum were mounted in Ussing chambers, which preserved the enteric nervous system innervation of the luminal epithelia and thereby allowed us to achieve a closer approximation of bacterial adherence than would be encountered in vivo. After exposure of the luminal aspect of the cecum to tyramine, E. coli O157:H7 was added for 90 min. The cecal tissue was then removed and washed, and adhered E. coli O157:H7 was enumerated using a selective medium. Tyramine significantly increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence to cecal mucosa when compared to that of controls. The 50% effective concentration of tyramine was 92.6 microM. Specific adrenergic antagonists were then employed to examine whether the effect of tyramine was mediated through alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors on the intestinal tissue. Pretreatment of tissues with either the alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine or the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol prevented the action of tyramine. Measurement of active transepithelial ion transport and ionic permeability in the cecal sheets before and after the addition of tyramine and E. coli O157:H7 did not show any impairment of tissue viability or transepithelial conductance. Further, tyramine did not influence either the growth of E. coli O157:H7 or the expression of the intimin attachment factor. The present findings suggest that biogenic amines, such as tyramine, present within the food matrix influence host susceptibility to E. coli O157:H7 infection.

  10. Bison and bovine rectoanal junctions exhibit similar cellular architecture and Escherichia coli O157 adherence patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli O157 (O157) is frequently isolated from bison retail meat, a fact that is important given that bison meat has also been implicated in an O157-multistate outbreak. In addition, O157 has also been isolated from bison feces at slaughter and on farms. Cattle are well documented as O15...

  11. Comparative genomic analysis and adherence characteristics of supershedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) is a zoonotic foodborne pathogen of major public health concern that results in considerable intestinal and extra-intestinal illness in humans. Asymptomatic cattle are the primary reservoir of O157 and harbor the pathogen at the terminal recto-an...

  12. [Adherence to HEp-2 cells of enterotoxemic Escherichia coli O-group 139 from pigs with edema disease].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, M; Kataoka, Y; Ohya, T

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and one strains of enterotoxemic Escherichia coli (ETEEC) O-group 139 isolated from swine with edema disease were investigated for their adherence to HEp-2 cells in the presence of D-mannose. All strains adhered in large numbers to the cells (21 to 60 bacteria/cell). No correlation was found between the presence of F107 fimbria on the organisms and the adherence to the cells. Adhesion-inhibition tests showed that anti-K12 serum inhibited the adhesion ETEEC O-group 139 (an inhibition rate of 63 to 65%), but anti-F107 or anti-O139 sera did not. These results indicate that the capsular K12 antigen may be one of the pathogenic factors of ETEEC O-group 139.

  13. Prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to HeLa cells in infants with diarrhea and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Blake, P A; Trabulsi, L R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the possible role of Escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to HeLa cells in causing diarrhea in infants in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (P less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotavirus (19%) was in patients, even though the study was conducted during the coldest months of the year. Most (80%) of the E. coli colonies with localized adherence were of traditional enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes. Little difference was found between patients and controls in the rate of isolation of E. coli with diffuse adherence (31 and 32%, respectively) or aggregative adherence (10 and 8%, respectively). A genetic probe used to detect a plasmid-mediated adhesin which confers expression of localized adherence proved to be 100% sensitive and 99.9% specific in detecting E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells. Although E. coli strains with localized adherence have now been shown to be enteric pathogens in several parts of the world, the role of strains showing diffuse adherence and aggregative adherence is still uncertain. PMID:2563383

  14. Increased Expression of Type-1 Fimbriae by Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli 83972 Results in an Increased Capacity for Catheter Adherence and Bacterial Interference

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Cevallos, Manuel E.; Li, Huaiguang; Riosa, Sarah; Hull, Richard A.; Hull, Sheila I.; Tweardy, David J.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro, urinary catheter colonization by avirulent Escherichia coli 83972 impedes subsequent catheter colonization by a variety of uropathogenic organisms. However, E. coli 83972 shows a low efficacy of adherence to silicone urinary catheter material, possibly because the fim operon encoding adhesive type 1 fimbriae is incomplete. We hypothesized that improving the catheter adherence of E. coli 83972 would improve its bacterial interference properties. Methods We created adhesive mutants by transforming wild-type E. coli 83972 with fim+ plasmids. Adherence to urinary catheters and ability to prevent uropathogenic E. coli from colonizing urinary catheters were studied by use of a sonication assay. Results The addition of a single-copy fim+ plasmid increased adherence to urinary catheters 10-fold, and addition of an 18-copy fim+ plasmid increased adherence 100-fold. The more adherent 18-copy fim+ plasmid strain was more effective at blocking catheter colonization by pathogenic E. coli than was the wild-type parental strain. Neither Δfim nor fim+ E. coli 83972 adhered to shed urinary epithelial cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that improving urinary catheter adherence augments the bacterial interference capabilities of benign E. coli 83972. Increased expression of type-1 fimbriae may enhance bacterial interference without conferring virulence on E. coli 83972. PMID:18643750

  15. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 bares the characteristics of both enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga...

  16. Evidence for a bladder cell glycolipid receptor for Escherichia coli and the effect of neuraminic acid and colominic acid on adherence.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C P; Avots-Avotins, A E; Fader, R C

    1981-01-01

    The rat bladder epithelial cell receptors involved in mannose-sensitive adherence of Escherichia coli strains were studied. Sodium metaperiodate and lipase pretreatment of epithelial cells significantly reduced bacterial adherence to cells whereas trypsin and phospholipase C had a marginal or insignificant effect on adherence. Neuraminidase and colominic acid significantly increased adherence, whereas N-acetylneuraminic acid significantly reduced adherence. These data suggest that the rat bladder epithelial cell receptors involved in mannose-sensitive adherence are glycolipids. In addition, the data suggested that sialic acid on bladder epithelial cells acts as a nonspecific inhibitor of adherence, whereas colominic acid, a component of some E. coli K1 capsules, may act as a promoter of adherence. PMID:6277793

  17. Multiple Elements Controlling Adherence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 to HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Alfredo G.; Kaper, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to the intestinal epithelium is essential for initiation of infection. Intimin is the only factor demonstrated to play a role in intestinal colonization by EHEC O157:H7. Other attempts to identify additional adhesion factors in vitro have been unsuccessful, suggesting that expression of these factors is under tight regulation. We sought to identify genes involved in the control of adherence of EHEC O157:H7 to cultured epithelial cells. A total of 5,000 independent transposon insertion mutants were screened for their ability to adhere to HeLa cells, and 7 mutants were isolated with a markedly enhanced adherence. The mutants adhered at levels 113 to 170% that of the wild-type strain, and analysis of the protein profiles of these mutants revealed several proteins differentially expressed under in vitro culture conditions. We determined the sequence of the differentially expressed proteins and further investigated the function of OmpA, whose expression was increased in a mutant with an insertionally inactivated tcdA gene. An isogenic ompA mutant showed reduced adherence compared to the parent strain. Disruption of the ompA gene in the tdcA mutant strain abolished the hyperadherent phenotype, and anti-OmpA serum inhibited adhesion of wild-type and tdcA mutant strains to HeLa cells. Enhanced adhesion mediated by OmpA was also observed with Caco-2 cells, and anti-OmpA serum blocked adherence to HeLa cells of other EHEC O157:H7 strains. Our results indicate that multiple elements control adherence and OmpA acts as an adhesin in EHEC O157:H7. PMID:12933841

  18. Detection of AmpC β-lactamase and adherence factors in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from aged patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Seema, Kumari; Gupta, Minakshi

    2016-11-01

    Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infection has been reported to be most prevalent among patients of different class, gender and ages. Currently, multidrug resistant E. coli harboring several virulence factors are most perilous threats for patients especially for elders. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, co-resistance and phenotypic virulence factors present in uropathogenic E. coli isolated from aged patients. Thirty-nine E. coli isolates were collected during May-June 2014 from patients between 50 to 80 years of age. Experiments have been carried out to determine the antibiotic resistance, co-resistances and phenotypic adherent factors present in each isolate. Clonal relatedness was also determined in the AmpC positive uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). 97.43% isolates were found to be multidrug resistant and 41.02% of them were AmpC producer. AmpC producer group showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance index than AmpC non-producer (p value < 0.01) group. Interestingly, adherence factor Type 1 fimbriae were found among 84.61% of total isolates which were more prevalent in elderly female patients than males. Biofilm production studies revealed that 84.61% of total isolates are more common in elderly males. This study adds value for the proper empiric selection of antibiotic therapy as well as calls for continuous monitoring of the incidence of drug resistance virulent uropathogenic E. coli mediated urinary tract infection in elderly patients.

  19. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): hitherto unrecognized pathogens.

    PubMed

    Le Bouguénec, Chantal; Servin, Alain L

    2006-03-01

    Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are currently considered to constitute a putative sixth group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, on the basis of their diffuse adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, the detection of afa/dra/daa-related operons encoding this adherence phenotype, and the mobilization of decay-accelerating factor, both commensal and pathogenic strains can be classified as Afa/Dr DAEC isolates. Furthermore, strains associated with diarrheal diseases and strains causing extra-intestinal infections can also be identified as Afa/Dr DAEC strains. Although several cell signaling events that occur after epithelial cells have been infected by Afa/Dr DAEC have been reported, the pathophysiological processes that allow intestinal and extra-intestinal infections to develop are not fully understood. This review focuses on the genetic organization of the afa/dra/daa-related operons and on the virulence factors that trigger cellular responses, some of which are deleterious for the host cells. Finally, this review suggests future lines of research that could help to elucidate these questions.

  20. In vitro adherence patterns of Shigella serogroups to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells are similar to those of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Indira T

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether Shigella species, which are human gastrointestinal pathogens, can adhere to cattle recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells using a recently standardized in vitro adherence assay, and to compare their adherence patterns with that of Escherichia coli O157. Shigella dysenteriae (serogroup A), S. flexneri (serogroup B), S. boydii (serogroup C), and S. sonnei (serogroup D) were tested in adherence assays using both RSE and HEp-2 cells, in the presence or absence of D+mannose. Escherichia coli O157, which adheres to RSE cells in a Type I fimbriae-independent manner, was used as a positive control. Shigella serogroups A, B, D, but not C adhered to RSE cells with distinct adherence patterns in the presence of D+mannose. No such distinction could be made between the four Shigella serogroups based on the HEp-2 cell adherence patterns. Thus, this study provides evidence that certain Shigella serogroups adhere to RSE cells in a manner that is similar to the adherence pattern of E. coli O157. These unexpected observations of in vitro binding of these foodborne human pathogens to cells of the bovine gastrointestinal tract warrant evaluation of Shigella carriage by cattle using both experimental and observational studies, especially for serogroups B and D. Such studies are currently underway.

  1. Interleukin-8 secretion by epithelial cells infected with diffusely adherent Escherichia coli possessing Afa adhesin-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Kentaro; Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli that adhere sparsely to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells are known as diffusely adherent E. coli(DAEC) and considered potentially diarrheagenic. The role of the afimbrial adhesive sheath (Afa)-identified originally as a uropathogenic factor-in diffuse adhesion is now understood. However, the role of DAEC in diarrheal disease remains controversial. Recently, ability to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from intestinal epithelial cells has been suggested as one of the properties of enterovirulent bacteria. In this study, we examined whether DAEC strains possessing Afa genes induced IL-8 in cultures of human carcinoma epithelial cells (e.g., HEp-2, Caco-2, and T84). Nineteen afa-positive DAEC strains were examined for their ability to induce IL-8 secretion, and only 7 strains (37%; 7/19) induced IL-8 as much as enteroaggregative E. coli did. No marked differences in adhesion were observed between high and low inducers. Diffusive adhesiveness itself is unlikely to be sufficient to induce IL-8. All high inducers were motile and others were nonmotile. Additional stimulation by flagella may be required to cause high levels of chemokine induction. Motility or presence of flagella can be an important criterion to predict DAEC diarrheagenicity at clinical laboratories.

  2. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from children with acute diarrhea - antimicrobial susceptibility, adherence patterns and phylogenetic background.

    PubMed

    Franiczek, Roman; Sobieszczańska, Beata; Turniak, Michał; Kasprzykowska, Urszula; Krzyzanowska, Barbara; Jermakow, Katarzyna; Mokracka-Latajka, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains the principal bacterial pathogen in childhood diarrhea and constitutes an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains often display resistance to beta-lactams due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). A total of thirty ESBL-producing E. coli strains colonizing the gastrointestinal tracts of children with acute diarrhea were studied in order to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility, adherence patterns to the HEp-2 cell line and phylogenetic background. ESBL production was detected by the double disk synergy test (DDST). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibacterial drugs were determined by an agar dilution technique on Mueller-Hinton agar. The presence of bla(TEM), bla(SHV) and bla(CTX-M) determinants in the strains studied was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The strains displayed the resistance pattern typical of ESBL producers. The majority of them (23 out of 30) were found to produce CTX-M-type ESBLs conferring a high level of resistance to oxyimino-beta-lactams, especially to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. In many cases, the strains exhibited resistance to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials, such as gentamicin, amikacin, co-trimoxazole and tetracycline. On the other hand, these strains were uniformly susceptible to carbapenems, to oxyimino-beta-lactams combined with clavulanic acid and to tigecycline. The E. coli strains were distributed among the four main phylogenetic groups: A, B1, B2 and D. The in vitro adhesion assay revealed that all but two of the strains adhered to the HEp-2 epithelial cell line. Aggregative and diffuse adherence patterns were found to be the most prevalent. CTX-M-type enzymes were the most prevalent ESBLs among the strains studied. As many as 40% of the diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were found to belong to phylogenetic group D, which usually comprises E. coli strains associated with extra intestinal

  3. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O22:H8 isolated from cattle reduces E. coli O157:H7 adherence in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martorelli, L; Albanese, A; Vilte, D; Cantet, R; Bentancor, A; Zolezzi, G; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Rivas, M; Mercado, E C; Cataldi, A

    2017-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection. In order to assess the basis of the interference, three STEC strains were isolated from STEC persistently-colonized healthy cattle from a dairy farm in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The three isolated strains are E. coli O22:H8 and carry the stx1 and stx2d genes. The activatable activity of Stx2d was demonstrated in vitro. The three strains carry the adhesins iha, ehaA and lpfO113. E. coli O22:H8 formed stronger biofilms in abiotic surface than E. coli O157:H7 (eae+, stx2+) and displayed a more adherent phenotype in vitro towards HeLa cells. Furthermore, when both serotypes were cultured together O22:H8 could reduce O157:H7 adherence in vitro. When calves were intragastrically pre-challenged with 10(8) CFU of a mixture of the three STEC strains and two days later challenged with the same dose of the strain E. coli O157:H7 438/99, the shedding of the pathogen was significantly reduced. These results suggest that E. coli O22:H8, a serotype rarely associated with human illness, might compete with O157:H7 at the bovine recto-anal junction, making non-O157 carrying-calves less susceptible to O157:H7 colonization and shedding of the bacteria to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains form Biofilm on Abiotic Surfaces Regardless of Their Adherence Pattern on Cultured Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Culler, Hebert F.; Mota, Cristiane M.; Abe, Cecilia M.; Elias, Waldir P.; Sircili, Marcelo P.; Franzolin, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV) assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4%) of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence). This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea. PMID:24883330

  5. Contributions of EspA filaments and curli fimbriae in cellular adherence and biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed incr...

  6. Longus, a Type IV Pilus of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Is Involved in Adherence to Intestinal Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazariego-Espinosa, Karina; Cruz, Ariadnna; Ledesma, Maria A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. The main hallmarks of this type of bacteria are the expression of one or more enterotoxins and fimbriae used for attachment to host intestinal cells. Longus is a pilus produced by ETEC. These bacteria grown in pleuropneumonia-like organism (PPLO) broth at 37°C and in 5% CO2 produced longus, showing that the assembly and expression of the pili depend on growth conditions and composition of the medium. To explore the role of longus in the adherence to epithelial cells, quantitative and qualitative analyses were done, and similar levels of adherence were observed, with values of 111.44 × 104 CFU/ml in HT-29, 101.33 × 104 CFU/ml in Caco-2, and 107.11 × 104 CFU/ml in T84 cells. In addition, the E9034AΔlngA strain showed a significant reduction in longus adherence of 32% in HT-29, 22.28% in Caco-2, and 21.68% in T84 cells compared to the wild-type strain. In experiments performed with nonintestinal cells (HeLa and HEp-2 cells), significant differences were not observed in adherence between E9034A and derivative strains. Interestingly, the E9034A and E9034AΔlngA(pLngA) strains were 30 to 35% more adherent in intestinal cells than in nonintestinal cells. Twitching motility experiments were performed, showing that ETEC strains E9034A and E9034AΔlngA(pLngA) had the capacity to form spreading zones while ETEC E9034AΔlngA does not. In addition, our data suggest that longus from ETEC participates in the colonization of human colonic cells. PMID:20348256

  7. The structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in vitro.

    PubMed

    Foo, L Y; Lu, Y; Howell, A B; Vorsa, N

    2000-05-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts of Sephadex LH20-purified proanthocyanidins of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) exhibited potent biological activity by inhibiting adherence of uropathogenic isolates of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli bacteria to cellular surfaces containing alpha-Gal(1-->4)beta-Gal receptor sequences similar to those on epithelial cells in the urinary tract. The chemical structures of the proanthocyanidins were determined by 13C NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser absorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by acid catalyzed degradation with phloroglucinol. The proanthocyanidin molecules consisted predominantly of epicatechin units with mainly DP of 4 and 5 containing at least one A-type linkage. The procyanidin A2 was the most common terminating unit occurring about four times as frequently as the epicatechin monomer.

  8. Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Production of Cellulose Influences Iron-Induced Bacterial Aggregation, Phagocytosis, and Induction of Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ellermann, Melissa; Huh, Eun Young; Liu, Bo; Carroll, Ian M.; Tamayo, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), a functionally distinct subset of resident intestinal E. coli associated with Crohn's disease, is characterized by enhanced epithelial adhesion and invasion, survival within macrophages, and biofilm formation. Environmental factors, such as iron, modulate E. coli production of extracellular structures, which in turn influence the formation of multicellular communities, such as biofilms, and bacterial interactions with host cells. However, the physiological and functional responses of AIEC to variable iron availability have not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore characterized the impact of iron on the physiology of AIEC strain NC101 and subsequent interactions with macrophages. Iron promoted the cellulose-dependent aggregation of NC101. Bacterial cells recovered from the aggregates were more susceptible to phagocytosis than planktonic cells, which corresponded with the decreased macrophage production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40. Prevention of aggregate formation through the disruption of cellulose production reduced the phagocytosis of iron-exposed NC101. In contrast, under iron-limiting conditions, where NC101 aggregation is not induced, the disruption of cellulose production enhanced NC101 phagocytosis and decreased macrophage secretion of IL-12 p40. Finally, abrogation of cellulose production reduced NC101 induction of colitis when NC101 was monoassociated in inflammation-prone Il10−/− mice. Taken together, our results introduce cellulose as a novel physiological factor that impacts host-microbe-environment interactions and alters the proinflammatory potential of AIEC. PMID:26216423

  9. Differential Gene Expression and Adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 In Vitro and in Ligated Pig Intestines

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xianhua; Zhu, Jing; Feng, Yanni; Chambers, James R.; Gong, Joshua; Gyles, Carlton L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86–24 grown in MacConkey broth (MB) shows almost no adherence to cultured epithelial cells but adheres well in pig ligated intestines. This study investigated the mechanisms associated with the difference between in-vitro and in-vivo adherence of the MB culture. Methodology/Principal Findings It was found that decreased adherence in vitro by bacteria grown in MB was mainly due to lactose, possibly implicating the involvement of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Expression of selected virulence-related genes associated with adherence and CCR was then examined by quantitative PCR. When bacteria were grown in MB and Brain Heart Infusion with NaHCO3 (BHIN) plus lactose, pH was reduced to 5.5–5.9 and there was a significant decrease in expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes eae, tir, espD, grlA/R and ler, and an increase in cya (cAMP), and two negative regulators of the LEE, gadE and hfq. Putative virulence genes stcE, hlyA, ent and nleA were also decreased in vitro. Reversal of these changes was noted for bacteria recovered from the intestine, where transcripts for qseF and fis and putative virulence factors AidA15, TerC and Ent/EspL2 were significantly increased, and transcripts for AIDA48, Iha, UreC, Efa1A, Efa1B, ToxB, EhxA, StcE, NleA and NleB were expressed at high levels. Conclusions/Significance Presence of lactose resulted in decreased expression of LEE genes and the failure of EHEC O157:H7 to adhere to epithelial cells in vitro but this repression was overcome in vivo. CCR and/or acidic pH may have played a role in repression of the LEE genes. Bacterial pathogens need to integrate their nutritional metabolism with expression of virulence genes but little is known of how this is done in E. coli O157:H7. This study indicates one aspect of the subject that should be investigated further. PMID:21387009

  10. The Repeat-In-Toxin Family Member TosA Mediates Adherence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Survival during Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Patrick D.; Wiles, Travis J.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Prasov, Lev; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) and represents the most common bacterial infection in adults. UPEC utilizes a wide range of virulence factors to colonize the host, including the novel repeat-in-toxin (RTX) protein TosA, which is specifically expressed in the host urinary tract and contributes significantly to the virulence and survival of UPEC. tosA, found in strains within the B2 phylogenetic subgroup of E. coli, serves as a marker for strains that also contain a large number of well-characterized UPEC virulence factors. The presence of tosA in an E. coli isolate predicts successful colonization of the murine model of ascending UTI, regardless of the source of the isolate. Here, a detailed analysis of the function of tosA revealed that this gene is transcriptionally linked to genes encoding a conserved type 1 secretion system similar to other RTX family members. TosA localized to the cell surface and was found to mediate (i) adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract and (ii) survival in disseminated infections and (iii) to enhance lethality during sepsis (as assessed in two different animal models of infection). An experimental vaccine, using purified TosA, protected vaccinated animals against urosepsis. From this work, it was concluded that TosA belongs to a novel group of RTX proteins that mediate adherence and host damage during UTI and urosepsis and could be a novel target for the development of therapeutics to treat ascending UTIs. PMID:22083710

  11. The Role of Fibronectin in the Adherence and Inflammatory Response Induced by Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli on Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, Dominique; Izquierdo, Mariana; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P.; Girón, Jorge A.; Vidal, Roberto M.; Farfan, Mauricio J.

    2016-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infections are still one of the most important etiologic pathogens of diarrhea in children worldwide. EAEC pathogenesis comprises three stages: adherence and colonization, production of toxins, and diarrhea followed by inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that EAEC strains have the ability to bind to fibronectin (FN); however, the role this extracellular matrix protein plays in the inflammatory response induced by EAEC remains unknown. In this study, we postulated that FN-mediated adherence of EAEC strains to epithelial cells increases the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. To verify this hypothesis, we infected HEp-2 and HT-29 cells, in both the presence and absence of FN, with EAEC reference strain 042. We quantified IL-8 secretion and the relative expression of a set of genes regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Although FN increased EAEC adherence, no changes in IL-8 protein secretion or IL8 gene expression were observed. Similar observations were found in HEp-2 cells transfected with FN-siRNA and infected with EAEC. To evaluate the involvement of AAF/II fimbriae, we infected HEp-2 and HT-29 cells, in both the presence and absence of FN, with an EAEC 042aafA mutant strain transformed with a plasmid harboring the native aafA gene with a site-directed mutation in Lys72 residue (K72A and K72R strains). No changes in IL-8 secretion were observed. Finally, SEM immunogold assay of cells incubated with FN and infected with EAEC revealed that AAF fimbriae can bind to cells either directly or mediated by FN. Our data suggests that FN participates in AAF/II fimbriae-mediated adherence of EAEC to epithelial cells, but not in the inflammatory response of cells infected by this pathogen. PMID:28008386

  12. HIF1A regulates xenophagic degradation of adherent and invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC)

    PubMed Central

    Mimouna, Sanda; Bazin, Marie; Mograbi, Baharia; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Paul; Vouret-Craviari, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF1 activates autophagy, a general catabolic pathway involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Dysfunction in both autophagy and HIF1 has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn disease (CD). Adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC) colonize ileal mucosa of CD patients and strongly promote gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders by activation of HIF-dependent responses. Here, we aim to characterize the contribution of HIF1 in xenophagy, a specialized form of autophagy involved in the degradation of intracellular bacteria. Our results showed that endogenous HIF1A knockdown increased AIEC survival in intestinal epithelial cells. We demonstrate that the increase in survival rate correlates with a dramatic impairment of the autophagic flux at the autolysosomal maturation step. Furthermore, we show that AIEC remained within single-membrane LC3-II-positive vesicles and that they were unable to induce the phosphorylation of ULK1. These results suggested that, in the absence of HIF1A, AIEC were found within LC3-associated phagosomes. Using blocking antibodies against TLR5 and CEACAM6, the 2 well-known AIEC-bound receptors, we showed that downstream receptor signaling was necessary to mediate ULK1 phosphorylation. Finally, we provide evidence that HIF1 mediates CEACAM6 expression and that CEACAM6 is necessary to recruit ULK1 in a bacteria-containing signaling hub. Collectively, these results identify a new function for HIF1 in AIEC-dedicated xenophagy, and suggest that coactivation of autophagy and HIF1A expression may be a potential new therapy to resolve AIEC infection in CD patients. PMID:25484075

  13. Plasmids coding for drug resistance and localized adherence to HeLa cells in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O55:H- and O55:H6.

    PubMed Central

    Laporta, M Z; Silva, M L; Scaletsky, I C; Trabulsi, L R

    1986-01-01

    Plasmids coding for drug resistance and localized adherence (LA) to HeLa cells were found in two enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains belonging to serotypes O55:H- and O55:H6. Strain 49-81 HSJ (O55:H-) carries two plasmids, one coding for both ampicillin resistance (Apr) and LA (pMS49). Strain 71-82 HSJ (O55:H6) harbors only one plasmid, coding for resistance to sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin, and LA (pMS71). Plasmids pMS49 and pMS71 were transferred to E. coli K-12 711 and from this strain to E. coli K-12 J53. Curing with acridine orange of an Apr LA+ transconjugant showed that both characteristics were lost simultaneously. The plasmids have a molecular weight of approximately 55 X 10(6) and are the first naturally recombinant plasmids coding for adherence and drug resistance described in enteropathogenic E. coli. Images PMID:3510986

  14. Deposition, Characterization, and Enhanced Adherence of Escherichia coli Bacteria on Flame-Sprayed Photocatalytic Titania-Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Jing; Ding, Siyue; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Jianhui; Li, Hua

    2013-08-01

    Nanostructured titania has been extensively investigated as photocatalytic material and is capable of killing bacteria attached on its surface. The persistent challenge yet is how to effectively promote adhesion of bacteria on its surface for consequent extermination. The study presented here deals with liquid flame-sprayed nanostructured titania-hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Addition of HA alleviated phase transformation of titania from anatase to rutile during the coating deposition, reducing rutile to anatase ratio from 9.58 to 1.99%, and precluded effectively aggregation of the nano titania particles in the as-sprayed coatings. Adherence of Escherichia coli bacteria on the coatings showed significant dependence on content of HA, and the increased HA content resulted in enhanced attachment of the bacteria. Examination of the photocatalytic activity of the coatings through decomposition of methylene blue dye in water revealed that addition of HA did not markedly deteriorate the photocatalytic performances of the coatings. The coatings consisting of 10 wt.% HA showed the best photocatalytic activity, which is comparable to that exhibited by immobilized Degussa P25 coatings. The unambiguous evidence provided in this study suggests that the coatings made from combination of biocompatible HA and photocatalytic nano titania have great potential for antibacterium applications.

  15. Organization of Biogenesis Genes for Aggregative Adherence Fimbria II Defines a Virulence Gene Cluster in Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Waldir P.; Czeczulin, John R.; Henderson, Ian R.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.; Nataro, James P.

    1999-01-01

    Several virulence-related genes have been described for prototype enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042, which has been shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers. Among these factors are the enterotoxins Pet and EAST and the fimbrial antigen aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II), all of which are encoded on the 65-MDa virulence plasmid pAA2. Using nucleotide sequence analysis and insertional mutagenesis, we have found that the genes required for the expression of each of these factors, as well as the transcriptional activator of fimbrial expression AggR, map to a distinct cluster on the pAA2 plasmid map. The cluster is 23 kb in length and includes two regions required for expression of the AAF/II fimbria. These fimbrial biogenesis genes feature a unique organization in which the chaperone, subunit, and transcriptional activator lie in one cluster, whereas the second, unlinked cluster comprises a silent chaperone gene, usher, and invasin reminiscent of Dr family fimbrial clusters. This plasmid-borne virulence locus may represent an important set of virulence determinants in EAEC strains. PMID:10074069

  16. Adherence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to Human Epithelial Cells: The Role of Intimin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-28

    Typhlocolltlsd genotype· adherence" LAlFAS + NA LAlFAS NAIweak DAIweak FAS· 118 Intimate bacterial adherence and NE lesions, as described by Staley...Additionally, two independent TnphoA mutants of EHEC strain CL-8 (0157:H7) were isolated and found deficient in bacterial factors necessary for NE lesion...intestinal NE lesions in gnotobiotic piglets. In vitro attachment and in vivo lesion formation by 86-24eaeMO was fully restored by a clone of EHEC 86-24

  17. Adherence of curli producing Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli to baby spinach leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellular appendages, such as curli fibers have been suggested to be involved in STEC persistence in fresh produce as these curli are critical in biofilm formation and adherence to animal cells. We determined the role of curli in attachment of STEC on spinach leaves. The curli expression by wild-ty...

  18. Mucosally-directed adrenergic nerves and sympathomimetic drugs enhance non-intimate adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to porcine cecum and colon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunsheng; Lyte, Mark; Stevens, Mark P.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been found to increase mucosal adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in explants of murine cecum and porcine distal colon. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that norepinephrine augments the initial, loose adherence of this important pathogen to the intestinal mucosa. In mucosal sheets of porcine cecum or proximal, spiral and distal colon mounted in Ussing chambers, norepinephrine (10 µM, contraluminal addition) increased mucosal adherence of wild-type E. coli O157:H7 strain 85–170; in the cecal mucosa, this effect occurred within 15 – 90 min after bacterial inoculation. In addition, norepinephrine transiently increased short-circuit current in cecal and colonic mucosal sheets, a measure of active anion transport. Norepinephrine was effective in promoting cecal adherence of a non-O157 E. coli strain as well as E. coli O157:H7 eae or espA mutant strains that are incapable of intimate mucosal attachment. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for the norepinephrine synthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase appeared in close proximity to the cecal epithelium, and the norepinephrine reuptake blocker cocaine, like norepinephrine and the selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist UK-14,304, increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence. These results suggest that norepinephrine, acting upon the large bowel mucosa, modulates early, non-intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 and probably other mucosa-associated bacteria. Sympathetic nerves innervating the cecocolonic mucosa may link acute stress exposure or psychostimulant abuse with an increased microbial colonization of the intestinal surface. This in turn may alter host susceptibility to enteric infections. PMID:16687138

  19. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Attila; Xu, Yunfeng; Bauchan, Gary R; Shelton, Daniel R; Nou, Xiangwu

    2016-07-16

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolated during the 2011 European outbreak expresses Shiga toxin 2a and possess virulence genes associated with the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) pathotype. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga-toxin adsorption, but it is not clear whether the AAF/I fimbriae are involved in the colonization and biofilm formation on food and environmental matrices such as the surface of fresh produce. We deleted the gene encoding for the AAF/I fimbriae main subunit (AggA) from an outbreak associated E. coli O104:H4 strain, and evaluated the role of AAF/I fimbriae in the adherence and colonization of E. coli O104:H4 to spinach and abiotic surfaces. The deletion of aggA did not affect the adherence of E. coli O104:H4 to these surfaces. However, it severely diminished the colonization and biofilm formation of E. coli O104:H4 on these surfaces. Strong aggregation and biofilm formation on spinach and abiotic surfaces were observed with the wild type strain but not the isogenic aggA deletion mutant, suggesting that AAF/I fimbriae play a crucial role in persistence of O104:H4 cells outside of the intestines of host species, such as on the surface of fresh produce.

  20. Feeding the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium Strain NCIMB 10415 to Piglets Specifically Reduces the Number of Escherichia coli Pathotypes That Adhere to the Gut Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Sebastian; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Pieper, Robert; Hartmann, Susanne; Tedin, Karsten; Semmler, Torsten; Neumann, Konrad; Schierack, Peter; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2013-01-01

    Feed supplementation with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium for piglets has been found to reduce pathogenic gut microorganisms. Since Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production, we performed comprehensive analyses to gain further insight into the influence of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 on porcine intestinal E. coli. A total of 1,436 E. coli strains were isolated from three intestinal habitats (mucosa, digesta, and feces) of probiotic-supplemented and nonsupplemented (control) piglets. E. coli bacteria were characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clonal analysis. The high diversity of E. coli was reflected by 168 clones. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the phylogenetic backgrounds, revealing 79 sequence types (STs). Pathotypes of E. coli were further defined using multiplex PCR for virulence-associated genes. While these analyses discerned only a few significant differences in the E. coli population between the feeding groups, analyses distinguishing clones that were uniquely isolated in either the probiotic group only, the control group only, or both groups (shared group) revealed clear effects at the habitat level. Interestingly, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-typical clones adhering to the mucosa were significantly reduced in the probiotic group. Our data show a minor influence of E. faecium on the overall population of E. coli in healthy piglets. In contrast, this probiotic has a profound effect on mucosa-adherent E. coli. This finding further substantiates a specific effect of E. faecium strain NCIMB 10415 in piglets against pathogenic E. coli in the intestine. In addition, these data question the relevance of data based on sampling fecal E. coli only. PMID:24123741

  1. Feeding the probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain NCIMB 10415 to piglets specifically reduces the number of Escherichia coli pathotypes that adhere to the gut mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bednorz, Carmen; Guenther, Sebastian; Oelgeschläger, Kathrin; Kinnemann, Bianca; Pieper, Robert; Hartmann, Susanne; Tedin, Karsten; Semmler, Torsten; Neumann, Konrad; Schierack, Peter; Bethe, Astrid; Wieler, Lothar H

    2013-12-01

    Feed supplementation with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium for piglets has been found to reduce pathogenic gut microorganisms. Since Escherichia coli is among the most important pathogens in pig production, we performed comprehensive analyses to gain further insight into the influence of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 on porcine intestinal E. coli. A total of 1,436 E. coli strains were isolated from three intestinal habitats (mucosa, digesta, and feces) of probiotic-supplemented and nonsupplemented (control) piglets. E. coli bacteria were characterized via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clonal analysis. The high diversity of E. coli was reflected by 168 clones. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to determine the phylogenetic backgrounds, revealing 79 sequence types (STs). Pathotypes of E. coli were further defined using multiplex PCR for virulence-associated genes. While these analyses discerned only a few significant differences in the E. coli population between the feeding groups, analyses distinguishing clones that were uniquely isolated in either the probiotic group only, the control group only, or both groups (shared group) revealed clear effects at the habitat level. Interestingly, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-typical clones adhering to the mucosa were significantly reduced in the probiotic group. Our data show a minor influence of E. faecium on the overall population of E. coli in healthy piglets. In contrast, this probiotic has a profound effect on mucosa-adherent E. coli. This finding further substantiates a specific effect of E. faecium strain NCIMB 10415 in piglets against pathogenic E. coli in the intestine. In addition, these data question the relevance of data based on sampling fecal E. coli only.

  2. HEp-2 Cell-Adherent Escherichia coli and Intestinal Secretory Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Outpatients with HIV-Associated Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, John J.; Salameh, Bassam M.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Jiang, Zhi D.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Arduino, Roberto; Smith, Melinda A.; Masozera, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself have recently been incriminated as causes of chronic HIV-associated diarrhea. This study sought to determine the prevalence of these two agents among HIV-infected patients with diarrhea in an outpatient setting in the United States and to compare their prevalence to that of other commonly recognized enteropathogens known to be present in this population. HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli was found in 20 of 83 (24.1%) patients with diarrhea. A diffuse pattern of adherence was the most common, found in 14 of 20 (70%) patients, followed by a localized adherence pattern (6 of 20; 30%). An intestinal secretory immune response against the p24 antigen of HIV was found in 9 of 34 (27.5%) patients with HIV-associated diarrhea. The following pathogens or products were also detected in lower frequencies: Cryptosporidium spp. (10.8%), Clostridium difficile toxin (8.8%), microsporidia (6%), Isospora belli (3.6%), Blastocystis hominis (2.4%), Giardia spp. (1.2%), Salmonella spp. (1.2%), and Mycobacterium spp. (1.2%). The role of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli and HIV enteric infections in patients with HIV-associated diarrhea deserves further study. PMID:9455887

  3. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli is stimulated by synergistic interactions and co-adhesion mechanisms with adherence-proficient bacteria.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Marie-Hélène; van der Schaaf, Saskia; Koester, Wolfgang; Krooneman, Janneke; van der Meer, Walter; Harmsen, Hermie; Landini, Paolo

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory strains of Escherichia coli do not show significant ability to attach to solid surfaces and to form biofilms. We compared the adhesion properties of the E. coli PHL565 laboratory strain to eight environmental E. coli isolates: only four isolates displayed adhesion properties to glass significantly higher than PHL565. The ability of the adhesion-proficient isolates to attach to glass tubes strongly correlated with their ability to express curli (thin aggregative fimbriae), thus suggesting that curli are a common adhesion determinant in environmental strains. Despite its inability to attach to solid surfaces, growth of E. coli PHL565 in mixed cultures with Pseudomonas putida MT2 resulted in co-adhesion and in formation of a mixed E. coli/P. putida biofilm, which was able to colonize glass surfaces with dramatic efficiency compared to P. putida alone. E. coli/P. putida interactions stimulate initial adhesion to glass, and the presence of both bacterial species in the mature biofilm was confirmed by quantitative PCR. In contrast, no synergistic biofilm formation was observed in mixed cultures of E. coli with the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis. Interestingly, E. coli PHL565 also stimulated biofilm formation by bacterial communities isolated from drinking water distribution systems. Our results strongly suggest that co-adhesion and synergistic interaction with biofilm-forming species might represent an important mechanism, and a possible alternative strategy to production of adhesion determinants, for persistence and propagation of E. coli in the environment.

  4. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and diffusely adherent E. coli as likely causes of a proportion of pathogen-negative travelers' diarrhea--a PCR-based study.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail M; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Ericsson, Charles D; Bourgeois, A Louis; Steffen, Robert; Taylor, David N; Hernandez, Norma; DuPont, Herbert L

    2008-01-01

    Enteropathogens cannot be identified in 40% to 50% of subjects with travelers' diarrhea (TD). We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to look for the presence of two bacterial causes of diarrhea in a large group of international travelers after failing to detect a pathogen by conventional tests. DNA was isolated from the diarrheal stool and subjected to PCR from 162 subjects from whom we earlier failed to identify a pathogen in a previous study and included 54 from Antigua, Guatemala, 39 from Guadalajara, Mexico, 29 from Kolkata, India, and 40 from Goa, India. Gene products for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)--LT (heat-labile enterotoxin) and ST (heat-stable enterotoxin)--and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), afa/dr (Afa fimbrial and Dr nonfimbrial family of adhesins), were used. At least one gene product was identified in diarrhea stool samples of 47 of 162 (29%) subjects. ETEC virulence genes (LT, ST) were found in 34 (21%) samples studied, with rates of occurrence ranging from 8% in Goa to 39% for the samples from Guatemala (p = 0.0006). A large number of ST-only strains explained the high ETEC rate in Guatemala. DAEC afa/dr family of adhesions was identified in between 8 and 14% of the samples. ETEC and DAEC were implicated in nearly one-third of the subjects initially diagnosed as pathogen negative. Direct PCR results from stools are consistent with the previous assumption that most undiagnosed TD is bacterial in nature and also highlights the potential value that PCR can add to studies designed to evaluate treatment and preventive interventions for TD, including vaccines.

  5. Proteins other than the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-encoded proteins may contribute to Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence to bovine rectoanal junction stratified squamous epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the Type III Secretion System (TTSS) proteins considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to the follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), did not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to the RAJ squamous epithelial (RSE) ...

  6. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  7. Adherence of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli to Bovine Recto-anal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells Appears to Be Mediated by Mechanisms Distinct from Those Used by O157

    PubMed Central

    Hovde, Carolyn J.; John, Manohar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study presents evidence that the pattern (diffuse or aggregative) of adherence of clinically relevant non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells is similar to that of E. coli O157, although the mechanisms of adherence appear to be distinct. Our results further suggest that novel adhesins, and not Intimin, are likely involved in non-O157 STEC adherence to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial cells. These findings have important implications for the development of efficacious modalities for blocking adherence of non-O157 STEC to bovine gastrointestinal epithelial cells. PMID:23510495

  8. [Virulence mechanisms of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, Ana Elvira; Ariza-Rojas, Sandra Catherine; Vargas-Cárdenas, Fabiola Andrea; Vargas-Remolina, Lizeth Viviana

    2016-08-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E. coli called enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and diffusely-adherent E. coli (DAEC). A final pathotype, adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) associated with Crohn's disease was also reviewed. The diarrheagenic pathotypes of E. coli affect different population groups and knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction with the human is important to guide research towards the development of vaccines and new tools for diagnosis and control.

  9. Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Escherichia coli, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract of humans and a variety of animals. E. coli strains are classified on the basis of antigenic differences in two surface components (serotyping), the somatic antigen (O) of the lipopoly...

  10. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  11. Curli Temper Adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to Squamous Epithelial Cells from the Bovine Recto-Anal Junction in a Strain-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Indira T; Carter, Michelle Q; Sharma, Vijay K; Stasko, Judith A; Giron, Jorge A

    2017-01-01

    Our recent studies have shown that intimin and the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded proteins do not play a role in Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) adherence to the bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells. To define factors that play a contributory role, we investigated the role of curli, fimbrial adhesins commonly implicated in adherence to various fomites and plant and human epithelial cells, in O157 adherence to RSE cells. Specifically, we examined (i) wild-type strains of O157; (ii) curli variants of O157 strains; (iii) isogenic curli deletion mutants of O157; and (iv) adherence inhibition of O157 using anti-curlin sera. Results of these experiments conducted under stringent conditions suggest that curli do not solely contribute to O157 adherence to RSE cells and in fact demonstrate a modulating effect on O157 adherence to RSE cells in contrast to HEp-2 cells (human epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx cells with HeLa contamination). The absence of curli and presence of blocking anti-curli antibodies enhanced O157-RSE cell interactions among some strains, thus alluding to a spatial, tempering effect of curli on O157 adherence to RSE cells when present. At the same time, the presence or absence of curli did not alter RSE cell adherence patterns of another O157 strain. These observations are at variance with the reported role of curli in O157 adherence to human cell lines such as HEp-2 and need to be factored in when developing anti-adherence modalities for preharvest control of O157 in cattle. This study demonstrated that O157 strains interact with epithelial cells in a host-specific manner. The fimbriae/adhesins that are significant for adherence to human cell lines may not have a role or may have a modulating role in O157 adherence to bovine cells. Targeting such adhesins may not prevent O157 attachment to bovine cells but instead may result in improved adherence. Hence, conducting host-specific evaluations is critical when selecting

  12. Curli Temper Adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to Squamous Epithelial Cells from the Bovine Recto-Anal Junction in a Strain-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michelle Q.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Stasko, Judith A.; Giron, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our recent studies have shown that intimin and the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded proteins do not play a role in Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) adherence to the bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells. To define factors that play a contributory role, we investigated the role of curli, fimbrial adhesins commonly implicated in adherence to various fomites and plant and human epithelial cells, in O157 adherence to RSE cells. Specifically, we examined (i) wild-type strains of O157; (ii) curli variants of O157 strains; (iii) isogenic curli deletion mutants of O157; and (iv) adherence inhibition of O157 using anti-curlin sera. Results of these experiments conducted under stringent conditions suggest that curli do not solely contribute to O157 adherence to RSE cells and in fact demonstrate a modulating effect on O157 adherence to RSE cells in contrast to HEp-2 cells (human epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx cells with HeLa contamination). The absence of curli and presence of blocking anti-curli antibodies enhanced O157-RSE cell interactions among some strains, thus alluding to a spatial, tempering effect of curli on O157 adherence to RSE cells when present. At the same time, the presence or absence of curli did not alter RSE cell adherence patterns of another O157 strain. These observations are at variance with the reported role of curli in O157 adherence to human cell lines such as HEp-2 and need to be factored in when developing anti-adherence modalities for preharvest control of O157 in cattle. IMPORTANCE This study demonstrated that O157 strains interact with epithelial cells in a host-specific manner. The fimbriae/adhesins that are significant for adherence to human cell lines may not have a role or may have a modulating role in O157 adherence to bovine cells. Targeting such adhesins may not prevent O157 attachment to bovine cells but instead may result in improved adherence. Hence, conducting host-specific evaluations is critical

  13. Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2015-02-24

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.

  14. Isolation, phylogenetic group, drug resistance, biofilm formation, and adherence genes of Escherichia coli from poultry in central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yi, Li; Wang, Yuxin; Wang, Yuanguo; Cai, Ying; Zhao, Wenpeng; Ding, Chan

    2016-12-01

    The isolation and identification, genetic typing, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm formation of avian Escherichia coli in central China was studied. A total of 256 isolates of E. coli were obtained, and classified into groups: A (50.78%, 130/256), B1 (11.72%, 30/256), B2 (17.58%, 45/256), and D (19.92%, 51/256). Drug susceptibility testing revealed that the strains showed a high drug resistance rate against penicillin, aztreonam, rifampicin, kanamycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin, with 92.19% of strains exhibiting multi-drug resistance. A biofilm assay revealed that 81.64% of isolates could form biofilms. Of the total isolates, 25.39% of isolates showed strong biofilm-formation ability, 31.25% showed moderate biofilm-formation ability, 28.90% showed weak biofilm-formation ability, and 18.36% were unable to form biofilms. Most adhesion-associated genes were distributed among 5 or 8 genes in strong biofilm-forming ability isolates. However, adhesion-associated genes distributed among 1 or 4 genes were found in weak biofilm-forming ability isolates and non-ability isolates. The results showed a high drug resistance rate and biofilm formation ability in E.coli strains isolated from poultry. The isolates which have strong biofilm-forming ability were mostly belong to pathogenic E. coli (B2, D). Furthermore, it was the first report to demonstrate a positive correlation between adhesion-encoding genes and biofilms phenotype.

  15. Escherichia coli biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Beloin, Christophe; Roux, Agnès; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a predominant species among facultative anaerobic bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. Both its frequent community lifestyle and the availability of a wide array of genetic tools contributed to establish E. coli as a relevant model organism for the study of surface colonization. Several key factors, including different extracellular appendages, are implicated in E. coli surface colonization and their expression and activity are finely regulated, both in space and time, to ensure productive events leading to mature biofilm formation. This chapter will present known molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm development in both commensal and pathogenic E. coli. PMID:18453280

  16. Contributions of EspA Filaments and Curli Fimbriae in Cellular Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vijay K.; Kudva, Indira T.; Bearson, Bradley L.; Stasko, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the filamentous structure of the type III secretion system is produced from the polymerization of the EspA protein. EspA filaments are essential for O157 adherence to epithelial cells. In previous studies, we demonstrated that O157 hha deletion mutants showed increased adherence to HEp-2 cells and produced abundant biofilms. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of espA as well as the csgA gene, which encodes curli fimbriae that are essential for biofilm formation. In the present study, we constructed hha espA, hha csgA, and hha csgA espA deletion mutants to determine the relative importance of EspA and CsgA in O157 adherence to HEp-2 cells and biofilm formation. In vitro adherence assays, conducted at 37°C in a tissue culture medium containing 0.1% glucose, showed that HEp-2 cell adherence required EspA because hha espA and hha csgA espA mutants adhered to HEp-2 cells at higher levels only when complemented with an espA-expressing plasmid. Biofilm assays performed at 28°C in a medium lacking glucose showed dependency of biofilm formation on CsgA; however EspA was not produced under these conditions. Despite production of detectable levels of EspA at 37°C in media supplemented with 0.1% glucose, the biofilm formation occurred independent of EspA. These results indicate dependency of O157 adherence to epithelial cells on EspA filaments, while CsgA promoted biofilm formation under conditions mimicking those found in the environment (low temperature with nutrient limitations) and in the digestive tract of an host animal (higher temperature and low levels of glucose). PMID:26900701

  17. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains that persist in feedlot cattle are genetically related and demonstrate an enhanced ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Brandon A; Nightingale, Kendra K; Mason, Gary L; Ruby, John R; Choat, W Travis; Loneragan, Guy H; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N; Belk, Keith E

    2009-09-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the nature of Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of feedlot cattle over the final 100 to 110 days of finishing. Rectal fecal grab samples were collected from an initial sample population of 788 steers every 20 to 22 days and microbiologically analyzed to detect E. coli O157:H7. The identities of presumptive colonies were confirmed using a multiplex PCR assay that screened for gene fragments unique to E. coli O157:H7 (rfbE and fliC(h7)) and other key virulence genes (eae, stx(1), and stx(2)). Animals were classified as having persistent shedding (PS), transient shedding (TS), or nonshedding (NS) status if they consecutively shed the same E. coli O157:H7 genotype (based on the multiplex PCR profile), exhibited variable E. coli O157 shedding, or never shed morphologically typical E. coli O157, respectively. Overall, 1.0% and 1.4% of steers were classified as PS and NS animals, respectively. Characterization of 132 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from PS and TS animals by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing yielded 32 unique PFGE types. One predominant PFGE type accounted for 53% of all isolates characterized and persisted in cattle throughout the study. Isolates belonging to this predominant and persistent PFGE type demonstrated an enhanced (P < 0.0001) ability to adhere to Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells compared to isolates belonging to less common PFGE types but exhibited equal virulence expression. Interestingly, the attachment efficacy decreased as the genetic divergence from the predominant and persistent subtype increased. Our data support the hypothesis that certain E. coli O157:H7 strains persist in feedlot cattle, which may be partially explained by an enhanced ability to colonize the intestinal epithelium.

  18. Distribution and phylogeny of immunoglobulin-binding protein G in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and its association with adherence phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Viktor; Ohder, Barbara; Bielaszewska, Martina; Zhang, Wenlan; Fruth, Angelika; Menge, Christian; Borrmann, Erika; Middendorf, Barbara; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2010-08-01

    eibG in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O91 encodes a protein (EibG) which binds human immunoglobulins G and A and contributes to bacterial chain-like adherence to human epithelial cells. We investigated the prevalence of eibG among STEC, the phylogeny of eibG, and eibG allelic variations and their impact on the adherence phenotype. eibG was found in 15.0% of 240 eae-negative STEC strains but in none of 157 eae-positive STEC strains. The 36 eibG-positive STEC strains belonged to 14 serotypes and to eight multilocus sequence types (STs), with serotype O91:H14/H(-) and ST33 being the most common. Sequences of the complete eibG gene (1,527 bp in size) from eibG-positive STEC resulted in 21 different alleles with 88.11% to 100% identity to the previously reported eibG sequence; they clustered into three eibG subtypes (eibG-alpha, eibG-beta, and eibG-gamma). Strains expressing EibG-alpha and EibG-beta displayed a mostly typical chain-like adherence pattern (CLAP), with formation of long chains on both human and bovine intestinal epithelial cells, whereas strains with EibG-gamma adhered in short chains, a pattern we termed atypical CLAP. The same adherence phenotypes were displayed by E. coli BL21(DE3) clones containing the respective eibG-alpha, eibG-beta, and eibG-gamma subtypes. We propose two possible evolutionary scenarios for eibG in STEC: a clonal development of eibG in strains with the same phylogenetic background or horizontal transfer of eibG between phylogenetically unrelated STEC strains.

  19. Identification of Cell Surface-Exposed Proteins Involved in the Fimbria-Mediated Adherence of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Mariana; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Nava-Acosta, Raul; Nataro, James P.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Fimbria-mediated adherence to the intestinal epithelia is a key step in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis. To date, four fimbriae have been described for EAEC; aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor for EAEC prototype strain 042. Previously, we described results showing that extracellular matrix (ECM) components might be involved in the recognition of AAF/II fimbriae by intestinal cells. In this study, we sought to identify novel potential receptors on intestinal epithelial cells recognized by the AAF/II fimbriae. Purified AafA-dsc protein, the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae, was incubated with a monolayer of T84 cells, cross-linked to the surface-exposed T84 cell proteins, and immunoprecipitated by using anti-AafA antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of cellular proteins bound to AafA-dsc protein identified laminin (previously recognized as a potential receptor for AAF/II) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8). Involvement of the major subunit of AAF/II fimbriae (AafA protein) in the binding to recombinant CK8 was confirmed by adherence assays with purified AAF/II fimbriae, AafA-dsc protein, and strain 042. Moreover, HEp-2 cells transfected with CK8 small interfering RNA (siRNA) showed reduced 042 adherence compared with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA as a control. Adherence of 042 to HEp-2 cells preincubated with antibodies against ECM proteins or CK8 was substantially reduced. Altogether, our results supported the idea of a role of CK8 as a potential receptor for EAEC. PMID:24516112

  20. Dissection of the Role of Pili and Type 2 and 3 Secretion Systems in Adherence and Biofilm Formation of an Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Rodrigo T.; De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Yamamoto, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains are diarrheal pathogens that lack bundle-forming pilus production but possess the virulence-associated locus of enterocyte effacement. aEPEC strain 1551-2 produces localized adherence (LA) on HeLa cells; however, its isogenic intimin (eae) mutant produces a diffuse-adherence (DA) pattern. In this study, we aimed to identify the DA-associated adhesin of the 1551-2 eae mutant. Electron microscopy of 1551-2 identified rigid rod-like pili composed of an 18-kDa protein, which was identified as the major pilin subunit of type 1 pilus (T1P) by mass spectrometry analysis. Deletion of fimA in 1551-2 affected biofilm formation but had no effect on adherence properties. Analysis of secreted proteins in supernatants of this strain identified a 150-kDa protein corresponding to SslE, a type 2 secreted protein that was recently reported to be involved in biofilm formation of rabbit and human EPEC strains. However, neither adherence nor biofilm formation was affected in a 1551-2 sslE mutant. We then investigated the role of the EspA filament associated with the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) in DA by generating a double eae espA mutant. This strain was no longer adherent, strongly suggesting that the T3SS translocon is the DA adhesin. In agreement with these results, specific anti-EspA antibodies blocked adherence of the 1551-2 eae mutant. Our data support a role for intimin in LA, for the T3SS translocon in DA, and for T1P in biofilm formation, all of which may act in concert to facilitate host intestinal colonization by aEPEC strains. PMID:23897608

  1. Point Mutations in FimH Adhesin of Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Enhance Intestinal Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Dreux, Nicolas; Denizot, Jérémy; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Mellmann, Alexander; Billig, Maria; Kisiela, Dagmara; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Neut, Christel; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bonnet, Richard; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Barnich, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are abnormally predominant on Crohn's disease (CD) ileal mucosa. AIEC reference strain LF82 adheres to ileal enterocytes via the common type 1 pili adhesin FimH and recognizes CEACAM6 receptors abnormally expressed on CD ileal epithelial cells. The fimH genes of 45 AIEC and 47 non-AIEC strains were sequenced. The phylogenetic tree based on fimH DNA sequences indicated that AIEC strains predominantly express FimH with amino acid mutations of a recent evolutionary origin - a typical signature of pathoadaptive changes of bacterial pathogens. Point mutations in FimH, some of a unique AIEC-associated nature, confer AIEC bacteria a significantly higher ability to adhere to CEACAM-expressing T84 intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, in the LF82 strain, the replacement of fimHLF82 (expressing FimH with an AIEC-associated mutation) with fimHK12 (expressing FimH of commensal E. coli K12) decreased the ability of bacteria to persist and to induce severe colitis and gut inflammation in infected CEABAC10 transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM receptors. Our results highlight a mechanism of AIEC virulence evolution that involves selection of amino acid mutations in the common bacterial traits, such as FimH protein, and leads to the development of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a genetically susceptible host. The analysis of fimH SNPs may be a useful method to predict the potential virulence of E. coli isolated from IBD patients for diagnostic or epidemiological studies and to identify new strategies for therapeutic intervention to block the interaction between AIEC and gut mucosa in the early stages of IBD. PMID:23358328

  2. Synergistic role of curli and cellulose in cell adherence and biofilm formation of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli and identification of Fis as a negative regulator of curli

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Zeus; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Avelino, Fabiola; Phillips, Alan D.; Kaper, James B.; Puente, José L.; Girón, Jorge A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Curli are adhesive fimbriae of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Expression of curli (csgA) and cellulose (bcsA) is co-activated by the transcriptional activator CsgD. In this study, we investigated the contribution of curli and cellulose to the adhesive properties of enterohemorragic (EHEC) O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O127:H6. While single mutations in csgA, csgD, or bcsA in EPEC and EHEC had no dramatic effect on cell adherence, double csgAbcsA mutants were significantly less adherent than the single mutants or wild-type strains to human colonic HT-29 epithelial cells or to cow colon tissue in vitro. Over-expression of csgD (carried on plasmid pCP994) in a csgD mutant, but not in the single csgA or bscA mutants, led to significant increase in adherence and biofilm formation in EPEC and EHEC, suggesting that synchronized over-production of curli and cellulose enhances bacterial adherence. In line with this finding, csgD transcription was activated significantly in the presence of cultured epithelial cells as compared to growth in tissue culture medium. Analysis of the influence of virulence and global regulators in the production of curli in EPEC identified Fis (factor for inversion stimulation) as a, heretofore unrecognized, negative transcriptional regulator of csgA expression. An EPEC E2348/69Δfis produced abundant amounts of curli whereas a double fiscsgD mutant yielded no detectable curli production. Our data suggest that curli and cellulose act in concert to favor host colonization, biofilm formation, and survival in different environments. PMID:19187284

  3. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tânia A T; Elias, Waldir P; Scaletsky, Isabel C A; Guth, Beatriz E C; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Luís C S; Martinez, Marina B

    2016-12-01

    Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. The Adherent/Invasive Escherichia coli Strain LF82 Invades and Persists in Human Prostate Cell Line RWPE-1, Activating a Strong Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Aleandri, Marta; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Conte, Antonietta L.; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Gambara, Guido; Palombi, Fioretta; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Palamara, Anna T.; Riccioli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains have recently been receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli (NMEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 would be able to infect prostate cells as an extraintestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line. The results obtained indicated that LF82 and EC73 are able to adhere to, invade, and survive within prostate epithelial cells. Invasion was confirmed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Moreover, cytochalasin D and colchicine strongly inhibited bacterial uptake of both strains, indicating the involvement of actin microfilaments and microtubules in host cell invasion. Moreover, both strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are strong biofilm producers. In silico analysis reveals that LF82 shares with UPEC strains several virulence factors: namely, type 1 pili, the group II capsule, the vacuolating autotransporter toxin, four iron uptake systems, and the pathogenic island (PAI). Furthermore, compared to EC73, LF82 induces in RWPE-1 cells a marked increase of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and of NF-κB already by 5 min postinfection, thus inducing a strong inflammatory response. Our in vitro data support the hypothesis that AIEC strains might play a role in prostatitis, and, by exploiting host-cell signaling pathways controlling the innate immune response, likely facilitate bacterial multiplication and dissemination within the male genitourinary tract. PMID:27600504

  5. The Adherent/Invasive Escherichia coli Strain LF82 Invades and Persists in Human Prostate Cell Line RWPE-1, Activating a Strong Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Conte, Maria P; Aleandri, Marta; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Conte, Antonietta L; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Gambara, Guido; Palombi, Fioretta; De Cesaris, Paola; Ziparo, Elio; Palamara, Anna T; Riccioli, Anna; Longhi, Catia

    2016-11-01

    Adherent/invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strains have recently been receiving increased attention because they are more prevalent and persistent in the intestine of Crohn's disease (CD) patients than in healthy subjects. Since AIEC strains show a high percentage of similarity to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli (NMEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, here we compared AIEC strain LF82 with a UPEC isolate (strain EC73) to assess whether LF82 would be able to infect prostate cells as an extraintestinal target. The virulence phenotypes of both strains were determined by using the RWPE-1 prostate cell line. The results obtained indicated that LF82 and EC73 are able to adhere to, invade, and survive within prostate epithelial cells. Invasion was confirmed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Moreover, cytochalasin D and colchicine strongly inhibited bacterial uptake of both strains, indicating the involvement of actin microfilaments and microtubules in host cell invasion. Moreover, both strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are strong biofilm producers. In silico analysis reveals that LF82 shares with UPEC strains several virulence factors: namely, type 1 pili, the group II capsule, the vacuolating autotransporter toxin, four iron uptake systems, and the pathogenic island (PAI). Furthermore, compared to EC73, LF82 induces in RWPE-1 cells a marked increase of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and of NF-κB already by 5 min postinfection, thus inducing a strong inflammatory response. Our in vitro data support the hypothesis that AIEC strains might play a role in prostatitis, and, by exploiting host-cell signaling pathways controlling the innate immune response, likely facilitate bacterial multiplication and dissemination within the male genitourinary tract.

  6. Proteins other than the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded proteins contribute to Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence to bovine rectoanal junction stratified squamous epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Indira T; Griffin, Robert W; Krastins, Bryan; Sarracino, David A; Calderwood, Stephen B; John, Manohar

    2012-06-12

    In this study, we present evidence that proteins encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE), considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), do not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to squamous epithelial (RSE) cells also constituting this primary site of O157 colonization in cattle. Antisera targeting intimin-γ, the primary O157 adhesin, and other essential LEE proteins failed to block O157 adherence to RSE cells, when this pathogen was grown in DMEM, a culture medium that enhances expression of LEE proteins. In addition, RSE adherence of a DMEM-grown-O157 mutant lacking the intimin protein was comparable to that seen with its wild-type parent O157 strain grown in the same media. These adherence patterns were in complete contrast to that observed with HEp-2 cells (the adherence to which is mediated by intimin-γ), assayed under same conditions. This suggested that proteins other than intimin-γ that contribute to adherence to RSE cells are expressed by this pathogen during growth in DMEM. To identify such proteins, we defined the proteome of DMEM-grown-O157 (DMEM-proteome). GeLC-MS/MS revealed that the O157 DMEM-proteome comprised 684 proteins including several components of the cattle and human O157 immunome, orthologs of adhesins, hypothetical secreted and outer membrane proteins, in addition to the known virulence and LEE proteins. Bioinformatics-based analysis of the components of the O157 DMEM proteome revealed several new O157-specific proteins with adhesin potential. Proteins other than LEE and intimin-γ proteins are involved in O157 adherence to RSE cells at the bovine RAJ. Such proteins, with adhesin potential, are expressed by this human pathogen during growth in DMEM. Ongoing experiments to evaluate their role in RSE adherence should provide both valuable insights into the O157-RSE interactions and new targets for more efficacious anti

  7. Proteins other than the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded proteins contribute to Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence to bovine rectoanal junction stratified squamous epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we present evidence that proteins encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE), considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), do not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to squamous epithelial (RSE) cells also constituting this primary site of O157 colonization in cattle. Results Antisera targeting intimin-γ, the primary O157 adhesin, and other essential LEE proteins failed to block O157 adherence to RSE cells, when this pathogen was grown in DMEM, a culture medium that enhances expression of LEE proteins. In addition, RSE adherence of a DMEM-grown-O157 mutant lacking the intimin protein was comparable to that seen with its wild-type parent O157 strain grown in the same media. These adherence patterns were in complete contrast to that observed with HEp-2 cells (the adherence to which is mediated by intimin-γ), assayed under same conditions. This suggested that proteins other than intimin-γ that contribute to adherence to RSE cells are expressed by this pathogen during growth in DMEM. To identify such proteins, we defined the proteome of DMEM-grown-O157 (DMEM-proteome). GeLC-MS/MS revealed that the O157 DMEM-proteome comprised 684 proteins including several components of the cattle and human O157 immunome, orthologs of adhesins, hypothetical secreted and outer membrane proteins, in addition to the known virulence and LEE proteins. Bioinformatics-based analysis of the components of the O157 DMEM proteome revealed several new O157-specific proteins with adhesin potential. Conclusion Proteins other than LEE and intimin-γ proteins are involved in O157 adherence to RSE cells at the bovine RAJ. Such proteins, with adhesin potential, are expressed by this human pathogen during growth in DMEM. Ongoing experiments to evaluate their role in RSE adherence should provide both valuable insights into the O157-RSE interactions and new

  8. Inhibitory effects of α-cyperone on adherence and invasion of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Yan; Lv, Shuang; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Guo, Xun; Xia, Fang; Hu, Xi-Rou; Song, Zhou; Zhang, Cui; Qin, Qian-Qian; Fu, Ben-Dong; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin

    2014-05-15

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli, and usually cause avian septicemia through breaching the blood-gas barrier. Type II pneumocytes play an important role of maintaining the function of the blood-gas barrier. However, the mechanism of APEC injuring type II pneumocytes remains unclear. α-cyperone can inhibit lung cell injury induced by Staphylococcus aureus. In order to explore whether α-cyperone regulates the adherence and invasion of APEC-O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes, we successfully cultured chicken type II pneumocytes. The results showed that α-cyperone significantly decreased the adherence of APEC-O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes. In addition, α-cyperone inhibited actin cytoskeleton polymerization induced by APEC-O78 through down regulating the expression of Nck-2, Cdc42 and Rac1. These results provide new evidence for the prevention of colibacillosis in chicken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of adherence of Escherichia coli O103 enteropathogenic and/or enterohemorrhagic strain GV in enteric infection in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Licois, D; Reynaud, A; Federighi, M; Gaillard-Martinie, B; Guillot, J F; Joly, B

    1991-01-01

    The GV strain (serotype O103:H2:K-), originally isolated from a diarrheic rabbit, is an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain that produces diarrhea without synthesizing the classical enterotoxins and that is not invasive. This strain is characterized by a 117-kb plasmid (pREC-1). Histological study of the gut by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed on the GV strain, on a derivative strain cured of pREC-1, and on transconjugants obtained by transfer of pREC-1 to nonpathogenic strains E. coli K-12 and 6100, not belonging to the O103 serogroup. The GV strain adhered to the epithelial cells of the ileum and large intestine, whereas the cured GV strain did not. Transfer of plasmid pREC-1 to E. coli K-12 or 6100 allowed the bacteria to attach to the intestinal mucosa in the same manner as that of the wild-type GV strain. Thus, pREC-1 seems to play an important role in attachment to and colonization of the intestinal tract of rabbits by E. coli serogroup O103. Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous bacteria attached together and closely associated with intestinal villi. Transmission electron microscopy revealed effacing lesions characteristic of enteropathogenic E. coli strains: effacing of microvilli and cuplike projections (pedestal formations) associated with an acute inflammatory and hemorrhagic response. In contrast with the results reported for rabbit pathogenic O15 strains, it appeared that the Peyer's patches were not involved in the early stages of infection with the O103 GV strain. This strain may represent a model for the study of the virulence and pathogenic effects of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Images PMID:1894377

  10. Clinical Implications of Enteroadherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including non-intimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called “enteroadherent E. coli ” categories subsequently produced toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  11. Hyperadherence of an hha mutant of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is correlated with enhanced expression of LEE-encoded adherence genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vijay K; Carlson, Steven A; Casey, Thomas A

    2005-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 virulence factors, specifically those conferring intimate adherence to and formation of attaching and effacing lesions (A/E) on host cells, are encoded by a horizontally acquired locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Expression of several LEE-encoded genes, which are organized into operons LEE1 through LEE5, is under the positive regulation of ler, the first gene in the LEE1 operon. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC O157:H7 lacking hha exhibited greater than a 10-fold increase in ler expression and that the repression of ler results from the binding of Hha to the ler promoter. In this report, we show that an hha mutant of EHEC O157:H7 exhibited increased adherence to Hep-2 cells, had increased transcriptional activities of LEE1, LEE2, LEE3, and LEE5 as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, and expressed LEE5::lac transcriptional fusion at levels that were several-fold higher than that expressed by the parental hha+ strain. These results demonstrate that hha is an important regulatory component of the cascade that governs the expression of LEE operons and the resulting ability of EHEC O157:H7 to intimately adhere to host cells.

  12. Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC).

    PubMed

    Berger, Cedric N; Billker, Oliver; Meyer, Thomas F; Servin, Alain L; Kansau, Imad

    2004-05-01

    Little is known about the molecular bases underlying the virulence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring the Afa/Dr family of adhesins. These adhesins recognize as receptors the GPI-anchored proteins CD55 (decay-accelerating factor, DAF) and CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). CD66e is a member of the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) family, comprising seven members. We analysed the interactions of Afa/Dr DAEC with the CEACAMs using CEACAM-expressing CHO and HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that only E. coli expressing a subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, named here Afa/Dr-I, including Dr, F1845 and AfaE-III adhesins, bound onto CHO cells expressing CEACAM1, CEA or CEACAM6. Whereas all the Afa/Dr adhesins elicit recruitment of CD55 around adhering bacteria, only the Afa/Dr-I subfamily elicits the recruitment of CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6. In addition, although CEACAM3 is not recognized as a receptor by the subfamily of Afa/Dr adhesins, it is recruited around bacteria in HeLa cells. The recruited CEACAM1, CEA and CEACAM6 around adhering bacteria resist totally or in part a detergent extraction, whereas the recruited CEACAM3 does not. Finally, the results show that recognition of CEA and CEACAM6, but not CEACAM1, is accompanied by tight attachment to bacteria of cell surface microvilli-like extensions, which are elongated. Moreover, recognition of CEA is accompanied by an activation of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 and by a phosphorylation of ERM, which in turn elicit the observed cell surface microvilli-like extensions.

  13. The lpf Gene Cluster for Long Polar Fimbriae Is Not Involved in Adherence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli or Virulence of Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Mundy, Rosanna; Frankel, Gad; Chong, Yuwen; Phillips, Alan D.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Kaper, James B.

    2006-01-01

    Using the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) genome sequence, we found that EPEC E2348/69 has an lpfABCDE gene cluster homologous (about 60% identical at the protein level) to the Salmonella long polar fimbria (LPF) operon. To determine whether this operon is essential for adherence, the lpfABCDE23 genes were deleted from EPEC strain E2348/69 by allelic exchange. Analysis of the resulting EPECΔlpfABCDE23 strain showed no change in adherence to HeLa cells or to human intestinal biopsy cells in the in vitro organ culture (IVOC) system compared to the wild type. Sera from volunteers experimentally infected with E2348/69 showed no antibody response to the major subunit protein, LpfA. These results suggested that the lpfE23 gene cluster is not necessary for EPEC adherence and attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation on human biopsy samples and is not expressed during human infection. We also identified an lpf gene cluster in Citrobacter rodentium strain ICC168 (lpfcr). A ΔlpfAcr mutant of ICC168 retained wild-type adherence and A/E lesion-forming activity on HeLa cells. C3H/HeJ mice were infected with a wild-type C. rodentium strain and its lpfAcr isogenic mutant. Both strains were recovered at high levels in stools, and there were no significant differences between the groups both in terms of the number of CFU/organ (colon and cecum) and in terms of the amount of hyperplasia, as measured by weight. Similar results were observed in a second mouse strain, C57BL/6. These data suggest that in addition to playing no apparent role in EPEC pathogenesis, lpfcr is not required for C. rodentium virulence in either the C3H/HeJ or C57BL/6 mouse model. PMID:16368980

  14. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  15. Host Defense Peptide Resistance Contributes to Colonization and Maximal Intestinal Pathology by Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Joseph B.; Small, Cherrie L.; Reid-Yu, Sarah A.; Brannon, John R.; Le Moual, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides secreted by colonocytes and Paneth cells play a key role in innate host defenses in the gut. In Crohn's disease, the burden of tissue-associated Escherichia coli commonly increases at epithelial surfaces where host defense peptides concentrate, suggesting that this bacterial population might actively resist this mechanism of bacterial killing. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) is associated with Crohn's disease; however, the colonization determinants of AIEC in the inflamed gut are undefined. Here, we establish that host defense peptide resistance contributes to host colonization by Crohn's-associated AIEC. We identified a plasmid-encoded genomic island (called PI-6) in AIEC strain NRG857c that confers high-level resistance to α-helical cationic peptides and α- and β-defensins. Deletion of PI-6 sensitized strain NRG857c to these host defense molecules, reduced its competitive fitness in a mouse model of infection, and attenuated its ability to induce cecal pathology. This phenotype is due to two genes in PI-6, arlA, which encodes a Mig-14 family protein implicated in defensin resistance, and arlC, an OmpT family outer membrane protease. Implicit in these findings are new bacterial targets whose inhibition might limit AIEC burden and disease in the gut. PMID:24866805

  16. Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli C1845 infection promotes selective injuries in the junctional domain of polarized human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, I; Blanc-Potard, A B; Bernet-Camard, M F; Guignot, J; Barbat, A; Servin, A L

    2000-06-01

    The Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 strain harboring the F1845 fimbrial adhesin interacts with the brush border-associated CD55 molecule and promotes elongation of brush border microvilli resulting from rearrangement of the F-actin network. This phenomenon involves the activation of a cascade of signaling coupled to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We provide evidence that infection of the polarized human intestinal cell line Caco-2/TC7 by strain C1845 is followed by an increase in the paracellular permeability for [(3)H]mannitol without a decrease of the transepithelial resistance of the monolayers. Alterations in the distribution of tight-junction (TJ)-associated occludin and ZO-1 protein are observed, whereas the distribution of the zonula adherens-associated E-cadherin is not affected. Using the recombinant E. coli strains HB101(pSSS1) and -(pSSS1C) expressing the F1845 fimbrial adhesin, we demonstrate that the adhesin-CD55 interaction is not sufficient for the induction of structural and functional TJ lesions. Moreover, using the actin filament-stabilizing agent Jasplakinolide, we demonstrate that the C1845-induced functional alterations in TJs are independent of the C1845-induced apical cytoskeleton rearrangements. The results indicated that pathogenic factor(s) other than F1845 adhesin may be operant in Afa/Dr DAEC C1845.

  17. Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain C1845 induces neutrophil extracellular traps that kill bacteria and damage human enterocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Turbica, Isabelle; Dufour, Guillaume; Semiramoth, Nicolas; Gleizes, Aude; Gorges, Roseline; Beau, Isabelle; Servin, Alain L; Lievin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Sandré, Catherine; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-05-01

    We recently documented the neutrophil response to enterovirulent diffusely adherent Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr fimbriae (Afa/Dr DAEC), using the human myeloid cell line PLB-985 differentiated into fully mature neutrophils. Upon activation, particularly during infections, neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), composed of a nuclear DNA backbone associated with antimicrobial peptides, histones, and proteases, which entrap and kill pathogens. Here, using fluorescence microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, we observed NET production by PLB-985 cells infected with the Afa/Dr wild-type (WT) E. coli strain C1845. We found that these NETs were able to capture, immobilize, and kill WT C1845 bacteria. We also developed a coculture model of human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells and PLB-985 cells previously treated with WT C1845 and found, for the first time, that the F-actin cytoskeleton of enterocyte-like cells is damaged in the presence of bacterium-induced NETs and that this deleterious effect is prevented by inhibition of protease release. These findings provide new insights into the neutrophil response to bacterial infection via the production of bactericidal NETs and suggest that NETs may damage the intestinal epithelium, particularly in situations such as inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Epithelial cells secrete interleukin-8 in response to adhesion and invasion of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli lacking Afa/Dr genes.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Arikawa, Kentaro; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli that sparsely adhere to human epithelial cells are known as diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), and the role of the Afa/Dr family of adhesins is now understood. Strains that do not possess Afa/Dr, however, comprise another group of DAEC, of which the pathogenicity remains unknown. The ability to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from intestinal epithelial cells might be a feature of enterovirulent bacteria. We previously found that some Afa/Dr DAEC strains induce IL-8 by stimulating epithelial cells with flagella. The present study examines whether non-Afa/Dr DAEC can induce IL-8 in epithelial cells (HEp-2, INT407, and T84). Among 21 strains, 11 (52%; 11/21) induced as much IL-8 as high inducer strains of Afa/Dr DAEC. Adhesion did not significantly differ between high and low inducers; therefore diffuse adhesion alone is probably insufficient to induce IL-8. It was shown that IL-8 induction and the number of intracellular bacteria directly correlated. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of the phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase, reduced both intracellular bacteria and IL-8 secretion. Motile strains were significantly more prevalent among high (10/11) than low (4/10) inducers. However, 4 low invasive strains hardly induced IL-8 despite their motility. In conclusion, some non-Afa/Dr DAEC invoke the induction of high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Unlike Afa/Dr DAEC, however, non-Afa/Dr strains may require invasion to cause strong induction. These non-Afa/Dr high inducers can be enteropathogenic for the cytokine-inducing properties.

  19. Mortality in kittens is associated with a shift in ileum mucosa-associated enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis and adherent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek; Gookin, Jody L

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a "healthy" enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens.

  20. Mortality in Kittens Is Associated with a Shift in Ileum Mucosa-Associated Enterococci from Enterococcus hirae to Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis and Adherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Borst, Luke; Stauffer, Stephen H.; Suyemoto, Mitsu; Moisan, Peter; Zurek, Ludek

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. While a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. The enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. Given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it would be valuable to better understand what constitutes a “healthy” enterococcal community in these kittens and how this microbiota is impacted by severe illness. In this study, we characterized the ileum mucosa-associated enterococcal community of 50 apparently healthy and 50 terminally ill foster kittens. In healthy kittens, Enterococcus hirae was the most common species of ileum mucosa-associated enterococci and was often observed to adhere extensively to the small intestinal epithelium. These E. hirae isolates generally lacked virulence traits. In contrast, non-E. hirae enterococci, notably Enterococcus faecalis, were more commonly isolated from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness. Isolates of E. faecalis had numerous virulence traits and multiple antimicrobial resistances. Moreover, the attachment of Escherichia coli to the intestinal epithelium was significantly associated with terminal illness and was not observed in any kitten with adherent E. hirae. These findings identify a significant difference in the species of enterococci cultured from the ileum mucosa of kittens with terminal illness compared to the species cultured from healthy kittens. In contrast to prior case studies that associated enteroadherent E. hirae with diarrhea in young animals, these controlled studies identified E. hirae as more often isolated from healthy kittens and adherence of E. hirae as more common and extensive in healthy kittens than in sick kittens. PMID:23966487

  1. Antibodies Directed against Shiga-Toxin Producing Escherichia coli Serotype O103 Type III Secreted Proteins Block Adherence of Heterologous STEC Serotypes to HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Desin, Taseen S.; Townsend, Hugh G.; Potter, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O103 is a zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. The main animal reservoir for STEC is ruminants and hence reducing the levels of this pathogen in cattle could ultimately lower the risk of STEC infection in humans. During the process of infection, STECO103 uses a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to secrete effector proteins (T3SPs) that result in the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Vaccination of cattle with STEC serotype O157 T3SPs has previously been shown to be effective in reducing shedding of STECO157 in a serotype-specific manner. In this study, we tested the ability of rabbit polyclonal sera against individual STECO103 T3SPs to block adherence of the organism to HEp-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that pooled sera against EspA, EspB, EspF, NleA and Tir significantly lowered the adherence of STECO103 relative to pre-immune sera. Likewise, pooled anti-STECO103 sera were also able to block adherence by STECO157. Vaccination of mice with STECO103 recombinant proteins induced strong IgG antibody responses against EspA, EspB, NleA and Tir but not against EspF. However, the vaccine did not affect fecal shedding of STECO103 compared to the PBS vaccinated group over the duration of the experiment. Cross reactivity studies using sera against STECO103 recombinant proteins revealed a high degree of cross reactivity with STECO26 and STECO111 proteins implying that sera against STECO103 proteins could potentially provide neutralization of attachment to epithelial cells by heterologous STEC serotypes. PMID:26451946

  2. The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, functions as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli by promoting lesions in tight junction of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guignot, Julie; Chaplais, Cécile; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Servin, Alain L

    2007-01-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are responsible for urinary tract and intestinal infections. Both in intestine and kidney, the epithelial cells forming epithelium are sealed by junctional domains. We provide evidence that the Secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, belonging to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs), acts as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr DAEC by promoting lesions in the tight junctions (TJs) of polarized epithelial Caco-2/TC7 cells. Southern blot analysis reveals that the prototype strains of the subclass-1 and subclass-2 typical Afa/Dr DAEC strains, hybridize with a sat probe. Using the wild-type IH11128 strain, the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 strain that expresses Sat, the recombinant E. coli that expresses both Dr adhesin and Sat, we report that Sat in monolayers of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells, induces rearrangements of the TJs-associated proteins ZO-1, ZO-3 and occludin, and increases the formation of domes as the result of an increase in the paracellular permeability without affecting the transepithelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers. Moreover, we observe that Sat-induced disassembly of TJs-associated proteins is dependent on the serine protease motif. Finally, an analysis of the prevalence of the sat gene in three collections of Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children with and without diarrhoea, and from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) shows that: (i) the sat gene is highly prevalent in UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains (88% positive), (ii) the sat gene is generally absent from Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children without diarrhoea (16% positive); whereas (iii) it is present in about half of the strains collected from the stools of children with diarrhoea (46% positive).

  3. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fleckenstein, James M; Munson, George M; Rasko, David A

    2013-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are a pervasive cause of serious diarrheal illness in developing countries. Presently, there is no vaccine to prevent these infections, and many features of the basic pathogenesis of these organisms remain poorly understood. Until very recently most pathogenesis studies had focused almost exclusively on a small subset of known “classical” virulence genes, namely fimbrial colonization factors and the heat-labile (LT) and heat stable (ST) enterotoxins. However, recent investigations of pathogen-host interactions reveal a surprisingly complex and intricately orchestrated engagement involving the interplay of classical and “novel” virulence genes, as well as participation of genes highly conserved in the E. coli species. These studies may inform further rational approaches to vaccine development for these important pathogens. PMID:23892244

  4. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 cattle immunoproteome includes outer membrane protein A (OmpA), a modulator of adherence to bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Indira T; Krastins, Bryan; Torres, Alfredo G; Griffin, Robert W; Sheng, Haiqing; Sarracino, David A; Hovde, Carolyn J; Calderwood, Stephen B; John, Manohar

    2015-06-01

    Building on previous studies, we defined the repertoire of proteins comprising the immunoproteome (IP) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) cultured in DMEM supplemented with norepinephrine (O157 IP), a β-adrenergic hormone that regulates E. coli O157 gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract, using a variation of a novel proteomics-based platform proteome mining tool for antigen discovery, called "proteomics-based expression library screening" (PELS; Kudva et al., 2006). The E. coli O157 IP (O157-IP) comprised 91 proteins, and included those identified previously using proteomics-based expression library screening, and also proteins comprising DMEM and bovine rumen fluid proteomes. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), a common component of the above proteomes, and reportedly a contributor to E. coli O157 adherence to cultured HEp-2 epithelial cells, was interestingly found to be a modulator rather than a contributor to E. coli O157 adherence to bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells. Our results point to a role for yet to be identified members of the O157-IP in E. coli O157 adherence to rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells, and additionally implicate a possible role for the outer membrane protein A regulator, TdcA, in the expression of such adhesins. Our observations have implications for the development of efficacious vaccines for preventing E. coli O157 colonization of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Production of the Escherichia coli common pilus by uropathogenic E. coli is associated with adherence to HeLa and HTB-4 cells and invasion of mouse bladder urothelium.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Zeus; De la Cruz, Miguel A; Carrillo-Casas, Erika Margarita; Durán, Laura; Zhang, Yushan; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Puente, José L; Daaka, Yehia; Girón, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause urinary tract infections and employ type 1 and P pili in colonization of the bladder and kidney, respectively. Most intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli strains produce a pilus called E. coli common pilus (ECP) involved in cell adherence and biofilm formation. However, the contribution of ECP to the interaction of UPEC with uroepithelial cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that prototypic UPEC strains CFT073 and F11 mutated in the major pilin structural gene ecpA are significantly deficient in adherence to cultured HeLa (cervix) and HTB-4 (bladder) epithelial cells in vitro as compared to their parental strains. Complementation of the ecpA mutant restored adherence to wild-type levels. UPEC strains produce ECP upon growth in Luria-Bertani broth or DMEM tissue culture medium preferentially at 26°C, during incubation with cultured epithelial cells in vitro at 37°C, and upon colonization of mouse bladder urothelium ex vivo. ECP was demonstrated on and inside exfoliated bladder epithelial cells present in the urine of urinary tract infection patients. The ability of the CFT073 ecpA mutant to invade the mouse tissue was significantly reduced. The presence of ECP correlated with the architecture of the biofilms produced by UPEC strains on inert surfaces. These data suggest that ECP can potentially be produced in the bladder environment and contribute to the adhesive and invasive capabilities of UPEC during its interaction with the host bladder. We propose that along with other known adhesins, ECP plays a synergistic role in the multi-step infection of the urinary tract.

  6. Production of the Escherichia coli Common Pilus by Uropathogenic E. coli Is Associated with Adherence to HeLa and HTB-4 Cells and Invasion of Mouse Bladder Urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Casas, Erika Margarita; Durán, Laura; Zhang, Yushan; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Puente, José L.; Daaka, Yehia; Girón, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains cause urinary tract infections and employ type 1 and P pili in colonization of the bladder and kidney, respectively. Most intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli strains produce a pilus called E. coli common pilus (ECP) involved in cell adherence and biofilm formation. However, the contribution of ECP to the interaction of UPEC with uroepithelial cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that prototypic UPEC strains CFT073 and F11 mutated in the major pilin structural gene ecpA are significantly deficient in adherence to cultured HeLa (cervix) and HTB-4 (bladder) epithelial cells in vitro as compared to their parental strains. Complementation of the ecpA mutant restored adherence to wild-type levels. UPEC strains produce ECP upon growth in Luria-Bertani broth or DMEM tissue culture medium preferentially at 26°C, during incubation with cultured epithelial cells in vitro at 37°C, and upon colonization of mouse bladder urothelium ex vivo. ECP was demonstrated on and inside exfoliated bladder epithelial cells present in the urine of urinary tract infection patients. The ability of the CFT073 ecpA mutant to invade the mouse tissue was significantly reduced. The presence of ECP correlated with the architecture of the biofilms produced by UPEC strains on inert surfaces. These data suggest that ECP can potentially be produced in the bladder environment and contribute to the adhesive and invasive capabilities of UPEC during its interaction with the host bladder. We propose that along with other known adhesins, ECP plays a synergistic role in the multi-step infection of the urinary tract. PMID:25036370

  7. Development of Heptylmannoside-Based Glycoconjugate Antiadhesive Compounds against Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Bacteria Associated with Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sivignon, Adeline; Yan, Xibo; Alvarez Dorta, Dimitri; Bonnet, Richard; Bouckaert, Julie; Fleury, Etienne; Bernard, Julien; Gouin, Sébastien G.; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ileal lesions of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients are colonized by adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) bacteria. These bacteria adhere to mannose residues expressed by CEACAM6 on host cells in a type 1 pilus-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated different antagonists of FimH, the adhesin of type 1 pili, for their ability to block AIEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Monovalent and multivalent derivatives of n-heptyl α-d-mannoside (HM), a nanomolar antagonist of FimH, were tested in vitro in IEC infected with the AIEC LF82 strain and in vivo by oral administration to CEACAM6-expressing mice infected with LF82 bacteria. In vitro, multivalent derivatives were more potent than the monovalent derivatives, with a gain of efficacy superior to their valencies, probably owing to their ability to form bacterial aggregates. Of note, HM and the multi-HM glycoconjugates exhibited lower efficacy in vivo in decreasing LF82 gut colonization. Interestingly, HM analogues functionalized with an isopropylamide (1A-HM) or β-cyclodextrin pharmacophore at the end of the heptyl tail (1CD-HM) exerted beneficial effects in vivo. These two compounds strongly decreased the amount of LF82 bacteria in the feces of mice and that of bacteria associated with the gut mucosa when administered orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight after infection. Importantly, signs of colitis and intestinal inflammation induced by LF82 infection were also prevented. These results highlight the potential of the antiadhesive compounds to treat CD patients abnormally colonized by AIEC bacteria and point to an alternative to the current approach focusing on blocking proinflammatory mediators. PMID:26578673

  8. Increased S-Nitrosylation and Proteasomal Degradation of Caspase-3 during Infection Contribute to the Persistence of Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Karl A.; Allam, Amr; McIntosh, Anne; Houston, Stephanie A.; Cerovic, Vuk; Goodyear, Carl S.; Roe, Andrew J.; Beatson, Scott A.; Milling, Simon W.; Walker, Daniel; Wall, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been implicated as a causative agent of Crohn’s disease (CD) due to their isolation from the intestines of CD sufferers and their ability to persist in macrophages inducing granulomas. The rapid intracellular multiplication of AIEC sets it apart from other enteric pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium which after limited replication induce programmed cell death (PCD). Understanding the response of infected cells to the increased AIEC bacterial load and associated metabolic stress may offer insights into AIEC pathogenesis and its association with CD. Here we show that AIEC persistence within macrophages and dendritic cells is facilitated by increased proteasomal degradation of caspase-3. In addition S-nitrosylation of pro- and active forms of caspase-3, which can inhibit the enzymes activity, is increased in AIEC infected macrophages. This S-nitrosylated caspase-3 was seen to accumulate upon inhibition of the proteasome indicating an additional role for S-nitrosylation in inducing caspase-3 degradation in a manner independent of ubiquitination. In addition to the autophagic genetic defects that are linked to CD, this delay in apoptosis mediated in AIEC infected cells through increased degradation of caspase-3, may be an essential factor in its prolonged persistence in CD patients. PMID:23861899

  9. Sab, a Novel Autotransporter of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-Negative Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli O113:H21, Contributes to Adherence and Biofilm Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Sylvia; Paton, James C.; Paton, Adrienne W.

    2009-01-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains cause serious gastrointestinal disease, which can lead to potentially life-threatening systemic complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although the production of Shiga toxin has been considered to be the main virulence trait of STEC for many years, the capacity to colonize the host intestinal epithelium is a crucial step in pathogenesis. In this study, we have characterized a novel megaplasmid-encoded outer membrane protein in locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative O113:H21 STEC strain 98NK2, termed Sab (for STEC autotransporter [AT] contributing to biofilm formation). The 4,296-bp sab gene encodes a 1,431-amino-acid protein with the features of members of the AT protein family. When expressed in E. coli JM109, Sab contributed to the diffuse adherence to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells and promoted biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces. A 98NK2 sab deletion mutant was also defective in biofilm formation relative to its otherwise isogenic wild-type parent, and this was complemented by transformation with a sab-carrying plasmid. Interestingly, an unrelated O113:H21 STEC isolate that had a naturally occurring deletion in sab was similarly defective in biofilm formation. PCR analysis indicated that sab is present in LEE-negative STEC strains belonging to serotypes/groups O113:H21, O23, and O82:H8. These findings raise the possibility that Sab may contribute to colonization in a subset of LEE-negative STEC strains. PMID:19487483

  10. Sab, a novel autotransporter of locus of enterocyte effacement-negative shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O113:H21, contributes to adherence and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Herold, Sylvia; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W

    2009-08-01

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains cause serious gastrointestinal disease, which can lead to potentially life-threatening systemic complications such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Although the production of Shiga toxin has been considered to be the main virulence trait of STEC for many years, the capacity to colonize the host intestinal epithelium is a crucial step in pathogenesis. In this study, we have characterized a novel megaplasmid-encoded outer membrane protein in locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative O113:H21 STEC strain 98NK2, termed Sab (for STEC autotransporter [AT] contributing to biofilm formation). The 4,296-bp sab gene encodes a 1,431-amino-acid protein with the features of members of the AT protein family. When expressed in E. coli JM109, Sab contributed to the diffuse adherence to human epithelial (HEp-2) cells and promoted biofilm formation on polystyrene surfaces. A 98NK2 sab deletion mutant was also defective in biofilm formation relative to its otherwise isogenic wild-type parent, and this was complemented by transformation with a sab-carrying plasmid. Interestingly, an unrelated O113:H21 STEC isolate that had a naturally occurring deletion in sab was similarly defective in biofilm formation. PCR analysis indicated that sab is present in LEE-negative STEC strains belonging to serotypes/groups O113:H21, O23, and O82:H8. These findings raise the possibility that Sab may contribute to colonization in a subset of LEE-negative STEC strains.

  11. Human decay-accelerating factor and CEACAM receptor-mediated internalization and intracellular lifestyle of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guignot, Julie; Hudault, Sylvie; Kansau, Imad; Chau, Ingrid; Servin, Alain L

    2009-01-01

    We used transfected epithelial CHO-B2 cells as a model to identify the mechanism mediating internalization of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli. We provide evidence that neither the alpha5 or beta1 integrin subunits nor alpha5beta1 integrin functioned as a receptor mediating the adhesion and/or internalization of Dr or Afa-III fimbria-positive bacteria. We also demonstrated that (i) whether or not the AfaD or DraD invasin subunits were present, there was no difference in the cell association and entry of bacteria and that (ii) DraE or AfaE-III adhesin subunits are necessary and sufficient to promote the receptor-mediated bacterial internalization into epithelial cells expressing human decay-accelerating factor (DAF), CEACAM1, CEA, or CEACAM6. Internalization of Dr fimbria-positive E. coli within CHO-DAF, CHO-CEACAM1, CHO-CEA, or CHO-CEACAM6 cells occurs through a microfilament-independent, microtubule-dependent, and lipid raft-dependent mechanism. Wild-type Dr fimbria-positive bacteria survived better within cells expressing DAF than bacteria internalized within CHO-CEACAM1, CHO-CEA, or CHO-CEACAM6 cells. In DAF-positive cells, internalized Dr fimbria-positive bacteria were located in vacuoles that contained more than one bacterium, displaying some of the features of late endosomes, including the presence of Lamp-1 and Lamp-2, and some of the features of CD63 proteins, but not of cathepsin D, and were acidic. No interaction between Dr fimbria-positive-bacterium-containing vacuoles and the autophagic pathway was observed.

  12. Increased rate of apoptosis and diminished phagocytic ability of human neutrophils infected with Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Brest, Patrick; Bétis, Frédéric; Cuburu, Nicolas; Selva, Eric; Herrant, Magali; Servin, Alain; Auberger, Patrick; Hofman, Paul

    2004-10-01

    The proinflammatory effect of Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains have been recently demonstrated in vitro by showing that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transepithelial migration is induced after bacterial colonization of apical intestinal monolayers. The effect of Afa/Dr DAEC-PMN interaction on PMN behavior has been not investigated. Because of the putative virulence mechanism of PMN apoptosis during infectious diseases and taking into account the high level of expression of the decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the receptor of Afa/Dr DAEC on PMNs, we sought to determine whether infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains could promote cell apoptosis. We looked at the behavior of PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains once they had transmigrated across polarized monolayers of intestinal (T84) cells. Infection of PMNs by Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced PMN apoptosis characterized by morphological nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and a high level of annexin V expression. However, transmigrated and nontransmigrated PMNs incubated with Afa/Dr DAEC strains showed similar elevated global caspase activities. PMN apoptosis depended on their agglutination, induced by Afa/Dr DAEC, and was still observed after preincubation of PMNs with anti-CD55 and/or anti-CD66 antibodies. Low levels of phagocytosis of Afa/Dr DAEC strains were observed both in nontransmigrated and in transmigrated PMNs compared to that observed with the control E. coli DH5alpha strain. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that interaction of Afa/Dr DAEC with PMNs may increase the bacterial virulence both by inducing PMN apoptosis through an agglutination process and by diminishing their phagocytic capacity.

  13. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  14. Genetic relatedness and virulence properties of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains of serotype O119:H6 expressing localized adherence or localized and aggregative adherence-like patterns on HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Bruna G; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Vieira, Mônica A M; Yamamoto, Denise; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Girão, Dennys M; Sampaio, Suely C F; Melo, Alexis Bonfim; Irino, Kinue; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2016-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in enterocytes and produce the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) contributing to the localized adherence (LA) pattern formation on HeLa cells. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) produce aggregative adherence (AA) on HeLa cells and form prominent biofilms. The ability to produce LA or AA is an important hallmark to classify fecal E. coli isolates as EPEC or EAEC, respectively. E. coli strains of serotype O119:H6 exhibit an LA+ phenotype and have been considered as comprising a clonal group of EPEC strains. However, we have recently identified O119:H6 EPEC strains that produce LA and an AA-like pattern concurrently (LA/AA-like+). In this study, we evaluated the relatedness of three LA/AA-like+ and three LA+ O119:H6 strains by comparing their virulence and genotypic properties. We first found that the LA/AA-like+ strains induced actin accumulation in HeLa cells (indicative of A/E lesions formation) and formed biofilms on abiotic surfaces more efficiently than the LA+ strains. MLST analysis showed that the six strains all belong to the ST28 complex. All strains carried multiple plasmids, but as plasmid profiles were highly variable, this cannot be used to differentiate LA/AA-like+ and LA+ strains. We further obtained their draft genome sequences and the complete sequences of four plasmids harbored by one LA/AA-like+ strain. Analysis of these sequences and comparison with 37 fully sequenced E. coli genomes revealed that both O119:H6 groups belong to the E. coli phylogroup B2 and are very closely related with only 58-67 SNPs found between LA/AA-like+ and LA+ strains. Search of the draft sequences of the six strains for adhesion-related genes known in EAEC and other E. coli pathotypes detected no genes specifically present in LA/AA-like+ strains. Unexpectedly however, we found that a large plasmid distinct from pEAF is responsible for the AA-like phenotype of the LA/AA-like+ strains. Although we

  15. Role of Decreased Levels of Fis Histone-Like Protein in Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli LF82 Bacteria Interacting with Intestinal Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Miquel, Sylvie; Claret, Laurent; Bonnet, Richard; Dorboz, Imen; Barnich, Nicolas; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of Crohn's disease (CD)-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strain LF82 with intestinal epithelial cells depends on surface appendages, such as type 1 pili and flagella. Histone-like proteins operate as global regulators to control the expression of these virulence factors. We evaluated the role of histone-like proteins in AIEC reference strain LF82 during infection of intestinal epithelial cells, Intestine-407, and observed that the fis mRNA level was decreased. The role of Fis in AIEC LF82 was determined by studying the phenotype of an LF82 fis::Km mutant. This was the first mutant of strain LF82 that has been described thus far that is unable to express flagellin but still able to produce type 1 pili. The cyclic-di-GMP pathway linking flagella and type 1 pilus expression is not involved in Fis-mediated regulation, and we identified in the present study Fis-binding sites located upstream of the fimE gene and in the intergenic region between fimB and nanC of the fim operon encoding type 1 pili. The major consequence of decreased Fis expression in AIEC bacteria in contact with host cells is a direct downregulation of fimE expression, leading to the preferential ON phase of the fimS element. Thus, by maintaining type 1 pilus expression, AIEC bacteria, which interact with the gut mucosa, have greater ability to colonize and to induce inflammation in CD patients. PMID:20118249

  16. Pathogenesis of human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): current insights and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alain L

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as "silent pathogens" with the capacity to emerge as "pathobionts" for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis.

  17. Pathogenesis of Human Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Expressing Afa/Dr Adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC): Current Insights and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The pathogenicity and clinical pertinence of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing the Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) in urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pregnancy complications are well established. In contrast, the implication of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC in diarrhea is still under debate. These strains are age dependently involved in diarrhea in children, are apparently not involved in diarrhea in adults, and can also be asymptomatic intestinal microbiota strains in children and adult. This comprehensive review analyzes the epidemiology and diagnosis and highlights recent progress which has improved the understanding of Afa/Dr DAEC pathogenesis. Here, I summarize the roles of Afa/Dr DAEC virulence factors, including Afa/Dr adhesins, flagella, Sat toxin, and pks island products, in the development of specific mechanisms of pathogenicity. In intestinal epithelial polarized cells, the Afa/Dr adhesins trigger cell membrane receptor clustering and activation of the linked cell signaling pathways, promote structural and functional cell lesions and injuries in intestinal barrier, induce proinflammatory responses, create angiogenesis, instigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like events, and lead to pks-dependent DNA damage. UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains, following adhesin-membrane receptor cell interactions and activation of associated lipid raft-dependent cell signaling pathways, internalize in a microtubule-dependent manner within urinary tract epithelial cells, develop a particular intracellular lifestyle, and trigger a toxin-dependent cell detachment. In response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection, the host epithelial cells generate antibacterial defense responses. Finally, I discuss a hypothetical role of intestinal Afa/Dr DAEC strains that can act as “silent pathogens” with the capacity to emerge as “pathobionts” for the development of inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal carcinogenesis. PMID:25278576

  18. Carrageenan Gum and Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli in a Piglet Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Impact on Intestinal Mucosa-associated Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Munyaka, Peris M.; Sepehri, Shadi; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Adherent invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathotype has been increasingly implicated in the etiopathogenesis of IBD. In a 21-day study, we investigated the effects of AIEC strain UM146 inoculation on microbiota profile of the ileal, cecal, ascending and descending colon in a pig model of experimental colitis. Carrageenan gum (CG) was used to induce colitis in weaner piglets whereas AIEC strain UM146 previously isolated from a CD patient was included to investigate a cause or consequence effect in IBD. Treatments were: (1) control; (2) CG; (3) AIEC strain UM146; and (4) CG+UM146. Pigs in groups 2 and 4 received 1% CG in drinking water from day 1 of the study while pigs in groups 3 and 4 were inoculated with UM146 on day 8. Following euthanization on day 21, tissue mucosal scrapings were collected and used for DNA extraction. The V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was then subjected to Illumina sequencing. Microbial diversity, composition, and the predicted functional metagenome were determined in addition to short chain fatty acids profiles in the digesta and inflammatory cytokines in the intestinal tissue. CG-induced colitis decreased bacterial species richness and shifted community composition. At the phylum level, an increase in Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres and a decrease in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were observed in CG and CGUM146 compared to control and UM146. The metabolic capacity of the microbiome was also altered in CG and CGUM146 compared to UM146 and control in the colon. We demonstrated that CG resulted in bacterial dysbiosis and shifted community composition similar to what has been previously observed in IBD patients. However, AIEC strain UM146 alone did not cause any clear changes compared to CG or control in our experimental IBD pig model. PMID:27092122

  19. Assessing the relative contributions of EspA and CsgA in cellular adherence and biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type III secretion system with an extracellular filamentous structure consisting of the polymerized translocator protein EspA. The EspA filaments provide transient interactions between bacterial ...

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Paediatric Diarrhoeal Patients by Detection of bfpA gene by PCR and HeLa cell Adherence Assay.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Jhora, S T; Talukder, K A; Azmi, I J

    2015-10-01

    This study has been undertaken to investigate the isolation and identification of EPEC strains from paediatric diarrhoeal patients. The study was carried out in the department of Microbiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Bangladesh during January to December, 2011. Total 272 samples were studied. Samples from patients with diarrhoea were collected from two tertiary care hospital. At first Esch. coli were isolated from these specimens using standard microbiological techniques and then EPEC strains were identified on the basis of presence of bundle forming pilus (bfpA) gene. Virulence of EPEC strains were determined by detection of bfpA gene and observing localized adherence (LA) in HeLa cell adherence assay. Esch. coli was isolated and identified from all the 272 samples from patients using standard microbiological techniques. Among 272 samples 20(7.35%) isolates were identified as EPEC on the basis of presence of bfpA gene detected by polymerase chain reaction. EPEC strains were identified from those 240 samples, from which Esch. coli had been isolated only. Out of twenty EPEC strains, 17 strains (85%) showed a pattern of localized adherence in Hela cell adherence assay. EPEC strains can be identified by bfpA gene detection and by adherence assays. HeLa cell adherence assay is the most specific method for detection of EPEC strains which has bfpA gene, responsible for localized adherence (LA) in HeLa cell line. Rapid and reliable detection of EPEC is required for successful microbiological surveillance and for treatment of EPEC mediated diarrhoeal disease.

  1. Vaccination with DNA Encoding Truncated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Factor for Adherence-1 Gene (efa-1′) Confers Protective Immunity to Mice Infected with E. coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C.; Vidal, Roberto M.; Oñate, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1′) in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1′ gene (pVAXefa-1′) into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1′, EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1′ have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle. PMID:26835434

  2. Vaccination with DNA Encoding Truncated Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Factor for Adherence-1 Gene (efa-1') Confers Protective Immunity to Mice Infected with E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C; Vidal, Roberto M; Oñate, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1') in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1' gene (pVAXefa-1') into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1', EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1' have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle.

  3. Gravity sensing by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Hideki; Shimamura, Shigeru; Usami, Ron

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and protein profile of Escherichia coli under various gravity strengths to determine the effects of hypergravity on biochemical reactions. E. coli grows at less than 7,500 g without inhibition. Hypergravity induced OmpW and Antigen 43. Changes in gravity strength altered the expression levels of these proteins. This suggests that hypergravity regulates gene expression in bacteria.

  4. Cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: role of EspL2 in adherence and an alternative pathway for modulating cytoskeleton through Annexin A2 function.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Toru

    2010-06-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are attaching/effacing pathogens that possess a type III secretion system and deliver a variety of effectors into host cells for successful infection. EHEC produces at least 20 effector families with various functions. Reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton at the adherent site is a hallmark of these pathogens. EspL2 of EHEC is a novel effector class that can modulate the cellular cytoskeleton. By interacting with and activating Annexin A2, EspL2 contributes to the formation of a condensed microcolony and may adhere to host cells in a translocated intimin receptor-independent manner. The interaction of EspL2 with Annexin A2 increases F-actin bundling activity and strengthens the membrane-cytoskeleton linkage, resulting in the condensation of actin fibers and the induction of a pseudopod-like structure. Membrane microdomains, namely the lipid raft, which is rich in Annexin A2, may be a platform by which EHEC/EPEC infection modulates cellular signaling and the cytoskeleton.

  5. The YfcO fimbriae gene enhances adherence and colonization abilities of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Wang, Haojin; Ren, Jianluan; Chen, Ling; Zhuge, Xiangkai; Hu, Lin; Li, Dezhi; Tang, Fang; Dai, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    Chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae, which are adhesive surface organelles found in many Gram-negative bacteria, mediate tissue tropism through the interaction of fimbrial adhesins with specific receptors expressed on the host cell surface. A CU fimbrial gene yfcO, was identified in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain DE205B via gene functional analysis. In this study, yfcO was found in 13.41% (11/82) of E. coli strains, including phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D, with the highest percentage in group B2. The expression of yfcO in biofilm forming bacteria was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the planktonic bacteria. A yfcO deletion mutant was constructed, and adherence to DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cells was analyzed in vitro. Compared to the wild-type (WT), adherence of the mutant to DF-1 cells was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). The mutant bacterial loads in the heart, brain and liver were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the WT strain. Resistance of the mutant to acidic (acetic, pH 4.0, 20 min) and high osmolarity (2.5 M NaCl, 1 h) stress conditions decreased by 51.28% (P < 0.001) and 80.34% (P < 0.01), respectively. These results suggest that yfcO contributes to APEC virulence through bacterial adherence to host tissues.

  6. Multiepitope Fusion Antigen Induces Broadly Protective Antibodies That Prevent Adherence of Escherichia coli Strains Expressing Colonization Factor Antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E.; Wollenberg, Katie M.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens. PMID:24351757

  7. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens.

  8. Human diffusely adhering Escherichia coli expressing Afa/Dr adhesins that use human CD55 (decay-accelerating factor) as a receptor does not bind the rodent and pig analogues of CD55.

    PubMed

    Hudault, Sylvie; Spiller, O Brad; Morgan, B Paul; Servin, Alain L

    2004-08-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) bacteria that are responsible for recurrent urinary tract and gastrointestinal infections recognized as a receptor the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) at the brush border of cultured human intestinal cells. Results show that Afa/Dr DAEC C1845 bacteria were poorly associated with the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract of infected mice. We conducted experiments with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with mouse (GPI or transmembrane forms), pig, or human CD55 or mouse Crry cDNAs or transfected with empty vector pDR2EF1 alpha. Recombinant E. coli AAEC185 bacteria expressing Dr or F1845 adhesins bound strongly to CHO cells expressing human CD55 but not to the CHO cells expressing mouse (transmembrane and GPI anchored), rat, or pig CD55 or mouse Crry. Positive clustering of CD55 around Dr-positive bacteria was observed in human CD55-expressing CHO cells but not around the rarely adhering Dr-positive bacteria randomly distributed at the cell surface of CHO cells expressing mouse, rat, or pig CD55.

  9. Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli infection in T84 cell monolayers induces increased neutrophil transepithelial migration, which in turn promotes cytokine-dependent upregulation of decay-accelerating factor (CD55), the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Kansau, Imad; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are inflammatory bowel diseases thought to involve strains of Escherichia coli. We report here that two wild-type Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli (DAEC) strains, C1845 and IH11128, which harbor the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and the Dr hemagglutinin, respectively, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101, transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid to produce Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin, all induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in polarized monolayers of the human intestinal cell line T84 grown on semipermeable filters. We observed that after PMNL migration, expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, or CD55), the brush border-associated receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins, was strongly enhanced, increasing the adhesion of Afa/Dr DAEC bacteria. When examining the mechanism by which DAF expression was enhanced, we observed that the PMNL transepithelial migration induced epithelial synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta, which in turn promoted the upregulation of DAF.

  10. Role of bolA and rpoS genes in biofilm formation and adherence pattern by Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on polypropylene, stainless steel, and silicone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mohd; Sousa, Ana Margarida; Machado, Idalina; Pereira, Maria Olivia; Khan, Saif; Morton, Glyn; Hadi, Sibte

    2017-06-01

    Escherichia coli has developed sophisticated means to sense, respond, and adapt in stressed environment. It has served as a model organism for studies in molecular genetics and physiology since the 1960s. Stress response genes are induced whenever a cell needs to adapt and survive under unfavorable growth conditions. Two of the possible important genes are rpoS and bolA. The rpoS gene has been known as the alternative sigma (σ) factor, which controls the expression of a large number of genes, which are involved in responses to various stress factors as well as transition to stationary phase from exponential form of growth. Morphogene bolA response to stressed environment leads to round morphology of E. coli cells, but little is known about its involvement in biofilms and its development or maintenance. This study has been undertaken to address the adherence pattern and formation of biofilms by E. coli on stainless steel, polypropylene, and silicone surfaces after 24 h of growth at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used for direct examination of the cell attachment and biofilm formation on various surfaces and it was found that, in the presence of bolA, E. coli cells were able to attach to the stainless steel and silicone very well. By contrast, polypropylene surface was not found to be attractive for E. coli cells. This indicates that bolA responded and can play a major role in the presence and absence of rpoS in cell attachment.

  11. Exonuclease IX of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Shafritz, K M; Sandigursky, M; Franklin, W A

    1998-01-01

    The bacteria Escherichia coli contains several exonucleases acting on both double- and single-stranded DNA and in both a 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' direction. These enzymes are involved in replicative, repair and recombination functions. We have identified a new exonuclease found in E.coli, termed exonuclease IX, that acts preferentially on single-stranded DNA as a 3'-->5' exonuclease and also functions as a 3'-phosphodiesterase on DNA containing 3'-incised apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites to remove the product trans -4-hydroxy-2-pentenal 5-phosphate. The enzyme showed essentially no activity as a deoxyribophosphodiesterase acting on 5'-incised AP sites. The activity was isolated as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein from a sequence of the E.coli genome that was 60% identical to a 260 bp region of the small fragment of the DNA polymerase I gene. The protein has a molecular weight of 28 kDa and is free of AP endonuclease and phosphatase activities. Exonuclease IX is expressed in E.coli , as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR, and it may function in the DNA base excision repair and other pathways. PMID:9592142

  12. An overview of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Elias, Waldir P; Vieira, Mônica A M; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2009-08-01

    The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) pathotype is currently divided into two groups, typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical EPEC (aEPEC). The property that distinguishes these two groups is the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid, which is only found in tEPEC. aEPEC strains are emerging enteropathogens that have been detected worldwide. Herein, we review the serotypes, virulence properties, genetic relationships, epidemiology, reservoir and diagnosis of aEPEC, including those strains not belonging to the classical EPEC serogroups (nonclassical EPEC serogroups). The large variety of serotypes and genetic virulence properties of aEPEC strains from nonclassical EPEC serogroups makes it difficult to determine which strains are truly pathogenic.

  13. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 cattle immunoproteome includes outer membrane protein A (OmpA), a modulator of adherence to bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Building on previous studies, we defined the repertoire of proteins comprising the antigenome of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) supplemented with norepinephrine (NE; O157 protein-antigenome), a beta-adrenergic hormone that regulates E. coli O157 ...

  14. Robust growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Robert, Lydia; Pelletier, James; Dang, Wei Lien; Taddei, Francois; Wright, Andrew; Jun, Suckjoon

    2010-06-22

    The quantitative study of the cell growth has led to many fundamental insights in our understanding of a wide range of subjects, from the cell cycle to senescence. Of particular importance is the growth rate, whose constancy represents a physiological steady state of an organism. Recent studies, however, suggest that the rate of elongation during exponential growth of bacterial cells decreases cumulatively with replicative age for both asymmetrically and symmetrically dividing organisms, implying that a "steady-state" population consists of individual cells that are never in a steady state of growth. To resolve this seeming paradoxical observation, we studied the long-term growth and division patterns of Escherichia coli cells by employing a microfluidic device designed to follow steady-state growth and division of a large number of cells at a defined reproductive age. Our analysis of approximately 10(5) individual cells reveals a remarkable stability of growth whereby the mother cell inherits the same pole for hundreds of generations. We further show that death of E. coli is not purely stochastic but is the result of accumulating damages. We conclude that E. coli, unlike all other aging model systems studied to date, has a robust mechanism of growth that is decoupled from cell death.

  15. The Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli stimulate interleukin-8 secretion, activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, and promote polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration in T84 polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bétis, Fréderic; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Guignot, Julie; Bernet-Camard, Marie-Françoise; Rossi, Bernard; Servin, Alain; Hofman, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains cause symptomatic urinary tract and intestinal infections. The proinflammatory effects of Afa/Dr DAEC strains in vitro have been not investigated to date. In the present study, we used confluent polarized monolayers of intestinal cell line T84 to evaluate the consequences of epithelial infection by Afa/Dr DAEC strains in terms of proinflammatory response. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) migration across the epithelial barrier was induced after incubation of the T84 monolayers with the wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 harboring the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and strain IH11128 harboring the Dr hemagglutinin, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101 was transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid, producing Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin. PMNL migrations were correlated with a basolateral secretion of interleukin-8 by T84 cells and were abolished after incubation of epithelial cells with an anti-decay accelerating factor (DAF) antibody that recognized the short consensus repeat 3 domain of DAF (monoclonal antibody 1H4). Moreover, Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several T84 proteins and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein, P38, and Jun-C kinases). These data demonstrated for the first time that, in vitro, Afa/Dr DAEC strains exert a proinflammatory signal in intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. The effects of diode laser on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide adherent to titanium oxide surface of dental implants. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Landini, Giulia; Materassi, Fabrizio; Chellini, Flaminia; Antonelli, Alberto; Tani, Alessia; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bani, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Effective decontamination of biofilm and bacterial toxins from the surface of dental implants is a yet unresolved issue. This in vitro study aims at providing the experimental basis for possible use of diode laser (λ 808 nm) in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm was grown for 48 h on titanium discs with porous surface corresponding to the bone-implant interface and then irradiated with a diode laser (λ 808 nm) in noncontact mode with airflow cooling for 1 min using a Ø 600-μm fiber. Setting parameters were 2 W (400 J/cm(2)) for continuous wave mode; 22 μJ, 20 kHz, 7 μs (88 J/cm(2)) for pulsed wave mode. Bactericidal effect was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy and counting the residual colony-forming units. Biofilm and titanium surface morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In parallel experiments, the titanium discs were coated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), laser-irradiated and seeded with RAW 264.7 macrophages to quantify LPS-driven inflammatory cell activation by measuring the enhanced generation of nitric oxide (NO). Diode laser irradiation in both continuous and pulsed modes induced a statistically significant reduction of viable bacteria and nitrite levels. These results indicate that in addition to its bactericidal effect laser irradiation can also inhibit LPS-induced macrophage activation and thus blunt the inflammatory response. The λ 808-nm diode laser emerges as a valuable tool for decontamination/detoxification of the titanium implant surface and may be used in the treatment of peri-implantitis.

  17. Higher atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (a-EPEC) bacterial loads in children with diarrhea are associated with PCR detection of the EHEC factor for adherence 1/lymphocyte inhibitory factor A (efa1/lifa) gene.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Robert; Lau, Kimberley; Slinger, Michael; Moldovan, Ioana; Chan, Francis

    2017-03-23

    Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (t-EPEC) are known to cause diarrhea in children but it is uncertain whether atypical EPEC (a-EPEC) do, since a-EPEC lack the bundle-forming pilus (bfp) gene that encodes a key adherence factor in t-EPEC. In culture-based studies of a-EPEC, the presence of another adherence factor, called EHEC factor for adherence/lymphocyte activation inhibitor (efa1/lifA), was strongly associated with diarrhea. Since a-EPEC culture is not feasible in clinical laboratories, we designed an efa1/lifA quantitative PCR assay and examined whether the presence of efa1/lifA was associated with higher a-EPEC bacterial loads in pediatric diarrheal stool samples. Fecal samples from children with diarrhea were tested by qPCR for EPEC (presence of eae gene) and for shiga toxin genes to exclude enterohemorrhagic E. coli, which also contain the eae gene. EPEC containing samples were then tested for the bundle-forming pilus gene found in t-EPEC and efa1/lifA. The eae gene quantity in efa1/lifA-positive and negative samples was compared. Thirty-nine of 320 (12%) fecal samples tested positive for EPEC and 38/39 (97%) contained a-EPEC. The efa1/lifA gene was detected in 16/38 (42%) a-EPEC samples. The median eae concentration for efa1/lifA positive samples was significantly higher than for efa1/lifA negative samples (median 16,745 vs. 1183 copies/µL, respectively, p = 0.006). Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli-positive diarrheal stool samples containing the efa1/lifA gene had significantly higher bacterial loads than samples lacking this gene. This supports the idea that efa1/lifA contributes to diarrheal pathogenesis and suggests that, in EPEC-positive samples, efa/lifA may be a useful additional molecular biomarker.

  18. The Biology of the Escherichia coli Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Hufnagel, David A.; DePas, William H.; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Chapter Summary Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the world’s best-characterized organisms, as it has been extensively studied for over a century. However, most of this work has focused on E. coli grown under laboratory conditions that do not faithfully simulate its natural environments. Therefore, the historical perspectives on E. coli physiology and life cycle are somewhat skewed toward experimental systems that feature E. coli growing logarithmically in a test tube. Typically a commensal bacterium, E. coli resides in the lower intestines of a slew of animals. Outside of the lower intestine, E. coli can adapt and survive in a very different set of environmental conditions. Biofilm formation allows E. coli to survive, and even thrive, in environments that do not support the growth of planktonic populations. E. coli can form biofilms virtually everywhere; in the bladder during a urinary tract infection, on in-dwelling medical devices, and outside of the host on plants and in the soil. The E. coli extracellular matrix, primarily composed of the protein polymer named curli and the polysaccharide cellulose, promotes adherence to organic and inorganic surfaces, and resistance to desiccation, the host immune system and other antimicrobials. The pathways that govern E. coli biofilm formation, cellulose production, and curli biogenesis will be discussed in this book chapter, which concludes with insights into the future of E. coli biofilm research and potential therapies. PMID:26185090

  19. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    van Heijenoort, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997

  20. Recruitment of CD55 and CD66e brush border-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins by members of the Afa/Dr diffusely adhering family of Escherichia coli that infect the human polarized intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells.

    PubMed

    Guignot, J; Peiffer, I; Bernet-Camard, M F; Lublin, D M; Carnoy, C; Moseley, S L; Servin, A L

    2000-06-01

    The Afa/Dr family of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) includes bacteria expressing afimbrial adhesins (AFA), Dr hemagglutinin, and fimbrial F1845 adhesin. We show that infection of human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells by the Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128 is followed by clustering of CD55 around adhering bacteria. Mapping of CD55 epitopes involved in CD55 clustering by Afa/Dr DAEC was conducted using CD55 deletion mutants expressed by stable transfection in CHO cells. Deletion in the short consensus repeat 1 (SCR1) domain abolished Afa/Dr DAEC-induced CD55 clustering. In contrast, deletion in the SCR4 domain does not modify Afa/Dr DAEC-induced CD55 clustering. We show that the brush border-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen) is recruited by the Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128. This conclusion is based on the observations that (i) infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells by Afa/Dr DAEC strains is followed by clustering of CD66e around adhering bacteria and (ii) Afa/Dr DAEC strains bound efficiently to stably transfected HeLa cells expressing CD66e, accompanied by CD66e clustering around adhering bacteria. Inhibition assay using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD55 SCR domains, and polyclonal anti-CD55 and anti-CD66e antibodies demonstrate that CD55 and CD66e function as a receptors for the C1845 and IH11128 bacteria. Moreover, using structural draE gene mutants, we found that a mutant in which cysteine replaced aspartic acid at position 54 displayed conserved binding capacity but failed to induce CD55 and CD66e clustering. Taken together, these data give new insights into the mechanisms by which Afa/Dr DAEC induces adhesin-dependent cross talk in the human polarized intestinal epithelial cells by mobilizing brush border-associated GPI-anchored proteins known to function as transducing molecules.

  1. Comparative analysis of super-shedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reveals distinctive genomic features and a strongly aggregative adherent phenotype on bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cote, Rebecca; Katani, Robab; Moreau, Matthew R; Kudva, Indira T; Arthur, Terrance M; DebRoy, Chitrita; Mwangi, Michael M; Albert, Istvan; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Li, Lingling; Brandl, Maria T; Carter, Michelle Q; Kapur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as "super-shedders" (SS), are known to shed O157 in exceptionally large numbers (>104 CFU/g of feces). Recent studies suggest that SS cattle play a major role in the prevalence and transmission of O157, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with super-shedding. Whole genome sequence analysis of an SS O157 strain (SS17) revealed a genome of 5,523,849 bp chromosome with 5,430 open reading frames and two plasmids, pO157 and pSS17, of 94,645 bp and 37,446 bp, respectively. Comparative analyses showed that SS17 is clustered with spinach-associated O157 outbreak strains, and belongs to the lineage I/II, clade 8, D group, and genotype 1, a subgroup of O157 with predicted hyper-virulence. A large number of non-synonymous SNPs and other polymorphisms were identified in SS17 as compared with other O157 strains (EC4115, EDL933, Sakai, TW14359), including in key adherence- and virulence-related loci. Phenotypic analyses revealed a distinctive and strongly adherent aggregative phenotype of SS17 on bovine RAJ stratified squamous epithelial (RSE) cells that was conserved amongst other SS isolates. Molecular genetic and functional analyses of defined mutants of SS17 suggested that the strongly adherent aggregative phenotype amongst SS isolates is LEE-independent, and likely results from a novel mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a rational framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms associated with SS, and strong evidence that SS O157 isolates have distinctive features and use a LEE-independent mechanism for hyper-adherence to bovine rectal epithelial cells.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Super-Shedder Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Reveals Distinctive Genomic Features and a Strongly Aggregative Adherent Phenotype on Bovine Rectoanal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Rebecca; Katani, Robab; Moreau, Matthew R.; Kudva, Indira T.; Arthur, Terrance M.; DebRoy, Chitrita; Mwangi, Michael M.; Albert, Istvan; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Li, Lingling; Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Kapur, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as “super-shedders” (SS), are known to shed O157 in exceptionally large numbers (>104 CFU/g of feces). Recent studies suggest that SS cattle play a major role in the prevalence and transmission of O157, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with super-shedding. Whole genome sequence analysis of an SS O157 strain (SS17) revealed a genome of 5,523,849 bp chromosome with 5,430 open reading frames and two plasmids, pO157 and pSS17, of 94,645 bp and 37,446 bp, respectively. Comparative analyses showed that SS17 is clustered with spinach-associated O157 outbreak strains, and belongs to the lineage I/II, clade 8, D group, and genotype 1, a subgroup of O157 with predicted hyper-virulence. A large number of non-synonymous SNPs and other polymorphisms were identified in SS17 as compared with other O157 strains (EC4115, EDL933, Sakai, TW14359), including in key adherence- and virulence-related loci. Phenotypic analyses revealed a distinctive and strongly adherent aggregative phenotype of SS17 on bovine RAJ stratified squamous epithelial (RSE) cells that was conserved amongst other SS isolates. Molecular genetic and functional analyses of defined mutants of SS17 suggested that the strongly adherent aggregative phenotype amongst SS isolates is LEE-independent, and likely results from a novel mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a rational framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms associated with SS, and strong evidence that SS O157 isolates have distinctive features and use a LEE-independent mechanism for hyper-adherence to bovine rectal epithelial cells. PMID:25664460

  3. Structure of Escherichia coli tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shao Yang; Yip, Patrick; Howell, P Lynne

    2006-07-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the alpha-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the alpha-proton of the substrate for beta-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  4. Structure of Escherichia Coli Tryptophanase

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Howell, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the {alpha}-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the {alpha}-proton of the substrate for {beta}-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  5. Structural and functional lesions in brush border of human polarized intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells infected by members of the Afa/Dr diffusely adhering family of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, I; Guignot, J; Barbat, A; Carnoy, C; Moseley, S L; Nowicki, B J; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F

    2000-10-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains expressing F1845 fimbrial adhesin or Dr hemagglutinin belonging to the Afa/Dr family of adhesins infect cultured polarized human intestinal cells through recognition of the brush border-associated decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) as a receptor. The wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 has been shown to induce brush border lesions by an adhesin-dependent mechanism triggering apical F-actin rearrangements. In the present study, we undertook to further characterize cell injuries following the interaction of wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128 expressing fimbrial F1845 adhesin and Dr hemagglutinin, respectively, with polarized, fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells. In both cases, bacterium-cell interaction was followed by rearrangement of the major brush border-associated cytoskeletal proteins F-actin, villin, and fimbrin, proteins which play a pivotal role in brush border assembly. In contrast, distribution of G-actin, actin-depolymerizing factor, and tubulin was not modified. Using draE mutants, we found that a mutant in which cysteine replaces aspartic acid at position 54 conserved binding capacity but failed to induce F-actin disassembly. Accompanying the cytoskeleton injuries, we found that the distribution of brush border-associated functional proteins sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV), glucose transporter SGLT1, and fructose transporter GLUT5 was dramatically altered. In parallel, SI and DPPIV enzyme activity decreased.

  6. Impairments in enzyme activity and biosynthesis of brush border-associated hydrolases in human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells infected by members of the Afa/Dr family of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, I; Bernet-Camard, M F; Rousset, M; Servin, A L

    2001-05-01

    Wild-type diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) harbouring afimbrial adhesin (Afa) or fimbrial Dr and F1845 adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) apically infecting the human intestinal epithelial cells promote injuries in the brush border of the cells. We report here that infection by Afa/Dr DAEC wild-type strains C1845 and IH11128 in polarized human fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells dramatically impaired the enzyme activity of functional brush border-associated proteins sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV). Blockers of the transduction signal molecules, previously found to be active against the Afa/Dr DAEC-induced cytoskeleton injury, were inactive against the Afa/Dr-induced decrease in sucrase enzyme activity. In parallel, Afa/Dr DAEC infection promotes the blockade of the biosynthesis of SI and DPP IV without affection enzyme stability. The observation that no changes occurred in mRNA levels of SI and DPP IV upon infection suggested that the decrease in biosynthesis probably resulted from a decrease in the translation rate. When the cells were infected with recombinant E. coli strains expressing homologous adhesins of the wild-type strains, neither a decrease in sucrase and DPP IV enzyme activities nor an inhibition of enzyme biosynthesis were observed. In conclusion, taken together, these data give new insights into the mechanisms by which the wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strains induce functional injuries in polarized fully differentiated human intestinal cells. Moreover, the results revealed that other pathogenic factor(s) distinct from the Afa/Dr adhesins may play(s) a crucial role in this mechanism of pathogenicity.

  7. Afa/Dr-expressing, diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain C1845 triggers F1845 fimbria-dependent phosphatidylserine externalization on neutrophil-like differentiated PLB-985 cells through an apoptosis-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sémiramoth, Nicolas; Gleizes, Aude; Turbica, Isabelle; Sandré, Catherine; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Gorges, Roseline; Servin, Alain; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2010-07-01

    The enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains potentially involved in inflammatory bowel diseases include diffusely adherent strains expressing Afa/Dr fimbriae (Afa/Dr DAEC). We have previously observed type 1 pilus-mediated interleukin-8 (IL-8) hyperproduction in infected neutrophils. As pathogen induction of host cell death programs and clearance of apoptotic infected cells are crucial for innate immune system homeostasis and host integrity, we examined modulation of neutrophil cell death by Afa/Dr DAEC. Using the human PLB-985 cell line differentiated into fully mature neutrophils, we found that the wild-type enterovirulent E. coli strain C1845 and the recombinant strain DH5alpha/pF1845 (expressing the fimbrial adhesin F1845) similarly induced time-dependent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, suggesting a major specific role of this virulence factor. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) decay-accelerating factor (DAF)-transfected PLB-985 cells, we then showed that this PS externalization was triggered in part by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored DAF receptor engagement (leading to tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C activation) and that it required cytoskeleton and lipid raft architectural integrity. PS externalization under these conditions was not dependent on caspases, mitochondria, lysosomes, or reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. F1845-mediated PS externalization was sufficient to enable macrophage engulfment of infected differentiated PLB-985 cells. These findings provide new insights into the neutrophil response to Afa/Dr DAEC infection and highlight a new role for F1845 fimbriae. Interestingly, although apoptosis pathways were not engaged, C1845-infected PLB-985 cells displayed enhanced removal by macrophages, a process that may participate in the resolution of Afa/Dr DAEC infection and related inflammation.

  8. Piracy of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) signal transduction by the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845 promotes cytoskeletal F-actin rearrangements in cultured human intestinal INT407 cells.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, I; Servin, A L; Bernet-Camard, M F

    1998-09-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry.

  9. Succinate production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Succinate has been recognized as an important platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. While a number of organisms are capable of succinate production naturally, this review focuses on the engineering of Escherichia coli for production of the four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Important features of a succinate production system are to achieve optimal balance of reducing equivalents generated by consumption of the feedstock, while maximizing the amount of carbon that is channeled to the product. Aerobic and anaerobic production strains have been developed and applied to production from glucose as well as other abundant carbon sources. Metabolic engineering methods and strain evolution have been used and supplemented by the recent application of systems biology and in silico modeling tools to construct optimal production strains. The metabolic capacity of the production strain, as well as the requirement for efficient recovery of succinate and the reliability of the performance under scale-up are important in the overall process. The costs of the overall biorefinery compatible process will determine the economical commercialization of succinate and its impact in larger chemical markets. PMID:21932253

  10. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  11. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  12. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  13. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  14. Toxigenic Escherichia Coli and Childhood Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Dave H.; Anselmo, Carl R.; Thrupp, Lauri D.; Wishnow, Rodney M.

    1976-01-01

    Stool specimens were examined from 40 children with diarrhea who were under three years of age to determine the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in endemic diarrhea. Heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin was assayed in the very sensitive and reproducible cultured adrenal tumor cell system. Toxigenic E. coli were isolated from only one stool specimen and in this case infection with Shigella dysenteriae was also present. None of the eight classic enteropathogenic E. coli isolates were positive in the adrenal assay. This study suggests that heat-labile enterotoxin-producing E. coli are not an important cause of endemic childhood diarrhea in Southern California. PMID:775792

  15. The Escherichia coli O157:H7 cattle immuno-proteome includes outer membrane protein A (OmpA), a modulator of adherence to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Indira T.; Krastins, Bryan; Torres, Alfredo G.; Griffin, Robert W.; Sheng, Haiqing; Sarracino, David A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; John, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Building on previous studies, we defined the repertoire of proteins comprising the immuno-proteome of E. coli O157:H7 (O157) cultured in DMEM supplemented with norepinephrine (NE; O157 immuno-proteome), a β-adrenergic hormone that regulates E. coli O157 gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract, using a variation of a novel proteomics-based platform proteome mining tool for antigen discovery, called Proteomics-based Expression Library Screening (PELS; Kudva et al., 2006). The E. coli O157 immuno-proteome (O157-IP) comprised 91 proteins, and included those identified previously using PELS, and also proteins comprising DMEM- and bovine rumen fluid- proteomes. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA), a common component of the above proteomes, and reportedly a contributor to E. coli O157 adherence to cultured Hep-2 epithelial cells, was interestingly found to be a modulator rather than a contributor to E. coli O157 adherence to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells. Our results point to a role for yet to be identified members of the O157-IP in E. coli O157 adherence to RSE-cells, and additionally implicate a possible role for the OmpA regulator, TdcA, in the expression of such adhesins. Our observations have implications for development of efficacious vaccines for preventing E. coli O157 colonization of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25643951

  16. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli an emergent pathogen with different virulence properties.

    PubMed

    Villaseca, J M; Hernández, U; Sainz-Espuñes, T R; Rosario, C; Eslava, C

    2005-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emergent bacterial pathogen. The first studies in developing countries with EAEC strains, showed that this bacterium was associated with persistent diarrhea. However, new studies showed that EAEC may be associated also with acute diarrhea, with both nosocomial and community outbreaks worldwide, and as an important pathogen of diarrheal disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. EAEC strains are recognized by their characteristic aggregative adherence or "stacked-brick" pattern to epithelial cells. Although the pathogenesis of EAEC infection is not well understood, cellular changes observed in animal models and in vitro assays, suggested that the alterations in the intestinal mucosa during EAEC infection are associated with adherence factors and toxins production. The damage has been associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, which may contribute also to the intestinal illness. The dissemination of the high pathogenicity island from Yersinia pestis evolutionary group to EAEC has been show; different studies suggest that it may contribute to the virulence of EAEC strains. Molecular methods to investigate the presence of plasmid and chromosomal EAEC-associated virulence markers, have been used for the characterization and epidemiological studies of EAEC strains. Although the clinical and epidemiological importance of EAEC have been demonstrated in different studies, Escherichia coli strains with adherent agreggative phenotype are commonly isolated from healthy children and environmental sources. This support the necessity to study virulence factors no related with the cells adherence pattern, that show the specific EAEC pathogenic clones associated whit intestinal disease.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  18. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverría, Analía Inés; Padola, Nora Lía

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. Outbreaks are linked to bovine food sources. STEC O157:H7 has been responsible for the most severe outbreaks worldwide. However, non-O157 serotypes have emerged as important enteric pathogens in several countries. The main virulence factor of STEC is the production of Shiga toxins 1 and 2. Additional virulence markers are a plasmid-encoded enterohemolysin (ehxA), an autoagglutinating adhesin (Saa), a catalase-peroxidase (katP), an extracellular serine protease (espP), a zinc metalloprotease (stcE), a subtilase cytotoxin (subAB), among others. Other virulence factors are intimin and adhesins that had a roll in the adherence of STEC to bovine colon. This review focuses on the virulence traits of STEC and especially on those related to the adhesion to bovine colon. The known of the interaction between STEC and the bovine host is crucial to develop strategies to control cattle colonization. PMID:23624795

  19. [Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia.

  20. Curli fimbria: an Escherichia coli adhesin associated with human cystitis.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Melina Aparecida; Werle, Catierine Hirsch; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; Yano, Tomomasa

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of human cystitis. In this study, a preliminary molecular analysis carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated that 100% of 31 E. coli strains isolated from patients with recurrent UTIs (urinary tract infections) showed the presence of the curli fimbria gene (csgA). Curli fimbria is known to be associated with bacterial biofilm formation but not with the adhesion of human cystitis-associated E. coli. Therefore, this work aimed to study how curli fimbria is associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) as an adhesion factor. For this purpose, the csgA gene was deleted from strain UPEC-4, which carries three adhesion factor genes (csgA, fimH and ompA). The wild-type UPEC-4 strain and its mutant (ΔcsgA) were analyzed for their adhesion ability over HTB-9 (human bladder carcinoma), Vero (kidney cells of African green monkey) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein) cells in the presence of α-d-mannose. All the wild-type UPEC strains tested (100%) were able to adhere to all three cell types, while the UPEC-4 ΔcsgA mutant lost its adherence to HTB-9 but continued to adhere to the HUVEC and Vero cells. The results suggest that curli fimbria has an important role in the adhesion processes associated with human UPEC-induced cystitis.

  1. Experimental Escherichia coli O157:H7 carriage in calves.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C A; Harmon, B G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P

    1997-01-01

    Nine weaned calves (6 to 8 weeks of age) were given 10(10) CFU of a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by oral-gastric intubation. After an initial brief period of pyrexia in three calves and transient mild diarrhea in five calves, calves were clinically normal throughout the 13- to 27-day study. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the faces decreased dramatically in all calves during the first 2 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, small populations of E. coli O157:H7 persisted in all calves, where they were detected intermittently in the feces and rumen contents. While withholding food increased fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by 1 to 2 log10/g in three of four calves previously shedding small populations of E. coli O157:H7, the effect of fasting on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was variable in calves shedding larger populations. At necropsy, E. coli O157:H7 was not isolated from sites outside the alimentary tract. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from the forestomach or colon of all calves at necropsy. Greater numbers of E. coli O157:H7 were present in the gastrointestinal contents than in the corresponding mucosal sections, and there was no histologic or immunohistochemical evidence of E. coli O157:H7 adhering to the mucosa. In conclusion, under these experimental conditions, E. coli O157:H7 is not pathogenic in weaned calves, and while it does not appear to colonize mucosal surfaces for extended periods, E. coli O157:H7 persists in the contents of the rumen and colon as a source for fecal shedding. PMID:8979335

  2. First step in using molecular data for microbial food safety risk assessment; hazard identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by coupling genomic data with in vitro adherence to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pielaat, Annemarie; Boer, Martin P; Wijnands, Lucas M; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Bouw, El; Barker, Gary C; Teunis, Peter F M; Aarts, Henk J M; Franz, Eelco

    2015-11-20

    The potential for using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data in microbiological risk assessment (MRA) has been discussed on several occasions since the beginning of this century. Still, the proposed heuristic approaches have never been applied in a practical framework. This is due to the non-trivial problem of mapping microbial information consisting of thousands of loci onto a probabilistic scale for risks. The paradigm change for MRA involves translation of multidimensional microbial genotypic information to much reduced (integrated) phenotypic information and onwards to a single measure of human risk (i.e. probability of illness). In this paper a first approach in methodology development is described for the application of WGS data in MRA; this is supported by a practical example. That is, combining genetic data (single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 with phenotypic data (in vitro adherence to epithelial cells as a proxy for virulence) leads to hazard identification in a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS). This application revealed practical implications when using SNP data for MRA. These can be summarized by considering the following main issues: optimum sample size for valid inference on population level, correction for population structure, quantification and calibration of results, reproducibility of the analysis, links with epidemiological data, anchoring and integration of results into a systems biology approach for the translation of molecular studies to human health risk. Future developments in genetic data analysis for MRA should aim at resolving the mapping problem of processing genetic sequences to come to a quantitative description of risk. The development of a clustering scheme focusing on biologically relevant information of the microbe involved would be a useful approach in molecular data reduction for risk assessment.

  3. Comparative analysis of super-shedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reveals distinctive genomic features and a strongly aggregative adherent phenotype on bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as ...

  4. In-stream Escherichia coli Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Soupir, M.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of pathogenic bacteria indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) in streams are a serious concern. Controlling E. coli levels in streams requires improving our existing understanding of fate and transport of E. coli at watershed scale. In-stream E. coli concentrations are potentially linked to non-point pollution sources (i.e., agricultural land). Water of a natural stream can receive E. coli by either through overland flow (via runoff from cropland) or resuspension from the streambed to the water column. Calculating in-stream total E. coli loads requires estimation of particle attached bacteria as well free floating E. coli transport. Currently water quality models commonly used for predicting E. coli levels in stream water have limited capability for predicting E. coli levels in the water column as well as in the streambed sediment. The challenges in calculating in-stream E. coli levels include difficulties in modeling the complex interactions between sediment particles and E. coli. Here we have developed a watershed scale model (integrated with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)), which involves calculation of particle attached E. coli, to predict in-stream E. coli concentrations. The proposed model predicts E. coli levels in streambed bed sediment as well as in the water column. An extensive in-stream E. coli monitoring was carried out to verify the model predictions, and results indicate that the model performed well. The study proposed here will improve understanding on in-stream bacterial contamination, and help improving existing water quality models for predicting pathogenic bacteria levels in ambient water bodies.

  5. Native valve Escherichia coli endocarditis following urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, D; Ramakrishnan, S; Patro, K C; Devaraj, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Kothari, Y; Satyaki, N

    2013-05-01

    Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.

  6. Polarized entry of uropathogenic Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain IH11128 into human epithelial cells: evidence for alpha5beta1 integrin recognition and subsequent internalization through a pathway involving caveolae and dynamic unstable microtubules.

    PubMed

    Guignot, J; Bernet-Camard, M F; Poüs, C; Plançon, L; Le Bouguenec, C; Servin, A L

    2001-03-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain IH11128 bacteria basolaterally entered polarized epithelial cells by a CD55- and CD66e-independent mechanism through interaction with the alpha5beta1 integrin and a pathway involving caveolae and dynamic microtubules (MTs). IH11128 invasion within HeLa cells was dramatically decreased after the cells were treated with the cholesterol-extracting drug methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or the caveola-disrupting drug filipin. Disassembly of the dynamically unstable MT network by the compound 201-F resulted in a total abolition of IH11128 entry. In apically infected polarized fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells, no IH11128 entry was observed. The entry of bacteria into apically IH11128-infected fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells was greatly enhanced by treating cells with Ca2+-free medium supplemented with EGTA, a procedure that disrupts intercellular junctions and thus exposes the basolateral surface to bacteria. Basally infected fully differentiated polarized Caco-2/TC7 cells grown on inverted inserts mounted in chamber culture showed a highly significant level of intracellular IH11128 bacteria compared with cells subjected to the apical route of infection. No expression of CD55 and CD66e, the receptors for the Afa/Dr adhesins, was found at the basolateral domains of these cells. Consistent with the hypothesis that a cell-to-cell adhesion molecule acts as a receptor for polarized IH11128 entry, an antibody blockade using anti-alpha5beta1 integrin polyclonal antibody completely abolished bacterial entry. Experiments conducted with the laboratory strain E. coli K-12 EC901 carrying the recombinant plasmid pBJN406, which expresses Dr hemagglutinin, demonstrated that the dra operon is involved in polarized entry of IH11128 bacteria. Examined as a function of cell differentiation, the number of internalized bacteria decreased dramatically beyond cell confluency. Surviving intracellular IH11128 bacteria residing intracellularly

  7. Role of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence factors in uropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boll, Erik J; Struve, Carsten; Boisen, Nadia; Olesen, Bente; Stahlhut, Steen G; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2013-04-01

    A multiresistant clonal Escherichia coli O78:H10 strain qualifying molecularly as enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) was recently shown to be the cause of a community-acquired outbreak of urinary tract infection (UTI) in greater Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1991. This marks the first time EAEC has been associated with an extraintestinal disease outbreak. Importantly, the outbreak isolates were recovered from the urine of patients with symptomatic UTI, strongly implying urovirulence. Here, we sought to determine the uropathogenic properties of the Copenhagen outbreak strain and whether these properties are conferred by the EAEC-specific virulence factors. We demonstrated that through expression of aggregative adherence fimbriae, the principal adhesins of EAEC, the outbreak strain exhibited pronouncedly increased adherence to human bladder epithelial cells compared to prototype uropathogenic strains. Moreover, the strain was able to produce distinct biofilms on abiotic surfaces, including urethral catheters. These findings suggest that EAEC-specific virulence factors increase uropathogenicity and may have played a significant role in the ability of the strain to cause a community-acquired outbreak of UTI. Thus, inclusion of EAEC-specific virulence factors is warranted in future detection and characterization of uropathogenic E. coli.

  8. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: "the other bad E coli".

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Russo, Thomas A

    2002-03-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), the specialized strains of E coli that cause most extraintestinal E coli infections, represent a major but little-appreciated health threat. Although the reasons for their evolution remain mysterious, by virtue of their numerous virulence traits ExPEC clearly possess a unique ability to cause disease outside the host intestinal tract. Broader appreciation of the existence and importance of ExPEC and better understandings of their distinctive virulence mechanisms, reservoirs, and transmission pathways may lead to effective preventive interventions against the morbid and costly infections ExPEC cause.

  9. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  10. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  11. Widespread Antisense Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dornenburg, James E.; DeVita, Anne M.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Wade, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The vast majority of annotated transcripts in bacteria are mRNAs. Here we identify ~1,000 antisense transcripts in the model bacterium Escherichia coli. We propose that these transcripts are generated by promiscuous transcription initiation within genes and that many of them regulate expression of the overlapping gene. PMID:20689751

  12. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  13. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, Karl A.; Goldwater, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted. PMID:26191064

  14. Characterization of fimbriae produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Girón, J A; Ho, A S; Schoolnik, G K

    1993-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) express rope-like bundles of filaments, termed bundle-forming pili (BFP) (J. A. Girón, A. S. Y. Ho, and G. K. Schoolnik, Science 254:710-713, 1991). Expression of BFP is associated with localized adherence to HEp-2 cells and the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid. In this study, we describe the identification of rod-like fimbriae and fibrillae expressed simultaneously on the bacterial surface of three prototype EPEC strains. Upon fimbrial extraction from EPEC B171 (O111:NM), three fimbrial subunits with masses of 16.5, 15.5, and 14.7 kDa were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Their N-terminal amino acid sequence showed homology with F9 and F7(2) fimbriae of uropathogenic E. coli and F1845 of diffuse-adhering E. coli, respectively. The mixture of fimbrial subunits (called FB171) exhibited mannose-resistant agglutination of human erythrocytes only, and this activity was not inhibited by alpha-D-Gal(1-4)-beta-Gal disaccharide or any other described receptor analogs for P, S, F, M, G, and Dr hemagglutinins of uropathogenic E. coli, which suggests a different receptor specificity. Hemagglutination was inhibited by extracellular matrix glycoproteins, i.e., collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin, and to a lesser extent by gangliosides, fetuin, and asialofetuin. Scanning electron microscopic studies performed on clusters of bacteria adhering to HEp-2 cells revealed the presence of structures resembling BFP and rod-like fimbriae linking bacteria to bacteria and bacteria to the eukaryotic cell membrane. We suggest a role of these surface appendages in the interaction of EPEC with eukaryotic cells as well as in the overall pathogenesis of intestinal disease caused by EPEC. Images PMID:7901197

  15. Electrophoretic Mobilities of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Wild-Type Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Darren A.; Rice, Eugene W.; Johnson, Clifford H.; Fox, Kim R.

    1999-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobilities (EPMs) of a number of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and wild-type E. coli strains were measured. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the EPMs were investigated. The EPMs of E. coli O157:H7 strains differed from those of wild-type strains. As the suspension pH decreased, the EPMs of both types of strains increased. PMID:10388724

  16. Adhesive Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease and infective diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D. A.; Axon, A. T.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are similar to those of infections of the bowel, although their cause is uncertain. Many bacteria that cause intestinal diseases adhere to the gut mucosa, and adhesion of pathogenic Escherichia coli is resistant to D-mannose. The adhesive properties of isolates of E coli were assessed by assay of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells with mannose added. The isolates were obtained from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (50 with a relapse of ulcerative colitis, nine with ulcerative colitis in remission, 13 with Crohn's disease, and 11 with infectious diarrhoea not due to E coli) and 22 controls. The median index of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (the proportion of cells with more than 50 adherent bacteria) for E coli from patients with ulcerative colitis in relapse was significantly higher (43%) than that for controls (5%) and patients with infectious diarrhoea (14%). The index was not significantly different among isolates from patients with ulcerative colitis in relapse, Crohn's disease (53%), and ulcerative colitis in remission (30%). If an index of adhesion of greater than 25% is taken as indicating an adhesive strain 86% of isolates of E coli from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were adhesive compared with 27% from patients with infective diarrhoea and none from controls. The adhesive properties of the isolates from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were similar to those of pathogenic intestinal E coli, raising the possibility that they may have a role in the pathogenesis of the condition; the smaller proportion of adhesive isolates in patients with infective diarrhoea due to other bacteria suggests that the organism may be of primary importance rather than arising secondarily. Images a PMID:3044496

  17. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  18. Escherichia coli field contamination of pecan nuts.

    PubMed

    Marcus, K A; Amling, H J

    1973-09-01

    More pecan samples collected from grazed orchards were contaminated with Escherichia coli than were samples from nongrazed orchards. No differences in frequency of contamination between mechanically and manually harvested nuts occurred. Nutmeats from whole uncracked pecans that were soaked for 24 h in a lactose broth solution containing E. coli did not become contaminated. Twentyfour percent of the whole pecans soaked in water for 48 h to simulate standing in a rain puddle developed openings along shell suture lines which did not completely close when the nuts were redried.

  19. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Associated Exotoxins.

    PubMed

    Welch, Rodney A

    2016-06-01

    Escherichia coli are a common cause of infectious disease outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Several independently evolved E. coli clades are common causes of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. There is ample epidemiological and in vitro evidence that several different protein toxins common to many, but not all, of these strains are likely to aid the colonization and immune-evasion ability of these bacteria. This review discusses our current knowledge and areas of ignorance concerning the contribution of the hemolysin; cytotoxic-necrotizing factor-1; and the autotransporters, Sat, Pic, and Vat, to extraintestinal human disease.

  20. Production and regulation of functional amyloid curli fimbriae by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional amyloid, in the form of adhesive fimbrial proteins termed curli, was first described in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Curli fibers adhere to various host cells and structural proteins, interact with components of the host immune system, and participate in biofilm formation. Shiga toxin...

  1. Proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli O157 for discovery of novel adhesins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Cattle are primary reservoirs of the food borne human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 (O157). Given that the complement of factors contributing to O157 adherence to epithelial cells at the recto-anal junction and other intermittent anatomical sites along the bovine gastrointestinal trac...

  2. The evolution of the Escherichia coli phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Henderson, Ian R

    2012-03-01

    Escherichia coli is familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. Outside of the laboratory, E. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. Although usually a commensal, E. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. The study of E. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains initially distinguished by serotyping and metabolic profiling, and genomic diversity illustrated by DNA hybridisation. The quantitative study of E. coli diversity began with the application of multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and has progressed with the accumulation of nucleotide sequence data, from single genes through multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic methods have shed light on the processes of genomic evolution in this extraordinarily diverse species, and revealed the origins of pathogenic E. coli strains, including members of the phylogenetically indistinguishable "genus"Shigella. In May and June 2011, an outbreak of haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome in Germany was linked to a strain of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O104:H4. Application of high-throughput sequencing technologies allowed the genome and origins of the outbreak strain to be characterised in real time as the outbreak was in progress.

  3. Automatic tracking of Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Khan, Shahid; Shah, Mubarak

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method for estimating the trajectories of Escherichia coli bacteria from in vivo phase-contrast microscopy videos. To address the low-contrast boundaries in cellular images, an adaptive kernel-based technique is applied to detect cells in sequence of frames. Then a novel matching gain measure is introduced to cope with the challenges such as dramatic changes of cells' appearance and serious overlapping and occlusion. For multiple cell tracking, an optimal matching strategy is proposed to improve the handling of cell collision and broken trajectories. The results of successful tracking of Escherichia coli from various phase-contrast sequences are reported and compared with manually-determined trajectories, as well as those obtained from existing tracking methods. The stability of the algorithm with different parameter values is also analyzed and discussed.

  4. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF PLASMOLYSIS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    COTA-ROBLES, E H

    1963-03-01

    Cota-Robles, Eugene H. (University of California, Riverside). Electron microscopy of plasmolysis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 85:499-503. 1963.-Escherichia coli cells plasmolyzed in 0.35 m sucrose reveal plasmolysis at one tip of a cell or in the center of dividing cells in which protoplast partition has been complete. Central plasmolysis reveals that protoplast separation can be completed before the invagination of the cell wall is complete. These studies support the concept that these cells divide by constriction. The strength of the union between cell wall and cytoplasm is not uniform around the entire cell. It is strongest along the sides of these rod-shaped cells and weakest at one tip of the single cell. Thus, a single cell generally forms one cup-shaped vacuole in which the cytoplasm has collapsed away from one tip of the cell.

  5. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF PLASMOLYSIS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Cota-Robles, Eugene H.

    1963-01-01

    Cota-Robles, Eugene H. (University of California, Riverside). Electron microscopy of plasmolysis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 85:499–503. 1963.—Escherichia coli cells plasmolyzed in 0.35 m sucrose reveal plasmolysis at one tip of a cell or in the center of dividing cells in which protoplast partition has been complete. Central plasmolysis reveals that protoplast separation can be completed before the invagination of the cell wall is complete. These studies support the concept that these cells divide by constriction. The strength of the union between cell wall and cytoplasm is not uniform around the entire cell. It is strongest along the sides of these rod-shaped cells and weakest at one tip of the single cell. Thus, a single cell generally forms one cup-shaped vacuole in which the cytoplasm has collapsed away from one tip of the cell. Images PMID:14042923

  6. Phage therapy: the Escherichia coli experience.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2005-07-01

    Phages have been proposed as natural antimicrobial agents to fight bacterial infections in humans, in animals or in crops of agricultural importance. Phages have also been discussed as hygiene measures in food production facilities and hospitals. These proposals have a long history, but are currently going through a kind of renaissance as documented by a spate of recent reviews. This review discusses the potential of phage therapy with a specific example, namely Escherichia coli.

  7. Infection by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, M A

    1989-01-01

    Verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) are a newly recognized group of enteric pathogens which are increasingly being recognized as common causes of diarrhea in some geographic settings. Outbreak studies indicate that most patients with VTEC infection develop mild uncomplicated diarrhea. However, a significant risk of two serious and potentially life-threatening complications, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome, makes VTEC infection a public health problem of serious concern. The main reservoirs of VTEC appear to be the intestinal tracts of animals, and foods of animal (especially bovine) origin are probably the principal sources for human infection. The term VT refers to a family of subunit exotoxins with high biological activity. Individual VTEC strains elaborate one or both of at least two serologically distinct, bacteriophage-mediated VTs (VT1 and VT2) which are closely related to Shiga toxin and are thus also referred to as Shiga-like toxins. The holotoxins bind to cells, via their B subunits, to a specific receptor which is probably the glycolipid, globotriosyl ceramide (Gb3). Binding is followed by internalization of the A subunit, which, after it is proteolytically nicked and reduced to the A1 fragment, inhibits protein synthesis in mammalian cells by inactivating 60S ribosomal subunits through selective structural modification of 28S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. The mechanism of VTEC diarrhea is still controversial, and the relative roles of locally acting VT and "attaching and effacing adherence" of VTEC to the mucosa have yet to be resolved. There is increasing evidence that hemolytic uremic syndrome and possibly hemorrhagic colitis result from the systemic action of VT on vascular endothelial cells. The role of antitoxic immunity in preventing the systemic complications of VTEC infection is being explored. Antibiotics appear to be contraindicated in the treatment of VTEC infection. The most common VTEC serotype associated

  8. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... program for the six non-O157 STEC, as it already does for E. coli O157:H7. The Agency intended to begin... Food Safety and Inspection Service Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... manufacturing trimmings for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45...

  9. Systems Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-03-01

    Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass.

  10. Systems Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-05-01

    Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass.

  11. Adhesive threads of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Antão, Esther-Maria; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2009-12-10

    The ability to adhere to host surfaces is by far the most vital step in the successful colonization by microbial pathogens. Colonization begins with the attachment of the bacterium to receptors expressed by cells forming the lining of the mucosa. Long hair like extracellular appendages called fimbriae, produced by most Gram-negative pathogens, mediate specific attachment to the epithelial cell surface. Associated with the fimbriae is a protein called an adhesin, which directs high-affinity binding to specific cell surface components. In the last couple of years, an enormous amount of research has been undertaken that deals with understanding how bacterial pathogens adhere to host cells. E. coli in all probability is one of the best studied free-living organisms. A group of E. coli called Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) including both human and animal pathogens like Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), Newborn meningitic E. coli (NMEC) and Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), have been found to harbour many fimbriae including Type 1 fimbriae, P fimbriae, curli fibres, S fimbriae, F1C fimbriae, Dr fimbriae, afimbrial adhesins, temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin and many novel adhesin gene clusters that have not yet been characterized. Each of these adhesins is unique due to the recognition of an adhesin-specific receptor, though as a group these adhesins share common genomic organization. A newly identified putative adhesin temporarily termed ExPEC Adhesin I, encoded by gene yqi, has been recently found to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of APEC infection, thus making it an interesting candidate for future research. The aim of this review is to describe the role of ExPEC adhesins during extraintestinal infections known till date, and to suggest the idea of investigating their potential role in the colonization of the host gut which is said to be a reservoir for ExPEC.

  12. Diversity of CRISPR loci in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Díez-Villaseñor, C; Almendros, C; García-Martínez, J; Mojica, F J M

    2010-05-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CAS (CRISPR-associated sequence) proteins are constituents of a novel genetic barrier that limits horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes by means of an uncharacterized mechanism. The fundamental discovery of small RNAs as the guides of the defence apparatus arose as a result of Escherichia coli studies. However, a survey of the system diversity in this species in order to further contribute to the understanding of the CRISPR mode of action has not yet been performed. Here we describe two CRISPR/CAS systems found in E. coli, following the analysis of 100 strains representative of the species' diversity. Our results substantiate different levels of activity between loci of both CRISPR types, as well as different target preferences and CRISPR relevances for particular groups of strains. Interestingly, the data suggest that the degeneration of one CRISPR/CAS system in E. coli ancestors could have been brought about by self-interference.

  13. Thymineless death in Escherichia coli: strain specificity.

    PubMed

    Cummings, D J; Mondale, L

    1967-06-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, B(s-12), K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon(-), all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation.

  14. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  15. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  16. Escherichia coli O 27 in adult diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, B. C.; Rowe, B.; Kendall, M.; Turnbull, P. C.; Ghosh, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Escherichia coli O 27 H 7 was found in 16 stool samples submitted during a Caribbean cruise (Cruise Z) by 29 patients reporting with diarrhoea. A retrospective search revealed E. coli O 27 H 7 in 11 of 20 and 2 of 14 stool cultures from patients on two previous cruises (Y and X respectively) and in a culture from fresh cream (Cruise Y). The repeated occurrence of E. coli O 27 H 7 in the absence of any other apparent cause suggested that this serotype may have been responsible for the diarrhoea. The results of pathogenicity tests suggested that this strain elaborated heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin. The possibility that food may have been the vector is discussed. PMID:794406

  17. Frequency-Dependent Escherichia coli Chemotaxis Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuejun; Si, Guangwei; Deng, Nianpei; Ouyang, Qi; Wu, Tailin; He, Zhuoran; Jiang, Lili; Luo, Chunxiong; Tu, Yuhai

    2012-03-01

    We study Escherichia coli chemotaxis behavior in environments with spatially and temporally varying attractant sources by developing a unique microfluidic system. Our measurements reveal a frequency-dependent chemotaxis behavior. At low frequency, the E. coli population oscillates in synchrony with the attractant. In contrast, in fast-changing environments, the population response becomes smaller and out of phase with the attractant waveform. These observations are inconsistent with the well-known Keller-Segel chemotaxis equation. A new continuum model is proposed to describe the population level behavior of E. coli chemotaxis based on the underlying pathway dynamics. With the inclusion of a finite adaptation time and an attractant consumption rate, our model successfully explains the microfluidic experiments at different stimulus frequencies.

  18. Production of curcuminoids in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ji; Cha, Mi Na; Kim, Bog-Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2017-03-09

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa, possesses diverse pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. Two curcuminoids (dicinnamoylmethane and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were synthesized from glucose in Escherichia coli. PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) or TAL (tyrosine ammonia lyase), along with Os4CL (p-coumaroyl-CoA ligase) and CUS (curcumin synthase), were introduced in to E. coli, and each strain produced dicinnamoylmethane or bisdemethoxycurcumin, respectively. In order to increase the production of curcuminoids in E. coli, the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway which increases the substrates for curcuminoid biosynthesis, was engineered. Using engineered strains, the production of bisdemethoxycurcumin increased from 0.32 to 4.63 mg/L, and that of dicinnamoylmethane from 1.24 mg/L and 6.95 mg/L.

  19. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria. PMID:27612193

  20. Isolation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from a South American Camelid (Lama guanicoe) with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, E. C.; Rodríguez, S. M.; Elizondo, A. M.; Marcoppido, G.; Parreño, V.

    2004-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli belonging to serotype O26:H11 was isolated from a 2-month-old guanaco with severe watery diarrhea. E. coli colonies carried the stx1 and eae genes, showed localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, and produced enterohemolysin. A serological response to lipopolysaccharide O26 was observed at the onset of diarrhea. PMID:15472347

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by citral.

    PubMed

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Condón, S; Mackey, B; Pagán, R

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate (i) the resistance of Escherichia coli BJ4 to citral in a buffer system as a function of citral concentration, treatment medium pH, storage time and initial inoculum size, (ii) the role of the sigma factor RpoS on citral resistance of E. coli, (iii) the role of the cell envelope damage in the mechanism of microbial inactivation by citral and (iiii) possible synergistic effects of mild heat treatment and pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment combined with citral. The initial inoculum size greatly affected the efficacy of citral against E. coli cells. Exposure to 200 microl l(-1) of citral at pH 4.0 for 24 h at 20 degrees C caused the inactivation of more than 5 log(10) cycles of cells starting at an inoculum size of 10(6) or 10(7) CFU ml(-1), whereas increasing the cell concentration to 10(9) CFU ml(-1) caused <1 log(10) cycle of inactivation. Escherichia coli showed higher resistance to citral at pH 4.0 than pH 7.0. The rpoS null mutant strain E. coli BJ4L1 was less resistant to citral than the wild-type strain. Occurrence of sublethal injury to both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes was demonstrated by adding sodium chloride or bile salts to the recovery media. The majority of sublethally injured cells by citral required energy and lipid synthesis for repair. A strongly synergistic lethal effect was shown by mild heat treatment combined with citral but the presence of citral during the application of a PEF treatment did not show any advantage. This work confirms that cell envelope damage is an important event in citral inactivation of bacteria, and it describes the key factors on the inactivation of E. coli cells by citral. Knowledge about the mechanism of microbial inactivation by citral helps establish successful combined preservation treatments.

  2. Cation Transport in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stanley G.; Solomon, A. K.

    1961-01-01

    Methods have been developed to study the intracellular Na and K concentrations in E. coli, strain K-12. These intracellular cation concentrations have been shown to be functions of the extracellular cation concentrations and the age of the bacterial culture. During the early logarithmic phase of growth, the intracellular K concentration greatly exceeds that of the external medium, whereas the intracellular Na concentration is lower than that of the growth medium. As the age of the culture increases, the intracellular K concentration falls and the intracellular Na concentration rises, changes which are related to the fall in the pH of the medium and to the accumulation of the products of bacterial metabolism. When stationary phase cells, which are rich in Na and poor in K, are resuspended in fresh growth medium, there is a rapid reaccumulation of K and extrusion of Na. These processes represent oppositely directed net ion movements against concentration gradients, and have been shown to be dependent upon the presence of an intact metabolic energy supply. PMID:13909521

  3. Cation Transport in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stanley G.; Epstein, Wolfgang; Solomon, A. K.

    1963-01-01

    The resuspension of K-poor, Na-rich stationary phase E. coli in fresh medium at pH 7.0 results in a rapid uptake of K and extrusion of Na by the cells. In all experiments net K uptake exceeded net Na extrusion. An investigation of the uptake of glucose, PO4, and Mg and the secretion of H by these cells indicates that the excess K uptake is not balanced by the simultaneous uptake of anions but must be accompanied by the extrusion of cations from the cell. The kinetics of net K uptake are consistent with the existence of two parallel influx processes. The first is rapid, of brief duration, and accounts for approximately 60 per cent of the total net K uptake. This process is a function of the extracellular K concentration, is inhibited in acid media, and appears to be a 1 for 1 exchange of extracellular K for intracellular H. The second influx process has a half-time of approximately 12 minutes, and is not affected by acid media. This process is a function of the intracellular Na concentration, is dependent upon the presence of K in the medium, and may be ascribed to a 1 for 1 exchange of extracellular K for intracellular Na. PMID:14080819

  4. Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Díaz, E; Ferrández, A; Prieto, M A; García, J L

    2001-12-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications.

  5. Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Eduardo; Ferrández, Abel; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli has long been recognized as the best-understood living organism, little was known about its abilities to use aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. This review gives an extensive overview of the current knowledge of the catabolism of aromatic compounds by E. coli. After giving a general overview of the aromatic compounds that E. coli strains encounter and mineralize in the different habitats that they colonize, we provide an up-to-date status report on the genes and proteins involved in the catabolism of such compounds, namely, several aromatic acids (phenylacetic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylpropionic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acid) and amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, and dopamine). Other enzymatic activities acting on aromatic compounds in E. coli are also reviewed and evaluated. The review also reflects the present impact of genomic research and how the analysis of the whole E. coli genome reveals novel aromatic catabolic functions. Moreover, evolutionary considerations derived from sequence comparisons between the aromatic catabolic clusters of E. coli and homologous clusters from an increasing number of bacteria are also discussed. The recent progress in the understanding of the fundamentals that govern the degradation of aromatic compounds in E. coli makes this bacterium a very useful model system to decipher biochemical, genetic, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the catabolism of such compounds. In the last part of the review, we discuss strategies and concepts to metabolically engineer E. coli to suit specific needs for biodegradation and biotransformation of aromatics and we provide several examples based on selected studies. Finally, conclusions derived from this review may serve as a lead for future research and applications. PMID:11729263

  6. Effect of carbohydrates on adherence of Escherichica coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, A J; Amundsen, S K; Jones, J M

    1980-01-01

    Adherence of Escherichia coli cells to voided uroepithelial cells from healthy women was measured by use of [3H]uridine-labeled bacteria filtered through a polycarbonate membrane filter (5-micrometer pore size). At a concentration of 2.5% (wt/vol), D-mannose, D-mannitol, alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, and yeast mannan completely inhibited adherence of the bacteria to the epithelial cells. At this same concentration, D-fructose, D-lyxose, D-arabinose, and D-glyceraldehyde partially inhibited adherence. Reducing the concentration of D-mannose, or its derivatives, to between 1.0 and 0.1% resulted in partial inhibition in the adherence of the bacteria; a further reduction in the concentration to between 0.01 and 0.001% caused an enhancement of adherence up to 160% of the control level. Bacterial preincubation in 2.5% D-mannose for 1 min before epithelial cells were added completely inhibited adherence; similar treatment of the epithelial cells had no significant effect on subsequent adherence of the bacteria. Bacteria that were preincubated for 1 h with D-mannose at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.75% showed enhanced adherence. The inhibitory effect of D-mannose was decreased if bacterial adhesive ability, or cell receptivity, increased. A variety of other carbohydrates tested had no effect on the adherence of E. coli to the uroepithelial cells. These results suggest that adherence can be altered by interaction(s) between specific carbohydrate molecules and receptors on the bacterial surface. PMID:7002802

  7. Single Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Simultaneously the Six Categories of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Associated with Enteric Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Maricel; Kruger, Eileen; Durán, Claudia; Lagos, Rosanna; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria; Toro, Cecilia; Vidal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We designed a multiplex PCR for the detection of all categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. This method proved to be specific and rapid in detecting virulence genes from Shiga toxin-producing (stx1, stx2, and eae), enteropathogenic (eae and bfp), enterotoxigenic (stII and lt), enteroinvasive (virF and ipaH), enteroaggregative (aafII), and diffuse adherent (daaE) Escherichia coli in stool samples. PMID:16208019

  8. Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome database.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Niki, Hironori; Kato, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The Profiling of Escherichia coli Chromosome (PEC) database (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/ecoli/pec/) is designed to allow E. coli researchers to efficiently access information from functional genomics studies. The database contains two principal types of data: gene essentiality and a large collection of E. coli genetic research resources. The essentiality data are based on data compilation from published single-gene essentiality studies and on cell growth studies of large-deletion mutants. Using the circular and linear viewers for both whole genomes and the minimal genome, users can not only gain an overview of the genome structure but also retrieve information on contigs, gene products, mutants, deletions, and so forth. In particular, genome-wide exhaustive mutants are an essential resource for studying E. coli gene functions. Although the genomic database was constructed independently from the genetic resources database, users may seamlessly access both types of data. In addition to these data, the PEC database also provides a summary of homologous genes of other bacterial genomes and of protein structure information, with a comprehensive interface. The PEC is thus a convenient and useful platform for contemporary E. coli researchers.

  9. Current Interventions for Controlling Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Cho, Tae Jin; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-01-01

    This review examined scientific reports and articles published from 2007 to 2016 regarding the major environmental sources of pathogenic Escherichia coli and the routes by which they enter the human gastrointestinal tract. The literature describes novel techniques used to combat pathogenic E. coli transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products, food-contact surfaces in processing environments, and food products themselves. Although prevention before contamination is always the best "intervention," many studies aim to identify novel chemical, physical, and biological techniques that inactivate or eliminate pathogenic E. coli cells from breeding livestock, growing crops, and manufactured food products. Such intervention strategies target each stage of the food chain from the perspective of "Farm to Table food safety" and aim to manage major reservoirs of pathogenic E. coli throughout the entire process. Issues related to, and recent trends in, food production must address not only the safety of the food itself but also the safety of those who consume it. Thus, research aims to discover new "natural" antimicrobial agents and to develop "multiple hurdle technology" or other novel technologies that preserve food quality. In addition, this review examines the practical application of recent technologies from the perspective of product quality and safety. It provides comprehensive insight into intervention measures used to ensure food safety, specifically those aimed at pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The 503nm pigment of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kamitakahara, Joyce R.; Polglase, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The yield of cell protein was one-third less for streptomycin-dependent Escherichia coli B than for the wild-type parent strain when both were grown aerobically on a medium with limiting glucose, but anaerobically the yield of protein was similar for both strains. The transient pigment absorbing at 503nm that is known to be present in E. coli and other organisms was not detectable in streptomycin-dependent mutants nor in a non-dependent (energy-deficient) revertant. When wild-type E. coli B was grown on limiting glucose–salts medium containing 2,4 dinitrophenol, the yield of cell protein was decreased and formation of the 503nm pigment was inhibited. Fumarase, aconitase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were de-repressed in E. coli B cells grown with excess of glucose in a medium containing 2,4-dinitrophenol. In air-oxidized, wild-type E. coli B cells, the 503nm pigment appeared before reduced cytochromes when gluconate was the substrate but failed to appear when succinate was the substrate. The results provide evidence for a role of the 503nm pigment in aerobic energy metabolism, possibly as an electron acceptor from NADPH. PMID:4395501

  11. Intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli following immunization with a curli-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Todhunter, D A; Smith, K L; Hogan, J S; Nelson, L

    1991-03-01

    Holstein and Jersey cattle were immunized with a curli-producing strain of Escherichia coli (pCRL65/A012) or a noncurli-producing strain (pUC18/HB101) to determine differences in resistance to establishment of experimental intramammary infection. Cows (n = 6 per group) were immunized at 14 d prior to drying off, 7 d of involution, and at calving with 3 x 10(10) E. coli in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant. At 30 d of lactation, one mammary quarter of each cow was infused with a wild strain of E. coli (727). Escherichia coli 727 was isolated from a naturally occurring intramammary infection and produced curli. All challenged quarters became infected, and all cows developed acute clinical mastitis. Geometric mean duration of intramammary infections was 6 d for both immunization groups. All infections were spontaneously eliminated within 10 d. No differences occurred between immunization groups in blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity, plasma selenium, number of E. coli 727 isolated from secretion after challenge, rectal temperature and SCC response, clinical status of mammary quarters, or DMI. Reduction in milk production after challenge was greater for cows immunized with E. coli pCRL65/A012. Immunization of dairy cattle with a curli-producing strain of E. coli did not protect against experimental intramammary challenge during lactation.

  12. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  13. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  14. Virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Emody, L; Kerényi, M; Nagy, G

    2003-10-01

    Virulence factors of Escherichia coli are of two main types; those produced on the surface of the cell and those produced within the cell and then exported to the site of action. Those on the surface include different sorts of fimbriae that have a role in adhesion to the surface of host cells but may also have additional roles such as tissue invasion, biofilm formation or cytokine induction. The activities of cell wall components are discussed and several exported virulence factors are described that have anti host cell activities. Others virulence factors enable the bacteria to grow in an environment of iron restriction.

  15. Acid tolerance of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M M; Datta, A R

    1995-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains were tested for their ability to survive in acid pH at 37 degrees C. No loss of viability was observed in an O157:H7 EHEC strain (ATCC 43895) at pH levels of 3.0 and 2.5 for at least 5 h. The level of acid tolerance of most EHEC isolates was very high, similar to that of Shigella flexneri strains. The acid tolerance was dependent on the growth phase and pH of the growth medium. PMID:7747983

  16. Detection of Escherichia coli enterotoxins in stools.

    PubMed Central

    Merson, M H; Yolken, R H; Sack, R B; Froehlich, J L; Greenberg, H B; Huq, I; Black, R W

    1980-01-01

    We determined whether enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea could be diagnosed by direct examination of stools for heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. The Y-1 adrenal cell and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detected LT in 85 and 93%, respectively, of stool specimens obtained from adults with acute diarrhea from whom an LT- and ST-producing organism had been isolated. Furthermore, the ELISA assay detected LT in 8 of 35 stool specimens from which no LT-producing E. coli had been isolated. The infant mouse assay was utilized to detect ST in these stool specimens and was found to be an insensitive method, showing positive results in only 36% of the specimens from which an ST-producing organism was isolated. Further studies are warranted to determine the diagnostic value of direct detection of LT in stools, especially by the ELISA method. PMID:6995331

  17. Production of recombinant avidin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Airenne, K J; Sarkkinen, P; Punnonen, E L; Kulomaa, M S

    1994-06-24

    A recombinant avidin (re-Avd), containing amino acids (aa) 1-123 of the native chicken egg-white Avd, was produced in Escherichia coli. When cells were grown at 37 degrees C production was over 1 microgram/ml, due to altering the codon preference of the first ten codons. The re-Avd was recovered as a soluble protein from cells grown at 25 or 30 degrees C, whereas at 37 degrees C it was mostly insoluble in inclusion bodies. Our results indicated that, despite the potentially harmful biotin-binding activity of Avd, it is possible to produce biologically active Avd in E. coli which then can easily be purified by affinity chromatography on a biotin column in a single step.

  18. Engineering ethanologenic Escherichia coli for levoglucosan utilization.

    PubMed

    Layton, Donovan S; Ajjarapu, Avanthi; Choi, Dong Won; Jarboe, Laura R

    2011-09-01

    Levoglucosan is a major product of biomass pyrolysis. While this pyrolyzed biomass, also known as bio-oil, contains sugars that are an attractive fermentation substrate, commonly-used biocatalysts, such as Escherichia coli, lack the ability to metabolize this anhydrosugar. It has previously been shown that recombinant expression of the levoglucosan kinase enzyme enables use of levoglucosan as carbon and energy source. Here, ethanologenic E. coli KO11 was engineered for levoglucosan utilization by recombinant expression of levoglucosan kinase from Lipomyces starkeyi. Our engineering strategy uses a codon-optimized gene that has been chromosomally integrated within the pyruvate to ethanol (PET) operon and does not require additional antibiotics or inducers. Not only does this engineered strain use levoglucosan as sole carbon source, but it also ferments levoglucosan to ethanol. This work demonstrates that existing biocatalysts can be easily modified for levoglucosan utilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Designed phosphoprotein recognition in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Nicholas; Gassaway, Brandon M; Haimovich, Adrian D; Isaacs, Farren J; Rinehart, Jesse; Regan, Lynne

    2014-11-21

    Protein phosphorylation is a central biological mechanism for cellular adaptation to environmental changes. Dysregulation of phosphorylation signaling is implicated in a wide variety of diseases. Thus, the ability to detect and quantify protein phosphorylation is highly desirable for both diagnostic and research applications. Here we present a general strategy for detecting phosphopeptide-protein interactions in Escherichia coli. We first redesign a model tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein to recognize phosphoserine in a sequence-specific fashion and characterize the interaction with its target phosphopeptide in vitro. We then combine in vivo site-specific incorporation of phosphoserine with split mCherry assembly to observe the designed phosphopeptide-protein interaction specificity in E. coli. This in vivo strategy for detecting and characterizing phosphopeptide-protein interactions has numerous potential applications for the study of natural interactions and the design of novel ones.

  20. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  1. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  2. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  3. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies.

  4. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer.

  5. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  6. Extracellular recombinant protein production from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Chen, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Escherichia coli is the most commonly used host for recombinant protein production and metabolic engineering. Extracellular production of enzymes and proteins is advantageous as it could greatly reduce the complexity of a bioprocess and improve product quality. Extracellular production of proteins is necessary for metabolic engineering applications in which substrates are polymers such as lignocelluloses or xenobiotics since adequate uptake of these substrates is often an issue. The dogma that E. coli secretes no protein has been challenged by the recognition of both its natural ability to secrete protein in common laboratory strains and increased ability to secrete proteins in engineered cells. The very existence of this review dedicated to extracellular production is a testimony for outstanding achievements made collectively by the community in this regard. Four strategies have emerged to engineer E. coli cells to secrete recombinant proteins. In some cases, impressive secretion levels, several grams per liter, were reached. This secretion level is on par with other eukaryotic expression systems. Amid the optimism, it is important to recognize that significant challenges remain, especially when considering the success cannot be predicted a priori and involves much trials and errors. This review provides an overview of recent developments in engineering E. coli for extracellular production of recombinant proteins and an analysis of pros and cons of each strategy.

  7. Engineering Escherichia coli to bind to cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijian; Meng, Liuyi; Ni, Congjian; Yao, Lanqiu; Zhang, Fengyu; Jin, Yuji; Mu, Xuelang; Zhu, Shiyu; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shiyu; Yu, Congyu; Wang, Chenggong; Zheng, Pu; Wu, Jie; Kang, Li; Zhang, Haoqian M; Ouyang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    We engineered Escherichia coli cells to bind to cyanobacteria by heterologously producing and displaying lectins of the target cyanobacteria on their surface. To prove the efficacy of our approach, we tested this design on Microcystis aeruginosa with microvirin (Mvn), the lectin endogenously produced by this cyanobacterium. The coding sequence of Mvn was C-terminally fused to the ice nucleation protein NC (INPNC) gene and expressed in E. coli. Results showed that E. coli cells expressing the INPNC::Mvn fusion protein were able to bind to M. aeruginosa and the average number of E. coli cells bound to each cyanobacterial cell was enhanced 8-fold. Finally, a computational model was developed to simulate the binding reaction and help reconstruct the binding parameters. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on the binding of two organisms in liquid culture mediated by the surface display of lectins and it may serve as a novel approach to mediate microbial adhesion.

  8. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Furuta, M; Yamaguchi, M; Tsukamoto, T; Yim, B; Stavarache, C E; Hasiba, K; Maeda, Y

    2004-04-01

    Ultrasonic inactivation of Escherichia coli XL1-Blue has been investigated by high-intensity ultrasonic waves from horn type sonicator (27.5 kHz) utilizing the "squeeze-film effect". The amplitude of the vibration face contacting the sample solution was used as an indication of the ultrasonic power intensity. The inactivation of the E. coli cells by ultrasonic irradiation shows pseudo first-order behavior. The inactivation rate constant gradually increased with increasing amplitude of the vibration face and showed rapid increase above 3 microm (p-p). In contrast, the H2O2 formation was not observed below 3 microm (p-p), indicating that the ultrasonic shock wave might be more important than indirect effect of OH radicals formed by ultrasonic cavitation in this system. The optimal thickness of the squeeze film was determined as 2 mm for the E. coli inactivation. More than 99% of E. coli cells was inactivated within 180-s sonication at the amplitude of 3 microm (p-p) and 2 mm of the thickness of the squeeze film.

  9. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  10. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P.; Nishio, Erick K.; Kobayashi, Renata K. T.; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections. PMID:25170683

  11. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye used to identify Escherichia coli directly from...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye used to identify Escherichia coli directly from...

  13. Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Shilpakala, S R; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated and the two organisms were susceptible to the inner gel of aloe barbadensis, though it was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. The reduction for Aloe Vera (AV) needed to suppress the growth of the gram-positive bacterium was attributed to the structural differences between the two organisms.

  14. Enteroadherent Escherichia coli as a cause of diarrhea among children in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, J J; Oberhelman, R A; Dupont, H L; Javier de la Cabada, F; Garibay, E V

    1987-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) often exhibits localized adherence or diffuse adherence to HEp-2 cells. We recently provided evidence that HEp-2 cell-adherent or enteroadherent E. coli (EAEC) not belonging to EPEC serogroups was the cause of diarrhea among U.S. travelers to Mexico. In the present study, we looked for EAEC and EPEC in stool specimens from 154 children with acute diarrhea and 137 well children seen at several outpatient clinics in Guadalajara, Mexico. EAEC showing localized adherence (EAEC-L) was isolated from 13.0% of the patients and 0.7% of the controls (P less than 0.0001). EAEC showing diffuse adherence (EAEC-D) was recovered from 20.8% of the patients and 7.3% of the controls (P less than 0.001). EPEC was isolated from 4.5 and 6.7% of the patients and controls, respectively. Among all enteropathogens, only enterotoxigenic E. coli occurred as commonly (21.4%) as EAEC-D and EAEC-L did in children with diarrhea. Of the EAEC-L strains isolated from children with diarrhea, 20% belonged to recognized EPEC serogroups, and 3.1% of EAEC-D strains belonged to recognized EPEC serogroups. This study suggests that EAEC may be an important pediatric enteropathogen in Mexican children with diarrhea and further supports the observation that adherence to HEp-2 cells may be a marker of virulence independent of EPEC serogroup among E. coli strains. PMID:3312288

  15. Effects of Toluene on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert W.; DeMoss, J. A.

    1965-01-01

    Jackson, Robert W. (University of California, San Diego, La Jolla), and J. A. DeMoss. Effects of toluene on Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 90:1420–1425. 1965.—When toluene is added at appropriate levels to exponentially growing cultures of Escherichia coli, a time-dependent loss of turbidity is observed which is concurrent with a loss of material to the medium and with unmasking of β-galactosidase. In addition, the galactoside permease system is totally destroyed. Electron micrographs confirm the indications that the cells are not being lysed by toluene, although the cytoplasm collapses to the interior of the cell. Included in the material lost from the cell after toluene treatment is 85% of the total ribonucleic acid (RNA), the principal source of which appears to be the ribosomes. The loss of RNA is temperature-dependent. Protein is also lost to the medium as a function of both temperature and available toluene. Up to 25% of the total protein is found in the medium, the precise amount depending on the level of toluene employed. Zone centrifugation studies of extracts from treated cells indicate that toluene elicits a rapid disaggregation of ribosomes that is terminated, at any stage, by disruption of the cells. The disaggregation is temperature-dependent and does not occur at 4 C. It appears to be distinct from the actual degradation of ribosomal RNA and is accompanied by an accumulation of small particles during the initial phases of treatment at 21 C. Toluene added to crude extracts of normal E. coli cells is unable to cause detectable ribosome destruction. Images PMID:5321488

  16. Comparison of 61 Sequenced Escherichia coli Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important component of the biosphere and is an ideal model for studies of processes involved in bacterial genome evolution. Sixty-one publically available E. coli and Shigella spp. sequenced genomes are compared, using basic methods to produce phylogenetic and proteomics trees, and to identify the pan- and core genomes of this set of sequenced strains. A hierarchical clustering of variable genes allowed clear separation of the strains into clusters, including known pathotypes; clinically relevant serotypes can also be resolved in this way. In contrast, when in silico MLST was performed, many of the various strains appear jumbled and less well resolved. The predicted pan-genome comprises 15,741 gene families, and only 993 (6%) of the families are represented in every genome, comprising the core genome. The variable or ‘accessory’ genes thus make up more than 90% of the pan-genome and about 80% of a typical genome; some of these variable genes tend to be co-localized on genomic islands. The diversity within the species E. coli, and the overlap in gene content between this and related species, suggests a continuum rather than sharp species borders in this group of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:20623278

  17. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela Kr

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions.

  18. Role of Escherichia coli in Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Vasigala, Veneela KR

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy consumption coupled with depleting petroleum reserves and increased greenhouse gas emissions have renewed our interest in generating fuels from renewable energy sources via microbial fermentation. Central to this problem is the choice of microorganism that catalyzes the production of fuels at high volumetric productivity and yield from cheap and abundantly available renewable energy sources. Microorganisms that are metabolically engineered to redirect renewable carbon sources into desired fuel products are contemplated as best choices to obtain high volumetric productivity and yield. Considering the availability of vast knowledge in genomic and metabolic fronts, Escherichia coli is regarded as a primary choice for the production of biofuels. Here, we reviewed the microbial production of liquid biofuels that have the potential to be used either alone or in combination with the present-day fuels. We specifically highlighted the metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches used to improve the production of biofuels from E. coli over the past few years. We also discussed the challenges that still exist for the biofuel production from E. coli and their possible solutions. PMID:27441002

  19. Microbubble assisted polyhydroxybutyrate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Inan, Kadriye; Sal, Fulya Ay; Rahman, Asif; Putman, Ryan J; Agblevor, Foster A; Miller, Charles D

    2016-07-09

    One of the potential limitations of large scale aerobic Escherichia coli fermentation is the need for increased dissolved oxygen for culture growth and bioproduct generation. As culture density increases the poor solubility of oxygen in water becomes one of the limiting factors for cell growth and product formation. A potential solution is to use a microbubble dispersion (MBD) generating device to reduce the diameter and increase the surface area of sparged bubbles in the fermentor. In this study, a recombinant E. coli strain was used to produce polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) under conventional and MBD aerobic fermentation conditions. In conventional fermentation operating at 350 rpm and 0.8 vvm air flow rate, an OD600 of 6.21 and PHB yield of 23 % (dry cell basis) was achieved. MBD fermentation with similar bioreactor operating parameters produced an OD600 of 8.17 and PHB yield of 43 % PHB, which was nearly double that of the conventional fermentation. This study demonstrated that using a MBD generator can increase oxygen mass transfer into the aqueous phase, increasing E. coli growth and bioproduct generation.

  20. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Arabidopsis alternative oxidase sustains Escherichia coli respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A M; Söll, D

    1992-01-01

    Glutamyl-tRNA reductase, encoded by the hemA gene, is the first enzyme in porphyrin biosynthesis in many organisms. Hemes, important porphyrin derivatives, are essential components of redox enzymes, such as cytochromes. Thus a hemA Escherichia coli strain (SASX41B) is deficient in cytochrome-mediated aerobic respiration. Upon complementation of this strain with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, we isolated a clone which permitted the SASX41B strain to grow aerobically. The clone encodes the gene for Arabidopsis alternative oxidase, whose deduced amino acid sequence was found to have 71% identity with that of the enzyme from the voodoo lily, Sauromatum guttatum. The Arabidopsis protein is expressed as a 31-kDa protein in E. coli and confers on this organism cyanide-resistant growth, which in turn is sensitive to salicylhydroxamate. This implies that a single polypeptide is sufficient for alternative oxidase activity. Based on these observations we propose that a cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway operates in the transformed E. coli hemA strain. Introduction of this pathway now opens the way to genetic/molecular biological investigations of alternative oxidase and its cofactor. Images PMID:1438286

  3. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by <15% decrease in DMY and <30 days until return to normal (n = 5), and 'long inflammation', characterized by >15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  4. Comparative proteomics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli during growth in human urine identify UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae as an adherence factor involved in biofilm formation and binding to uroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wurpel, Daniël J; Totsika, Makrina; Allsopp, Luke P; Webb, Richard I; Moriel, Danilo G; Schembri, Mark A

    2016-01-10

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. For the successful colonisation of the human urinary tract, UPEC employ a diverse collection of secreted or surface-exposed virulence factors including toxins, iron acquisition systems and adhesins. In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was utilised to define the UPEC pan and core surface proteome following growth in pooled human urine. Identified proteins were investigated for subcellular origin, prevalence and homology to characterised virulence factors. Fourteen core surface proteins were identified, as well as eleven iron uptake receptor proteins and four distinct fimbrial types, including type 1, P, F1C/S and a previously uncharacterised fimbrial type, designated UCA-like (UCL) fimbriae in this study. These pathogenicity island (PAI)-associated fimbriae are related to UCA fimbriae of Proteus mirabilis, associated with UPEC and exclusively found in members of the E. coli B2 and D phylogroup. We further demonstrated that UCL fimbriae promote significant biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces and mediate specific attachment to exfoliated human uroepithelial cells. Combined, this study has defined the surface proteomic profiles and core surface proteome of UPEC during growth in human urine and identified a new type of fimbriae that may contribute to UTI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of static magnetic fields on the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Peña, María A; Tavizon, Gustavo; Puente, José L; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Eslava, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    This study reports the effects of exposing cells of the prototypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 to static magnetic fields (SMF) of varying intensities to observe their capacity to autoaggregate and the effect on cell adherence. The results showed that bacteria exposure over the course of 5 min to an intensity of 53 mT reduced autoaggregation by 28%. However, with intensities of up to 100 mT with the same exposure time, bacteria autoaggregation was reduced by approximately 50%; and after 30 min at the same intensity, it was indistinguishable from that observed in a non-autoaggregative strain. Furthermore, it was observed that SMF treatment also modified the typical localized adherence pattern of EPEC E2348/69. The observed effects are not related to bacteria damage. The above was confirmed because, after a 107 mT SMF treatment over the course of 30 min, cell viability and membrane permeability were the same to that observed in untreated controls. The obtained results suggest that the SMF effect on the E2348/69 EPEC strain alters the expression of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP), due to the fact that the same strain without the EPEC adherence factor plasmid that encodes the BFP operon was unable to autoaggregate. Electron microscopic analyses revealed structural differences between cells exposed to SMF with respect to untreated controls. In conclusion, the SMF treatment of 107 mT for 30 min reduced EPEC E2348/69 autoaggregation and modified its adherence pattern, with both events likely being associated with changes in BFP expression. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:570-578, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying resistance genotypes of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Methods: Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured f...

  7. Oxygen sensitivity of an Escherichia coli mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Adler, H; Mural, R; Suttle, B

    1992-01-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that Oxys-6, an oxygen-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli AB1157, is defective in the region of the hemB locus. Oxys-6 is capable of growth under aerobic conditions only if cultures are initiated at low-inoculum levels. Aerobic liquid cultures are limited to a cell density of 10(7) cells per ml by the accumulation of a metabolically produced, low-molecular-weight, heat-stable material in complex organic media. Both Oxys-6 and AB1157 cells produce the material, but only aerobic cultures of the mutant are inhibited by it. The material is produced by both intact cells and cell extracts in complex media. This reaction also occurs when the amino acid L-lysine is substituted for complex media. Images PMID:1551829

  8. Mechanism of Escherichia coli Resistance to Pyrrhocoricin

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Shalini; Modak, Joyanta K.; Ryan, Catherine S.; Garcia-Bustos, Jose; Davies, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their lack of toxicity to mammalian cells and good serum stability, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PR-AMPs) have been proposed as promising candidates for the treatment of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens. It has been hypothesized that these peptides act on multiple targets within bacterial cells, and therefore the likelihood of the emergence of resistance was considered to be low. Here, we show that spontaneous Escherichia coli mutants resistant to pyrrhocoricin arise at a frequency of approximately 6 × 10−7. Multiple independently derived mutants all contained a deletion in a nonessential gene that encodes the putative peptide uptake permease SbmA. Sensitivity could be restored to the mutants by complementation with an intact copy of the sbmA gene. These findings question the viability of the development of insect PR-AMPs as antimicrobials. PMID:24590485

  9. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    PubMed Central

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY are not required for motility but may regulate sigma F activity, perhaps in response to a putative cell density signal that may be detected by FliY, a member of the bacterial extracellular solute-binding protein family 3. PMID:8550423

  10. Animal models of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Casandra W.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been acknowledged as an emerging cause of gastroenteritis worldwide for over two decades. Epidemiologists are revealing the role of EAEC in diarrheal outbreaks as a more common occurrence than ever suggested before. EAEC induced diarrhea is most commonly associated with travelers, children and immunocompromised individuals however its afflictions are not limited to any particular demographic. Many attributes have been discovered and characterized surrounding the capability of EAEC to provoke a potent pro-inflammatory immune response, however cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying initiation, progression and outcomes are largely unknown. This limited understanding can be attributed to heterogeneity in strains and the lack of adequate animal models. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about EAEC etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestation. Additionally, current animal models and their limitations will be discussed along with the value of applying systems-wide approaches such as computational modeling to study host-EAEC interactions. PMID:23680797

  11. FdeC, a novel broadly conserved Escherichia coli adhesin eliciting protection against urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Nesta, Barbara; Spraggon, Glen; Alteri, Christopher; Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Rosini, Roberto; Veggi, Daniele; Smith, Sara; Bertoldi, Isabella; Pastorello, Ilaria; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Fontana, Maria Rita; Frankel, Gad; Mobley, Harry L T; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serino, Laura; Soriani, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli species and the absence of a pan-protective vaccine pose major health concerns. We recently identified, by subtractive reverse vaccinology, nine Escherichia coli antigens that protect mice from sepsis. In this study, we characterized one of them, ECOK1_0290, named FdeC (factor adherence E. coli) for its ability to mediate E. coli adhesion to mammalian cells and extracellular matrix. This adhesive propensity was consistent with the X-ray structure of one of the FdeC domains that shows a striking structural homology to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and enteropathogenic E. coli intimin. Confocal imaging analysis revealed that expression of FdeC on the bacterial surface is triggered by interaction of E. coli with host cells. This phenotype was also observed in bladder tissue sections derived from mice infected with an extraintestinal strain. Indeed, we observed that FdeC contributes to colonization of the bladder and kidney, with the wild-type strain outcompeting the fdeC mutant in cochallenge experiments. Finally, intranasal mucosal immunization with recombinant FdeC significantly reduced kidney colonization in mice challenged transurethrally with uropathogenic E. coli, supporting a role for FdeC in urinary tract infections. Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains are involved in a diverse spectrum of diseases, including intestinal and extraintestinal infections (urinary tract infections and sepsis). The absence of a broadly protective vaccine against all these E. coli strains is a major problem for modern society due to high costs to health care systems. Here, we describe the structural and functional properties of a recently reported protective antigen, named FdeC, and elucidated its putative role during extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli infection by using both in vitro and in vivo infection models. The conservation of FdeC among strains of different E. coli pathotypes highlights its potential as

  12. The thermal impulse response of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Paster, Eli; Ryu, William S.

    2008-01-01

    Swimming Escherichia coli responds to changes in temperature by modifying its motor behavior. Previous studies using populations of cells have shown that E. coli accumulate in spatial thermal gradients, but these experiments did not cleanly separate thermal responses from chemotactic responses. Here we have isolated the thermal response by studying the behavior of single, tethered cells. The motor output of cells grown at 33°C was measured at constant temperature, from 10° to 40°C, and in response to small, impulsive increases in temperature, from 23° to 43°C. The thermal impulse response at temperatures < 31°C is similar to the chemotactic impulse response: Both follow a similar time course, share the same directionality, and show biphasic characteristics. At temperatures > 31°C, some cells show an inverted response, switching from warm- to cold-seeking behavior. The fraction of inverted responses increases nonlinearly with temperature, switching steeply at the preferred temperature of 37°C. PMID:18385380

  13. Characterization of enterotoxigenic bovine Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sivaswamy, G; Gyles, C L

    1976-01-01

    Among 300 isolates of bovine Escherichia coli, 56 which had been found enterotoxigenic in calf gut loops were characterized on the basis of O and K antigens, colonial morphology and resistance to seven antimicrobial drugs. The 56 isolates enterotoxigenic in the calf were compared with the nonenterotoxigenic ones. Of the 56 enterotoxigenic E. coli the majority possessed the A type of K antigen and had OK groups, O9:K(PS274) or O101:K(RVC118). Fourteen of these isolates had the K99 antigen. None of 27 isolates found enterotoxigenic in the piglet but not in the calf possessed the K99 antigen or belonged to OK groups O9:K(PS274) or O101:K(RVC118). Comparison of the patterns of resistance to seven antimicrobial drugs showed that all enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and sulphachlorphyridiazine and that there was no significant difference in the patterns between the two groups. The majority of enterotoxigenic isolates were mucoid, whereas most of the nonenterotoxigenic isolates were nonmucoid. PMID:793694

  14. The crystal structure Escherichia coli Spy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eunju; Kim, Dong Young; Gross, Carol A; Gross, John D; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli spheroplast protein y (EcSpy) is a small periplasmic protein that is homologous with CpxP, an inhibitor of the extracytoplasmic stress reponse. Stress conditions such as spheroplast formation induce the expression of Spy via the Cpx or the Bae two-component systems in E. coli, though the function of Spy is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of EcSpy, which reveals a long kinked hairpin-like structure of four α-helices that form an antiparallel dimer. The dimer contains a curved oval shape with a highly positively charged concave surface that may function as a ligand binding site. Sequence analysis reveals that Spy is highly conserved over the Enterobacteriaceae family. Notably, three conserved regions that contain identical residues and two LTxxQ motifs are placed at the horizontal end of the dimer structure, stablizing the overall fold. CpxP also contains the conserved sequence motifs and has a predicted secondary structure similar to Spy, suggesting that Spy and CpxP likely share the same fold. PMID:20799348

  15. The crystal structure Escherichia coli Spy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eunju; Kim, Dong Young; Gross, Carol A; Gross, John D; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2010-11-01

    Escherichia coli spheroplast protein y (EcSpy) is a small periplasmic protein that is homologous with CpxP, an inhibitor of the extracytoplasmic stress response. Stress conditions such as spheroplast formation induce the expression of Spy via the Cpx or the Bae two-component systems in E. coli, though the function of Spy is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of EcSpy, which reveals a long kinked hairpin-like structure of four α-helices that form an antiparallel dimer. The dimer contains a curved oval shape with a highly positively charged concave surface that may function as a ligand binding site. Sequence analysis reveals that Spy is highly conserved over the Enterobacteriaceae family. Notably, three conserved regions that contain identical residues and two LTxxQ motifs are placed at the horizontal end of the dimer structure, stabilizing the overall fold. CpxP also contains the conserved sequence motifs and has a predicted secondary structure similar to Spy, suggesting that Spy and CpxP likely share the same fold.

  16. Chemotaxis Toward Sugars in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Julius; Hazelbauer, Gerald L.; Dahl, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Using a quantitative assay for measuring chemotaxis, we tested a variety of sugars and sugar derivatives for their ability to attract Escherichia coli bacteria. The most effective attractants, i.e., those that have thresholds near 10−5 M or below, are N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, 6-deoxy-d-glucose, d-fructose, d-fucose, 1-d-glycerol-β-d-galactoside, galactitol, d-galactose, d-glucosamine, d-glucose, α-d-glucose-1-phosphate, lactose, maltose, d-mannitol, d-mannose, methyl-β-d-galactoside, methyl-β-d-glucoside, d-ribose, d-sorbitol, and trehalose. Lactose, and probably d-glucose-1-phosphate, are attractive only after conversion to the free monosaccharide, while the other attractants do not require breakdown for taxis. Nine different chemoreceptors are involved in detecting these various attractants. They are called the N-acetyl-glucosamine, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, mannitol, ribose, sorbitol, and trehalose chemoreceptors; the specificity of each was studied. The chemoreceptors, with the exception of the one for d-glucose, are inducible. The galactose-binding protein serves as the recognition component of the galactose chemoreceptor. E. coli also has osmotically shockable binding activities for maltose and d-ribose, and these appear to serve as the recognition components for the corresponding chemoreceptors. PMID:4580570

  17. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l−1). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters. PMID:24609358

  18. [Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Pathogenesis and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Prats, G; Llovet, T

    1995-03-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is an intestinal pathogen causing enteritis, with a similar pathogenic mechanism to that of Shigella, which causes an epithelial invasion of the large bowel leading to inflammation and ulceration of the mucosa. The patients often develop the symptoms of bacillary dysentery. The EIEC strains are atypical in their biochemical reactions and may ferment lactose late or not at all, are lysine decarboxilase negative, and non motile. In addition, most EIEC strains express somatic antigens which are either strongly related or identical to Shigella antigens. EIEC invasion is mediated by a large plasmid (140 MDa) coding for the production of several outer membrane proteins involved in invasiveness. These strains have been isolated with some regularity in South America, the Extreme Orient, and Eastern Europe. In Spain the incidence of enteroinvasive E. coli is extraordinarily low (0.2%), the serogroup O124 being the most frequently isolated. EIEC enteritis has been associated to sporadic cases occurring in travellers. Occasional outbreaks related to ingestion of contaminated water or food and person to person have been reported.

  19. Isobutanol production from cellobiose in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shuchi H; Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    Converting lignocellulosics into biofuels remains a promising route for biofuel production. To facilitate strain development for specificity and productivity of cellulosic biofuel production, a user friendly Escherichia coli host was engineered to produce isobutanol, a drop-in biofuel candidate, from cellobiose. A beta-glucosidase was expressed extracellularly by either excretion into the media, or anchoring to the cell membrane. The excretion system allowed for E. coli to grow with cellobiose as a sole carbon source at rates comparable to those with glucose. The system was then combined with isobutanol production genes in three different configurations to determine whether gene arrangement affected isobutanol production. The most productive strain converted cellobiose to isobutanol in titers of 7.64 ± 0.19 g/L with a productivity of 0.16 g/L/h. These results demonstrate that efficient cellobiose degradation and isobutanol production can be achieved by a single organism, and provide insight for optimization of strains for future use in a consolidated bioprocessing system for renewable production of isobutanol.

  20. gltBDF operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, I; Bastarrachea, F; Covarrubias, A A

    1988-01-01

    A 2.0-kilobase DNA fragment carrying antibiotic resistance markers was inserted into the gltB gene of Escherichia coli previously cloned in a multicopy plasmid. Replacement of the chromosomal gltB+ gene by the gltB225::omega mutation led to cells unable to synthesize glutamate synthase, utilize growth rate-limiting nitrogen sources, or derepress their glutamine synthetase. The existence of a gltBDF operon encoding the large (gltB) and small (gltD) subunits of glutamate synthase and a regulatory peptide (gltF) at 69 min of the E. coli linkage map was deduced from complementation analysis. A plasmid carrying the entire gltB+D+F+ operon complemented cells for all three of the mutant phenotypes associated with the polar gltB225::omega mutation in the chromosome. By contrast, plasmids carrying gltB+ only complemented cells for glutamate synthase activity. A major tricistronic mRNA molecule was detected from Northern (RNA blot) DNA-RNA hybridization experiments with DNA probes containing single genes of the operon. A 30,200-dalton polypeptide was identified as the gltF product, the lack of which was responsible for the inability of cells to use nitrogen-limiting sources associated with gltB225::omega. Images PMID:2448295

  1. RESISTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI TO TETRACYCLINES.

    PubMed

    FRANKLIN, T J; GODFREY, A

    1965-01-01

    1. A strain of Escherichia coli highly resistant to chlortetracycline and partially cross-resistant to tetracycline has been isolated. 2. The nitro-reductase system of the resistant cells was inhibited to a smaller extent by chlortetracycline than was the corresponding enzyme of sensitive cells. 3. The incorporation of leucine in vitro into the ribosomal protein of cell-free preparations from sensitive and resistant cells was equally inhibited by chlortetracycline. 4. Resistant cells accumulated much less chlortetracycline and tetracycline than did sensitive cells when both were cultured in the presence of these drugs. 5. The uptake of tetracycline by both sensitive and resistant E. coli was dependent on the presence of glucose in the medium. 6. Fractionation of cells cultured in medium containing [(14)C]chlortetracycline indicated that the largest proportion of radioactivity in sensitive cells was in the fraction consisting mainly of cell-wall material. There was no concentration of radioactivity in any one fraction of the resistant cells. 7. No evidence could be obtained for a specific tetracycline-excretion system in the resistant cells. 8. The significance of these results in relation to current theories of the antibiotic action of and resistance to the tetracycline drugs is discussed.

  2. Tuning Escherichia coli for membrane protein overexpression.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Samuel; Klepsch, Mirjam M; Schlegel, Susan; Appel, Ansgar; Draheim, Roger; Tarry, Michael; Högbom, Martin; van Wijk, Klaas J; Slotboom, Dirk J; Persson, Jan O; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2008-09-23

    A simple generic method for optimizing membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli is still lacking. We have studied the physiological response of the widely used "Walker strains" C41(DE3) and C43(DE3), which are derived from BL21(DE3), to membrane protein overexpression. For unknown reasons, overexpression of many membrane proteins in these strains is hardly toxic, often resulting in high overexpression yields. By using a combination of physiological, proteomic, and genetic techniques we have shown that mutations in the lacUV5 promoter governing expression of T7 RNA polymerase are key to the improved membrane protein overexpression characteristics of the Walker strains. Based on this observation, we have engineered a derivative strain of E. coli BL21(DE3), termed Lemo21(DE3), in which the activity of the T7 RNA polymerase can be precisely controlled by its natural inhibitor T7 lysozyme (T7Lys). Lemo21(DE3) is tunable for membrane protein overexpression and conveniently allows optimizing overexpression of any given membrane protein by using only a single strain rather than a multitude of different strains. The generality and simplicity of our approach make it ideal for high-throughput applications.

  3. Tuning Escherichia coli for membrane protein overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Samuel; Klepsch, Mirjam M.; Schlegel, Susan; Appel, Ansgar; Draheim, Roger; Tarry, Michael; Högbom, Martin; van Wijk, Klaas J.; Slotboom, Dirk J.; Persson, Jan O.; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2008-01-01

    A simple generic method for optimizing membrane protein overexpression in Escherichia coli is still lacking. We have studied the physiological response of the widely used “Walker strains” C41(DE3) and C43(DE3), which are derived from BL21(DE3), to membrane protein overexpression. For unknown reasons, overexpression of many membrane proteins in these strains is hardly toxic, often resulting in high overexpression yields. By using a combination of physiological, proteomic, and genetic techniques we have shown that mutations in the lacUV5 promoter governing expression of T7 RNA polymerase are key to the improved membrane protein overexpression characteristics of the Walker strains. Based on this observation, we have engineered a derivative strain of E. coli BL21(DE3), termed Lemo21(DE3), in which the activity of the T7 RNA polymerase can be precisely controlled by its natural inhibitor T7 lysozyme (T7Lys). Lemo21(DE3) is tunable for membrane protein overexpression and conveniently allows optimizing overexpression of any given membrane protein by using only a single strain rather than a multitude of different strains. The generality and simplicity of our approach make it ideal for high-throughput applications. PMID:18796603

  4. Nucleotide excision repair in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, B

    1990-01-01

    One of the best-studied DNA repair pathways is nucleotide excision repair, a process consisting of DNA damage recognition, incision, excision, repair resynthesis, and DNA ligation. Escherichia coli has served as a model organism for the study of this process. Recently, many of the proteins that mediate E. coli nucleotide excision have been purified to homogeneity; this had led to a molecular description of this repair pathway. One of the key repair enzymes of this pathway is the UvrABC nuclease complex. The individual subunits of this enzyme cooperate in a complex series of partial reactions to bind to and incise the DNA near a damaged nucleotide. The UvrABC complex displays a remarkable substrate diversity. Defining the structural features of DNA lesions that provide the specificity for damage recognition by the UvrABC complex is of great importance, since it represents a unique form of protein-DNA interaction. Using a number of in vitro assays, researchers have been able to elucidate the action mechanism of the UvrABC nuclease complex. Current research is devoted to understanding how these complex events are mediated within the living cell. PMID:2181258

  5. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters.

  6. Independence of replisomes in Escherichia coli chromosomalreplication

    SciTech Connect

    Breier, Adam M.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2005-03-13

    In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.

  7. Metabolism of Escherichia coli injured by copper.

    PubMed

    Domek, M J; Robbins, J E; Anderson, M E; McFeters, G A

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli injured by copper in carbonate buffer simulating the drinking water environment showed decreased oxygen utilization. Oxygraph measurements revealed that copper-injured bacteria had a rate of oxygen utilization that was less than 25% of that of control cells. Respirometry experiments measured rates over a longer period of time and showed similar trends. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C nmr) and gas chromatography were used to identify differences in metabolism between healthy and injured populations of E. coli. The rate of glucose utilization by injured cells under anaerobic conditions was 64% of that of healthy cells. The rates of lactate and ethanol accumulation were 88 and 50% of the control, respectively. The 13C nmr studies of oxygenated cultures revealed differences in the accumulation of acetate and glutamine. Aerobic utilization of glucose and succinate by injured cells were 87 and 21% of the rate of the controls, respectively. Additional studies revealed injured cells had a decreased ability to reduce 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) with a variety of carbohydrate substrates. Injured cells reduced greater quantities of INT than healthy cells when NADH was used as a substrate. A comparison of metabolic end products suggested that injured cells also had considerable differences in carbon flow compared with healthy cells.

  8. Biosynthesis of ethylene glycol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaiwei; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Nisola, Grace M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important platform chemical with steadily expanding global demand. Its commercial production is currently limited to fossil resources; no biosynthesis route has been delineated. Herein, a biosynthesis route for EG production from D-xylose is reported. This route consists of four steps: D-xylose → D-xylonate → 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate → glycoaldehyde → EG. Respective enzymes, D-xylose dehydrogenase, D-xylonate dehydratase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase, and glycoaldehyde reductase, were assembled. The route was implemented in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, in which the D-xylose → D-xylulose reaction was prevented by disrupting the D-xylose isomerase gene. The most efficient construct produced 11.7 g L(-1) of EG from 40.0 g L(-1) of D-xylose. Glycolate is a carbon-competing by-product during EG production in E. coli; blockage of glycoaldehyde → glycolate reaction was also performed by disrupting the gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase, but from this approach, EG productivity was not improved but rather led to D-xylonate accumulation. To channel more carbon flux towards EG than the glycolate pathway, further systematic metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies are still required to improve EG productivity.

  9. Surface Expression of ω-Transaminase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Martin; Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair

    2014-01-01

    Chiral amines are important for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and there is rapidly growing interest to use transaminases for their synthesis. Since the cost of the enzyme is an important factor for process economy, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts is attractive, since expensive purification and immobilization steps can be avoided. Display of the protein on the cell surface provides a possible way to reduce the mass transfer limitations of such biocatalysts. However, transaminases need to dimerize in order to become active, and furthermore, they require the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate; consequently, successful transaminase surface expression has not been reported thus far. In this work, we produced an Arthrobacter citreus ω-transaminase in Escherichia coli using a surface display vector based on the autotransporter adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I), which has previously been used for display of dimeric proteins. The correct localization of the transaminase in the E. coli outer membrane and its orientation toward the cell exterior were verified. Furthermore, transaminase activity was detected exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, showing that successful dimerization had occurred. The transaminase was found to be present in both full-length and proteolytically degraded forms. The removal of this proteolysis is considered to be the main obstacle to achieving sufficient whole-cell transaminase activity. PMID:24487538

  10. Cyclomodulins in urosepsis strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Cady, Anne; Robin, Frédéric; Sivignon, Adeline; Oswald, Eric; Bonnet, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Determinants of urosepsis in Escherichia coli remain incompletely defined. Cyclomodulins (CMs) are a growing functional family of toxins that hijack the eukaryotic cell cycle. Four cyclomodulin types are actually known in E. coli: cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNFs), cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif), cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), and the pks-encoded toxin. In the present study, the distribution of CM-encoding genes and the functionality of these toxins were investigated in 197 E. coli strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urosepsis (n = 146) and from uninfected subjects (n = 51). This distribution was analyzed in relation to the phylogenetic background, clinical origin, and antibiotic resistance of the strains. It emerged from this study that strains harboring the pks island and the cnf1 gene (i) were strongly associated with the B2 phylogroup (P, <0.001), (ii) frequently harbored both toxin-encoded genes in phylogroup B2 (33%), and (iii) were predictive of a urosepsis origin (P, <0.001 to 0.005). However, the prevalences of the pks island among phylogroup B2 strains, in contrast to those of the cnf1 gene, were not significantly different between fecal and urosepsis groups, suggesting that the pks island is more important for the colonization process and the cnf1 gene for virulence. pks- or cnf1-harboring strains were significantly associated with susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and quinolones [P, <0.001 to 0.043]). Otherwise, only 6% and 1% of all strains harbored the cdtB and cif genes, respectively, with no particular distribution by phylogenetic background, antimicrobial susceptibility, or clinical origin.

  11. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-21

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. © 2015 The

  12. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  13. Identification of pseudouridine methyltransferase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ero, Rya; Peil, Lauri; Liiv, Aivar; Remme, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    In ribosomal RNA, modified nucleosides are found in functionally important regions, but their function is obscure. Stem–loop 69 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA contains three modified nucleosides: pseudouridines at positions 1911 and 1917, and N3 methyl-pseudouridine (m3Ψ) at position 1915. The gene for pseudouridine methyltransferase was previously not known. We identified E. coli protein YbeA as the methyltransferase methylating Ψ1915 in 23S rRNA. The E. coli ybeA gene deletion strain lacks the N3 methylation at position 1915 of 23S rRNA as revealed by primer extension and nucleoside analysis by HPLC. Methylation at position 1915 is restored in the ybeA deletion strain when recombinant YbeA protein is expressed from a plasmid. In addition, we show that purified YbeA protein is able to methylate pseudouridine in vitro using 70S ribosomes but not 50S subunits from the ybeA deletion strain as substrate. Pseudouridine is the preferred substrate as revealed by the inability of YbeA to methylate uridine at position 1915. This shows that YbeA is acting at the final stage during ribosome assembly, probably during translation initiation. Hereby, we propose to rename the YbeA protein to RlmH according to uniform nomenclature of RNA methyltransferases. RlmH belongs to the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases. RlmH was found to be well conserved in bacteria, and the gene is present in plant and in several archaeal genomes. RlmH is the first pseudouridine specific methyltransferase identified so far and is likely to be the only one existing in bacteria, as m3Ψ1915 is the only methylated pseudouridine in bacteria described to date. PMID:18755836

  14. Identification of pseudouridine methyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ero, Rya; Peil, Lauri; Liiv, Aivar; Remme, Jaanus

    2008-10-01

    In ribosomal RNA, modified nucleosides are found in functionally important regions, but their function is obscure. Stem-loop 69 of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA contains three modified nucleosides: pseudouridines at positions 1911 and 1917, and N3 methyl-pseudouridine (m(3)Psi) at position 1915. The gene for pseudouridine methyltransferase was previously not known. We identified E. coli protein YbeA as the methyltransferase methylating Psi1915 in 23S rRNA. The E. coli ybeA gene deletion strain lacks the N3 methylation at position 1915 of 23S rRNA as revealed by primer extension and nucleoside analysis by HPLC. Methylation at position 1915 is restored in the ybeA deletion strain when recombinant YbeA protein is expressed from a plasmid. In addition, we show that purified YbeA protein is able to methylate pseudouridine in vitro using 70S ribosomes but not 50S subunits from the ybeA deletion strain as substrate. Pseudouridine is the preferred substrate as revealed by the inability of YbeA to methylate uridine at position 1915. This shows that YbeA is acting at the final stage during ribosome assembly, probably during translation initiation. Hereby, we propose to rename the YbeA protein to RlmH according to uniform nomenclature of RNA methyltransferases. RlmH belongs to the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases. RlmH was found to be well conserved in bacteria, and the gene is present in plant and in several archaeal genomes. RlmH is the first pseudouridine specific methyltransferase identified so far and is likely to be the only one existing in bacteria, as m(3)Psi1915 is the only methylated pseudouridine in bacteria described to date.

  15. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans. PMID:25791315

  16. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-20

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans.

  17. Virulence inhibition by zinc in shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Crane, John K; Byrd, Isaac Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2011-04-01

    Previously, our laboratories reported that zinc inhibited expression of several important virulence factors in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and reduced EPEC-induced intestinal damage in vivo. Since EPEC is genetically related to Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), we wondered whether the beneficial effects of zinc extended to STEC as well. Treatment options for STEC infection are very limited, since antibiotics tend to exacerbate disease via enhanced toxin production, so a safe intervention for this infection would be welcome. In this study, we report that in STEC strains zinc inhibits adherence to cultured cells as well as expression of EHEC secreted protein A (EspA). In addition, zinc inhibits the expression of Shiga toxin (Stx) at both the protein and the RNA level. Zinc inhibits basal and antibiotic-induced Stx production and inhibits both Stx1 and Stx2 by ≥90% at a concentration of 0.4 mM zinc. Rabbit EPEC strains were selected for acquisition of Stx-encoding bacteriophages, and these rabbit STEC strains (designated RDEC-H19A and E22-stx2) were used to test the effects of zinc in vivo in ligated rabbit intestinal loops. In vivo, zinc reduced fluid secretion into loops, inhibited mucosal adherence, reduced the amount of toxin in the loops, and reduced STEC-induced histological damage (villus blunting). Zinc has beneficial inhibitory effects against STEC strains that parallel those observed in EPEC. In addition, zinc strongly inhibits Stx expression; since Stx is responsible for the extraintestinal effects of STEC infection, such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), zinc might be capable of preventing severe sequelae of STEC infection.

  18. Pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli clinical strains from orthopedic implant infections towards human osteoblastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Crémet, Lise; Broquet, Alexis; Brulin, Bénédicte; Jacqueline, Cédric; Dauvergne, Sandie; Brion, Régis; Asehnoune, Karim; Corvec, Stéphane; Heymann, Dominique; Caroff, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the first causes of Gram-negative orthopedic implant infections (OII), but little is known about the pathogenicity of this species in such infections that are increasing due to the ageing of the population. We report how this pathogen interacts with human osteoblastic MG-63 cells in vitro, by comparing 20 OII E. coli strains to two Staphylococcus aureus and two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. LDH release assay revealed that 6/20 (30%) OII E. coli induced MG-63 cell lysis whereas none of the four control strains was cytotoxic after 4 h of coculture. This high cytotoxicity was associated with hemolytic properties and linked to hlyA gene expression. We further showed by gentamicin protection assay and confocal microscopy that the non-cytotoxic E. coli were not able to invade MG-63 cells unlike S. aureus strains (internalization rate <0.01% for the non-cytotoxic E. coli versus 8.88 ± 2.31% and 4.60 ± 0.42% for both S. aureus). The non-cytotoxic E. coli also demonstrated low adherence rates (<7%), the most adherent E. coli eliciting higher IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cells. Either highly cytotoxic or slightly invasive OII E. coli do not show the same infection strategies as S. aureus towards osteoblasts. PMID:26333570

  19. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  20. SILAC-based comparative analysis of pathogenic Escherichia coli secretomes.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders; Borch, Jonas; Krogh, Thøger Jensen; Hjernø, Karin; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    Comparative studies of pathogenic bacteria and their non-pathogenic counterparts has led to the discovery of important virulence factors thereby generating insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis. Protein-based antigens for vaccine development are primarily selected among unique virulence-related factors produced by the pathogen of interest. However, recent work indicates that proteins that are not unique to the pathogen but instead selectively expressed compared to its non-pathogenic counterpart could also be vaccine candidates or targets for drug development. Modern methods in quantitative proteome analysis have the potential to discover both classes of proteins and hence form an important tool for discovering therapeutic targets. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are pathogenic variants of E. coli which cause intestinal disease in humans. AIEC is associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract whereas ETEC is the major cause of human diarrhea which affects hundreds of millions annually. In spite of the disease burden associated with these pathogens, effective vaccines conferring long-term protection are still needed. In order to identify proteins with therapeutic potential, we have used mass spectrometry-based Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) quantitative proteomics method which allows us to compare the proteomes of pathogenic strains to commensal E. coli. In this study, we grew the pathogenic strains ETEC H10407, AIEC LF82 and the non-pathogenic reference strain E. coli K-12 MG1655 in parallel and used SILAC to compare protein levels in OMVs and culture supernatant. We have identified well-known virulence factors from both AIEC and ETEC, thus validating our experimental approach. In addition we find proteins that are not unique to the pathogenic strains but expressed at levels different from the commensal strain, including the

  1. Polymorphisms in the umuDC region of Escherichia species. [Escherichia coli; Escherichia alkalescens; Escherichia dispar; Escherichia aurescens

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgwick, S.G.; Robson, M.; Malik, F.

    1988-04-01

    The umuDC operon of Escherichia coli encodes mutagenic DNA repair. The umuDC regions of multiple isolates of E. coli, E. alkalescens, and E. dispar and a single stock of E. aurescens were mapped by nucleotide hybridization. umuDC is located at one end of a conserved tract of restriction endonuclease sites either 12.5 or 14 kilobase pairs long. Rearrangements, including possible deletions, were seen in the polymorphic DNA flanking the conserved tract. Restriction site polymorphisms were not found around the DNA repair gene recA or polA. The junctions of the conserved region contain direct repeats of nucleotide sequences resembling the termini of the Tn3 group of transposons. Possible mechanisms for the generation of these variants are discussed.

  2. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Tailed Phage Utah

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Justin C.; Heitkamp, Alexandra J.; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S.; Gilcrease, Eddie B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli bacteriophage Utah is a member of the chi-like tailed phage cluster in the Siphoviridae family. We report here the complete 59,024-bp sequence of the genome of phage Utah. PMID:28360173

  3. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  4. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  5. Inhibition of Thiamine Transport by Chloroethylthiamine in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Iwashima, Akio; Nose, Yoshitsugu

    1972-01-01

    Chloroethylthiamine was found to inhibit an entrapment of thiamine as thiamine monophosphate by blocking thiamine monophosphokinase in the cytoplasm after thiamine was taken up by the cells of Escherichia coli. PMID:4565550

  6. Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli is mutagenic.

    PubMed

    Doiron, K M; Viau, S; Koutroumanis, M; Cupples, C G

    1996-07-01

    Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli stimulates transition and frameshift mutations. The pattern of mutations suggests that mutagenesis is due to saturation or inactivation of dam-directed mismatch repair.

  7. Shigella strains are not clones of Escherichia coli but sister species in the genus Escherichia.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin

    2013-02-01

    Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form sister species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship.

  8. Hha Represses Biofilm Formation in Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Affecting the Expression of Flagella and Curli Fimbriae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although the genetic and molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, the g...

  9. Destruction of single-species biofilms of Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae by dextranase, lactoferrin, and lysozyme

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The activity of dextranase, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and nisin against biofilms composed of either Klebsiella pneumonia or Escherichia coli was examined using the MBEC Assay™. Mature biofilms were treated and then sonicated to remove the adherent biofilm. This material was quantified using a lumines...

  10. Infected hepatic Echinococcus cyst presenting as recurrent Escherichia coli empyema.

    PubMed

    Chang, R; Higgins, M; DiLisio, R; Hawasli, A; Camaro, L G; Khatib, R

    1993-03-01

    An 81-year-old man, previously a shepherd in Italy, presented with recurrent Escherichia coli empyema over an 8-month period. His empyema was caused by an infected, nonviable hepatic Echinococcus cyst that eroded the diaphragm and led to intermittent spillage and pleural seeding. This case demonstrates that when dealing with Escherichia coli empyema, a subdiaphragmatic source ought to be suspected, and among immigrants from areas with prevalent hydatid disease, infected hepatic Echinococcus cyst might rarely be the cause.

  11. ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR THYMINELESS DEATH IN CELLS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    FREIFELDER, D; MAALOE, O

    1964-10-01

    Freifelder, David (University of California, Berkeley), and Ole Maaløe. Energy requirement for thymineless death in cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:987-990. 1964.-Thymineless death in thymine-requiring Escherichia coli is arrested immediately and reversibly by nitrogenation if the bacterial population is growing in a medium containing a carbon source that can only be metabolized aerobically. The mechanism of death, therefore, involves a metabolic process.

  12. ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR THYMINELESS DEATH IN CELLS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Freifelder, David; Maaløe, Ole

    1964-01-01

    Freifelder, David (University of California, Berkeley), and Ole Maaløe. Energy requirement for thymineless death in cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:987–990. 1964.—Thymineless death in thymine-requiring Escherichia coli is arrested immediately and reversibly by nitrogenation if the bacterial population is growing in a medium containing a carbon source that can only be metabolized aerobically. The mechanism of death, therefore, involves a metabolic process. PMID:14219063

  13. The Escherichia coli Peripheral Inner Membrane Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Malvina; Orfanoudaki, Georgia; Koukaki, Marina; Kountourakis, Nikos; Sardis, Marios Frantzeskos; Aivaliotis, Michalis; Karamanou, Spyridoula; Economou, Anastassios

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are essential for cell viability. Their functional characteristics strongly depend on their protein content, which consists of transmembrane (integral) and peripherally associated membrane proteins. Both integral and peripheral inner membrane proteins mediate a plethora of biological processes. Whereas transmembrane proteins have characteristic hydrophobic stretches and can be predicted using bioinformatics approaches, peripheral inner membrane proteins are hydrophilic, exist in equilibria with soluble pools, and carry no discernible membrane targeting signals. We experimentally determined the cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli using a multidisciplinary approach. Initially, we extensively re-annotated the theoretical proteome regarding subcellular localization using literature searches, manual curation, and multi-combinatorial bioinformatics searches of the available databases. Next we used sequential biochemical fractionations coupled to direct identification of individual proteins and protein complexes using high resolution mass spectrometry. We determined that the proposed cytoplasmic peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies a previously unsuspected ∼19% of the basic E. coli BL21(DE3) proteome, and the detected peripheral inner membrane proteome occupies ∼25% of the estimated expressed proteome of this cell grown in LB medium to mid-log phase. This value might increase when fleeting interactions, not studied here, are taken into account. Several proteins previously regarded as exclusively cytoplasmic bind membranes avidly. Many of these proteins are organized in functional or/and structural oligomeric complexes that bind to the membrane with multiple interactions. Identified proteins cover the full spectrum of biological activities, and more than half of them are essential. Our data suggest that the cytoplasmic proteome displays remarkably dynamic and extensive communication with

  14. Microdiesel: Escherichia coli engineered for fuel production.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stölting, Torsten; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-09-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy source and a substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel. It is produced from renewable biomass by transesterification of triacylglycerols from plant oils, yielding monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids with short-chain alcohols such as fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Despite numerous environmental benefits, a broader use of biodiesel is hampered by the extensive acreage required for sufficient production of oilseed crops. Therefore, processes are urgently needed to enable biodiesel production from more readily available bulk plant materials like sugars or cellulose. Toward this goal, the authors established biosynthesis of biodiesel-adequate FAEEs, referred to as Microdiesel, in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. This was achieved by heterologous expression in E. coli of the Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase and the unspecific acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1. By this approach, ethanol formation was combined with subsequent esterification of the ethanol with the acyl moieties of coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids if the cells were cultivated under aerobic conditions in the presence of glucose and oleic acid. Ethyl oleate was the major constituent of these FAEEs, with minor amounts of ethyl palmitate and ethyl palmitoleate. FAEE concentrations of 1.28 g l(-1) and a FAEE content of the cells of 26 % of the cellular dry mass were achieved by fed-batch fermentation using renewable carbon sources. This novel approach might pave the way for industrial production of biodiesel equivalents from renewable resources by employing engineered micro-organisms, enabling a broader use of biodiesel-like fuels in the future.

  15. Definition of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 proteome under nutrient-limiting conditions to identify targets for efficacious cattle vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the Type III Secretion System (TTSS) proteins considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to the follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), did not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to the RAJ squamous epithelial (RSE) c...

  16. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    women.5 Screening practices may also contribute to higher rates of E. coli infections among females of reproductive age, as the Infectious Disease...Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...and prevalence among all beneficiaries seeking care within the Military Health System (MHS). This report describes demographics, clinical

  17. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against adherence of nine ETEC adhesins: CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Ruan, Xiaosai; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-06-30

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a leading bacterial cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. ETEC bacteria initiate diarrheal disease by attaching to host receptors at epithelial cells and colonizing in small intestine. Therefore, preventing ETEC attachment has been considered the first line of defense against ETEC diarrhea. However, developing vaccines effectively against ETEC bacterial attachment encounters challenge because ETEC strains produce over 23 immunologically heterogeneous adhesins. In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. We then examined immunogenicity of this tip MEFA in mouse immunization, and assessed potential application of this tip MEFA for ETEC vaccine development. Data showed that mice intraperitoneally immunized with this adhesin tip MEFA developed IgG antibody responses to all nine ETEC adhesins. Moreover, ETEC and E. coli bacteria expressing these nine adhesins, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, exhibited significant reduction in attachment to Caco-2 cells. These results indicated that anti-adhesin antibodies induced by this adhesin tip MEFA blocked adherence of the most important ETEC adhesins, suggesting this multivalent tip MEFA may be useful for developing a broadly protective anti-adhesin vaccine against ETEC diarrhea.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia...

  20. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Boyacioglu, Olcay; Sharma, Manan; Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Goktepe, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a bacteriophage cocktail (EcoShield™) that is specific against Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated against a nalidixic acid-resistant enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 RM4407 (EHEC) strain on leafy greens stored under either (1) ambient air or (2) modified atmosphere (MA; 5% O2/35% CO2/60% N2). Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2) of leafy greens (lettuce and spinach) inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 EHEC were sprayed with EcoShield™ (6.5 log PFU/cm2). Samples were stored at 4 or 10°C for up to 15 d. On spinach, the level of EHEC declined by 2.38 and 2.49 log CFU/cm2 at 4 and 10°C, respectively, 30 min after phage application (p ≤ 0.05). EcoShield™ was also effective in reducing EHEC on the surface of green leaf lettuce stored at 4°C by 2.49 and 3.28 log units in 30 min and 2 h, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). At 4°C under atmospheric air, the phage cocktail significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered the EHEC counts in one day by 1.19, 3.21 and 3.25 log CFU/cm2 on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively compared with control (no bacteriophage) treatments. When stored under MA at 4°C, phages reduced (p ≤ 0.05) EHEC populations by 2.18, 3.50 and 3.13 log CFU/cm2, on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce. At 10°C, EHEC reductions under atmospheric air storage were 1.99, 3.90 and 3.99 log CFU/cm2 (p ≤ 0.05), while population reductions under MA were 3.08, 3.89 and 4.34 logs on spinach, green leaf and romaine lettuce, respectively, compared with controls (p ≤ 0.05). The results of this study showed that bacteriophages were effective in reducing the levels of E. coli O157:H7 on fresh leafy produce, and that the reduction was further improved when produce was stored under the MA conditions. PMID:23819107

  1. In vitro adhesion of Escherichia coli to porcine small intestinal epithelial cells: pili as adhesive factors.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, R E; Fusco, P C; Brinton, C C; Moon, H W

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains with pili (K99 or 987P) known to facilitate intestinal colonization adhered in vitro to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. These strains adhered equally to both ileal and jejunal epithelial cells. A laboratory E. coli strain that has type 1 pili also adhered to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. When nonpiliated cells derived from 987P+, K99+, or type 1 pilus+ strains were used for in vitro adhesion assays, they failed to adhere. The attachment of piliated bacteria to epithelial cells was a saturable process that plateaued at 30 to 40 bacterial cells attached per epithelial cell. Competitive inhibition of bacterial cell attachment to epithelial cells with purified pili showed that only purified 987P competed against the 987P+ strain and only purified type 1 pili competed against the type 1 pilus+ strain. Competition between a K99+ strain and K99 was not consistently achieved. K99+, 987P+, and type 1 pilus+ bacteria could be prevented from adhering to epithelial cells by Fab fragments specific for K99, 987P, or type 1 pili, respectively. Fab fragments specific for non-K99 bacterial surface antigens did not inhibit adhesion of the K99+ strain. It is concluded that adhesion of E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is mediated by pili and that the epithelial cells used apparently had different receptors for different pili. PMID:357285

  2. In vitro adhesion of Escherichia coli to porcine small intestinal epithelial cells: pili as adhesive factors.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R E; Fusco, P C; Brinton, C C; Moon, H W

    1978-08-01

    Escherichia coli strains with pili (K99 or 987P) known to facilitate intestinal colonization adhered in vitro to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. These strains adhered equally to both ileal and jejunal epithelial cells. A laboratory E. coli strain that has type 1 pili also adhered to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. When nonpiliated cells derived from 987P+, K99+, or type 1 pilus+ strains were used for in vitro adhesion assays, they failed to adhere. The attachment of piliated bacteria to epithelial cells was a saturable process that plateaued at 30 to 40 bacterial cells attached per epithelial cell. Competitive inhibition of bacterial cell attachment to epithelial cells with purified pili showed that only purified 987P competed against the 987P+ strain and only purified type 1 pili competed against the type 1 pilus+ strain. Competition between a K99+ strain and K99 was not consistently achieved. K99+, 987P+, and type 1 pilus+ bacteria could be prevented from adhering to epithelial cells by Fab fragments specific for K99, 987P, or type 1 pili, respectively. Fab fragments specific for non-K99 bacterial surface antigens did not inhibit adhesion of the K99+ strain. It is concluded that adhesion of E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is mediated by pili and that the epithelial cells used apparently had different receptors for different pili.

  3. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  4. Endonuclease IV (nfo) mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R P; Saporito, S M; Spitzer, S G; Weiss, B

    1986-01-01

    A cloned gene, designated nfo, caused overproduction of an EDTA-resistant endonuclease specific for apurinic-apyrimidinic sites in DNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme was similar to that of endonuclease IV. An insertion mutation was constructed in vitro and transferred from a plasmid to the Escherichia coli chromosome. nfo mutants had an increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C and to the oxidants tert-butyl hydroperoxide and bleomycin. The nfo mutation enhanced the killing of xth (exonuclease III) mutants by methyl methanesulfonate, H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and gamma rays, and it enhanced their mutability by methyl methanesulfonate. It also increased the temperature sensitivity of an xth dut (dUTPase) mutant that is defective in the repair of uracil-containing DNA. These results are consistent with earlier findings that endonuclease IV and exonuclease III both cleave DNA 5' to an apurinic-apyrimidinic site and that exonuclease III is more active. However, nfo mutants were more sensitive to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and to bleomycin than were xth mutants, suggesting that endonuclease IV might recognize some lesions that exonuclease III does not. The mutants displayed no marked increase in sensitivity to 254-nm UV radiation, and the addition of an nth (endonuclease III) mutation to nfo or nfo xth mutants did not significantly increase their sensitivity to any of the agents tested. Images PMID:2430946

  5. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  6. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    von Freiesleben, Ulrik; Krekling, Martin A.; Hansen, Flemming G.; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2000-01-01

    The minimal time between successive initiations on the same origin (the eclipse) in Escherichia coli was determined to be ∼25–30 min. An inverse relationship was found between the length of the eclipse and the amount of Dam methyltransferase in the cell, indicating that the eclipse corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation. The SeqA protein was absolutely required for the eclipse, and DnaA titration studies suggested that the SeqA protein prevented the binding of multiple DnaA molecules on oriC (initial complex formation). No correlation between the amount of SeqA and eclipse length was revealed, but increased SeqA levels affected chromosome partitioning and/or cell division. This was corroborated further by an aberrant nucleoid distribution in SeqA-deficient cells. We suggest that the SeqA protein’s role in maintaining the eclipse is tied to a function in chromosome organization. PMID:11080169

  7. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  8. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  9. Regulation of Glutamine Transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, R C; Iwata, K K; Furlong, C E

    1975-01-01

    The formation of the high-affinity (Km equal to 0.2 muM) L-glutamine transport system of Escherichia coli strain 7 (Lin) appears to be subject to the same major control as the glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) of this gram-negative organism. Culture of cells under nitrogen-limited conditions provides maximum derepression of both the glutamine synthetase and the glutamine transport system. Nutritional conditions providing a rich supply of ammonium salts or available sources of nitrogen, i.e., conditions which repress the formation of glutamine synthetase, provide three- and 20-fold repression, respectively, of the glutamine transport system. Culture of cells with glutamine supplements of 2 mM does not increase the repression of high-affinity glutamine transport system beyond the level observed in the absence of glutamine. A second kinetically distinct low-affinity component of glutamine. A second kinetically distinct low-affinity component of glutamine uptake is observed in cells cultured with a glutamine-depleted nutrient broth. This second component is associated with the appearance of glutaminase A (EC 3.5.1.2) and asparaginase I (EC 3.5.1.1), a periplasmic enzyme. Parallel changes were observed in the levels of the high-affinity glutamine transport system and the glutamine synthetase when cells were cultured with the carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, or succinate. PMID:238938

  10. ESCHERICHIA COLI Gene Induction by Alkylation Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Volkert, Michael R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Beard, K. Christopher

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased β-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes. PMID:3080354

  11. Escherichia coli gene induction by alkylation treatment.

    PubMed

    Volkert, M R; Nguyen, D C; Beard, K C

    1986-01-01

    Searches for alkylation-inducible (aid) genes of Escherichia coli have been conducted by screening random fusions of the Mu-dl(ApR lac) phage for fusions showing increased beta-galactosidase activity after treatment with methylating agents, but not after treatments with UV-irradiation. In this report we describe gene fusions that are specifically induced by alkylation treatments. Nine new mutants are described, and their properties are compared with the five mutants described previously. The total of 14 fusion mutants map at five distinct genetic loci. They can be further subdivided on the basis of their induction by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada. Neither aidC nor aidI is regulated by ada. Moreover, since aidC is induced only by MNNG and aidI is induced only by MMS, these two genes are likely to be individually regulated. Thus, there appear to be at least three different regulatory mechanisms controlling aid genes.

  12. Antimicrobial-resistant Invasive Escherichia coli, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Oteo, Jesús; Lázaro, Edurne; de Abajo, Francisco J.; Baquero, Fernando; Campos, José

    2005-01-01

    To address the public health problem of antimicrobial resistance, the European Union founded the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. A network of 32 Spanish hospitals, serving ≈9.6 million persons, submitted antimicrobial-susceptibility data on 7,098 invasive Escherichia coli species (2001–2003). Resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin was found at rates of 59.9%, 32.6%, 19.3%, 6.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. Resistance to multiple drugs increased from 13.8% in 2001 to 20.6% in 2003 (p <0.0001). Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained from the Spanish National Health System. In spite of decreased cephalosporin and β-lactam use, overall extended-spectrum β-lactamase production increased from 1.6% (2001) to 4.1% (2003) (p <0.0001), mainly due to the rising prevalence of cefotaximases. Resistance to ciprofloxacin significantly increased, mostly in community-onset infections, which coincided with a rise in community quinolone use. Cotrimoxazole resistance remained stable at ≈30%, even though its use was dramatically reduced. PMID:15829192

  13. Ribonuclease Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Santer, Melvin; Smith, Josephine R.

    1966-01-01

    Santer, Melvin (Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.), and Josephine R. Smith. Ribonuclease sensitivity of Escherichia coli ribosomes. J. Bacteriol. 92:1099–1110. 1966.—The ribonucleic acid (RNA) contained in 70S ribosomes and in 50S and 30S subunits was hydrolyzed by pancreatic ribonuclease. A 7% amount of the RNA was removed from the 70S particle; at 10−4m magnesium concentration, a maximum of 24 and 30% of the RNA in the 50S and the 30S fractions, respectively, was removed by ribonuclease. At the two lower magnesium ion concentrations, 50S ribosomes did not lose any protein, whereas 30S ribosomes lost protein as a result of ribonuclease treatment. A number of proteins were removed from the 30S particles by ribonuclease, and these proteins were antigenically related to proteins present in 50S ribosomes. The differential effect of ribonuclease on 50S and 30S ribosomes suggested that they have structural dissimilarities. Images PMID:5332866

  14. Genotoxicity of Graphene in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ananya

    Rapid advances in nanotechnology necessitate assessment of the safety of nanomaterials in the resulting products and applications. One key nanomaterial attracting much interest in many areas of science and technology is graphene. Graphene is a one atom thick carbon allotrope arranged in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In addition to being extremely thin, graphene has several extraordinary physical properties such as its exceptional mechanical strength, thermal stability, and high electrical conductivity. Graphene itself is relatively chemically inert and therefore pristine graphene must undergo a process called functionalization, which is combination of chemical and physical treatments that change the properties of graphene, to make it chemically active. Functionalization of graphene is of crucial importance as the end application of graphene depends on proper functionalization. In the field of medicine, graphene is currently a nanomaterial of high interest for building biosensors, DNA transistors, and probes for cancer detection. Despite the promising applications of graphene in several areas of biomedicine, there have been only few studies in recent years that focus on evaluating cytotoxicity of graphene on cells, and almost no studies that investigate how graphene exposure affects cellular genetic material. Therefore, in this study we used a novel approach to evaluate the genotoxicity, i.e., the effects of graphene on DNA, using Escherichia coli as a prokaryotic model organism.

  15. The DNA exonucleases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    DNA exonucleases, enzymes that hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds in DNA from a free end, play important cellular roles in DNA repair, genetic recombination and mutation avoidance in all organisms. This article reviews the structure, biochemistry and biological functions of the 17 exonucleases currently identified in the bacterium Escherichia coli. These include the exonucleases associated with DNA polymerases I (polA), II (polB) and III (dnaQ/mutD), Exonucleases I (xonA/sbcB), III (xthA), IV, VII (xseAB), IX (xni/xgdG) and X (exoX), the RecBCD, RecJ, and RecE exonucleases, SbcCD endo/exonuclease, the DNA exonuclease activities of RNase T (rnt) and Endonuclease IV (nfo) and TatD. These enzymes are diverse in terms of substrate specificity and biochemical properties and have specialized biological roles. Most of these enzymes fall into structural families with characteristic sequence motifs, and members of many of these families can be found in all domains of life. PMID:26442508

  16. Antibodies to intimin and Escherichia coli secreted proteins A and B in patients with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections.

    PubMed

    Karpman, Diana; Békássy, Zivile D; Sjögren, Ann-Christine; Dubois, Maria S; Karmali, Mohamed A; Mascarenhas, Mariola; Jarvis, Karen G; Gansheroff, Lisa J; O'Brien, Alison D; Arbus, Gerald S; Kaper, James B

    2002-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli produce an attaching and effacing lesion upon adhering to the intestinal epithelium. Bacterial factors involved in this histopathology include the intimin adhesin and E. coli secreted proteins (Esps) A and B. In this study we investigated the serum antibody responses to recombinant E. coli O157:H7 intimin, EspA, and EspB by immunoblotting. Canadian patients with O157:H7 infection (n=10), Swedish patients with O157:H7 (n=21), non-O157 (n=18), or infection from which the serotype was not available (n=3), and asymptomatic household members (n=25) were studied and compared with Canadian (n=20) and Swedish controls (n=52). In Canadian patients, IgG antibodies to intimin, EspA, and EspB were analyzed, in Swedish patients and their household members IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies to EspA and EspB were studied. Patients and household members mounted an antibody response to the antigens. Significantly more patients developed an acute response to EspB compared with controls (P<0.01 Canadian patients, P<0.0001 Swedish patients). EspB IgA, IgG, and IgM had a specificity of 100%, 86%, and 86%, positive predictive value of 100%, 83%, and 81%, and sensitivity of 57%, 69%, and 63%, respectively, and appear to be an appropriate assay for the detection of EHEC infection. In cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome or hemorrhagic colitis this assay may be useful when a fecal strain has not been isolated, or in epidemics of non-O157 infection.

  17. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Multilocus Sequence Types in Guatemala and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Klena, John; Rodas, Claudia; Bourgeois, August Louis; Torres, Olga; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Åsa

    2010-01-01

    The genetic backgrounds of 24 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains from Mexico and Guatemala expressing heat-stable toxin (ST) and coli surface antigen 6 (CS6) were analyzed. US travelers to these countries and resident children in Guatemala were infected by ETEC strains of sequence type 398, expressing STp and carrying genetically identical CS6 sequences. PMID:20031063

  18. Characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on veal hides and carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared to E....

  19. Escherichia coli Pathotypes Occupy Distinct Niches in the Mouse Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Jessica P.; Caldwell, Matthew E.; Cohen, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first step of the infection process is colonization of the host, it is important to understand how Escherichia coli pathogens successfully colonize the intestine. We previously showed that enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain E. coli EDL933 colonizes a niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine that is distinct from that of human commensal strains, which explains how E. coli EDL933 overcomes colonization resistance imparted by some, but not all, commensal E. coli strains. Here we sought to determine if other E. coli pathogens use a similar strategy. We found that uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 and enteropathogenic E. coli E2348/69 occupy intestinal niches that are distinct from that of E. coli EDL933. In contrast, two enterohemorrhagic strains, E. coli EDL933 and E. coli Sakai, occupy the same niche, suggesting that strategies to prevent colonization by a given pathotype should be effective against other strains of the same pathotype. However, we found that a combination of commensal E. coli strains that can prevent colonization by E. coli EDL933 did not prevent colonization by E. coli CFT073 or E. coli E2348/69. Our results indicate that development of probiotics to target multiple E. coli pathotypes will be problematic, as the factors that govern niche occupation and hence stable colonization vary significantly among strains. PMID:24566621

  20. Adhesion of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to pediatric intestinal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, S; Candy, D C; Phillips, A D

    1996-01-01

    Organ cultures of small- and large-intestinal mucosa from children were used to examine the interactions of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) with human intestine. Mucosae from patients aged between 3 and 190 months were cultured with five EAEC strains isolated from infants with diarrhea in the United Kingdom and with two well-described prototype EAEC strains, 17-2 and 221. The prototype strains adhered to jejunal, ileal, and colonic mucosae. The wild-type strains also adhered to this tissue but showed a variable pattern of adhesion: two adhered to all intestinal levels, one adhered to jejunum and ileum, one adhered to ileum only, and one adhered to ileum and colon. Adherence was in an aggregative or stacked-brick pattern, resembling that seen on HEp-2 cells. Electron microscopy of infected small intestinal mucosa revealed bacteria in association with a thick mucus layer above an intact enterocyte brush border, which contained extruded cell fragments. This mucus layer was not present on controls. EAEC adherence to colonic mucosa was associated with cytotoxic effects including microvillous vesiculation (but without evidence of an attaching/effacing lesion), enlarged crypt openings, the presence of intercrypt crevices, and increased epithelial cell extrusion. These results demonstrate that in vitro organ culture of intestinal mucosa from children can be used to investigate EAEC pathogenesis in childhood directly. EAEC strains appear able to colonize many regions of the gastrointestinal tract, without overt changes to small intestinal mucosa but with cytotoxic effects on colonic mucosa. PMID:8890236

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain NB8

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Zu-huang; Wang, Chun-xin; Zhu, Jian-ming

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli NB8 is a clinical pyelonephritis isolate. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic E. coli NB8, which contains drug resistance genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, colistin, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. NB8 infects the kidney and bladder, making it an important tool for studying E. coli pathogenesis. PMID:27609920

  2. Evaluation of the adhesive capacity of Escherichia coli isolates associated with avian cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoît; Fairbrother, John M; Boulianne, Martine; Messier, Serge

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that Escherichia coli isolates from lesions of cellulitis belong to a limited number of clonal groups distinct from those of isolates found in the environment of these birds. In this study, different in vitro methods were used to evaluate adherence properties of E. coli isolates from cellulitis lesions and environments of high- and low-cellulitis prevalence broiler flocks. One hundred isolates were tested by hemagglutination. Adherence to frozen sections of chicken skin and binding to soluble fibronectin were examined for 40 of these 100 isolates by immunofluorescence and by immunocytofluorometry, respectively. Localization of bacterial adherence to skin tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. It was demonstrated that O78:K80 isolates from cellulitis lesions adhered to skin sections to a much greater extent in deeper than in superficial tissue layers. A greater bacterial adherence following growth in TSB at 37 C was demonstrated for isolates from flocks with high prevalence of cellulitis than for isolates from flocks with low prevalence of cellulitis. MANOVA analysis results showed a significant difference between superficial and deep tissue layers only for one set of isolates from flocks with high prevalence of cellulitis. Hemagglutinating activity was variable among the O78:K80 isolates obtained from flocks with high prevalence of cellulitis. The results obtained for some O78:K80 isolates following growth in TSB suggest a role for type 1 fimbriae or F1 in adherence to skin sections. This was reinforced by the finding that adherence was inhibited by D-mannose. Poultry E. coli isolates that express F1 had no affinity for soluble fibronectin, although localization of the adherence in skin sections suggested a role for extracellular matrix components such as collagen and insoluble fibronectin.

  3. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for identification of Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii and Escherichia fergusonii.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Garcia-Toledo, L; Fasulo, D; Gladney, L M; Strockbine, N

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli, Escherichia albertii, and Escherichia fergusonii are closely related bacteria that can cause illness in humans, such as bacteremia, urinary tract infections and diarrhea. Current identification strategies for these three species vary in complexity and typically rely on the use of multiple phenotypic and genetic tests. To facilitate their rapid identification, we developed a multiplex PCR assay targeting conserved, species-specific genes. We used the Daydreamer™ (Pattern Genomics, USA) software platform to concurrently analyze whole genome sequence assemblies (WGS) from 150 Enterobacteriaceae genomes (107 E. coli, 5 Shigella spp., 21 E. albertii, 12 E. fergusonii and 5 other species) and design primers for the following species-specific regions: a 212bp region of the cyclic di-GMP regulator gene (cdgR, AW869_22935 from genome K-12 MG1655, CP014225) for E. coli/Shigella; a 393bp region of the DNA-binding transcriptional activator of cysteine biosynthesis gene (EAKF1_ch4033 from genome KF1, CP007025) for E. albertii; and a 575bp region of the palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase (EFER_0790 from genome ATCC 35469, CU928158) for E. fergusonii. We incorporated the species-specific primers into a conventional multiplex PCR assay and assessed its performance with a collection of 97 Enterobacteriaceae strains. The assay was 100% sensitive and specific for detecting the expected species and offers a quick and accurate strategy for identifying E. coli, E. albertii, and E. fergusonii in either a single reaction or by in silico PCR with sequence assemblies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Soil solarization reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total Escherichia coli on cattle feedlot pen surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feedlot pen soils are a source for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and therefore a target for preharvest strategies to reduce this pathogen in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of soil solarization to reduce E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot surface material (FSM)....

  5. Free RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Michael; Dennis, Patrick P; Ehrenberg, Mans; Bremer, Hans

    2015-12-01

    The frequencies of transcription initiation of regulated and constitutive genes depend on the concentration of free RNA polymerase holoenzyme [Rf] near their promoters. Although RNA polymerase is largely confined to the nucleoid, it is difficult to determine absolute concentrations of [Rf] at particular locations within the nucleoid structure. However, relative concentrations of free RNA polymerase at different growth rates, [Rf]rel, can be estimated from the activities of constitutive promoters. Previous studies indicated that the rrnB P2 promoter is constitutive and that [Rf]rel in the vicinity of rrnB P2 increases with increasing growth rate. Recently it has become possible to directly visualize Rf in growing Escherichia coli cells. Here we examine some of the important issues relating to gene expression based on these new observations. We conclude that: (i) At a growth rate of 2 doublings/h, there are about 1000 free and 2350 non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules per average cell (12 and 28%, respectively, of 8400 total) which are in rapid equilibrium. (ii) The reversibility of the non-specific binding generates more than 1000 free RNA polymerase molecules every second in the immediate vicinity of the DNA. Of these, most rebind non-specifically to the DNA within a few ms; the frequency of non-specific binding is at least two orders of magnitude greater than specific binding and transcript initiation. (iii) At a given amount of RNA polymerase per cell, [Rf] and the density of non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules along the DNA both vary reciprocally with the amount of DNA in the cell. (iv) At 2 doublings/h an E. coli cell contains, on the average, about 1 non-specifically bound RNA polymerase per 9 kbp of DNA and 1 free RNA polymerase per 20 kbp of DNA. However some DNA regions (i.e. near active rRNA operons) may have significantly higher than average [Rf].

  6. Resistance of Escherichia coli growing as biofilms to disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Ntsama-Essomba, C; Bouttier, S; Ramaldes, M; Dubois-Brissonnet, F; Fourniat, J

    1997-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of various disinfectants (cationic or amphoteric surfactants, oxidizing agents, phenolic derivatives) was determined against Escherichia coli CIP 54127 obtained by culture on tryptic soy agar (in-suspension or on-germ-carrier test) or in the form of biofilms produced in a continuous culture system. The bacteria tested on germ-carriers or included in biofilms were more resistant than the same strain in suspension. The extent of the reduction in activity depended on the nature of the disinfectant. In the two cases, the greatest reduction was observed with benzalkonium chloride and hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide, the agents with the lowest hydrophile-lipophile balance. The activity of the oxidizing agents (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid/H2O2) and alkyl trimethylammonium derivatives (C12 and C14) was somewhat reduced, while that of the phenolic derivatives (o-cresol, phenol) was either slightly attenuated or unaffected. The reduction in sensitivity was attributed to a reduced accessibility of the bacterial cells to the disinfectants, due to the fact that the former adhered to a support. Furthermore, the interfering action of the substances in contact with the bacteria (milk in the germ-carrier test and exopolymers in the biofilms) could play a role. The reduced sensitivity of the bacteria in the biofilms was not due to any alteration in the metabolic state of the bacteria (mostly in a quiescent state) since this resistance was lost after the mechanical resuspension of the cells before the contact with the disinfectants.

  7. Bundle-forming pilus retraction enhances enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zahavi, Eitan E.; Lieberman, Joshua A.; Donnenberg, Michael S.; Nitzan, Mor; Baruch, Kobi; Rosenshine, Ilan; Turner, Jerrold R.; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Feinstein, Naomi; Zlotkin-Rivkin, Efrat; Aroeti, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human pathogen that causes acute infantile diarrhea. The type IV bundle-forming pili (BFP) of typical EPEC strains are dynamic fibrillar organelles that can extend out and retract into the bacterium. The bfpF gene encodes for BfpF, a protein that promotes pili retraction. The BFP are involved in bacterial autoaggregation and in mediating the initial adherence of the bacterium with its host cell. Importantly, BFP retraction is implicated in virulence in experimental human infection. How pili retraction contributes to EPEC pathogenesis at the cellular level remains largely obscure, however. In this study, an effort has been made to address this question using engineered EPEC strains with induced BFP retraction capacity. We show that the retraction is important for tight-junction disruption and, to a lesser extent, actin-rich pedestal formation by promoting efficient translocation of bacterial protein effectors into the host cells. A model is proposed whereby BFP retraction permits closer apposition between the bacterial and the host cell surfaces, thus enabling timely and effective introduction of bacterial effectors into the host cell via the type III secretion apparatus. Our studies hence suggest novel insights into the involvement of pili retraction in EPEC pathogenesis. PMID:21613538

  8. The Melibiose Transporter of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, Oliver; Lin, Yibin; Granell, Meritxell; Leblanc, Gérard; Padrós, Esteve; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A.; Cladera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    We examine the role of Lys-377, the only charged residue in helix XI, on the functional mechanism of the Na+-sugar melibiose symporter from Escherichia coli. Intrinsic fluorescence, FRET, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy reveal that replacement of Lys-377 with either Cys, Val, Arg, or Asp disables both Na+ and melibiose binding. On the other hand, molecular dynamics simulations extending up to 200–330 ns reveal that Lys-377 (helix XI) interacts with the anionic side chains of two of the three putative ligands for cation binding (Asp-55 and Asp-59 in helix II). When Asp-59 is protonated during the simulations, Lys-377 preferentially interacts with Asp-55. Interestingly, when a Na+ ion is positioned in the Asp-55-Asp-59 environment, Asp-124 in helix IV (a residue essential for melibiose binding) reorients and approximates the Asp-55-Asp-59 pair, and all three acidic side chains act as Na+ ligands. Under these conditions, the side chain of Lys-377 interacts with the carboxylic moiety of these three Asp residues. These data highlight the crucial role of the Lys-377 residue in the spatial organization of the Na+ binding site. Finally, the analysis of the second-site revertants of K377C reveals that mutation of Ile-22 (in helix I) preserves Na+ binding, whereas that of melibiose is largely abolished according to spectroscopic measurements. This amino acid is located in the border of the sugar-binding site and might participate in sugar binding through apolar interactions. PMID:25971963

  9. Polyamine transport inEscherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, K; Kashiwagi, K

    1996-03-01

    The polyamine content in cells is regulated by both polyamine biosynthesis and its transport. We recently obtained and characterized three clones of polyamine transport genes (pPT104, pPT79 and pPT71) inEscherichia coli. The system encoded by pPT104 was the spermidine-preferential uptake system and that encoded by pPT79 the putrescine-specific uptake system. Furthermore, these two systems were periplasmic transport systems consisting of four kinds of proteins: pPT104 clone encoded potA, -B,-C, and -D proteins and pPT79 clone encoded potF, -G, -H, and -I proteins, judging from the deduced amino acid sequences of the nucleotide sequences of these clones. PotD and -F proteins were periplasmic substrate binding proteins and potA and -G proteins membrane associated proteins having the nucleotide binding site. PotB and -C proteins, and potH and -I proteins were transmembrane proteins probably forming channels for spermidine and putrescine, respectively. Their amino acid sequences in the corresponding proteins were similar to each other. The functions of potA and -D proteins in the spermidine-preferential uptake system encoded by pPT104 clone were studied in detail through a combined biochemical and genetic approach. In contrast, the putrescine transport system encoded by pPT71 consisted of one membrane protein (potE protein) haveing twelve transmembrane segments, and was active in both the uptake and excretion of putrescine. The uptake was dependent on membrane potential, and the excretion was due to the exchange reaction between putrescine and ornithine.

  10. Novel Mechanism of Escherichia coli Porin Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Keller, Maria; Vuong, Phu; Misra, Rajeev

    2006-01-01

    A novel mechanism of Escherichia coli porin regulation was discovered from multicopy suppressors that permitted growth of cells expressing a mutant OmpC protein in the absence of DegP. Analyses of two suppressors showed that both substantially lowered OmpC expression. Suppression activities were confined to a short DNA sequence, which we designated ipeX for inhibition of porin expression, and to DNA containing a 3′-truncated ompR gene. The major effect of ipeX on ompC expression was exerted posttranscriptionally, whereas the truncated OmpR protein reduced ompC transcription. ipeX was localized within an untranslated region of 247 base pairs between the stop codon of nmpC—a remnant porin gene from the cryptic phage qsr′ (DLP12) genome—and its predicted Rho-independent transcriptional terminator. Interestingly, another prophage, PA-2, which encodes a porin similar to NmpC, known as Lc, has sequences downstream from lc identical to that of ipeX. PA-2 lysogenization leads to Lc expression and OmpC inhibition. Our data show that the synthesis of the lc transcript, whose 3′ end contains the corresponding ipeX sequence, inhibits OmpC expression. Overexpression of ipeX RNA inhibited both OmpC and OmpF expression but not that of OmpA. ompC-phoA chimeric gene constructs revealed a 248-bp untranslated region of ompC required for ipeX-mediated inhibition. However, no sequence complementarity was found between ipeX and this region of ompC, indicating that inhibition may not involve simple base pairing between the two RNA molecules. The effect of ipeX on ompC, but not on ompF, was independent of the RNA chaperone Hfq. PMID:16385048

  11. Mutational Consequences of Ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Song, Lisa Yun; Goff, Marisa; Davidian, Christina; Mao, Zhiyuan; London, Marisa; Lam, Karen; Yung, Madeline; Miller, Jeffrey H

    2016-10-01

    We examined the mutagenic specificity of the widely used antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CPR), which displays weak to moderate mutagenic activity in several bacteria and generates short in-frame deletions in rpoB in Staphylococcus aureus To determine the spectrum of mutations in a system where any gene knockout would result in a recovered mutant, including frameshifts and both short and long deletions, we examined CPR-induced mutations in the thymidylate synthase-encoding thyA gene. Here, any mutation resulting in loss of thymidylate synthase activity generates trimethoprim (Trm) resistance. We found that deletions and insertions in all three reading frames predominated in the spectrum. They tend to be short deletions and cluster in two regions, one being a GC-rich region with potential extensive secondary structures. We also exploited the well-characterized rpoB-Rif(r) system in Escherichia coli to determine that cells grown in the presence of sublethal doses of CPR not only induced short in-frame deletions in rpoB, but also generated base substitution mutations resulting from induction of the SOS system. Some of the specific point mutations prominent in the spectrum of a strain that overproduces the dinB-encoded Pol IV were also present after growth in CPR. However, these mutations disappeared in CPR-treated dinB mutants, whereas the deletions remained. Moreover, CPR-induced deletions also occurred in a strain lacking all three SOS-induced polymerases. We discuss the implications of these findings for the consequences of overuse of CPR and other antibiotics. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Serogroups of Escherichia coli from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, P W; Tewari, Suman

    2007-07-01

    Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC). All the pathogenic serotypes showed resistance to bacitracin and multiple heavy metal ions. Resistance to streptomycin and cotrimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. Transfer of resistances to drugs and metallic ions was observed in 9 out of 12 strains studied. Resistances to bacitracin were transferred in all nine strains. Among heavy metals resistance to As(3+) followed by Cr(6+) were transferred more frequently.

  13. Prevalence of Escherichia coli associated with a cabbage crop inadvertently irrigated with partially treated sewage wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Marian R; Whitehand, Linda C; Mandrell, Robert E

    2002-03-01

    Preharvest contamination of field crops may have many sources, including feces, soil, and irrigation water. In March 2000, a sewage spill released unchlorinated tertiary-treated effluent into a creek used to irrigate commercial produce. A field of young cabbage transplants was irrigated with creek water as the contaminated water flowed past this land. Cabbage samples were taken from plots within this field, and Escherichia coli was isolated from the roots of these plants but not from the edible portion of the cabbage. No E. coli was isolated from water samples or from control samples taken from a nearby cabbage field watered with chlorinated municipal water. The cabbage field under study had not been fertilized with manure for at least 2 years prior to the contamination incident. Six different E. coli serotypes were identified, although none of them proved to be pathogenic. These serotypes were separated into five groups by a RiboPrinter; the resulting groups correlated well with the serotypes and the locations in the field from which these strains were isolated. We previously found that certain nonpathogenic E. coli strains displayed lower levels of adherence to lettuce seedling roots in a hydroponic adherence assay. The E. coli field strains displayed variable patterns of adherence to lettuce seedlings: strain MW421 showed significantly lower root and shoot adherence levels than did the other field strains, while strains MW423 and MW425 showed significantly higher root and shoot adherence levels. These data suggest that water quality is of paramount importance for the food safety of growing crops.

  14. Control of Acid Resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Castanie-Cornet, Marie-Pierre; Penfound, Thomas A.; Smith, Dean; Elliott, John F.; Foster, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Acid resistance (AR) in Escherichia coli is defined as the ability to withstand an acid challenge of pH 2.5 or less and is a trait generally restricted to stationary-phase cells. Earlier reports described three AR systems in E. coli. In the present study, the genetics and control of these three systems have been more clearly defined. Expression of the first AR system (designated the oxidative or glucose-repressed AR system) was previously shown to require the alternative sigma factor RpoS. Consistent with glucose repression, this system also proved to be dependent in many situations on the cyclic AMP receptor protein. The second AR system required the addition of arginine during pH 2.5 acid challenge, the structural gene for arginine decarboxylase (adiA), and the regulator cysB, confirming earlier reports. The third AR system required glutamate for protection at pH 2.5, one of two genes encoding glutamate decarboxylase (gadA or gadB), and the gene encoding the putative glutamate:γ-aminobutyric acid antiporter (gadC). Only one of the two glutamate decarboxylases was needed for protection at pH 2.5. However, survival at pH 2 required both glutamate decarboxylase isozymes. Stationary phase and acid pH regulation of the gad genes proved separable. Stationary-phase induction of gadA and gadB required the alternative sigma factor ςS encoded by rpoS. However, acid induction of these enzymes, which was demonstrated to occur in exponential- and stationary-phase cells, proved to be ςS independent. Neither gad gene required the presence of volatile fatty acids for induction. The data also indicate that AR via the amino acid decarboxylase systems requires more than an inducible decarboxylase and antiporter. Another surprising finding was that the ςS-dependent oxidative system, originally thought to be acid induced, actually proved to be induced following entry into stationary phase regardless of the pH. However, an inhibitor produced at pH 8 somehow interferes with the

  15. Environmental Escherichia coli: Ecology and public health implications - A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jang, Jeonghwan; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Yan, Tao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is classified as a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterium mainly inhabits the lower intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is often discharged into the environment through feces or wastewater effluent. The presence of E. coli in environmental waters has long been considered as an indicator of recent fecal pollution. However, numerous recent studies have reported that some specific strains of E. coli can survive for long periods of time, and potentially reproduce, in extra-intestinal environments. This indicates that E. coli can be integrated into indigenous microbial communities in the environment. This naturalization phenomenon calls into question the reliability of E. coli as a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB). Recently, many studies reported that E. coli populations in the environment are affected by ambient environmental conditions affecting their long-term survival. Large-scale studies of population genetics provide the diversity and complexity of E. coli strains in various environments, affected by multiple environmental factors. This review examines the current knowledge on the ecology of E. coli strains in various environments in regards to its role as a FIB and as a naturalized member of indigenous microbial communities. Special emphasis is given on the growth of pathogenic E. coli in the environment, and the population genetics of environmental members of the genus Escherichia. The impact of environmental E. coli on water quality and public health is also discussed.

  16. Current pathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne outbreak cases and therapy development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-08-01

    Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E. coli contamination cases. In the first half of this review article, we introduce the infection and symptoms of five major foodborne diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the second half of this review article, we introduce the foodborne outbreak cases caused by E. coli in natural foods and food products. Finally, we discuss current developments that can be applied to control and prevent bacterial food contamination.

  17. Investigation of ’Escherichia coli’ Enterotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    E . coli diarrheal disease in man and domestic animals. Fundamentally, the design of the vaccine is based on the well- documented ability of cholera antitoxin to neutralize both cholera and heat- labile E . coli enterotoxins and on the ability of certain E . coli antigens to enhance the immune response to cholera toxoid and possibly whole-cell Cholera Vaccine, as

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive E. coli Strain LF82

    PubMed Central

    de Vallée, Amélie; Dossat, Carole; Vacherie, Benoit; Zineb, El Hajji; Segurens, Beatrice; Barbe, Valerie; Sauvanet, Pierre; Neut, Christel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Medigue, Claudine; Mojica, Francisco J. M.; Peyret, Pierre; Bonnet, Richard; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2010-01-01

    Background Ileal lesions of Crohn's disease (CD) patients are abnormally colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to invade and to replicate within intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Principal Findings We report here the complete genome sequence of E. coli LF82, the reference strain of adherent-invasive E. coli associated with ileal Crohn's disease. The LF82 genome of 4,881,487 bp total size contains a circular chromosome with a size of 4,773,108 bp and a plasmid of 108,379 bp. The analysis of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) within the LF82 flexible genome indicated that this genome is close to the avian pathogenic strain APEC_01, meningitis-associated strain S88 and urinary-isolated strain UTI89 with regards to flexible genome and single nucleotide polymorphisms in various virulence factors. Interestingly, we observed that strains LF82 and UTI89 adhered at a similar level to Intestine-407 cells and that like LF82, APEC_01 and UTI89 were highly invasive. However, A1EC strain LF82 had an intermediate killer phenotype compared to APEC-01 and UTI89 and the LF82 genome does not harbour most of specific virulence genes from ExPEC. LF82 genome has evolved from those of ExPEC B2 strains by the acquisition of Salmonella and Yersinia isolated or clustered genes or CDSs located on pLF82 plasmid and at various loci on the chromosome. Conclusion LF82 genome analysis indicated that a number of genes, gene clusters and pathoadaptative mutations which have been acquired may play a role in virulence of AIEC strain LF82. PMID:20862302

  19. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  20. Human Meningitis-Associated Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    KIM, KWANG SIK

    2016-01-01

    E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis contributes to such mortality and morbidity. Recent reports of E. coli strains producing CTX-M-type or TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases create a challenge. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier have shown that E. coli meningitis follows a high-degree of bacteremia and invasion of the blood-brain barrier. E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier, the essentials step in the development of E. coli meningitis, requires specific microbial and host factors as well as microbe- and host-specific signaling molecules. Blockade of such microbial and host factors contributing to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is shown to be efficient in preventing E. coli penetration into the brain. The basis for requiring a high-degree of bacteremia for E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier, however, remains unclear. Continued investigation on the microbial and host factors contributing to a high-degree of bacteremia and E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is likely to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. PMID:27223820

  1. Binding of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to 32- to 33-kilodalton human intestinal brush border proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez-Hernandez, A; Gavilanes-Parra, S; Chavez-Berrocal, M E; Molina-Lopez, J; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    We have detected human intestinal brush border proteins to which Escherichia coli strains adhere by means of a blotting-nitrocellulose method in which the binding of radiolabeled bacteria to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated intestinal cell membranes was evaluated. The brush border fraction contained several polypeptides that bound only adherent E. coli strains. The most prominent and consistent of these proteins had apparent molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa. Additional polypeptides ranging from 50 to 70, from 105 to 130, and from 180 to 200 kDa were also recognized by adherent E. coli strains, although with less intensity (in accordance with the number of bound bacteria to these polypeptides). Independently of the pattern of adherence (localized [LA], diffuse [DA], or aggregative [AggA]) all HEp-2-adhering strains recognized, with different intensities, the 32- to 33-kDa brush border proteins, whereas nonadhesive strains did not. The relative avidity of an LA strain to bind to the 32- to 33-kDa proteins was approximately seven- and sixfold higher than the binding of strains with aggregative and diffuse adherence, respectively. Thus, it is reasonable to think that LA, DA, and AggA strains have a common adhesin that mediates binding to the 32- to 33-kDa bands. Inhibition experiments using HEp-2 cells demonstrated that isolated 32- to 33-kDa proteins or specific antiserum blocked preferentially bacterial adherence of the LA pattern. Delipidization and protein digestion of the human brush borders confirmed that E. coli bound to structures of a proteinaceous nature. Deglycosylation studies and sodium meta-periodate oxidation of the intestinal cell membranes decreased bacterial binding activity significantly, indicating that E. coli bound to carbohydrate moieties in the glycoproteins. These results suggest that binding of E. coli strains, mainly of the LA phenotype, to the 32- to 33-kDa proteins could play a role in colonization through

  2. [Frequency, risk factors and vaginal colonization due to Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    González Pedraza Avilés, Alberto; Sánchez Hernández, Gabriela; Ponce Rosas, Raúl Efrén

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies associate Escherichia coli with symptomatic infections at vaginal level, mainly associated to changes in the normal flora taken place by a series of factors characteristic of the host. To recognize their colonization frequency and these factors, it becomes important due to their association with perinatal complications, besides considering this colonization like the critical step preceding urinary tract infection. To determine the frequency of colonization of Escherichia coli in 519 female patients, the role of the bacterium in the vaginal ecology likes probable cause of clinical manifestations and to recognize the associate's factors of risk with its vaginal colonization. 519 women were studied: 350 symptomatic and 169 asymptomatic. Vaginal swab specimens were inoculated onto the routine mediums. Associations of Escherichia coli with various risk factors were examined by using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals, and statistical significance was assessed by the Chi statistic or Fischer's exact test. Overall Escherichia coli was isolated from 95 (18.3%) of the women. Factors that were significantly associated with vaginal carriage of E. coli were the age extreme groups, the climacteric, and the bad genital habits. The highest frequency of vaginal colonization for Escherichia coli was presented in the population groups where there is hormonal deficiency, mainly of estrogens of the type estradiol. The vaginal colonization for E. coli doesn't associate to sexual behavior. Although E. coli doesn't produce defined symptoms at vaginal level, the relatively low carriage rate indicates that this organism should not be considered as part of the normal indigenous vaginal flora and that it should take into account due to the perinatal complication it is associated.

  3. Intestinal Colonization by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    E . coli is mediated by specific types of pili. These pili are antigenic and can be used in diagnosing enterotoxigenic E . coli infections. They are also good protective antigens. When pregnant dams are vaccinated parenterally or orally with pili on live piliated bacteria, they secrete antibodies against the pili in their milk. Neonates suckling dams so vaccinated are passively protected against fatal challenge by enterotoxigenic E . coli . Pili are also good candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines to protect by

  4. Multiplicity of serogroups and adhesins in enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from acute diarrhea in Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Forestier, C; Masseboeuf, R; Rich, C; M'Boup, S; Joly, B; Denis, F

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 228 children with diarrhea in Senegal from 1982 to 1984. Among these E. coli involved in cases of diarrhea, we found that 20.3% were enteropathogenic E. coli. Only 3.9% of the strains adhered to the brush borders of human intestinal enterocytes, and they belonged to different serotypes. All these adhesion-positive strains possessed genes encoding for the heat-stable enterotoxin, but their adhesive factors were different regarding serology with anti-colonization factor sera, hemagglutination patterns, electron microscopy structures, or major surface protein subunits. PMID:2885338

  5. Transcription of foreign DNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Warren, René L; Freeman, John D; Levesque, Roger C; Smailus, Duane E; Flibotte, Stephane; Holt, Robert A

    2008-11-01

    Propagation of heterologous DNA in E. coli host cells is central to molecular biology. DNA constructs are often engineered for expression of recombinant protein in E. coli, but the extent of incidental transcription arising from natural regulatory sequences in cloned DNA remains underexplored. Here, we have used programmable microarrays and RT-PCR to measure, comprehensively, the transcription of H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, and human DNA propagating in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes. We find evidence that at least half of all H. influenzae genes are transcribed in E. coli. Highly transcribed genes are principally involved in energy metabolism, and their proximal promoter regions are significantly enriched with E. coli sigma(70) (also known as RpoD) binding sites. H. influenzae genes acquired from an ancient bacteriophage Mu insertion are also highly transcribed. Compared with H. influenzae, a smaller proportion of P. aeruginosa genes are transcribed in E. coli, and in E. coli there is punctuated transcription of human DNA. The presence of foreign DNA in E. coli disturbs the host transcriptional profile, with expression of the E. coli phage shock protein operon and the flagellar gene cluster being particularly strongly up-regulated. While cross-species transcriptional activation is expected to be enabling for horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, incidental expression of toxic genes can be problematic for DNA cloning. Ongoing characterization of cross-expression will help inform the design of biosynthetic gene clusters and synthetic microbial genomes.

  6. Biorecognition of Escherichia coli K88 adhesin for glycated porcine albumin.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Ramos-Clamont, Gabriela; Candia-Plata, Ma María del Carmen; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) that expresses galactose-reactive lectins, like K88 adhesin, causes high mortality among piglets. Carbohydrates that compete for adhesion could serve as an alternative for disease prevention. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was modified by non-enzymatic glycation with lactose to produce PSA-Lac or PSA-Glc beta (1-4) Gal, as confirmed by reduction of available free amino groups, increased molecular mass and by Ricinus communis lectin recognition. E. coli K88 binds to PSA-Lac treatments containing three and four lactoses, respectively. In addition, PSA-Lac partially inhibited K88 strain adherence to mucins. These results suggest that neoglycoconjugates obtained by non-enzymatic glycation of proteins may serve in the prophylaxis of piglets' diarrhea.

  7. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli and salmonellae in calves and lambs in Kashmir absence, prevalence and antibiogram.

    PubMed

    Wani, S A; Hussain, I; Beg, S A; Rather, M A; Kabli, Z A; Mir, M A; Nishikawa, Y

    2013-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction assays and culture were used to investigate 728 faecal samples from 404 calves (286 diarrhoeic, 118 healthy) and 324 lambs (230 diarrhoeic, 94 healthy) in Kashmir, India, for the presence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) and salmonellae. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were also investigated. In total, 23 ETEC isolates were obtained from the diarrhoeic calves and 12 from diarrhoeic lambs. Most (74%) of the isolates from calves harboured the gene encoding heat-labile enterotoxin I, whereas 75% of the isolates from lambs possessed only the gene encoding for heat-stable enterotoxin a. The ETEC isolates belonged to 20 serogroups, among which serogroups O15 (five isolates) and O8 (four isolates) were the most frequent. Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis was identified in three samples from diarrhoeic lambs. The ETEC isolates and the salmonellae showed multidrug resistance. No EAEC or DAEC was detected in any of the samples.

  8. [Expression of Photobacterium leiognathi bioluminescence system genes in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Ptitsyn, L R; Fatova, M A; Stepanov, A I

    1990-02-01

    Expression of Photobacterium leiognathi bioluminescence genes under the control of lac, tac, tet promoters in Escherichia coli cells has been studied. The position of the genes for aliphatic aldehyde biosynthesis and for the synthesis of luciferase subunits was identified. The plasmid pBRPL1 has been constructed containing the system of bioluminescence genes devoid of promoter following the polylinker DNA fragment. The plasmid can be used for selection of promoter containing DNA sequences as well as for studying the promoters regulation in process of Escherichia coli cells growth.

  9. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical. Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  10. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Children from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cristian; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Arias, María L.

    2010-01-01

    More than 5,000 diarrheal cases per year receive medical care at the National Children's Hospital of Costa Rica, and nearly 5% of them require hospitalization. A total of 173 Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea were characterized at the molecular, serologic, and phenotypic level. Multiplex and duplex polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the six categories of diarrheagenic E. coli. Thirty percent (n = 52) of the strains were positive, indicating a high prevalence among the pediatric population. Enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli pathotypes were the most prevalent (21% and 19%, respectively). Pathogenic strains were distributed among the four E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D, with groups A and B1 the most commonly found. This study used molecular typing to evaluate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli reported in Costa Rica and demonstrated the importance of these pathotypes in the pediatric population. PMID:20682870

  11. Survival and characterization of Escherichia coli strains in a typical Mexican acid-fermented food.

    PubMed

    Sainz, T; Wacher, C; Espinoza, J; Centurión, D; Navarro, A; Molina, J; Inzunza, A; Cravioto, A; Eslava, C

    2001-12-30

    In this study, the presence and pathogenic characteristics of Escherichia coli strains in pozol, an acid-fermented maize beverage consumed in South-eastern Mexico, were determined. Seventy-three E. coli strains were isolated at early and late times (6 and 48 h) during the pozol fermentation process, when pH values of the doughs were 6.7-4.7 (6 h) and 4.7-3.7 (48 h). Serotypes that belong to diarrheagenic E. coli serogroups O18, O88, O8, O11, O20, O173 were identified. HEp-2 cell adherence in vitro assays showed localized, diffuse and aggregative adherence patterns among some of these strains. A DNA colony hybridization analysis with different probes showed the presence of virulence genes related to diarrheal pathogenesis. Thirty-three percent of the E. coli strains were tetracycline-resistant and 95% had a 20 kb plasmid. The presence and survival of potentially pathogenic E. coli in acid-fermented pozol suggest that such foods may be a potential source of foodborne outbreaks.

  12. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide Escherichia coli growth, chemical, composition, and cellular envelope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide widely used in the world and mainly excreted by the renal route in exposed humans and animals. Herbicides can affect other nontarget organisms, such as Escherichia coli. We observed that a single exposure to 1 mM 2,4-D diminished growth and total protein content in all E. coli strains tested in vitro. In addition, successive exposures to 0.01 mM 2,4-D had a toxic effect decreasing growth up to early stationary phase. Uropathogenic E. coli adhere to epithelial cells mediated by fimbriae, adhesins, and hydrophobic properties. 2,4-D exposure of uropathogenic E. coli demonstrated altered hydrophobicity and fimbriation. Hydrophobicity index values obtained by partition in p-xylene/water were 300-420% higher in exposed cells than in control ones. Furthermore, values of hemagglutination titer, protein contents in fimbrial crude extract, and electron microscopy demonstrated a significant diminution of fimbriation in treated cells. Other envelope alterations could be detected, such as lipoperoxidation, evidenced by decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids and increased lipid degradation products (malonaldehyde), and motility diminution. These alterations decreased cell adherence to erythrocytes, indicating a diminished pathogenic capacity of the 2,4-D-exposed E. coli. ?? 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html

  14. Large Surface Blebs on Escherichia coli Heated to Inactivating Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Scheie, Paul; Ehrenspeck, Susan

    1973-01-01

    Large surface blebs were observed with phase-contrast optics on Escherichia coli B/r and Bs-1 heated to temperatures at which colony-forming ability was lost. Characterization of such blebs was consistent with the view that they were formed by a physical process and were bounded by the outer membrane of the cell. A hypothesis for thermal inactivation of E. coli is presented that places membrane damage near the primary lethal event. Images PMID:4196258

  15. Expression of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bohach, G A; Schlievert, P M

    1987-01-01

    The structural gene encoding staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 was cloned into Escherichia coli and localized on a 1.5-kilobase HindIII-ClaI DNA fragment by subcloning. The toxin was partially purified from E. coli clones and shown to be immunologically identical to enterotoxin C1 from Staphylococcus aureus. The cloned toxin also had the same molecular weight (26,000) and charge heterogeneity as staphylococcus-derived enterotoxin. Toxins from both sources were equally biologically active. Images PMID:3542834

  16. Pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children attending a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Priya; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao; Chidambaram, Divya; Chandrabose, Gunasekaran; Thangaraj, Bhuvaneswari; Sarkar, Rajiv; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajan, Deva Prasanna; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children under 5 years was studied in children with diarrhea and controls in South India. Four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) “schemes” were used to detect genes of the 6 pathotypes of DEC. In 394 children with diarrhea, 203 (52%) DEC infections were found. Among the 198 controls, 126 (63%) DEC infections were found. Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathotype by multiplex PCR both in cases (58, 14.7%) and controls (47, 23.7%), followed by enteropathogenic E. coli seen in 10% cases and 8% of controls. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were found in 4.1%, 2.0%, 1.0%, and 0.5% of cases, respectively. ETEC was found in 2.5% of controls, but EHEC, EIEC, and DAEC were not detected. Overall, no single assay worked well, but by discounting genes with a pathogenicity index of less than 1, it was possible to use the PCR assays to identify DEC in 75/394 (19%) cases and 12/198 (6.1%) controls, while mixed infection could be identified in 8/394 (2%) cases and 2/198 (1%) controls. PMID:20846583

  17. Prevalence of enteropathic Escherichia coli in dogs with acute and chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sancak, A A; Rutgers, H C; Hart, C A; Batt, R M

    2004-01-24

    Samples of faeces from 57 dogs with acute diarrhoea, 82 dogs with chronic diarrhoea, 34 clinically healthy household dogs and 88 kennelled control dogs were analysed by hybridisation, using DNA probes to detect enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC), verocytotoxin-producing E coli (VTEC), enterohaemorrhagic E coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E coli (EIEC) and enteroaggregative E coli (EAggEC). Samples of duodenal juice from 60 of the 82 dogs with chronic diarrhoea were also examined. Significantly more of the dogs with diarrhoea were excreting EPEC (acute 35.1 per cent, chronic 31.7 per cent) and VTEC (acute 24.6 per cent, chronic 28 per cent) than the kennelled dogs (EPEC 17.1 per cent, VTEC 0 per cent) or the household control dogs (EPEC 6 per cent, VTEC 5.9 per cent). Enteropathic E coli was also detected in the duodenal juice of 23 of 60 (38.3 per cent) of the dogs with chronic diarrhoea. The EPEC attaching and effacing A (eaeA) gene and the verocytotoxin 1 (VR1) gene coding for VTEC were often found together. There was good agreement between in vitro studies and hybridisation for the detection of eaeA and VT1. Isolates from the dogs with diarrhoea adhered significantly more to Hep-2 cells, and VT1-positive strains from the dogs with diarrhoea consistently killed more than 50 per cent of Vero cells.

  18. Characterization of Globally Spread Escherichia coli ST131 Isolates (1991 to 2010)

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Pires, João; Ferreira, Helena; Costa, Luísa; Montenegro, Carolina; Vuotto, Claudia; Donelli, Gianfranco; Coque, Teresa M.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of a broad representative sample of ST131 Escherichia coli isolates from different origins and settings (1991 to 2010) revealed that this clonal group has likely diversified recently and that the expansion of particular variants has probably been favored by the capture of diverse, multidrug-resistant IncFII plasmids (pC15-1a, pEK499, pKF3-140-like). The low ability to adhere and to grow as biofilm that was detected in this study suggests unknown mechanisms for the persistence of this clonal group which need to be further explored. PMID:22491693

  19. Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in Asia: epidemiology and management.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Paterson, David L

    2015-05-01

    Escherichia coli has become multiresistant by way of production of a variety of β-lactamases. The prevalence of CTX-M-producing E. coli has reached 60-79% in certain parts of Asia. The acquisition of CTX-M plasmids by E. coli sequence type 131, a successful clone of E. coli, has caused further dissemination of CTX-M-producing E. coli. The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing E. coli, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing E. coli has been increasing in Asia. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase and NDM have now been found in E. coli sequence type 131. The occurrence of NDM-producing E. coli is a major concern particularly in the Indian subcontinent, but now elsewhere in Asia as well. There are multiple reasons why antibiotic resistance in E. coli in Asia has reached such extreme levels. Approaches beyond antibiotic therapy, such as prevention of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic stewardship and protecting natural microbiome, are strategies to avoid further spread of antibiotic resistance.

  20. A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  1. Heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin production in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, S C; Moon, H W; Lyon, N C

    1975-01-01

    Hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets were infected with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on day 4 of life. Samples of feces and intestinal contents were collected and tested in infant mice for enterotoxic activity. Positive enterotoxic responses were observed in mice given filtrates of feces and intestinal contents from piglets infected withe enterotoxigenic E. coli known to produce heat-stable enterotoxin but not heat-liabile enterotoxin in vitro. It is concluded that heat-stable enterotoxigenic E. coli induce diarrhea by production of heat-stable enterotoxin in vivo. PMID:1097335

  2. An integrated database to support research on Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Dunham, G.; Matsuda, Hideo; Michaels, G.; Taylor, R.; Overbeek, R.; Rudd, K.E.; Ginsburg, A.; Joerg, D.; Kazic, T.; Hagstrom, R.; Zawada, D.; Smith, C.; Yoshida, Kaoru

    1992-01-01

    We have used logic programming to design and implement a prototype database of genomic information for the model bacterial organism Escherichia coli. This report presents the fundamental database primitives that can be used to access and manipulate data relating to the E. coli genome. The present system, combined with a tutorial manual, provides immediate access to the integrated knowledge base for E. coli chromosome data. It also serves as the foundation for development of more user-friendly interfaces that have the same retrieval power and high-level tools to analyze complex chromosome organization.

  3. The quantitative and condition-dependent Escherichia coli proteome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander; Kochanowski, Karl; Vedelaar, Silke; Ahrné, Erik; Volkmer, Benjamin; Callipo, Luciano; Knoops, Kèvin; Bauer, Manuel; Aebersold, Ruedi; Heinemann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precise concentrations of proteins can provide insights into biological processes. Here, we use efficient protein extraction and sample fractionation and state-of-the-art quantitative mass spectrometry techniques to generate a comprehensive, condition-dependent protein abundance map of Escherichia coli. We measure cellular protein concentrations for 55% of predicted E. coli genes (>2300 proteins) under 22 different experimental conditions and identify methylation and N-terminal protein acetylations previously not known to be prevalent in bacteria. We uncover system-wide proteome allocation, expression regulation, and post-translational adaptations. These data provide a valuable resource for the systems biology and broader E. coli research communities. PMID:26641532

  4. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters.

  5. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  6. Reassessing Escherichia coli as a cell factory for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Pfleger, Brian F; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-03-11

    Via metabolic engineering, industrial microorganisms have the potential to convert renewable substrates into a wide range of biofuels that can address energy security and environmental challenges associated with current fossil fuels. The user-friendly bacterium, Escherichia coli, remains one of the most frequently used hosts for demonstrating production of biofuel candidates including alcohol-, fatty acid- and terpenoid-based biofuels. In this review, we summarize the metabolic pathways for synthesis of these biofuels and assess enabling technologies that assist in regulating biofuel synthesis pathways and rapidly assembling novel E. coli strains. These advances maintain E. coli's position as a prominent host for developing cell factories for biofuel production.

  7. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  8. Sources of Escherichia coli in a Coastal Subtropical Environment

    PubMed Central

    Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Desmarais, Timothy R.; Palmer, Carol J.

    2000-01-01

    Sources of Escherichia coli in a coastal waterway located in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., were evaluated. The study consisted of an extensive program of field measurements designed to capture spatial and temporal variations in E. coli concentrations as well as experiments conducted under laboratory-controlled conditions. E. coli from environmental samples was enumerated by using a defined substrate technology (Colilert-18). Field sampling tasks included sampling the length of the North Fork to identify the river reach contributing high E. coli levels, autosampler experiments at two locations, and spatially intense sampling efforts at hot spots. Laboratory experiments were designed to simulate tidal conditions within the riverbank soils. The results showed that E. coli entered the river in a large pulse during storm conditions. After the storm, E. coli levels returned to baseline levels and varied in a cyclical pattern which correlated with tidal cycles. The highest concentrations were observed during high tide, whereas the lowest were observed at low tide. This peculiar pattern of E. coli concentrations between storm events was caused by the growth of E. coli within riverbank soils which were subsequently washed in during high tide. Laboratory analysis of soil collected from the riverbanks showed increases of several orders of magnitude in soil E. coli concentrations. The ability of E. coli to multiply in the soil was found to be a function of soil moisture content, presumably due to the ability of E. coli to outcompete predators in relatively dry soil. The importance of soil moisture in regulating the multiplication of E. coli was found to be critical in tidally influenced areas due to periodic wetting and drying of soils in contact with water bodies. Given the potential for growth in such systems, E. coli concentrations can be artificially elevated above that expected from fecal impacts alone. Such results challenge the use of E. coli as a suitable indicator of water

  9. Use of the Escherichia coli Identification Microarray for Characterizing the Health Risks of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Foods.

    PubMed

    Lacher, David W; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Elkins, Christopher A; Feng, Peter C H

    2016-10-01

    More than 470 serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been identified, but not all cause severe illness in humans. Most STEC that cause severe diseases can adhere to epithelial cells, produce specific stx subtypes, and belong to certain serotypes; therefore, these traits appear to be critical STEC risk factors. However, testing for these traits is labor intensive, and serotyping is inadequate because of extensive variations among E. coli O and H antigen types. In the present study, the E. coli identification microarray, which tests for over 40,000 E. coli gene targets, was examined for its potential to quickly characterize STEC strains. Analysis of 47 E. coli isolates, including 31 STEC isolates, recovered from 39 foods revealed that the microarray effectively determined the presence or absence of adherence genes and identified the specific eae allele in 3 isolates. The array identified most of the stx subtypes carried by all the isolates but had some difficulties in discerning between stx2a, stx2c, and stx2d because of the genetic similarities of these subtypes. The array determined the O and H types of 68 and 96% of the isolates, respectively, and although most serotypes were unremarkable, a few known pathogenic serotypes were also found. These selected STEC traits provided a scientific basis for assessing the potential health risks of STEC strains and also showed the importance of H typing in determining health risks. However, the diversity of the STEC group, the complexity of virulence mechanisms, and the variation in pathotypes among strains continue to pose challenges to assessing the potential of STEC strains to cause severe illness.

  10. Structure of Water in Escherichia Coli B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    structure broadening of the NMR water spectrum. Using bacteria grown in the special chemically defined medium, we showed that the water in E. coli B was highly ordered and was very different from ’free’ water and from polywater .

  11. Slugs: Potential Novel Vectors of Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Sproston, Emma L.; Macrae, M.; Ogden, Iain D.; Wilson, Michael J.; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were performed to determine whether slugs could act as novel vectors for pathogen (e.g., Escherichia coli O157) transfer from animal feces to salad vegetables. Escherichia coli O157 was isolated from 0.21% of field slugs from an Aberdeenshire sheep farm. These isolates carried the verocytotoxin genes (vt1 and vt2) and the attaching and effacing gene (eae), suggesting that they are potentially pathogenic to humans. Strain typing using multilocus variable number tandem repeats analysis showed that slug and sheep isolates were indistinguishable. Laboratory experiments using an E. coli mutant resistant to nalidixic acid showed that the ubiquitous slug species Deroceras reticulatum could carry viable E. coli on its external surface for up to 14 days. Slugs that had been fed E. coli shed viable bacteria in their feces with numbers showing a short but statistically significant linear log decline. Further, it was found that E. coli persisted for up to 3 weeks in excreted slug feces, and hence, we conclude that slugs have the potential to act as novel vectors of E. coli O157. PMID:16391036

  12. 76 FR 58157 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... infections.\\1\\ \\1\\ U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), 2005 Case Definition. http://www...) 1422-1429. \\6\\ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bacterial Foodborne and Diarrheal Disease...

  13. Sequencing of Escherichia coli that cause persistent and transient Mastitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genomes of two strains of Escherichia coli that cause bovine mastitis were sequenced. These strains are known to be associated with persistent and transient mastitis: strain ECA-B causes a transient infection, and ECC-M leads to a persistent infection....

  14. Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain FMU073332

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Porta, Helena; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; Eslava-Campos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness, affecting practically every population worldwide, and was estimated to cause 120,800 deaths in 2010. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain FMU073332, isolated from a 25-month-old girl from Tlaltizapán, Morelos, México. PMID:28232434

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  16. Escherichia coli as other Enterobacteriaceae: food poisoning and health effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many Escherichia coli strains are harmless, and they are an important commensal in the intestinal microflora; however, pathogenic strains also exist. The pathogenic strains can be divided into diarrhea-inducing strains and strains that reside in the intestines but only cause disease in bodily sites...

  17. Stringent control of FLP recombinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Steven D; Palani, Nagendra P; Libourel, Igor G L

    2017-02-01

    Site specific recombinases are invaluable tools in molecular biology, and are emerging as powerful recorders of cellular events in synthetic biology. We have developed a stringently controlled FLP recombinase system in Escherichia coli using an arabinose inducible promoter combined with a weak ribosome binding site.

  18. Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli severe dysentery complicated by rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Gil, Leova; Ochoa, Theresa J; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; DuPont, Herbert L; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2006-11-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is an important agent of pediatric diarrhea and dysentery in developing countries. We report a life-threatening severe dysentery case due to EIEC in a malnourished 4-month-old male, native Indian infant co-infected with rotavirus. The severe gastrointestinal bleeding anemia and hypovolemic shock was successfully treated with IV blood transfusions, rehydration and antibiotic therapy.

  19. Division Planes Alternate in Spherical Cells of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Begg, K. J.; Donachie, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    In the spherical cells of Escherichia coli rodA mutants, division is initiated at a single point, from which a furrow extends progressively around the cell. Using “giant” rodA ftsA cells, we confirmed that each new division furrow is initiated at the midpoint of the previous division plane and runs perpendicular to it. PMID:9573213

  20. More than a locomotive organelle: flagella in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Yang, Yang; Chen, Panlin; Hu, Huijie; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-11-01

    The flagellum is a locomotive organelle that allows bacteria to respond to chemical gradients. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding Escherichia coli flagellin variants and the role of flagella in bacterial functions other than motility, including the relationship between flagella and bacterial virulence.

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  2. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  3. Effect of phytoplankton on Escherichia coli survival in laboratory microcosms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal contamination of water sources is an important water quality issue for agricultural irrigation ponds. Escherichia coli is a common microbial indicator used to evaluate recreational and irrigation water quality. Nuisance algae commonly grow in low- or no-flow irrigation water source The objecti...

  4. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, D

    1976-11-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency.

  5. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Freifelder, D

    1976-01-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency. PMID:789362

  6. Escherichia coli growth studied by dual-parameter flow cytophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Steen, H B; Boye, E

    1981-01-01

    The growth of Escherichia coli cells has been analyzed for the first time by dual-parameter flow cytophotometry, in which the deoxyribonucleic acid and protein contents of single bacteria have been measured simultaneously with an accuracy of a few percent and at a rate of 3,000 cells/s. PMID:7007339

  7. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  8. Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae: Food poisoning and health effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The family Enterobactericeae consists of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria and also includes the food-borne pathogens, Cronobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. Illness caused by these pathogens is acquired...

  9. Isolation of an Lc-specific Escherichia coli bacteriophage.

    PubMed Central

    Fralick, J A; Diedrich, D L; Casey-Wood, S

    1990-01-01

    We isolated an OmpF-specific bacteriophage whose host range mutant, SQ108h2, requires the presence of the Lc porin for its attachment and which can be used to screen or select for Lc-defective mutants among Escherichia coli K-12 strains lysogenic for the PA-2 converting phage. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1689719

  10. Plasmolysis of Escherichia coli B-r with sucrose.

    PubMed

    Scheie, P O

    1969-05-01

    Escherichia coli B/r cells were plasmolyzed in sucrose solutions and observed under phase contrast. The prevalence of plasmolysis under various conditions was noted, and the degree of plasmolysis was categorized as slight, extensive, or severe. The presence of ions reduced the prevalence of plasmolysis. Survival curves showed that extensive plasmolysis was not lethal to colony-forming ability.

  11. Naturally Occurring Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporinases in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Fortineau, Nicolas; Nordmann, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and functional characterization of the cephalosporinases produced by 65 clonally unrelated clinical Escherichia coli isolates revealed genetic diversity of the ampC genes and showed that Gln287, Cys287, Pro296, Leu298, and Phe350 substitutions were involved in extension of the hydrolysis spectrum to include ceftazidime and cefepime. PMID:16801449

  12. armA and aminoglycoside resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C; Moreno, Miguel A; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-06-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant.

  13. armA and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C.; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant. PMID:15963296

  14. Norfloxacin resistance in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, H; Sato, K; Kato, T; Hirai, K; Mitsuhashi, S

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of DNA gyrase supercoiling and of norfloxacin uptake in Escherichia coli GN14176, a moderately norfloxacin-resistant clinical isolate, indicated that resistance was associated with both an altered drug target and a reduction in drug uptake. Images PMID:2829712

  15. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae diarrhea, Bangladesh, 2004.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Khan, Ashraful I; Faruque, Abu Syed G; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Chowdhury, Fahima; Nair, Gopinath B; Salam, Mohammed A; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2005-07-01

    Flooding in Dhaka in July 2004 caused epidemics of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was almost as prevalent as Vibrio cholerae O1 in diarrheal stools. ETEC that produced heat-stable enterotoxin alone was most prevalent, and 78% of strains had colonization factors. Like V. cholerae O1, ETEC can cause epidemic diarrhea.

  16. Plasmolysis of Escherichia coli B/r with Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Scheie, Paul O.

    1969-01-01

    Escherichia coli B/r cells were plasmolyzed in sucrose solutions and observed under phase contrast. The prevalence of plasmolysis under various conditions was noted, and the degree of plasmolysis was categorized as slight, extensive, or severe. The presence of ions reduced the prevalence of plasmolysis. Survival curves showed that extensive plasmolysis was not lethal to colony-forming ability. PMID:4891252

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Bovine Animals, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Evan; Martins, Marta; McCusker, Matthew P.; Wang, Juan; Alves, Bruno Martins; Hurley, Daniel; El Garch, Farid; Woehrlé, Frédérique; Miossec, Christine; McGrath, Leisha; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Wall, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Of 150 Escherichia coli strains we cultured from specimens taken from cattle in Europe, 3 had elevated MICs against colistin. We assessed all 3 strains for the presence of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene and identified 1 isolate as mcr-1–positive and co-resistant to β-lactam, florfenicol, and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27533105

  18. rRNA transcription rate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gotta, S L; Miller, O L; French, S L

    1991-01-01

    The rate of in vivo transcription elongation for Escherichia coli rRNA operons was determined by electron microscopy following addition of rifampin to log-phase cultures. Direct observation of RNA polymerase positions along rRNA operons 30, 40, and 70 s after inhibition of transcription initiation yielded a transcription elongation rate of 42 nucleotides per s. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1717439

  19. Immunologic Control of Diarrheal Disease Due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Classical Enteropathogenic (Serotyped) Escherichia coli Strains of Proven Pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 38:798-801, 1982. 8. Levine, M.M. Vacunas Contra...Microbiol., 18:808-815, 1983. 8 15. Levine, M.M., Lanata, C. Progresos en Vacunas Contra Diarrea Bacteriana. Adelantos Microbiol. Enferm. Inf., 2:67-117

  20. Inhibition of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli cell adhesion in-vitro by designed peptides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepika; Sarkar, Subendu; Sharma, Monica; Thapa, B R; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) bears remarkable capacity to adhere the host intestinal mucosal surface and results in acute or persistent childhood diarrhea worldwide. In this study, an attempt has been made to inhibit EAEC cell adherence in-vitro using synthetic peptides. E. coli isolates (n = 54) were isolated from the stool samples of clinically diagnosed pediatric diarrheal patients. 92.8% isolates showed different types of aggregative adherence patterns with HEp-2 cells. AAF-II (Aggregative Adherence Fimbriae-II) EAEC exhibited the maximum ability to form biofilm and intracellular survival. Peptides were designed against the high antigenic epitopic regions of AAF-II adhesin of EAEC O42 using prediction algorithms like BcePred and ProPred software to block the EAEC cell adhesion in-vitro. Peptides P2 (DITITPATNRDVNV) and P3 (MRIKAWGEANHGQL) demonstrated higher inhibition of EAEC cell adhesion than P1 (GMQGSITPAIPLRPG). Interestingly, increasing the pre-incubation time of the peptides with HEp-2 cells from 1 h to 2 h showed the maximum inhibition. The data suggested the potential role of P2 and P3 peptides in successfully blocking the binding of AAF-II EAEC with HEp-2 cell receptors. Hence, the peptides may be efficacious in designing new chemotherapeutic for the management of EAEC mediated diarrhea.

  1. EcoCyc: Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1998-01-01

    The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of E.coli. The database describes 3030 genes of E.coli , 695 enzymes encoded by a subset of these genes, 595 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli, and the organization of these reactions into 123 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc can be thought of as an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as a (qualitative) computational model of E.coli metabolism. EcoCyc is available at URL http://ecocyc.PangeaSystems.com/ecocyc/

  2. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    PubMed Central

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  3. Glycerol elicits energy taxis of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Zhulin, I B; Rowsell, E H; Johnson, M S; Taylor, B L

    1997-05-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium show positive chemotaxis to glycerol, a chemical previously reported to be a repellent for E. coli. The threshold of the attractant response in both species was 10(-6) M glycerol. Glycerol chemotaxis was energy dependent and coincident with an increase in membrane potential. Metabolism of glycerol was required for chemotaxis, and when lactate was present to maintain energy production in the absence of glycerol, the increases in membrane potential and chemotactic response upon addition of glycerol were abolished. Methylation of a chemotaxis receptor was not required for positive glycerol chemotaxis in E. coli or S. typhimurium but is involved in the negative chemotaxis of E. coli to high concentrations of glycerol. We propose that positive chemotaxis to glycerol in E. coli and S. typhimurium is an example of energy taxis mediated via a signal transduction pathway that responds to changes in the cellular energy level.

  4. Analyses of intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains from wild boars suggest adaptation to conventional pig production conditions.

    PubMed

    Römer, Antje; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2012-12-28

    To test the hypothesis that Escherichia coli populations have adapted to conventional pig production practices, we comparatively tested intestinal commensal E. coli from wild boars versus isolates from domestic pigs by analyzing virulence-associated factors, adhesion, and metabolic activities. Virulence-associated genes typical for intestinal pathogenic E. coli (inVAGs) were sporadically detected among E. coli from wild boars except the adhesion-related gene paa and the enterotoxin-encoding gene astA. In contrast, several VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (exVAGs) were common in E. coli from wild boars. The exVAG chuA occurred more often in E. coli from wild boars compared to E. coli from domestic pigs. 23.5% of E. coli from wild boars belonged to EcoR group B2 which is higher than observed for E. coli from clinically healthy domestic pigs. Furthermore, E. coli from wild boars were more efficient in fermentation of carbohydrate sources (dulcitol, inositol, d-sucrose, d-tagatose), and adhered better to the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In conclusion, our findings point towards an adaptation of porcine intestinal E. coli to a specific intestinal milieu caused by different animal living conditions.

  5. Using zebra mussels to monitor Escherichia coli in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Selegean, J P; Kusserow, R; Patel, R; Heidtke, T M; Ram, J L

    2001-01-01

    Use of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as an indicator of previously elevated bacteria concentrations in a watershed was examined. The ability of the zebra mussel to accumulate and purge Escherichia coli over several days was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments, periodic enumeration of E. coli in mussels that had been exposed to a dilute solution of raw sewage demonstrated that (i) maximum concentrations of E. coli are reached within a few hours of exposure to sewage, (ii) the tissue concentration attained is higher than the concentration in the ambient water, and (iii) the E. coli concentrations take several days to return to preexposure concentrations when mussels are subsequently placed in sterile water. In field experiments conducted in southeast Michigan in the Clinton River watershed, brief increases in E. coli concentrations in the water were accompanied by increases in mussel concentrations of E. coli that lasted 2 or 3 d. The ability of mussels to retain and to concentrate E. coli made it possible to detect E. coli in the environment under conditions that conventional monitoring may often miss. Sampling caged mussels in a river and its tributaries may enable watershed managers to reduce the sampling frequency normally required to identify critical E. coli sources, thereby providing a more cost-effective river monitoring strategy for bacterial contamination.

  6. Cytotoxic Escherichia coli strains encoding colibactin colonize laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    García, Alexis; Mannion, Anthony; Feng, Yan; Madden, Carolyn M; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Shen, Zeli; Ge, Zhongming; Fox, James G

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli strains have not been fully characterized in laboratory mice and are not currently excluded from mouse colonies. Colibactin (Clb), a cytotoxin, has been associated with inflammation and cancer in humans and animals. We performed bacterial cultures utilizing rectal swab, fecal, and extra intestinal samples from clinically unaffected or affected laboratory mice. Fifty-one E. coli were isolated from 45 laboratory mice, identified biochemically, and selected isolates were serotyped. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced for specific isolates, PCR used for clbA and clbQ gene amplification, and phylogenetic group identification was performed on all 51 E. coli strains. Clb genes were sequenced and selected E. coli isolates were characterized using a HeLa cell cytotoxicity assay. Forty-five of the 51 E. coli isolates (88%) encoded clbA and clbQ and belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Mouse E. coli serotypes included: O2:H6, O-:H-, OM:H+, and O22:H-. Clb-encoding O2: H6 mouse E. coli isolates were cytotoxic in vitro. A Clb-encoding E. coli was isolated from a clinically affected genetically modified mouse with cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Our findings suggest that Clb-encoding E. coli colonize laboratory mice and may induce clinical and subclinical diseases that may impact experimental mouse models.

  7. Evolution of the iss gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Nolan, Lisa K

    2008-04-01

    The increased serum survival gene iss has long been recognized for its role in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence. iss has been identified as a distinguishing trait of avian ExPEC but not of human ExPEC. This gene has been localized to large virulence plasmids and shares strong similarities with the bor gene from bacteriophage lambda. Here, we demonstrate that three alleles of iss occur among E. coli isolates that appear to have evolved from a common lambda bor precursor. In addition to the occurrence of iss on the ColV/BM virulence plasmids, at least two iss alleles occur within the E. coli chromosome. One of these alleles (designated type 3) was found to occur in the genomes of all currently sequenced ExPEC strains on a similar prophage element that also harbors the Sit iron and manganese transport system. When the prevalence of the three iss types was examined among 487 E. coli isolates, the iss type 3 gene was found to occur at a high frequency among ExPEC isolates, irrespective of the host source. The plasmid-borne iss allele (designated type 1) was highly prevalent among avian pathogenic E. coli and neonatal meningitis-associated E. coli isolates but not among uropathogenic E. coli isolates. This study demonstrates the evolution of iss in E. coli and provides an additional tool for discriminating among E. coli pathotypes through the differentiation of the three iss allele types and bor.

  8. EFFECT OF DIHYDROSTREPTOMYCIN ON TETRAZOLIUM DYE REDUCTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, P. D.; Polglase, W. J.

    1963-01-01

    Bragg, P. D. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and W. J. Polglase. Effect of dihydrostreptomycin on tetrazolium dye reduction in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 85:795–800. 1963.—Sonic-disrupted extracts of Escherichia coli, grown without added antibiotic (sensitive and resistant), contained (in supernatant of fraction centrifuged at 100,000 × g) a dihydrostreptomycin-inhibitable, succinate-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reductase activity. The succinate-TTC reductase activities of extracts of E. coli grown in the presence of dihydrostreptomycin (resistant and dependent) were relatively low and were not inhibited by the antibiotic. At a moderate magnesium concentration, the degree of inhibition by dihydrostreptomycin of succinate-TTC reductase activity was sufficiently marked to indicate an important site of action of the antibiotic. Magnesium, putrescine, and spermidine antagonized the action of dihydrostreptomycin in the succinate-TTC reductase system. PMID:14044945

  9. EFFECT OF DIHYDROSTREPTOMYCIN ON TETRAZOLIUM DYE REDUCTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    BRAGG, P D; POLGLASE, W J

    1963-04-01

    Bragg, P. D. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) and W. J. Polglase. Effect of dihydrostreptomycin on tetrazolium dye reduction in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 85:795-800. 1963.-Sonic-disrupted extracts of Escherichia coli, grown without added antibiotic (sensitive and resistant), contained (in supernatant of fraction centrifuged at 100,000 x g) a dihydrostreptomycin-inhibitable, succinate-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reductase activity. The succinate-TTC reductase activities of extracts of E. coli grown in the presence of dihydrostreptomycin (resistant and dependent) were relatively low and were not inhibited by the antibiotic. At a moderate magnesium concentration, the degree of inhibition by dihydrostreptomycin of succinate-TTC reductase activity was sufficiently marked to indicate an important site of action of the antibiotic. Magnesium, putrescine, and spermidine antagonized the action of dihydrostreptomycin in the succinate-TTC reductase system.

  10. Polyerositis and Arthritis Due to Escherichia coli in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Britt, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Forty gnotobiotic pigs from six litters were exposed orally to Escherichia coli 083:K·:NM at 69 to 148 hours of age, while 17 pigs from the same litters served as unexposed controls. Clinical signs of infection included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, lameness, and reluctance to move. Eighty-four percent of the exposed pigs in four litters died, while only 13% in two litters died. Gross and microscopic lesions included serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent polyserositis in 96% of the exposed pigs in four litters and 33% of the exposed pigs in two litters. A few pigs had gross and/or microscopic lesions of arthritis. Escherichia coli was routinely isolated from the serous and synovial cavities of infected pigs. Anti-hog cholera serum administered orally as a colostrum substitute gave partial protection against E. coli infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261837

  11. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm2) following exposure to 50 μg/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm2). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations after 24 h when stored at 4°C compared with controls. Immersion of lettuce in suspensions containing high concentrations of EcoShield™ (9.8 log PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm2) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm2) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm2). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce. PMID:23819106

  12. Virulence factors of lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea in Somalia.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoletti, M; Superti, F; Conti, C; Calconi, A; Zagaglia, C

    1988-01-01

    Lactose-negative Escherichia coli strains were isolated at high frequency from children with diarrhea in Somalia during a 2-year study on diarrheal diseases. Sixty-four of these strains, considered to be a representative sample, were characterized for virulence factors, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Of these strains, 5 were recognized as enteroinvasive E. coli (they were serotyped as O135:K-:H-), 6 belonged to classical enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes, 9 were able to adhere to tissue culture cells (of these, 4 showed a pattern of localized adherence and 1 was an enteropathogenic strain), 18 were both adherent and hemolytic, and 8 were simply hemolytic. None hybridized with 32P-labeled heat-labile or heat-stable (a and b) enterotoxin gene probes or produced moderate or high-level cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Of the 64 strains examined, 24 produced mannose-resistant hemagglutination with human, chicken, and monkey erythrocytes. One of these was serotyped as O4:K-:H8, and a rabbit O antiserum raised against this strain allowed us to establish that 23 strains had the same O antigen. The 23 O4 strains were hemolytic and were not enterotoxic for rabbit ileal loops, and intact bacteria were able to destroy tissue culture cell monolayers very rapidly. The uniformity of the antibiotic resistance pattern and of the plasmid DNA content, together with the fact that they were isolated in different years and in different children, suggests that the O4 strains must be epidemiologically relevant in Somalia. A possible diarrheagenic role for the adherent-hemolytic E. coli strains is also discussed. Images PMID:3281977

  13. Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Medeiros, Leonardo; Chiconi, Carolina; Martins, Fernando; Pelayo, Jacinta; Rocha, Sérgio; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Miguel; Zanutto, Marcelo; Kobayashi, Renata; Nakazato, Gerson

    2013-10-25

    Escherichia coli are gut microbiota bacteria that can cause disease in some humans and other animals, including dogs and cats that humans often keep as pets. Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) strains are classified into six categories: enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), and diffuse-adhering E. coli (DAEC). In this study 144 and 163 E. coli colonies were isolated from the fecal samples of 50 dogs and 50 cats, respectively, with and without diarrhea from a Veterinary Hospital (clinical isolates). The virulence factors were determined using multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction. Adherence assays, antibacterial susceptibility and serotyping (somatic or flagellar antigens) were performed on DEC isolates. We found 25 (17.4%) and 4 (2.5%) DEC strains isolated from dogs and cats, respectively. Only the EPEC and EAEC pathotypes were found in both animals. Meanwhile, genes from other pathotypes (STEC, EIEC, and ETEC) were not found in these clinical isolates. All of the DEC strains showed mannose-resistant adherence to HEp-2 and HeLa cells, and aggregative adherence was predominant in these isolates. Multiresistant strains to antimicrobials were found in most DEC strains including usual and unusual antimicrobials in veterinary practices. The serotypes of these DEC isolates were variable. The ONT serotype was predominant in these isolates. Some serotypes found in our study were described to human DEC. Here, we demonstrate that pets carry virulent DEC genes, which are mainly strains of EPECs and EAECs. The presence of these virulence factors in isolates from animals without diarrhea suggests that pets can act as a reservoir for human infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorptive property of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite clays for Escherichia coli K88 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tong; Cao, Shoujun; Su, Rui; Li, Zhiqiang; Hu, Ping; Xu, Zirong

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption properties of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite clays (MMT-Cu) for Escherichia coli K88 as a function of time, bacteria concentrations, pH, ionic strength and temperature were investigated. The results showed that the bacteria adsorption onto MMT-Cu surface reached equilibrium after 90 min. The percentages of E. coli K88 adsorbed onto the surfaces of MMT-Cu and montmorillonite clays (MMT) at equilibrium were 88.9% and 56.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a lot of E. coli K88 adhered to the surface of MMT-Cu. The zeta potential of MMT-Cu was relatively high as compared to that of MMT. The adsorptive ability of MMT-Cu for E. coli K88 was higher than that of MMT (P < 0.05). Moreover, pH, ionic strength and temperature produced a strong influence on the extent of E. coli K88 adsorption to surface of MMT-Cu and MMT. The mechanism of adsorption of E. coli onto MMT-Cu may involve electrostatic attraction and physiochemical properties of bacterial cell walls and minerals surfaces.

  15. Uropathogenic virulence factor FimH facilitates binding of uteropathogenic Escherichia coli to canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, N; Marenda, M S; Browning, G F; Holden, K M; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-09-01

    Pyometra is a potentially life-threatening condition in bitches and is often caused by Escherichia coli infection. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli strains commonly carry the genes for type 1 fimbriae that mediate bacterial adhesion onto host epithelium. To investigate whether the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, FimH, facilitates the binding of uropathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium, the fimH gene was insertionally inactivated in a pathogenic E. coli strain. The ability of E. coli to bind to canine endometrial epithelial cells was determined in vitro using canine uterine biopsies. Binding of the fimH mutant was only 0.3% of that of the wild type. Complementation of the mutation restored the phenotype to that of the parent. This study has developed an in vitro model that allows quantitative and qualitative assessment of bacterial binding to canine endometrium and has demonstrated that the fimH gene plays a role in adherence of pathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium.

  16. Biofilm formation as a virulence determinant of uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr+ strains.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Piatek, Beata M; Wilkanowicz, Sabina I; Piatek, Rafał J; Kur, Józef W

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common health problem affecting millions of people each year. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the major factor causing lower and upper urinary tract infections. UPEC produce several virulence factors among which are surface exposed adhesive organelldes (pili/fimbriae) responsible for colonization, invasion and amplification within uroepithelial cells. The virulence of the uropathogenic E. coli Dr IH11128 is associated with Dr fimbriae belonging to the Dr family of adhesins (associated with diarrhea and urinary tract infections) and a DraD protein capping the linear fiber at the bacterial cell surface. In this study we revealed that biofilm development can be another urovirulence determinant allowing pathogenic E. coli Dr+ to survive within the urinary tract. E. coli strains were grown in rich or minimal media, allowed to adhere to abiotic surfaces and analyzed microscopically by staining of cells with cristal violet. We found that both Dr fimbriae and DraD, exposed at the cell surface in two forms, fimbria-associated or fimbria non-associated, (DraE+/DraD+, DraE+/DraD- or DraE-/DraD+ E. coli strains) are required for biofilm formation. Additionally, we demonstrated the biofilm formation capacity of E. coli strains deficient in the surface secretion or production of the DraE adhesin.

  17. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Aubel, D; Chauviere, G; Rich, C; Bourges, M; Servin, A; Joly, B

    1990-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains possessing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, CFA/III, and antigen 2230 were tested for their ability to adhere to the following cell lines: HeLa, HEp-2, HRT 18, Hutu 80, MDBK, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2. ETEC strains adhered only to the Caco-2 cell line. Irrespective of the known adhesive factors, the ETEC strains that adhered to the brush border of human enterocytes also adhered to the Caco-2 cell line. The negative variants, which were cured of the plasmid encoding the adhesive factor, did not adhere. Adhesion of ETEC strains no longer occurred when the Caco-2 cells were pretreated with the homologous colonization factor antigen or when the bacterial cells were pretreated with homologous antibodies raised against the adhesive factors. This indicates that this adhesion is specific and that a different receptor exists for each type of adhesion factor. Electron micrographs of cross sections of the monolayer showed that the adhesion of ETEC strains to the brush border microvilli does not induce any lesion. Therefore, the Caco-2 cell line behaves in the same way as human enterocytes do. Images PMID:2180823

  18. Travelers' diarrhea and toxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, S L; Kean, B H; Evans, D G; Evans, D J; Bessudo, D

    1975-05-01

    In a group of 133 United States students studied for 18 days after arriving in Mexico, diarrhea developed in 38 (29 per cent). Diarrhea rarely began before the fourth day, and the mean onset was 13 days after arrival. Symptoms lasted an average of 3.4 days but persisted in 21 per cent of sick students. Heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escheria coli was found in the stools of 72 per cent of sick and 15 per cent of healthy students. None had heat-labile Esch. coli when they entered Mexico. The incubation period was short, generally 24 to 48 hours, and the carrier state was five days or less in 82 per cent of students surveyed. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 6 per cent of cases of diarrhea, but not salmonella, shigella or penetrating Esch. coli. These studies suggest that approximately 70 per cent of travelers' diarrhea in Mexico is associated with heat-labile toxigenic strains of Esch. coli.

  19. Clonal structure and virulence factors in strains of Escherichia coli of the classic serogroup O55.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, J; Scaletsky, I C; Campos, L C; Gomes, T A; Whittam, T S; Trabulsi, L R

    1996-01-01

    Virulence properties and genetic variation as determined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were studied in 70 strains of Escherichia coli 055, a common serogroup of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), a major cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Nearly 40% of the strains were originally isolated in Brazil and represented serotypes 055:H6, 055:H7, and 055:H51 and nonmotile (055:H-) strains. The analysis of electrophoretic variants of 20 enzymes defined seven distinct electrophoretic types (ETs). ET 1 was represented by 41% of the strains, including strains which usually hybridized with DNA probes for the intimin gene (eaeA), the EPEC adherence plasmid (EAF), and the gene for the pilin subunit of the bundle-forming pilus (bfpA). The ET 1 strains were also typically serotype 055:H6, displayed localized adherence (LA) in tissue culture assays, and were positive in the fluorescent-actin staining test for intimate cell adherence. These same characteristics were observed in the closely related ETs 2 to 4, which clustered in the same branch as ET 1. No known virulence marker could be identified in ET 6. ET 5 included 23 strains, all of which carried the eaeA gene but otherwise displayed a striking array of distinct virulence traits. This ET was represented by 055:H7 strains with phenotypes as diverse as the simultaneous expression of LA and diffuse adherence and the ability to form a newly described adherence pattern, called LA-like adherence. The results suggest that ET 5 marks a special pathogenic clone with a propensity to acquire virulence factors which may facilitate the emergence of new pathogenic strains. PMID:8698495

  20. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E.; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes. PMID:26809117

  1. Abundance of culturable versus viable Escherichia coli in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Servais, Pierre; Prats, Josué; Passerat, Julien; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara

    2009-07-01

    Approved methods traditionally used for Escherichia coli enumeration in waters are culture-based. However, these methods can underestimate the E. coli abundance in aquatic systems because they do not take into account cells that remain viable but have lost the ability to grow in or on culture media. We investigated, in freshwater samples, the abundance of (i) culturable E. coli, enumerated by the most probable number microplate method and (ii) viable E. coli, estimated using a procedure called DVC-FISH, which couples fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and a viability testing technique (direct viable count (DVC)). The ratio of culturable to viable E. coli was close to 1 in highly contaminated waters (samples with a high concentration of culturable E. coli), but decreased drastically for weakly contaminated samples. This indicates a large fraction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) E. coli in the latter samples. Microcosm experiments showed that some environmental factors, such as nutrient scarcity and solar irradiation, could lead to the presence of a high proportion of VBNC E. coli.

  2. Estimation of Escherichia coli in raw ground beef.

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, M E; Ng, L K

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish and evaluate more rapid methods of estimating Escherichia coli in ground beef than the standard most probable number (MPN) technique. Direct inoculation of and modifications to EC medium gave unreliable estimates of the presumptive E. coli count. Solid media incubated at an elevated temperature were compared to the MPN technique. Anderson and Baird-Parker's tryptone bile agar (TBA) method and prepoured plates of Endo, Levine eosin methylene blue (EMB), and violet red bile (VRBA) agars incubated at 44 degree C gave equivalent counts to the standard MPN method. Anderson and Baird-Parker TBA was the most selective solid medium for E. coli estimation, but all selective media incubated at elevated temperature reduced apparent E. coli counts by as much as 50%. Indole-producing and lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae, capable of growth at elevated temperature, were tested for their growth on TBA, EMB, and VRBA at elevated temperature. TBA was selective for E. coli biotype I compared to other Enterobacteriaceae that predominate in meats. VRBA and EMB incubated at elevated temperature were not as selective as TBA, but differences in colonies could be observed between typical E. coli colonies and other Enterobacteriaceae on these media. Therefore, VRBA incubated at elevated temperature is proposed as a quality assurance screening test for presumptive E. coli in ground meat. Resuscitation techniques and prepoured plates with VRBA increased recovery levels of presumptive E. coli, but, under the conditions of this study, not to levels that represented a significant practical difference. PMID:7008695

  3. Genomic Comparative Study of Bovine Mastitis Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Florent; Slugocki, Cindy; Blum, Shlomo E; Leitner, Gabriel; Germon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis, is responsible for significant losses on dairy farms. In order to better understand the pathogenicity of E. coli mastitis, an accurate characterization of E. coli strains isolated from mastitis cases is required. By using phylogenetic analyses and whole genome comparison of 5 currently available mastitis E. coli genome sequences, we searched for genotypic traits specific for mastitis isolates. Our data confirm that there is a bias in the distribution of mastitis isolates in the different phylogenetic groups of the E. coli species, with the majority of strains belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1. An interesting feature is that clustering of strains based on their accessory genome is very similar to that obtained using the core genome. This finding illustrates the fact that phenotypic properties of strains from different phylogroups are likely to be different. As a consequence, it is possible that different strategies could be used by mastitis isolates of different phylogroups to trigger mastitis. Our results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates analyzed in this study carry very few of the virulence genes described in other pathogenic E. coli strains. A more detailed analysis of the presence/absence of genes involved in LPS synthesis, iron acquisition and type 6 secretion systems did not uncover specific properties of mastitis isolates. Altogether, these results indicate that mastitis E. coli isolates are rather characterized by a lack of bona fide currently described virulence genes.

  4. Chromosomal features of Escherichia coli serotype O2:K2, an avian pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili; Christensen, Jens P; Olsen, John E; Nolan, Lisa; Olsen, Rikke H

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production economy and welfare worldwide. An almost defining characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli is the carriage of plasmids, which may encode virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinates. For the same reason, plasmids of avian pathogenic E. coli have been intensively studied. However, genes encoded by the chromosome may also be important for disease manifestation and antimicrobial resistance. For the E. coli strain APEC_O2 the plasmids have been sequenced and analyzed in several studies, and E. coli APEC_O2 may therefore serve as a reference strain in future studies. Here we describe the chromosomal features of E. coli APEC_O2. E. coli APEC_O2 is a sequence type ST135, has a chromosome of 4,908,820 bp (plasmid removed), comprising 4672 protein-coding genes, 110 RNA genes, and 156 pseudogenes, with an average G + C content of 50.69%. We identified 82 insertion sequences as well as 4672 protein coding sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, three prophage-related sequences, and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The wildtype strain of E. coli APEC_O2 is resistant towards multiple antimicrobials, however, no (complete) antibiotic resistance genes were present on the chromosome, but a number of genes associated with extra-intestinal disease were identified. Together, the information provided here on E. coli APEC_O2 will assist in future studies of avian pathogenic E. coli strains, in particular regarding strain of E. coli APEC_O2, and aid in the general understanding of the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli.

  5. Prevalence and Antibiogram Profiling of Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from the Kat River and the Fort Beaufort Abstraction Water

    PubMed Central

    Nontongana, Nolonwabo; Sibanda, Timothy; Ngwenya, Elvis; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a widespread bacterium encompassing a variety of strains, ranging from highly pathogenic strains, causing worldwide outbreaks of severe diseases to avirulent, well characterized safe laboratory strains. This study evaluated the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of E. coli pathotypes isolated from the Kat River and Fort Beaufort abstraction water. A total of 171 out of 278 confirmed E. coli isolates were positive for at least one pathogenic determinant and these included enteropathogenic E. coli (6%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (47%), uropathogenic E. coli (2%), neonatal meningitis E. coli (5%), diffusely adherent E. coli (1%) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (1%). Interestingly, enteroinvasive and enteroaggregative E. coli were not detected. The phenotypic antibiogram profiles of the isolates revealed that all were resistant to penicillin G, while 98% and 38% of the pathotypes were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, respectively. About 8% of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. More than half of the isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance with 44% being resistant to three antibiotics and 8% resistant to four antibiotics. We conclude that the Kat River is a reservoir of potentially virulent antibiotic resistant E. coli strains that can cause serious health risks to humans who drink raw water from this river, or in the case that consumption of treated drinking water coincides with failed drinking water processes. PMID:25119699

  6. Prevalence and antibiogram profiling of Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from the Kat River and the Fort Beaufort abstraction water.

    PubMed

    Nontongana, Nolonwabo; Sibanda, Timothy; Ngwenya, Elvis; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-08-12

    Escherichia coli is a widespread bacterium encompassing a variety of strains, ranging from highly pathogenic strains, causing worldwide outbreaks of severe diseases to avirulent, well characterized safe laboratory strains. This study evaluated the prevalence and antibiogram profiles of E. coli pathotypes isolated from the Kat River and Fort Beaufort abstraction water. A total of 171 out of 278 confirmed E. coli isolates were positive for at least one pathogenic determinant and these included enteropathogenic E. coli (6%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (47%), uropathogenic E. coli (2%), neonatal meningitis E. coli (5%), diffusely adherent E. coli (1%) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (1%). Interestingly, enteroinvasive and enteroaggregative E. coli were not detected. The phenotypic antibiogram profiles of the isolates revealed that all were resistant to penicillin G, while 98% and 38% of the pathotypes were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, respectively. About 8% of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. More than half of the isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance with 44% being resistant to three antibiotics and 8% resistant to four antibiotics. We conclude that the Kat River is a reservoir of potentially virulent antibiotic resistant E. coli strains that can cause serious health risks to humans who drink raw water from this river, or in the case that consumption of treated drinking water coincides with failed drinking water processes.

  7. Yeast DNA sequences initiating gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Astrid; Tran, Thi Tuyen; Jacob, Daniela; Mayer, Martin; Freytag, Barbara; Appel, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    DNA transfer between pro- and eukaryotes occurs either during natural horizontal gene transfer or as a result of the employment of gene technology. We analysed the capacity of DNA sequences from a eukaryotic donor organism (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to serve as promoter region in a prokaryotic recipient (Escherichia coli) by creating fusions between promoterless luxAB genes from Vibrio harveyi and random DNA sequences from S. cerevisiae and measuring the luminescence of transformed E. coli. Fifty-four out of 100 randomly analysed S. cerevisiae DNA sequences caused considerable gene expression in E. coli. Determination of transcription start sites within six selected yeast sequences in E. coli confirmed the existence of bacterial -10 and -35 consensus sequences at appropriate distances upstream from transcription initiation sites. Our results demonstrate that the probability of transcription of transferred eukaryotic DNA in bacteria is extremely high and does not require the insertion of the transferred DNA behind a promoter of the recipient genome.

  8. Proton-linked D-xylose transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, V M; Daruwalla, K R; Henderson, P J; Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1980-01-01

    The addition of xylose to energy-depleted cells of Escherichia coli elicited an alkaline pH change which failed to appear in the presence of uncoupling agents. Accumulation of [14C]xylose by energy-replete cells was also inhibited by uncoupling agents, but not by fluoride or arsenate. Subcellular vesicles of E. coli accumulated [14C]xylose provided that ascorbate plus phenazine methosulfate were present for respiration, and this accumulation was inhibited by uncoupling agents or valinomycin. Therefore, the transport of xylose into E. coli appears to be energized by a proton-motive force, rather than by a phosphotransferase or directly energized mechanism. Its specificity for xylose as inducer and substrate and the genetic location of a xylose-H+ transport-negative mutation near mtl showed that the xylose-H+ system is distinct from other proton-linked sugar transport systems of E. coli. PMID:6995439

  9. Escherichia coli control in a surface flow treatment wetland.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, M E; Warner, B G; Slawson, R M

    2006-06-01

    A field experiment showed that numbers of Escherichia coli declined significantly when floating Lemna spp. plants were removed to create open water areas in a typical newly constructed surface flow treatment wetland in southern Ontario. It is suggested that E. coli declined immediately after Lemna removal because the Lemna was shading the water column from penetration by natural UV radiation, it was providing favourable attachment sites for the E. coli, and it was not allowing effective free exchange of oxygen from surface winds to the water column to maintain high enough dissolved oxygen supplies for predator zooplankton populations. Operators of wetland systems must have the specialized skills required to recognize the cause and the appropriate maintenance requirements to maintain efficient operation of such unconventional systems should E. coli numbers increase during the course of operation.

  10. Biosynthesis of Two Flavones, Apigenin and Genkwanin, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Bong Gyu; Kim, Mihyang; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    The flavonoid apigenin and its O-methyl derivative, genkwanin, have various biological activities and can be sourced from some vegetables and fruits. Microorganisms are an alternative for the synthesis of flavonoids. Here, to synthesize genkwanin from tyrosine, we first synthesized apigenin from p-coumaric acid using four genes (4CL, CHS, CHI, and FNS) in Escherichia coli. After optimization of different combinations of constructs, the yield of apigenin was increased from 13 mg/l to 30 mg/l. By introducing two additional genes (TAL and POMT7) into an apigenin-producing E. coli strain, we were able to synthesize 7-O-methyl apigenin (genkwanin) from tyrosine. In addition, the tyrosine content in E. coli was modulated by overexpressing aroG and tyrA. The engineered E. coli strain synthesized approximately 41 mg/l genkwanin.

  11. Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis: trends over two decades.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palomar, Natalia; Balasch-Carulla, Milena; González-Di Lauro, Sabina; Céspedes, Maria Concepció; Andreu, Antònia; Frick, Marie Antoinette; Linde, Maria Ángeles; Soler-Palacin, Pere

    2017-08-02

    Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. The aim of our study was to evaluate potential changes in the clinical and microbiological characteristics of E. coli EOS in our setting. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data from all neonates with proven E. coli EOS from January 1994 to December 2014 were retrospectively collected in a single tertiary care hospital in Barcelona (Spain). Seventy-eight E. coli EOS cases were analyzed. A slight increase in the incidence of E. coli EOS was observed during the study period. VLBW newborns remained the group with higher incidence (10.4 cases per 1000 live births) and mortality (35.3%). Systematic use of PCR increased E. coli EOS diagnosis, mainly in the term newborn group. There was an increase in resistant E. coli strains causing EOS, with especially high resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (92.8 and 28.6%, respectively). Nonetheless, resistant strains were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes. There is an urgent need to reconsider the empirical therapy used in neonatal EOS, particularly in VLBW newborns. What is Known: • E. coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) and E. coli resistant strains have been described as overall stable but increasing in VLBW neonates (< 1.500 g) in previous studies. What is New: • Our study shows an increasing incidence of E. coli EOS in all age groups, overruling group B Streptoccocus for the last 10 years. E. coli resistant strains also increased equally in all age groups, with high resistance rates to our first line antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin). • Empiric antibiotic therapy of EOS, mainly in VLBW newborns, should be adapted to this new scenario.

  12. Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli 83972, a Prototype Strain Associated with Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Richard A.; Rudy, Delbert C.; Donovan, William H.; Wieser, Inge E.; Stewart, Colleen; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) with regard to urinary tract colonization mechanisms. In this study, virulence properties of Escherichia coli 83972, a strain that was isolated from a clinical ABU episode, were examined. The genetic potential for expression of P and type 1 pili was demonstrated, and DNA sequences related to type 1C and G (UCA) pilus genes were also detected. However, E. coli 83972 did not express d-mannose-resistant or d-mannose-sensitive hemagglutination after growth under standard conditions in vitro or upon isolation from the urine of colonized test subjects. Limited uroepithelial cell adherence was observed in vivo, and weak d-mannose-sensitive hemagglutination was detected after extended growth in urine in vitro. PMID:9864249

  13. Compilation of DNA sequences of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kröger, Manfred

    1989-01-01

    We have compiled the DNA sequence data for E.coli K12 available from the GENBANK and EMBO databases and over a period of several years independently from the literature. We have introduced all available genetic map data and have arranged the sequences accordingly. As far as possible the overlaps are deleted and a total of 940,449 individual bp is found to be determined till the beginning of 1989. This corresponds to a total of 19.92% of the entire E.coli chromosome consisting of about 4,720 kbp. This number may actually be higher by some extra 2% derived from the sequence of lysogenic bacteriophage lambda and the various insertion sequences. This compilation may be available in machine readable form from one of the international databanks in some future. PMID:2654890

  14. Characteristics of Escherichia coli strains belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli serogroups isolated in Italy from children with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Giammanco, A; Maggio, M; Giammanco, G; Morelli, R; Minelli, F; Scheutz, F; Caprioli, A

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-five Escherichia coli strains belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups were examined for phenotypic and genetic factors associated with virulence. The strains were isolated in Italy from children with diarrhea and identified as EPEC by clinical laboratories using commercially available antisera. O:H serotyping showed that 35 strains (27 of O26, O111, and O128 serogroups) belonged to 11 serotypes considered to be classical EPEC O:H serotypes. The other 20 isolates were classified as 15 nonclassical EPEC O:H serotypes. All the potential EPEC virulence factors associated with bacterial adhesion (localized adherence, fluorescentactin staining test positivity, presence of the attaching and effacing [eaeA] gene), the production of verotoxin, and the positivity with the enterohemorrhagic E. coli probe were significantly more frequent among isolates belonging to classical than nonclassical serotypes. Strains displaying an aggregative adhesion and hybridizing with the enteroaggregative DNA probe were found in serogroups O86, O111, and O126. Verotoxin-producing isolates belonged to serogroups O26, O111, and O128. Only one of the isolates hybridized with the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) probe, but 33 strains gave positive results with the eae probe, confirming that the former is more suitable in epidemiological studies in European countries. These results indicate that up to 75% of strains identified as EPEC by commercial antisera may possess potential virulence properties and/or belong to classical EPEC O:H serotypes and suggest that O grouping is still a useful diagnostic tool for presumptive identification of diarrheagenic E. coli in clinical laboratories. PMID:8904439

  15. Resistance and virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from chicken.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Silvie; Dolezalova, Magda; Holko, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chicken meat has become an important part of the human diet and besides contamination by pathogenic Escherichia coli there is a risk of antibiotic resistance spreading via the food chain. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of resistance against eight antibiotics and the presence of 14 virulence factors among 75 Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat in the Czech Republic after classification into phylogenetic groups by the multiplex PCR method. More than half of strains belonged to A phylogroup, next frequently represented was B1 phylogroup, which suggests the commensal strains. The other strains were classified into phylogroups B2 and D, which had more virulence factors. Almost half of all E. coli strains were resistant to at least one of eight-tested antibiotics. A multidrug resistance was observed in 13% of strains. The most prevalent virulence genes were iucD, iss and tsh. None of genes encoding toxins was detected. Most of E. coli strains isolated from chicken meat can be considered as nonpathogenic on the basis of analysis of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and phylogroups assignment. It can provide a useful tool for prediction of a potential risk from food contaminated by E. coli.

  16. Escherichia coli as a model active colloid: A practical introduction.

    PubMed

    Schwarz-Linek, Jana; Arlt, Jochen; Jepson, Alys; Dawson, Angela; Vissers, Teun; Miroli, Dario; Pilizota, Teuta; Martinez, Vincent A; Poon, Wilson C K

    2016-01-01

    The flagellated bacterium Escherichia coli is increasingly used experimentally as a self-propelled swimmer. To obtain meaningful, quantitative results that are comparable between different laboratories, reproducible protocols are needed to control, 'tune' and monitor the swimming behaviour of these motile cells. We critically review the knowledge needed to do so, explain methods for characterising the colloidal and motile properties of E. coli cells, and propose a protocol for keeping them swimming at constant speed at finite bulk concentrations. In the process of establishing this protocol, we use motility as a high-throughput probe of aspects of cellular physiology via the coupling between swimming speed and the proton motive force.

  17. PROPERTIES OF A BACTERIOPHAGE DERIVED FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI K235

    PubMed Central

    Jesaitis, Margeris A.; Hutton, John J.

    1963-01-01

    A temperate bacteriophage was isolated from the colicinogenic strain of Escherichia coli K235 and characterized. This phage, termed PK, is related to P2 virus morphologically, serologically, and, possibly, genetically and it bears no relationship to the T-even phages. It was also demonstrated that PK virus and colicine K differ both in their host range and in their immunological specificity, and that PK prophage does not induce the colicinogenesis in its host bacterium. It was concluded that the formation of colicine K. and PK phage in E. coli K235 are controlled by different genetic determinants. PMID:14029160

  18. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli (GenProtEc).

    PubMed

    Riley, M; Space, D B

    1996-01-01

    GenProtEc is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. The database is available as a PKZip file by ftp from mbl.edu/pub/ecoli.exe. The program runs under MS-DOS on IMB-compatible machines. GenProtEc can also be accessed through the World Wide Web at URL http://mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html.

  19. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli (GenProtEc).

    PubMed Central

    Riley, M; Space, D B

    1996-01-01

    GenProtEc is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. The database is available as a PKZip file by ftp from mbl.edu/pub/ecoli.exe. The program runs under MS-DOS on IMB-compatible machines. GenProtEc can also be accessed through the World Wide Web at URL http://mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html. PMID:8594596

  20. Functional role of bdm during flagella biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Kim, Yu Jin; Seo, Sojin; Seong, Maeng-Je; Lee, Kangseok

    2015-03-01

    The biofilm-dependent modulation gene (bdm) has recently been shown to play a role in osmotic-induced formation of biofilm in Escherichia coli. In this study, we demonstrated that deletion of bdm results in down-regulation of flagella biosynthesis genes and, consequently, a defect in E. coli motility. In addition, we employed atomic force microscopy to confirm the absence of flagella-like structures on the surface of bdm-null cells. These findings indicate that bdm plays a key role in regulatory pathway for the formation of flagella.

  1. Nitric oxide donor-mediated killing of bioluminescent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Virta, M; Karp, M; Vuorinen, P

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of two nitric oxide-releasing compounds against Escherichia coli were investigated by using recombinant E. coli cloned with a luciferase gene from Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus. Since luciferase uses intracellular ATP to generate visible light which can be measured from living cells in real time, we wanted to compare the extent to which cell viability parallels light emission. Results from luminescence measurements and CFU counts were in good agreement, and the decrease in light emission was shown to provide a rapid and more sensitive indication of cytotoxicity. PMID:7695261

  2. Bacterial self-defence: how Escherichia coli evades serum killing.

    PubMed

    Miajlovic, Helen; Smith, Stephen G

    2014-05-01

    The ability to survive the bactericidal action of serum is advantageous to extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli that gain access to the bloodstream. Evasion of the innate defences present in serum, including complement and antimicrobial peptides, involves multiple factors. Serum resistance mechanisms utilized by E. coli include the production of protective extracellular polysaccharide capsules and expression of factors that inhibit or interfere with the complement cascade. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of structural integrity of the cell envelope in serum survival. These survival strategies are outlined in this review with particular attention to novel findings and recent insights into well-established resistance mechanisms.

  3. Accelerated glycerol fermentation in Escherichia coli using methanogenic formate consumption.

    PubMed

    Richter, Katrin; Gescher, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Escherichia coli can ferment glycerol anaerobically only under very defined restrictive conditions. Hence, it was the aim of this study to overcome this limitation via a co-cultivation approach. Anaerobic glycerol fermentation by a pure E. coli culture was compared to a co-culture that also contained the formate-oxidizing methanogen Methanobacterium formicicum. Co-cultivation of the two strains led to a more than 11-fold increased glycerol consumption. Furthermore, it supported a constantly neutral pH and a shift from ethanol to succinate production. Moreover, M. formicicum was analyzed for its ability to grow on different standard media and a surprising versatility could be demonstrated.

  4. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, Germán L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant proteins. Its use as a cell factory is well-established and it has become the most popular expression platform. For this reason, there are many molecular tools and protocols at hand for the high-level production of heterologous proteins, such as a vast catalog of expression plasmids, a great number of engineered strains and many cultivation strategies. We review the different approaches for the synthesis of recombinant proteins in E. coli and discuss recent progress in this ever-growing field. PMID:24860555

  5. Ribitol and D-arabitol catabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Scangos, G A; Reiner, A M

    1978-01-01

    In Escherichia coli C, the catabolism of the pentitols ribitol and D-arabitol proceeds through separate, inducible operons, each consisting of a dehydrogenase and a kinase. The ribitol operon is induced in response to ribulose, and the D-arabitol operon is induced in response to D-arabitol. Each operon is under negative control. The genes of the ribitol and D-arabitol operons are very closely linked and lie in a mirror image arrangement, rtlB-rtlA-rtlC-atlC-atlA-atlB, between metG and his on the E. coli chromosome. PMID:350825

  6. Further studies of Escherichia coli in babies after normal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bettelheim, K. A.; Teoh-Chan, Ching Haan; Chandler, Mary E.; O'Farrell, Sheila M.; Rahamin, Layla; Shaw, Elizabeth J.; Shooter, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Previous work showed that on the basis of O serotyping alone of Escherichia coli, the majority of babies acquired the same O serotype as was found in the stools of their respective mothers. Further characterization of the E. coli by H serotyping, determination of their antibiotic resistance and ability to ferment six carbohydrates showed that in the majority of cases the previous results were confirmed. In a minority of cases this further testing showed that the strains were not identical. In some instances a number of strains isolated from the same pair showed different combinations of the markers used. PMID:4608224

  7. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol production.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F; Connor, Michael R; Shen, Claire R; Smith, Kevin M; Brynildsen, Mark P; Chou, Katherine J Y; Hanai, Taizo; Liao, James C

    2008-11-01

    Compared to ethanol, butanol offers many advantages as a substitute for gasoline because of higher energy content and higher hydrophobicity. Typically, 1-butanol is produced by Clostridium in a mixed-product fermentation. To facilitate strain improvement for specificity and productivity, we engineered a synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli and demonstrated the production of 1-butanol from this non-native user-friendly host. Alternative genes and competing pathway deletions were evaluated for 1-butanol production. Results show promise for using E. coli for 1-butanol production.

  8. Inducible repair of oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Demple, B; Halbrook, J

    Hydrogen peroxide is lethal to many cell types, including the bacterium Escherichia coli. Peroxides yield transient radical species that can damage DNA and cause mutations. Such partially reduced oxygen species are occasionally released during cellular respiration and are generated by lethal and mutagenic ionizing radiation. Because cells live in an environment where the threat of oxidative DNA damage is continual, cellular mechanisms may have evolved to avoid and repair this damage. Enzymes are known which evidently perform these functions. We report here that resistance to hydrogen peroxide toxicity can be induced in E. coli, that this novel induction is specific and occurs, in part, at the level of DNA repair.

  9. Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douarche, Carine; Salin, Dominique; Collaboration between Laboratory FAST; LPS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The successive run and tumble of Escherichia coli bacteria provides an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering and instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analyzing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume.

  10. [Drug resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry].

    PubMed

    Giurov, B; Korudzhiĭski, N; Bineva, I

    1981-01-01

    Studied was the sensitivity of a total of 143 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from young birds and broilers died from coli septicaemia, to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics. The following descending order was established: gentamycin, carbenicillin, ampicillin, furazolidon, borgal, kanamycin, strep tomycin, chloramphenicol, neomycin sulphathiazole, and tetracycline. Markers of resistance were established with all strains with regard to the therapeutic agents in current and prospective use in industrial poultry farming. It is stated that a preliminary antibiogram is indispensable in order to obtain dependable results in the treatment of animals affected with colibacteriosis. An alternative is to apply directly those drugs to which the strains have shown highest sensitivity.

  11. Determining the relative contribution and hierarchy of qseBC and hha in the regulation of flagellar motility of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a recent study we demonstrated that in comparison to the wild-type enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, a motility-compromised hha deletion mutant with an up-regulated type III secretion system and increased secretion of adherence proteins showed reduced fecal shedding in cattle. In...

  12. Role of curli and cellulose expression by Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the cell’s ability to attach to spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh produce. Cellular appendages, such as curli fibers have been suggested to be involved in STEC persistence in fresh produce as these curli are critical in biofilm formation and adherence to animal cell...

  13. Hha controls Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by differential regulation of global transcriptional regulators FlhDC and CsgD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that produces a broad-spectrum of diarrheal illnesses in infected humans. Although molecular mechanisms enabling EHEC O157:H7 to produce characteristic adherence on epithelial cells are well characterized, regulatory mechanisms...

  14. Characterization and virulence potential of serogroup O113 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef and cattle in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe diseases but are unusual in that they do not produce the intimin protein required for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Strains of serogroup O113 are one of the most common STEC found in ground beef and be...

  15. Advances in molecular serotyping and subtyping of Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGES

    Fratamico, Pina M.; DebRoy, Chitrita; Liu, Yanhong; ...

    2016-05-03

    Escherichia coli plays an important role as a member of the gut microbiota; however, pathogenic strains also exist, including various diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli that cause illness outside of the GI-tract. E. coli have traditionally been serotyped using antisera against the ca. 186 O-antigens and 53 H-flagellar antigens. Phenotypic methods, including bacteriophage typing and O- and H- serotyping for differentiating and characterizing E. coli have been used for many years; however, these methods are generally time consuming and not always accurate. Advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to develop genetic-based subtypingmore » and molecular serotyping methods for E. coli, which are more discriminatory compared to phenotypic typing methods. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of E. coli is replacing established subtyping methods such as pulsedfield gel electrophoresis, providing a major advancement in the ability to investigate food-borne disease outbreaks and for trace-back to sources. Furthermore, a variety of sequence analysis tools and bioinformatic pipelines are being developed to analyze the vast amount of data generated by WGS and to obtain specific information such as O- and H-group determination and the presence of virulence genes and other genetic markers.« less

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ohyama, Ryu-ichiro; Ito, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure argon (Ar) plasma jet was applied to the inactivation of Escherichia coli. The Ar plasma jet was generated at a frequency of 10 kHz, an applied voltage of 10 kV, and an Ar gas flow rate of 10 L/min at atmospheric pressure. E. coli cells seeded on an agar medium in a Petri dish were inactivated by Ar plasma jet irradiation for 1 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that E. coli cells were killed because their cell wall and membrane were disrupted. To determine the causes of the disruption of the cell wall and membrane of E. coli, we performed the following experiments: the measurement of the surface temperature of an agar medium using a thermograph, the analysis of an emission spectrum of a plasma jet obtained using a multichannel spectrometer, and the determination of the distribution of the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated on an agar medium by plasma jet irradiation using semiquantitative test strips. Moreover, H2O2 solutions of different concentrations were dropped onto an agar medium seeded with E. coli cells to examine the contribution of H2O2 to the death of E. coli. The results of these experiments showed that the cell wall and membrane of E. coli were disrupted by electrons in the plasma jet, as well as by electroneutral excited nitrogen molecules (N2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the periphery of the plasma jet.

  17. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics.

  18. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains to neoglycans synthesised with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Armenta-Ruiz, Carolina; Sarabia-Sainz, Jose Andre-i; Guzmán-Partida, Ana María; Ledesma-Osuna, Ana Irene; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela

    2013-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes traveller's diarrhoea and high mortality among baby animals. ETEC adhesion is mediated by lectins (adhesins) that bind to glycoconjugates on the surface of host cells. Glycans that compete for adhesion could be used for disease prevention. Neoglycans of porcine albumin (PSA) that were conjugated with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) were synthesised using the Maillard reaction. PSA glycation was confirmed by a reduction in the number of available free amino groups, decreased tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence, increased molecular mass and Ricinus communis lectin recognition. The adhesion of four ETEC strains (E. coli H10407, CFA(+), K99 and K88) to PSA-GOS was examined by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. E. coli K88 bound to PSA-GOS with greater affinity (P<0.05) than did E. coli H10407, CFA(+) and K99. In addition, PSA-GOS partially inhibited the adherence of the K88 strain to intestinal mucins. Pig ETEC strain was unable to ferment galactooligosaccharide-neoglycans. These results suggest that neoglycans obtained by the Maillard reaction may serve in the prophylaxis of ETEC K88 diarrhoea.

  19. No evidence for a bovine mastitis Escherichia coli pathotype.

    PubMed

    Leimbach, Andreas; Poehlein, Anja; Vollmers, John; Görlich, Dennis; Daniel, Rolf; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2017-05-08

    Escherichia coli bovine mastitis is a disease of significant economic importance in the dairy industry. Molecular characterization of mastitis-associated E. coli (MAEC) did not result in the identification of common traits. Nevertheless, a mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC) pathotype has been proposed suggesting virulence traits that differentiate MAEC from commensal E. coli. The present study was designed to investigate the MPEC pathotype hypothesis by comparing the genomes of MAEC and commensal bovine E. coli. We sequenced the genomes of eight E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis cases and six fecal commensal isolates from udder-healthy cows. We analyzed the phylogenetic history of bovine E. coli genomes by supplementing this strain panel with eleven bovine-associated E. coli from public databases. The majority of the isolates originate from phylogroups A and B1, but neither MAEC nor commensal strains could be unambiguously distinguished by phylogenetic lineage. The gene content of both MAEC and commensal strains is highly diverse and dominated by their phylogenetic background. Although individual strains carry some typical E. coli virulence-associated genes, no traits important for pathogenicity could be specifically attributed to MAEC. Instead, both commensal strains and MAEC have very few gene families enriched in either pathotype. Only the aerobactin siderophore gene cluster was enriched in commensal E. coli within our strain panel. This is the first characterization of a phylogenetically diverse strain panel including several MAEC and commensal isolates. With our comparative genomics approach we could not confirm previous studies that argue for a positive selection of specific traits enabling MAEC to elicit bovine mastitis. Instead, MAEC are facultative and opportunistic pathogens recruited from the highly diverse bovine gastrointestinal microbiota. Virulence-associated genes implicated in mastitis are a by-product of commensalism with the primary function

  20. EFFECT OF VISIBLE RANGE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS ON ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf; Shaukat, Saleem Farooq; Azeemi, Khawaja Shamsuddin; Khan, Idrees; Mahmood, Khalid; Naz, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the agent responsible for a range of clinical diseases. With emerging antimicrobial resistance, other treatment options including solar/photo-therapy are becoming increasingly common. Visible Range Radiation Therapy/Colour Therapy is an emerging technique in the field of energy/vibrational medicine that uses visible spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiations to cure different diseases. In this study, our goal was to understand the effect of Visible Range Electromagnetic Radiations on E. coli (in vitro) and therefore find out the most appropriate visible range radiation for the treatment of diseases caused by E. coli. A total of 6 non-repetitive E. coli isolates were obtained from urine samples obtained from hospitalized patients with UTI. Single colony of E. coli was inoculated in 3 ml of Lysogeny Broth (LB) and 40 μl of this E. coli suspension was poured into each of the plastic tubes which were then irradiated with six different wavelengths in the visible region (Table. 1) after 18 hours with one acting as a control. The Optical Densities of these irradiated samples were then measured. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (TEFCAN ZEGA3) was carried out. The analysis of the microscopic and SEM images of irradiated E. coli samples with six different visible range radiations is representative of The fact that E. coli responded differently to every applied radiation in the visible region and the most profound inhibitory effects were that of 538nm Visible Range Radiation (Green) which proved to be bactericidal and 590nm Visible Range Radiation (yellow) which was bacteriostatic. The enhanced growth of E. coli with varying degrees was clearly observed in 610nm (orange), 644nm (red), 464nm (Purple) and 453nm (blue). It can be concluded that 538nm (Green) and 590nm (Yellow) can effectively be used for treating E. coli borne diseases.

  1. Formation of nonculturable Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bjergbaek, L A; Roslev, P

    2005-01-01

    To examine whether incubation of Escherichia coli in nondisinfected drinking water result in development of cells that are not detectable using standard procedures but maintain a potential for metabolic activity and cell division. Survival and detectability of four different E. coli strains were studied using drinking water microcosms and samples from contaminated drinking water wells. Recovery of E. coli was compared using different cultivation-dependent methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific oligonucleotide probes, direct viable counts (DVC), and by enumeration of gfp-tagged E. coli (green fluorescent protein, GFP). Two levels of stress responses were observed after incubation of E. coli in nondisinfected drinking water: (i) the presence of cells that were not detected using standard cultivation methods but could be cultivated after gentle resuscitation on nonselective nutrient-rich media, and (ii) the presence of cells that responded to nutrient addition but could only be detected by cultivation-independent methods (DVC, FISH and GFP). Collectively, the experiments demonstrated that incubation for 20-60 days in nondisinfected drinking water resulted in detection of only 0.7-5% of the initial E. coli population using standard cultivation methods, whereas 1-20% could be resuscitated to a culturable state, and 17-49% could be clearly detected using cultivation-independent methods. Resuscitation of stressed E. coli on nonselective nutrient-rich media increased cell counts in drinking water using both traditional (CFU), and cultivation-independent methods (DVC, FISH and GFP). The cultivation-independent methods resulted in detection of 10-20 times more E. coli than the traditional methods. The results indicate that a subpopulation of substrate-responsive but apparent nonculturable E. coli may develop in drinking water during long-term starvation survival. The existence of substrate-responsive but nonculturable cells should be considered

  2. Biosynthesis of phosphatidyl glycerophosphate in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y Y; Kennedy, E P

    1967-09-01

    An enzyme (L-glycerol 3-phosphate: CMP phosphatidyltransferase) catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidyl glycerophosphate from CDP-diglyceride and L-glycerol 3-phosphate has been rendered soluble by treatment of the particulate, membrane-containing fraction of E. coli with Triton X-100 and has been partially purified. The enzyme, devoid of phosphatidyl glycerophosphatase activity, is specific for L-glycerol 3-phosphate and is completely dependent upon added Mg(++) or Mn(++) for activity. It has high affinity for CDP-diglyceride and can be used for the assay of this nucleotide. Other properties of the enzyme are also described.

  3. Specific mistranslation in hisT mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Parker, J

    1982-01-01

    Certain strains of Escherichia coli mistranslate at very high frequencies when starved for asparagine or histidine. This mistranslation is the result of misreading events on the ribosome. The introduction of a hisT mutation into such a strain decreases the frequency of mistranslation during histidine starvation but not during asparagine starvation. The most likely explanation is that the replacement of the pseudouridine residue in the anticodon loop of glutamine specific transfer ribonucleic acid by uridine in hisT mutants leads to an increase in fidelity of transfer ribonucleic acid function. The hisT gene in Escherichia coli has also been more accurately mapped, giving the gene order purF-hisT-aroC-fadL-dsdA.

  4. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  5. LYSIS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI BY SULFHYDRYL-BINDING REAGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Schaechter, M.; Santomassino, Katherine A.

    1962-01-01

    Schaechter, M. (College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville) and K. Santomassino. Lysis of Escherichia coli by sulfhydryl-binding reagents. J. Bacteriol. 84:318–325. 1962—Washed suspensions of gram-negative rods were lysed by low concentrations of some sulfhydryl-binding and oxidizing reagents, but not by reducing agents. Some kinetic aspects of this phenomenon were studied with p-chloromercuribenzoate and Escherichia coli B/r. Structures resulting from the action of this reagent consisted of impure cell walls. These could be purified by treatment with trypsin. Cell walls prepared mechanically and cell membranes obtained by lysing protoplasts were not overtly affected by this chemical. Images PMID:14497913

  6. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in captive black-footed ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G A; Orr, K; Reggiardo, C; Glock, R D

    2001-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with genes for heat stabile toxins Sta and STb was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and multiple visceral organs of three adult and three juvenile black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) that died in a captive breeding colony between 24 May 1998 and 2 July 1998. Similar isolates were obtained from rectal swabs of one adult and one juvenile that were clinically ill. All were fed a diet composed of mink chow, raw rabbit meat, beef liver powder, blood meal and lard. Escherichia coli of the same toxin genotype was isolated from the mixed ration. Clinical signs included sudden death, dehydration, anorexia and diarrhea. Necropsy lesions included acute enteritis with large numbers of rod shaped bacteria microscopically visible on intestinal villi.

  7. Growth and Division of Filamentous Forms of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Adler, H I; Hardigree, A A

    1965-07-01

    Adler, Howard I. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.), and Alice A. Hardigree. Growth and division of filamentous forms of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 90:223-226. 1965.-Cells of certain mutant strains of Escherichia coli grow into long multinucleate filaments after exposure to radiation. Deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis proceed, but cytokinesis does not occur. Cytokinesis (cross-septation) can be initiated by exposure of the filaments to pantoyl lactone or a temperature of 42 C. If growing filaments are treated with mitomycin C, nuclear division does not occur, and nuclear material is confined to the central region of the filament. Cytokinesis cannot be induced in mitomycin C-treated filaments by pantoyl lactone or treatment at 42 C.

  8. TRYPTOPHANASE-TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHETASE SYSTEMS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI III.

    PubMed Central

    Freundlich, Martin; Lichstein, Herman C.

    1962-01-01

    Freundlich, Martin (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) and Herman C. Lichstein. Tryptophanase-tryptophan synthetase systems in Escherichia coli. III. Requirements for enzyme synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 84:996–1006. 1962.—The requirements for the formation of tryptophanase and tryptophan synthetase in Escherichia coli during repression release were studied. The kinetics of the formation of tryptophan synthetase differed in the two strains examined; this was attributed to differences in the endogenous level of tryptophan in the bacterial cells. The formation of both enzymes was inhibited by chloramphenicol, and by the absence of arginine in an arginine-requiring mutant. These results are indicative of a requirement for protein synthesis for enzyme formation. Requirements for nucleic acid synthesis were examined by use of a uracil- and thymine-requiring mutant, and with purine and pyrimidine analogues. The results obtained suggest that some type of ribonucleic acid synthesis was necessary for the formation of tryptophanase and tryptophan synthetase. PMID:13959620

  9. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H.; Hung, Albert M.; Graves, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism. PMID:26914334

  10. Thiolases of Escherichia coli: purification and chain length specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Feigenbaum, J; Schulz, H

    1975-01-01

    The presence of only one thiolase (EC 2.3.1.9) in wild-type Escherichia coli induced for enzymes of beta oxidation was demonstrated. A different thiolase was shown to be present in a mutant constitutive for the enzymes of butyrate degradation. The two thiolases were purified to near homogeneity by a simple two-step procedure and were found to be associated with different proteins as shown by gel electrophoresis. The thiolase isolated from induced wild-type Escherichia coli cell was active on beta-ketoacyl-coenzyme A derivatives containing 4 to 16 carbons, but exhibited optimal activity with medium-chain substrates. In contrast, the thiolase isolated from the constitutive mutant was shown to be specific for acetoacetyl-coenzyme A. PMID:236278

  11. Synergistic effect of lipopeptide biosurfactant with antibiotics against Escherichia coli CFT073 biofilm.

    PubMed

    Rivardo, Fabrizio; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Turner, Raymond Joseph; Ceri, Howard

    2011-04-01

    Biofilms are microcolonies of microbes adherent to biotic and abiotic surfaces, often responsible for chronic infections and medical device contamination. Escherichia coli is one of the prevalent pathogens involved in uropathogenic infections and contamination of catheters. A biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis V9T14 was tested alone and in association with various antibiotics against a mature 24-h uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 biofilm. Biofilm was grown on polystyrene pegs of a Calgary Biofilm Device, providing a tool to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. Antibiotics tested were ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tobramycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (19:1). Biosurfactant alone at the concentrations tested was not able to remove the adherent cells of the pre-formed biofilm. However, the difference between the effect of antibiotic alone and in combination with the biosurfactant was significant and exceeded 1log(10) (90%) reduction in most cases. Results of this study indicate that V9T14 biosurfactant in association with antibiotics leads to a synergistic increase in the efficacy of antibiotics in biofilm killing, and in some combinations leads to total eradication of E. coli CFT073 biofilm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from broiler breeders with salpingitis.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Maria A R; Knöbl, Terezinha; Bottino, José A; Ferreira, Claudete S Astolfi; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2005-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders with salpingitis were studied. Using the slide agglutination test, the isolates were found to belong to serogroups O1, O2, O5, O36, O45, O53 and O78. Pathogenicity for day-old chicks was determined by air sac inoculation and isolates were categorized as having high, intermediate or low virulence. Growth on iron starvation medium was observed together with aerobactin production. Based on the results of in vitro adherence tests, attachment to oviduct epithelium from old birds was found to be superior to that observed using corresponding material from young birds. DNA hybridization testing for type 1, P, and S fimbriae revealed predominant expression of type 1, correlating with mannose-sensitive hemagglutination using guinea-pig erythrocytes. In this study, P and S fimbriae were not considered to be important adherence factors. Study findings would suggest that, as far as salpingitis is concerned, type 1 fimbriae can play an important role in E. coli infection in breeders. An interesting result to emerge from the study was the observation that E. coli isolates were completely resistant to serum from young breeders, whereas they were completely sensitive using serum from older breeders. Based on serogroups involved, pathogenicity for day-old chicks and virulence indicators, the salpingitis isolates were similar to those from cases of chronic respiratory disease.

  13. Shear alters motility of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of locomotion of microorganisms in shear flows drew a wide range of interests in microbial related topics such as biological process including pathogenic infection and biophysical interactions like biofilm formation on engineering surfaces. We employed microfluidics and digital holography microscopy to study motility of E. coli in shear flows. We controlled the shear flow in three different shear rates: 0.28 s-1, 2.8 s-1, and 28 s-1 in a straight channel with the depth of 200 μm. Magnified holograms, recorded at 15 fps with a CCD camera over more than 20 minutes, are analyzed to obtain 3D swimming trajectories and subsequently used to extract shear responses of E.coli. Thousands of 3-D bacterial trajectories are tracked. The change of bacteria swimming characteristics including swimming velocity, reorientation, and dispersion coefficient are computed directly for individual trajectory and ensemble averaged over thousands of realizations. The results show that shear suppresses the bacterial dispersions in bulk but promote dispersions near the surface contrary to those in quiescent flow condition. Ongoing analyses are focusing to quantify effect of shear rates on tumbling frequency and reorientation of cell body, and its implication in locating the hydrodynamic mechanisms for shear enhanced angular scattering. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  14. Positive regulation of the Escherichia coli glycine cleavage enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R L; Steiert, P S; Stauffer, G V

    1993-01-01

    A new mutation in Escherichia coli, designated gcvA1, that results in noninducible expression of both gcv and a gcvT-lacZ gene fusion was isolated. A plasmid carrying the wild-type gcvA gene complemented the mutation and restored glycine-inducible gcv and gcvT-lacZ gene expression. These results suggest that gcvA encodes a positive-acting regulatory protein that acts in trans to increase expression of gcv. PMID:8423160

  15. Lipophilic chelator inhibition of electron transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, R T; Sun, I L; Crane, F L

    1975-01-01

    The lipophilic chelator bathophenanthroline inhibits electron transport in membranes from Escherichia coli. The less lipophilic 1,10-phenanthroline, bathophenanthroline sulfonate, and alpha,alpha-dipyridyl have little effect. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase is more sensitive to bathophenanthroline inhibition than lactate oxidase activity. Evidence for two sites of inhibition comes from the fact that both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide menadione reductase and duroquinol oxidase activities are inhibited. Addition of uncouplers of phosphorylation before bathophenanthroline protects against inhibition. PMID:1092663

  16. Genome Sequence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain FMU073332.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodea, Gerardo E; Porta, Helena; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; Eslava-Campos, Carlos; Cevallos, Miguel A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2017-02-23

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of bacterial diarrheal illness, affecting practically every population worldwide, and was estimated to cause 120,800 deaths in 2010. Here, we report the genome sequence of ETEC strain FMU073332, isolated from a 25-month-old girl from Tlaltizapán, Morelos, México. Copyright © 2017 Saldaña-Ahuactzi et al.

  17. Spurious hydrogen sulfide production by Providencia and Escherichia coli species.

    PubMed Central

    Treleaven, B E; Diallo, A A; Renshaw, E C

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide production was noted in two Escherichia coli strands and one Provaidenica alcalifaciens (Proteus inconstans A) strain isolated from clinical stool specimens durin the summer of 1979. An investigation into this phenomenon revealed the predence of Eubacterium lentum, an anaerobe, growing in synergism with the Enterobacteriaceae and producing H2s. The implications of this association are discssed with reference to clinical microbiology laboratory practice. PMID:7000823

  18. Current perspectivesin pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kong, Haishen; Hong, Xiaoping; Li, Xuefen

    2015-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute and persistent diarrhea in children and adults. While the pathogenic mechanisms of EAEC intestinal colonization have been uncovered (including bacterial adhesion, enterotoxin and cytotoxin secretion, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation), those of severe extraintestinal infections remain largely unknown. The recent emergence of multidrug resistant EAEC represents an alarming public health threat and clinical challenge, and research on the molecular mechanisms of resistance is urgently needed.

  19. Automated recombinant protein expression screening in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Busso, Didier; Stierlé, Matthieu; Thierry, Jean-Claude; Moras, Dino

    2008-01-01

    To fit the requirements of structural genomics programs, new as well as classical methods have been adapted to automation. This chapter describes the automated procedure developed within the Structural Biology and Genomics Platform, Strasbourg for performing recombinant protein expression screening in Escherichia coli. The procedure consists of parallel competent cells transformation, cell plating, and liquid culture inoculation, implemented for up to 96 samples at a time.

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of sil