Science.gov

Sample records for adhesion ecm-receptor interaction

  1. Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by the actin cytoskeleton and adhesive interactions.

    PubMed

    Woods, Anita; Wang, Guoyan; Beier, Frank

    2007-10-01

    Chondrocyte differentiation is a multi-step process characterized by successive changes in cell morphology and gene expression. In addition to tight regulation by numerous soluble factors, these processes are controlled by adhesive events. During the early phase of the chondrocyte life cycle, cell-cell adhesion through molecules such as N-cadherin and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is required for differentiation of mesenchymal precursor cells to chondrocytes. At later stages, for example in growth plate chondrocytes, adhesion signaling from extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through integrins and other ECM receptors such as the discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 (a collagen receptor) and Annexin V is necessary for normal chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. Cell-matrix interactions are also important for chondrogenesis, for example through the activity of CD44, a receptor for Hyaluronan and collagens. The roles of several signaling molecules involved in adhesive signaling, such as integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and Rho GTPases, during chondrocyte differentiation are beginning to be understood, and the actin cytoskeleton has been identified as a common target of these adhesive pathways. Complete elucidation of the pathways connecting adhesion receptors to downstream effectors and the mechanisms integrating adhesion signaling with growth factor- and hormone-induced pathways is required for a better understanding of physiological and pathological skeletal development.

  2. Adhesion effects in contact interaction of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryacheva, Irina; Makhovskaya, Yulya

    2008-01-01

    An approach to solving problems of the interaction of axisymmetric elastic bodies in the presence of adhesion is developed. The different natures of adhesion, i.e. capillary adhesion, or molecular adhesion described by the Lennard-Jones potential are examined. The effect of additional loading of the interacting bodies outside the contact zone is also investigated. The approach is based on the representation of the pressure outside the contact zone arising from adhesion by a step function. The analytical solution is obtained and is used to analyze the influence of the form of the adhesion interaction potential, of the surface energy of interacting bodies or the films covering the bodies, their shapes (parabolic, higher power exponential function), volume of liquid in the meniscus, density of contact spots, of elastic modulus and the Poisson ratio on the characteristics of the interaction of the bodies in the presence of adhesion. To cite this article: I. Goryacheva, Y. Makhovskaya, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  3. Adhesive interactions between vesicles in the strong adhesion limit

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Arun; Anderson, Travers H.; Leal, L. Gary; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the adhesive interaction energy between a pair of vesicles in the strong adhesion limit, in which bending forces play a negligible role in determining vesicle shape compared to forces due to membrane stretching. Although force-distance or energy distance relationships characterizing adhesive interactions between fluid bilayers are routinely measured using the surface forces apparatus, the atomic force microscope and the biomembrane force probe, the interacting bilayers in these methods are supported on surfaces (e.g. mica sheet) and cannot be deformed. However, it is known that in a suspension, vesicles composed of the same bilayer can deform by stretching or bending, and can also undergo changes in volume. Adhesively interacting vesicles can thus form flat regions in the contact zone, which will result in an enhanced interaction energy as compared to rigid vesicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the magnitude of the interaction energy between adhesively interacting, deformed vesicles relative to free, undeformed vesicles as a function of the intervesicle separation. The modification of the intervesicle interaction energy due to vesicle deformability can be calculated knowing the undeformed radius of the vesicles, R0, the bending modulus kb, the area expansion modulus Ka, and the adhesive minimum WP(0) and separation DP(0) in the energy of interaction between two flat bilayers, which can be obtained from the force-distance measurements made using the above supported-bilayer methods. For vesicles with constant volumes, we show that adhesive potentials between non-deforming bilayers such as ∣WP(0)∣∼5×10−4mJ/m2, which are ordinarily considered weak in colloidal physics literature, can result in significantly deep (>10×) energy minima due to increase in vesicle area and flattening in the contact region. If the osmotic expulsion of water across the vesicles driven by the tense, stretched membrane in the presence of an osmotically active

  4. Adhesive interactions between vesicles in the strong adhesion limit.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Arun; Anderson, Travers H; Leal, L Gary; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    We consider the adhesive interaction energy between a pair of vesicles in the strong adhesion limit, in which bending forces play a negligible role in determining vesicle shape compared to forces due to membrane stretching. Although force−distance or energy−distance relationships characterizing adhesive interactions between fluid bilayers are routinely measured using the surface forces apparatus, the atomic force microscope, and the biomembrane force probe, the interacting bilayers in these methods are supported on surfaces (e.g., mica sheet) and cannot be deformed. However, it is known that, in a suspension, vesicles composed of the same bilayer can deform by stretching or bending, and can also undergo changes in volume. Adhesively interacting vesicles can thus form flat regions in the contact zone, which will result in an enhanced interaction energy as compared to rigid vesicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the magnitude of the interaction energy between adhesively interacting, deformed vesicles relative to free, undeformed vesicles as a function of the intervesicle separation. The modification of the intervesicle interaction energy due to vesicle deformability can be calculated knowing the undeformed radius of the vesicles, R0, the bending modulus, k(b), the area expansion modulus, k(a), and the adhesive minimum, W(P)(0), and separation, D(P)(0), in the energy of interaction between two flat bilayers, which can be obtained from the force−distance measurements made using the above supported-bilayer methods. For vesicles with constant volumes, we show that adhesive potentials between nondeforming bilayers such as |W(P)(0)| 5 × 10(−4) mJ/m2, which are ordinarily considered weak in the colloidal physics literature, can result in significantly deep (>10×) energy minima due to increase in vesicle area and flattening in the contact region. If the osmotic expulsion of water across the vesicles driven by the tense, stretched membrane in the presence

  5. Role of contact electrification and electrostatic interactions in gecko adhesion.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Hadi; Stewart, Katherine M E; Penlidis, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Geckos, which are capable of walking on walls and hanging from ceilings with the help of micro-/nano-scale hierarchical fibrils (setae) on their toe pads, have become the main prototype in the design and fabrication of fibrillar dry adhesives. As the unique fibrillar feature of the toe pads of geckos allows them to develop an intimate contact with the substrate the animal is walking on or clinging to, it is expected that the toe setae exchange significant numbers of electric charges with the contacted substrate via the contact electrification (CE) phenomenon. Even so, the possibility of the occurrence of CE and the contribution of the resulting electrostatic interactions to the dry adhesion of geckos have been overlooked for several decades. In this study, by measuring the magnitude of the electric charges, together with the adhesion forces, that gecko foot pads develop in contact with different materials, we have clarified for the first time that CE does contribute effectively to gecko adhesion. More importantly, we have demonstrated that it is the CE-driven electrostatic interactions which dictate the strength of gecko adhesion, and not the van der Waals or capillary forces which are conventionally considered as the main source of gecko adhesion.

  6. Specific biomembrane adhesion -Indirect lateral interactions between bound receptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, C. W.; Behrisch, A.; Kloboucek, A.; Simson, D. A.; Merkel, R.

    We studied biomembrane adhesion using the micropipet aspiration technique. Adhesion was caused by contact site A, a laterally mobile and highly specific cell adhesion molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, reconstituted in lipid vesicles of DOPC (L-α-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) with an addition of 5 mol % DOPE-PEG{2000} (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine-N-[poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000]). The "fuzzy" membrane mimics the cellular plasma membrane including the glycocalyx. We found adhesion and subsequent receptor migration into the contact zone. Using membrane tension jumps to probe the equation of state of the two-dimensional "gas" of bound receptor pairs within the contact zone, we found strong, attractive lateral interactions.

  7. Adhesion of hydrogels under water by hydrogen bonding: from molecular interactions to macroscopic adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creton, Costantino

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogels are an essential part of living organisms and are widely used in biotechnologies, health care and food science. Although swelling properties, cell adhesion on gel surfaces and gel elasticity have attracted much interest, macroscopic adhesion of hydrogels on solid surfaces in aqueous environment is much less well understood. We studied systematically and in aqueous environment, the reversible adhesion by hydrogen bonding of macroscopic model hydrogels of polydimethylacrylamide (PDMA) or of polyacrylamide (PAAm) on solid surfaces functionalized with polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer brushes. The hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization and the brushes were prepared by grafting polytertbutyl acrylate chains and converting them by pyrolisis into polyacrylic acid. A new adhesion tester based on the flat punch geometry was designed and used to control the contact area, contact time, contact pressure and debonding velocity of the gels from the surface while the samples were fully immersed in water. The adhesion tests were performed at different pH and temperatures and the modulus of the gel and grafting density and molecular weight of the brushes was varied. Macroscopic adhesion results were compared with phase diagrams in dilute solution to detect molecular interactions. While the PDMA/PAA pair behaved very similarly in solution and in macroscopic adhesion tests, the PAAm/PAA pair showed an unexpectedly high adhesion level relatively to its complexation ability in dilute solution. Surprisingly, time dependent experiments showed that the kinetics of H-bond formation and breakup at interfaces was very slow resulting in adhesion energies which were very dependent on contact time up to one hour of contact. At the molecular level, neutron reflectivity showed that the equilibrium brush conformation when in contact with the gels was more extended at pH2 (H-bonds activated) than at pH9 (H-bonds deactivated) and that a certain applied pressure was

  8. Adhesive interactions regulate transcriptional diversity in malignant B cells.

    PubMed

    Nadav-Dagan, Liat; Shay, Tal; Dezorella, Nili; Naparstek, Elizabeth; Domany, Eytan; Katz, Ben-Zion; Geiger, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    The genetic profiling of B-cell malignancies is rapidly expanding, providing important information on the tumorigenic potential, response to treatment, and clinical outcome of these diseases. However, the relative contributions of inherent gene expression versus microenvironmental effects are poorly understood. The regulation of gene expression programs by means of adhesive interactions was studied here in ARH-77 human malignant B-cell variants, derived from the same cell line by selective adhesion to a fibronectin matrix. The populations included cells that adhere to fibronectin and are highly tumorigenic (designated "type A" cells) and cells that fail to adhere to fibronectin and fail to develop tumors in vivo ("type F" cells). To identify genes directly affected by cell adhesion to fibronectin, type A cells deprived of an adhesive substrate (designated "AF cells") were also examined. Bioinformatic analyses revealed a remarkable correlation between cell adhesion and both B-cell differentiation state and the expression of multiple myeloma (MM)-associated genes. The highly adherent type A cells expressed higher levels of NFkappaB-regulated genes, many of them associated with MM. Moreover, we found that the transcription of several MM-related proto-oncogenes is stimulated by adhesion to fibronectin. In contrast, type F cells, which display poor adhesive and tumorigenic properties, expressed genes associated with higher levels of B-cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that B-cell differentiation, as manifested by gene expression profiles, is attenuated by cell adhesion to fibronectin, leading to upregulation of specific genes known to be associated with the pathogenesis of MM.

  9. [Adhesive cell interactions in the biology of cancer].

    PubMed

    Bocharova, O A

    2002-01-01

    The present review describes a hypothesis for a critical role of cell adhesive interactions in tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of tissue cell-cell interactions initiates first of all local (in the tissue) and then general (in whole body) conditions for tumor growth. Otherwise imbalance of tissue-specific adhesion factor at the very beginning of carcinogenesis is considered to trigger a cascade of pathological reactions responsible for more severe adhesive disorders that are in turn critical for the "totalitarian" behavior of a tumor and its "colonization" of other tissues and organs. Impaired disturbance is likely to be the key mechanism of carcinogenesis since it is significantly associated with the main features of a tumor: tissue proliferation control loss, anaplasia, invasion, metastasis, and immune surveillance deficit. The hypothesis is supported by evolutionary, biological, histological, immunological, and clinical arguments whose combination does not characterize any other known mechanisms of oncogenesis. The concept of adhesiveness opens new possibilities for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of tumors and also improves a strategy for designing new drugs.

  10. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... as the shoulder Eyes Inside the abdomen or pelvis Adhesions can become larger or tighter over time. ... Other causes of adhesions in the abdomen or pelvis include: Appendicitis , most often when the appendix breaks ...

  11. Mechanokinetics of receptor-ligand interactions in cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Lü, Shouqin; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

    2015-04-01

    Receptor-ligand interactions in blood flow are crucial to initiate such biological processes as inflammatory cascade, platelet thrombosis, as well as tumor metastasis. To mediate cell adhesion, the interacting receptors and ligands must be anchored onto two apposing surfaces of two cells or a cell and a substratum, i.e., two-dimensional (2D) binding, which is different from the binding of a soluble ligand in fluid phase to a receptor, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) binding. While numerous works have been focused on 3D kinetics of receptor-ligand interactions in the immune system, 2D kinetics and its regulations have been less understood, since no theoretical framework or experimental assays were established until 1993. Not only does the molecular structure dominate 2D binding kinetics, but the shear force in blood flow also regulates cell adhesion mediated by interacting receptors and ligands. Here, we provide an overview of current progress in 2D binding and regulations, mainly from our group. Relevant issues of theoretical frameworks, experimental measurements, kinetic rates and binding affinities, and force regulations are discussed.

  12. The looped adhesive strip: An example of coplanar delamination interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottega, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon of peeling and debonding of thin layers is a subject of interest to those concerned with adhesives, thin films, and layered materials. In recent years much attention has been focused on such problems as a result of increased interest and application of advanced composites and thin film coatings. A related problem which is of interest for its own sake but also represents a simple example of a tangled adhesive strip and of coplanar delamination interaction, is the problem of a looped adhesive strip. This is the subject of the present study. Researchers consider here the problem of an elastic strip which possesses an adherend on (at least) one of its surfaces. If the strip is deformed so that two portions of such a surface are brought into contact, a position of the strip becomes bonded and a loop is formed. Researchers are interested in determining the equilibrium configuration of such a strip and investigating the behavior of the strip when its edges are pulled apart. The problem is approached as a moving interior boundary problem in the calculus of variations with the strip modeled as an inextensible elastica and the bond strength characterized by its surface energy. A Griffith type energy criterion is employed for debonding, and solutions corresponding to the problem of interest obtained. The solution obtained will be seen to predict the interesting phenomenon of bond point propagation, as well as the more standard peeling type behavior. Numerical results demonstrating the phenomena of interest are presented as well and will be seen to reveal both stable and unstable propagation of the boundaries of the bonded portion of the strip, depending upon the loading conditions.

  13. Adhesion study of silicone coatings: the interaction of thickness, modulus and shear rate on adhesion force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Chisholm, Bret J; Bahr, James

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between coating thickness, modulus and shear rate on pseudobarnacle adhesion to a platinum-cured silicone coating were studied using a statistical experimental design. A combined design method was used for two mixture components and two process variables. The two mixture components, vinyl end-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (V21: MW=6 kg mole(-1) and V35: MW=4 9.5 kg mole(-1), Gelest Inc.) were mixed at five different levels to vary the modulus. The dry coating thickness was varied from 160 - 740 microm and shear tests were performed at four different shear rates (2, 7, 12, and 22 microm s(-1)). The results of the statistical analysis showed that the mixture components were significant factors on shear stress, showing an interaction with the process variable. For the soft silicone coating based on the high molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane (E=0.08 MPa), shear stress significantly increased as coating thickness decreased, while shear rate slightly impacted shear force especially at 160 microm coating thickness. As the modulus was increased (E=1.3 MPa), more force was required to detach the pseudobarnacle from the coatings, but thickness and rate dependence on shear stress became less important. PMID:17453735

  14. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They might connect the loops of the intestines to each other, to nearby ... can occur anywhere in the body. But they often form after surgery on the ...

  15. Twist2 promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation and invasion by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression in the ECM-receptor interaction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao-jie; Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Hu, Xin; Rong, Rui-ming; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Tong-yu

    2016-01-01

    Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence has proven that Twist2 is involved in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay were analyzed using the Cell Count Kit-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell analysis, respectively. In this study, we showed that Twist2 was upregulated in human kidney cancer tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. Twist2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and augmented cell migration and invasion in human kidney-cancer-derived cells in vitro. Twist2 also promoted tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that the knockdown of Twist2 decreased the levels of ITGA6 and CD44 expression. This result indicates that Twist2 may promote migration and invasion of kidney cancer cells by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression. Therefore, our data demonstrated that Twist2 is involved in kidney cancer progression. The identification of the role of Twist2 in the migration and invasion of kidney cancer provides a potential appropriate treatment for human kidney cancer. PMID:27099513

  16. Adhesive interactions of geckos with wet and dry fluoropolymer substrates

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alyssa Y.; Dryden, Daniel M.; Olderman, Jeffrey; Peterson, Kelly A.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; French, Roger H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Fluorinated substrates like Teflon® (poly(tetrafluoroethylene); PTFE) are well known for their role in creating non-stick surfaces. We showed previously that even geckos, which can stick to most surfaces under a wide variety of conditions, slip on PTFE. Surprisingly, however, geckos can stick reasonably well to PTFE if it is wet. In an effort to explain this effect, we have turned our attention to the role of substrate surface energy and roughness when shear adhesion occurs in media other than air. In this study, we removed the roughness component inherent to commercially available PTFE and tested geckos on relatively smooth wet and dry fluoropolymer substrates. We found that roughness had very little effect on shear adhesion in air or in water and that the level of fluorination was most important for shear adhesion, particularly in air. Surface energy calculations of the two fluorinated substrates and one control substrate using the Tabor–Winterton approximation and the Young–Dupré equation were used to determine the interfacial energy of the substrates. Using these interfacial energies we estimated the ratio of wet and dry normal adhesion for geckos clinging to the three substrates. Consistent with the results for rough PTFE, our predictions show a qualitative trend in shear adhesion based on fluorination, and the quantitative experimental differences highlight the unusually low shear adhesion of geckos on dry smooth fluorinated substrates, which is not captured by surface energy calculations. Our work has implications for bioinspired design of synthetics that can preferentially stick in water but not in air. PMID:26109635

  17. Heparin interacts with the adhesion GPCR GPR56, reduces receptor shedding, and promotes cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Nien-Yi; Chang, Gin-Wen; Huang, Yi-Shu; Peng, Yen-Ming; Hsiao, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Lin, Hsi-Hsien

    2016-06-01

    GPR56 is an adhesion-class G-protein-coupled receptor responsible for bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP), a severe disorder of cortical formation. Additionally, GPR56 is involved in biological processes as diverse as hematopoietic stem cell generation and maintenance, myoblast fusion, muscle hypertrophy, immunoregulation and tumorigenesis. Collagen III and tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) have been revealed as the matricellular ligands of GPR56 involved in BFPP and melanoma development, respectively. In this study, we identify heparin as a glycosaminoglycan interacting partner of GPR56. Analyses of truncated and mutant GPR56 proteins reveal two basic-residue-rich clusters, R(26)GHREDFRFC(35) and L(190)KHPQKASRRP(200), as the major heparin-interacting motifs that overlap partially with the collagen III- and TG2-binding sites. Interestingly, the GPR56-heparin interaction is modulated by collagen III but not TG2, even though both ligands are also heparin-binding proteins. Finally, we show that the interaction with heparin reduces GPR56 receptor shedding, and enhances cell adhesion and motility. These results provide novel insights into the interaction of GPR56 with its multiple endogenous ligands and have functional implications in diseases such as BFPP and cancer.

  18. Reciprocal Interactions between Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily and the Cytoskeleton in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites, and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function, and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail. PMID:26909348

  19. Reciprocal Interactions between Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily and the Cytoskeleton in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites, and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function, and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail. PMID:26909348

  20. Talin-KANK1 interaction controls the recruitment of cortical microtubule stabilizing complexes to focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Benjamin P; Gough, Rosemarie E; Ammon, York-Christoph; van de Willige, Dieudonnée; Post, Harm; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Heck, Albert JR; Goult, Benjamin T; Akhmanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cross-talk between dynamic microtubules and integrin-based adhesions to the extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in cell polarity and migration. Microtubules regulate the turnover of adhesion sites, and, in turn, focal adhesions promote the cortical microtubule capture and stabilization in their vicinity, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that cortical microtubule stabilization sites containing CLASPs, KIF21A, LL5β and liprins are recruited to focal adhesions by the adaptor protein KANK1, which directly interacts with the major adhesion component, talin. Structural studies showed that the conserved KN domain in KANK1 binds to the talin rod domain R7. Perturbation of this interaction, including a single point mutation in talin, which disrupts KANK1 binding but not the talin function in adhesion, abrogates the association of microtubule-stabilizing complexes with focal adhesions. We propose that the talin-KANK1 interaction links the two macromolecular assemblies that control cortical attachment of actin fibers and microtubules. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18124.001 PMID:27410476

  1. PRL-3 promotes cell adhesion by interacting with JAM2 in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Xing, Xiaofang; Yang, Yongyong; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), also termed PTP4A3, is a metastasis-related protein tyrosine phosphatase. Its expression levels are significantly correlated with the progression and survival of a wide range of malignant tumors. However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis is not clear. In the present study, the functions of PRL-3 were systemically analyzed in the key events of metastasis including, motility and adhesion. A cell wounding assay, cell spread assay and cell-matrix adhesion assay were carried out to analyze the cell movement and cell adhesion ability of colon cancer, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay was confirmed the interaction of PRL-3 and JAM2. It was demonstrated that PRL-3 promoted the motility of Flp-In-293 and LoVo colon cancer cells and increased the distribution of cell skeleton proteins on the cell protrusions. In addition, stably expressing PRL-3 reduced the spreading speed of colon cancer cells and cell adhesion on uncoated, fibronectin-coated and collagen I-coated plates. Mechanistically, junction adhesion molecular 2 (JAM2) was identified as a novel interacting protein of PRL-3. The findings of the present study revealed the roles of PRL-3 in cancer cell motility and adhesion process, and provided information on the possibility of PRL-3 increase cell-cell adhesion by associating with JAM2. PMID:27588115

  2. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase interacts with vinculin at focal adhesions during fatty acid-stimulated cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    George, Margaret D.; Wine, Robert N.; Lackford, Brad; Kissling, Grace E.; Akiyama, Steven K.; Olden, Kenneth; Roberts, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Arachidonic acid stimulates cell adhesion by activating α2β1 integrins in a process that depends on protein kinases, including p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Here, we describe the interaction of cytoskeletal components with key signaling molecules that contribute to spreading of, and morphological changes in, arachidonic acid-treated MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells. Arachidonic acid-treated cells showed increased attachment and spreading on collagen type IV as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Fatty acid-treated cells displayed short cortical actin filaments associated with an increased number of β1 integrin-containing pseudopodia whereas untreated cells displayed elongated stress fibers and fewer clusters of β1 integrins. Confocal microscopy of arachidonic acid-treated cells showed that vinculin and phospho-p38 both appeared enriched in pseudopodia and at the tips of actin filaments, and fluorescence ratio imaging indicated the increase was specific for the phospho-(active) form of p38. Immunoprecipitates of phospho-p38 from extracts of arachidonic acid-treated cells contained vinculin, and GST-vinculin fusion proteins carrying the central region of vinculin bound phospho-p38, whereas fusion proteins expressing the terminal portions of vinculin did not. These data suggest that phospho-p38 associates with particular domains on critical focal adhesion proteins that are involved in tumor cell adhesion and spreading and that this association can be regulated by factors in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24219282

  3. A Novel Approach to Study Adhesion Mechanisms by Isolation of the Interacting System

    PubMed Central

    Coyle-Thompson, Cathy; Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    Summary For decades most investigations into mechanisms of adhesive interactions have examined whole organisms or single cells. Results using whole organisms are often unclear because it may not be known if a probe used in an experiment is directly affecting the cellular interaction under study or if it is an indirect effect resulting from action on some other structure or pathway. Here we develop a novel approach to isolate the structural components of a cellular interaction by dissecting them out of the organism to study them in a pristine environment away from all confounding factors. We used the adhesion between the archenteron and blastocoel roof of the sea urchin gastrula stage embryo as a model that can be replicated in many other developmental and pathological systems. The isolated components of the cellular interaction and those in the whole organism possessed identical cell surface receptors and adhesive affinities. PMID:16181663

  4. Interactions with nanoscale topography: adhesion quantification and signal transduction in cells of osteogenic and multipotent lineage.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Manus J P; Richards, R Geoff; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; McMurray, Rebecca J; Affrossman, Stanley; Wilkinson, Chris D W; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dalby, Mathew J

    2009-10-01

    Polymeric medical devices widely used in orthopedic surgery play key roles in fracture fixation and orthopedic implant design. Topographical modification and surface micro-roughness of these devices regulate cellular adhesion, a process fundamental in the initiation of osteoinduction and osteogenesis. Advances in fabrication techniques have evolved the field of surface modification; in particular, nanotechnology has allowed the development of nanoscale substrates for the investigation into cell-nanofeature interactions. In this study human osteoblasts (HOBs) were cultured on ordered nanoscale pits and random nano "craters" and "islands". Adhesion subtypes were quantified by immunofluorescent microscopy and cell-substrate interactions investigated via immuno-scanning electron microscopy. To investigate the effects of these substrates on cellular function 1.7 k microarray analysis was used to establish gene profiles of enriched STRO-1+ progenitor cell populations cultured on these nanotopographies. Nanotopographies affected the formation of adhesions on experimental substrates. Adhesion formation was prominent on planar control substrates and reduced on nanocrater and nanoisland topographies; nanopits, however, were shown to inhibit directly the formation of large adhesions. STRO-1+ progenitor cells cultured on experimental substrates revealed significant changes in genetic expression. This study implicates nanotopographical modification as a significant modulator of osteoblast adhesion and cellular function in mesenchymal populations. PMID:18814275

  5. A direct interaction between fascin and microtubules contributes to adhesion dynamics and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Villari, Giulia; Jayo, Asier; Zanet, Jennifer; Fitch, Briana; Serrels, Bryan; Frame, Margaret; Stramer, Brian M.; Goult, Benjamin T.; Parsons, Maddy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fascin is an actin-binding and bundling protein that is highly upregulated in most epithelial cancers. Fascin promotes cell migration and adhesion dynamics in vitro and tumour cell metastasis in vivo. However, potential non-actin bundling roles for fascin remain unknown. Here, we show for the first time that fascin can directly interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton and that this does not depend upon fascin-actin bundling. Microtubule binding contributes to fascin-dependent control of focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration speed. We also show that fascin forms a complex with focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2) and Src, and that this signalling pathway lies downstream of fascin–microtubule association in the control of adhesion stability. These findings shed light on new non actin-dependent roles for fascin and might have implications for the design of therapies to target fascin in metastatic disease. PMID:26542021

  6. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  7. Altering FAK-Paxillin Interactions Reduces Adhesion, Migration and Invasion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Deramaudt, Thérèse B.; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors. PMID:24642576

  8. How to awaken your nanomachines: Site-specific activation of focal adhesion kinases through ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Walkiewicz, Katarzyna W; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Arold, Stefan T

    2015-10-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the related protein-tyrosine kinase 2-beta (Pyk2) are highly versatile multidomain scaffolds central to cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Due to their key role in cancer metastasis, understanding and inhibiting their functions are important for the development of targeted therapy. Because FAK and Pyk2 are involved in many different cellular functions, designing drugs with partial and function-specific inhibitory effects would be desirable. Here, we summarise recent progress in understanding the structural mechanism of how the tug-of-war between intramolecular and intermolecular interactions allows these protein 'nanomachines' to become activated in a site-specific manner.

  9. Hydrophobic interaction governs unspecific adhesion of staphylococci: a single cell force spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Nicolas; Loskill, Peter; Jung, Philipp; Peisker, Henrik; Bischoff, Markus; Herrmann, Mathias; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Unspecific adhesion of bacteria is usually the first step in the formation of biofilms on abiotic surfaces, yet it is unclear up to now which forces are governing this process. Alongside long-ranged van der Waals and electrostatic forces, short-ranged hydrophobic interaction plays an important role. To characterize the forces involved during approach and retraction of an individual bacterium to and from a surface, single cell force spectroscopy is applied: A single cell of the apathogenic species Staphylococcus carnosus isolate TM300 is used as bacterial probe. With the exact same bacterium, hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces can be probed and compared. We find that as far as 50 nm from the surface, attractive forces can already be recorded, an indication of the involvement of long-ranged forces. Yet, comparing the surfaces of different surface energy, our results corroborate the model that large, bacterial cell wall proteins are responsible for adhesion, and that their interplay with the short-ranged hydrophobic interaction of the involved surfaces is mainly responsible for adhesion. The ostensibly long range of the attraction is a result of the large size of the cell wall proteins, searching for contact via hydrophobic interaction. The model also explains the strong (weak) adhesion of S. carnosus to hydrophobic (hydrophilic) surfaces. PMID:25247133

  10. Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell.

  11. Modeling of cell adhesion and deformation mediated by receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Amirreza F; Nadler, Ben

    2016-04-01

    The current work is devoted to studying adhesion and deformation of biological cells mediated by receptors and ligands in order to enhance the existing models. Due to the sufficient in-plane continuity and fluidity of the phospholipid molecules, an isotropic continuum fluid membrane is proposed for modeling the cell membrane. The developed constitutive model accounts for the influence of the presence of receptors on the deformation and adhesion of the cell membrane through the introduction of spontaneous area dilation. Motivated by physics, a nonlinear receptor-ligand binding force is introduced based on charge-induced dipole interaction. Diffusion of the receptors on the membrane is governed by the receptor-ligand interaction via Fick's Law and receptor-ligand interaction. The developed model is then applied to study the deformation and adhesion of a biological cell. The proposed model is used to study the role of the material, binding, spontaneous area dilation and environmental properties on the deformation and adhesion of the cell. PMID:26093646

  12. Adhesion force interactions between cyclopentane hydrate and physically and chemically modified surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2014-12-01

    Interfacial interactions between liquid-solid and solid-solid phases/surfaces are of fundamental importance to the formation of hydrate deposits in oil and gas pipelines. This work establishes the effect of five categories of physical and chemical modification to steel on clathrate hydrate adhesive force: oleamide, graphite, citric acid ester, nonanedithiol, and Rain-X anti-wetting agent. Hydrate adhesive forces were measured using a micromechanical force apparatus, under both dry and water-wet surface conditions. The results show that the graphite coating reduced hydrate-steel adhesion force by 79%, due to an increase in the water wetting angle from 42 ± 8° to 154 ± 7°. Two chemical surface coatings (nonanedithiol and the citric acid ester) induced rapid hydrate growth in the hydrate particles; nonanedithiol increased hydrate adhesive force by 49% from the baseline, while the citric acid ester coating reduced hydrate adhesion force by 98%. This result suggests that crystal growth may enable a strong adhesive pathway between hydrate and other crystalline structures, however this effect may be negated in cases where water-hydrocarbon interfacial tension is minimised. When a liquid water droplet was placed on the modified steel surfaces, the graphite and citric acid ester became less effective at reducing adhesive force. In pipelines containing a free water phase wetting the steel surface, chemical or physical surface modifications alone may be insufficient to eliminate hydrate deposition risk. In further tests, the citric acid ester reduced hydrate cohesive forces by 50%, suggesting mild activity as a hybrid anti-agglomerant suppressing both hydrate deposition and particle agglomeration. These results demonstrate a new capability to develop polyfunctional surfactants, which simultaneously limit the capability for hydrate particles to aggregate and deposit on the pipeline wall.

  13. Adhesion force interactions between cyclopentane hydrate and physically and chemically modified surfaces.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2014-12-01

    Interfacial interactions between liquid-solid and solid-solid phases/surfaces are of fundamental importance to the formation of hydrate deposits in oil and gas pipelines. This work establishes the effect of five categories of physical and chemical modification to steel on clathrate hydrate adhesive force: oleamide, graphite, citric acid ester, nonanedithiol, and Rain-X anti-wetting agent. Hydrate adhesive forces were measured using a micromechanical force apparatus, under both dry and water-wet surface conditions. The results show that the graphite coating reduced hydrate-steel adhesion force by 79%, due to an increase in the water wetting angle from 42 ± 8° to 154 ± 7°. Two chemical surface coatings (nonanedithiol and the citric acid ester) induced rapid hydrate growth in the hydrate particles; nonanedithiol increased hydrate adhesive force by 49% from the baseline, while the citric acid ester coating reduced hydrate adhesion force by 98%. This result suggests that crystal growth may enable a strong adhesive pathway between hydrate and other crystalline structures, however this effect may be negated in cases where water-hydrocarbon interfacial tension is minimised. When a liquid water droplet was placed on the modified steel surfaces, the graphite and citric acid ester became less effective at reducing adhesive force. In pipelines containing a free water phase wetting the steel surface, chemical or physical surface modifications alone may be insufficient to eliminate hydrate deposition risk. In further tests, the citric acid ester reduced hydrate cohesive forces by 50%, suggesting mild activity as a hybrid anti-agglomerant suppressing both hydrate deposition and particle agglomeration. These results demonstrate a new capability to develop polyfunctional surfactants, which simultaneously limit the capability for hydrate particles to aggregate and deposit on the pipeline wall. PMID:25332072

  14. Adhesion forces in interactive mixtures for dry powder inhalers--evaluation of a new measuring method.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, Maike; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Urbanetz, Nora Anne; Lippold, Bernhard Christian

    2007-09-01

    Dry powder inhalers mostly contain carrier based formulations where micronized drug particles are adhered to coarse carrier particles. The performance of the dry powder inhaler depends on the inhaler device, the inhalation manoeuvre and the formulation. The most important factor influencing the behaviour of the formulation is the adhesion force acting between the active ingredient and the carrier particles, which can be measured using different methods, for example the centrifuge technique or atomic force microscopy. In this study the tensile strength method, usually applied to determine cohesion forces between powder particles of one material, is optimized for adhesion force measurements between powder particles of unlike materials. Adhesion force measurements between the carrier materials lactose or mannitol and the drug substance salbutamol sulphate using the tensile strength method and the atomic force microscopy show higher values with increasing relative humidity. Consequently, the fine particle fraction determined using the Next Generation Impactor decreases with increasing relative humidity as a result of the enhanced interparticle interactions.

  15. Characteristics of laser ultrasound interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua; Sun, Guangkai

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of laser-generated ultrasonic wave interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface are investigated by finite element method (FEM). The physical model of laser-generated ultrasonic wave in the multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive structure is built. The surface temperature evolution with different laser power densities is analyzed to obtain the parameters of pulsed laser with thermoelastic regime. The differences of laser ultrasonic waves with different center frequencies measured at the center of laser irradiation would verify the interfacial features of adhesive structures. The optimum frequency range and probe point would be beneficial for the detection of the small void defect. The numerical results indicate that the different frequency range and probe points would evidently influence the identification and quantitative characterization of the small void defect. The research findings would lay a foundation for testing interfacial integrity.

  16. Formation of semi-dilute adhesion domains driven by weak elasticity-mediated interactions.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2016-08-21

    Cell-cell adhesion is established by specific binding of receptor and ligand proteins anchored in the cell membranes. The adhesion bonds attract each other and often aggregate into large clusters that are central to many biological processes. One possible origin of attractive interactions between adhesion bonds is the elastic response of the membranes to their deformation by the bonds. Here, we analyze these elasticity-mediated interactions using a novel mean-field approach. Our analysis of systems at different densities of bonds, ϕ, reveals that the phase diagram, i.e., the binodal and spinodal lines, exhibit a nearly universal behavior when the temperature T is plotted against the scaled density x = ϕξ(2), where ξ is the linear size of the membrane's region affected by the presence of a single isolated bond. The critical point (ϕc , Tc) is located at very low densities, and slightly below Tc we identify phase coexistence between two low-density phases. Dense adhesion domains are observed only when the height by which the bonds deform the membranes, h0, is much larger than their thermal roughness, Δ, which occurs at very low temperatures T≪Tc. We, thus, conclude that the elasticity-mediated interactions are weak and cannot be regarded as responsible for the formation of dense adhesion domains. The weakness of the elasticity-mediated effect and its relevance to dilute systems only can be attributed to the fact that the membrane's elastic energy saturates in the semi-dilute regime, when the typical spacing between the bonds r≳ξ, i.e., for x≲ 1. Therefore, at higher densities, only the mixing entropy of the bonds (which always favors uniform distributions) is thermodynamically relevant. We discuss the implications of our results for the question of immunological synapse formation, and demonstrate that the elasticity-mediated interactions may be involved in the aggregation of these semi-dilute membrane domains. PMID:27426284

  17. Viscous-poroelastic interaction as mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulchinsky, A.; Gat, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a viscous liquid contained between and within the hexagonal structures. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, by allowing for exit of the liquid and thus improving contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscosity and elasticity as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary effects or van der Waals forces. We initially illustrate this concept experimentally by a simplified configuration consisting of two surfaces connected by a liquid bridge and elastic springs. We then utilize poroelastic mixture theory and model frog's toe pads as an elastic porous medium, immersed within a viscous liquid and pressed against a rigid rough surface. The flow between the surface and the toe pad is modeled by the lubrication approximation. Inertia is neglected and analysis of the elastic-viscous dynamics yields a governing partial differential equation describing the flow and stress within the porous medium. Several solutions of the governing equation are presented and show a temporary adhesion due to stress created at the contact surface between the solids. This work thus may explain how some frogs (such as the torrent frog) maintain adhesion underwater and the reason for the periodic repositioning of frogs' toe pads during adhesion to surfaces.

  18. Plant protein interactions studied using AFM force spectroscopy: nanomechanical and adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Ahmad; Louarn, Guy

    2013-07-21

    The present work was focused on the nanomechanical and adhesion properties of the napin (2S albumin) and cruciferin (12S globulin) rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) proteins, respectively, a low and high molecular weight seed protein. Using chemically modified AFM tips, force spectroscopy experiments demonstrated notable differences in the tip-protein interaction strength with regard to the nature of the protein and pH of the aqueous environment. The results clearly underline the role of residence time and electrostatic interactions in the protein-protein adhesion force. Although the nanomechanical experiments concerned more than a single molecule, unfolding length and force characteristics of the rapeseed proteins have been statistically found to be sensitive to the structural properties of the protein. This study provides insight into the characterization of rapeseed proteins and then a better knowledge of their interaction and assembling at the nanoscale range.

  19. Plant protein interactions studied using AFM force spectroscopy: nanomechanical and adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Ahmad; Louarn, Guy

    2013-07-21

    The present work was focused on the nanomechanical and adhesion properties of the napin (2S albumin) and cruciferin (12S globulin) rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) proteins, respectively, a low and high molecular weight seed protein. Using chemically modified AFM tips, force spectroscopy experiments demonstrated notable differences in the tip-protein interaction strength with regard to the nature of the protein and pH of the aqueous environment. The results clearly underline the role of residence time and electrostatic interactions in the protein-protein adhesion force. Although the nanomechanical experiments concerned more than a single molecule, unfolding length and force characteristics of the rapeseed proteins have been statistically found to be sensitive to the structural properties of the protein. This study provides insight into the characterization of rapeseed proteins and then a better knowledge of their interaction and assembling at the nanoscale range. PMID:23732983

  20. Contact studies of weak adhesive interactions in water with membrane enhanced surface acoustic wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brass, David Alan

    The measurement of weak adhesive energies has previously been difficult to obtain. To measure these energies, I designed a technique that uses the combined sensitivities of both a quartz crystal resonator and the inflation of an elastomeric polymer membrane. The surfaces of the quartz crystal and/or the membrane are modified with water swollen polymer brushes, which are used to eliminate nonspecific adhesion. These brushes are then end-modified with adhesive functional groups. An analysis is developed for the frequency response of a quartz crystal resonator as the membrane layer is placed in contact with the surface of these swollen brushes. The shear wave generated at the resonator surface couples into the membrane layer with an efficiency that is strongly dependent on the thickness of the swollen brush layer. The calculated shift decreases substantially for increases in the brush thickness of ten to twenty nanometers, giving a net frequency response that is extremely sensitive to the degree of swelling of the brush. An optimum capping layer thickness is determined by balancing the resonant frequency shift against dissipative effects that weaken the crystal resonance. Detailed calculations are presented for the specific case of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brushes swollen by water and capped by a poly(styrene-ethylene/butene-styrene) (SEBS) elastomeric, water-permeable membrane. These calculations show that the method is sensitive to the properties of the brush layer. This surface acoustic wave technique was coupled with an inflation method that enabled quantification of the adhesion between the membrane and the brush coated surface. This adhesive interaction is obtained from the contact angle made between the quartz and membrane surfaces and the tension on the membrane. An analysis of the membrane profile based on the numerical solution of the axisymmetric Laplace equation is developed and used to investigate both adhesive and non-adhesive situations with both an

  1. Platelet-leukocyte interaction in adhesion to endothelial cells induced by platelet-activating factor in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hirafuji, M.; Shinoda, H.

    1991-01-01

    1. Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 10 nM) did not induce platelet adhesion to endothelial cells cultured in monolayer but it induced their adhesion to protein-coated plastic. However, PAF induced a marked platelet adhesion to endothelial cells when polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were present. Lyso-PAF had no effect. 2. Phase-contrast microscopic examination showed that single platelets rather than their aggregates adhered to the endothelial cell surface around aggregating and adhering PMNs. 3. Significant platelet adhesion was induced by PAF at concentrations higher that 0.01 nM with the maximal response at 10 nM. Platelet adhesion occurred within minutes after PAF addition, reaching a maximum approximately after 30 min. Platelet adhesion also occurred significantly at a PMN:platelet ratio of 1:800, and linearly up to 1:50. 4. The PAF-induced platelet adhesion was suppressed by three structurally unrelated PAF antagonists, WEB 2086, ONO 6240 and BN 52021, in a concentration-dependent manner. 5. PAF also increased PMN adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers, which was further augmented by the presence of platelets. 6. The present study demonstrates that PAF induces platelet adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro when PMNs are present and that there is a close interaction between platelets and PMNs in their adhesion to endothelial cells. The present study further suggests that PMNs could play a central role in platelet adhesion to vascular endothlium in certain pathological conditions. Images Figure 2 PMID:1884095

  2. Interactions of the Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase-α with the Focal Adhesion Targeting Domain of Focal Adhesion Kinase Are Involved in Interleukin-1 Signaling in Fibroblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Yongqiang; Fritz, Dominik; Rajshankar, Dhaarmini; Downey, Gregory P.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling in fibroblasts is mediated through focal adhesions, organelles that are enriched with adaptor and cytoskeletal proteins that regulate signal transduction. We examined interactions of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with protein-tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTP-α) in IL-1 signaling. In wild type and FAK knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we found by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunostaining, and gene silencing that FAK is required for IL-1-mediated sequestration of PTPα to focal adhesions. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays of purified proteins demonstrated a direct interaction between FAK and PTPα, which was dependent on the FAT domain of FAK and by an intact membrane-proximal phosphatase domain of PTPα. Recruitment of PTPα to focal adhesions, IL-1-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, ERK activation, and IL-6, MMP-3, and MMP-9 expression were all blocked in FAK knock-out fibroblasts. These processes were restored in FAK knock-out cells transfected with wild type FAK, FAT domain, and FRNK. Our data indicate that IL-1-induced signaling through focal adhesions involves interactions between the FAT domain of FAK and PTPα. PMID:24821720

  3. Interactions of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase-α with the focal adhesion targeting domain of focal adhesion kinase are involved in interleukin-1 signaling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Wang, Yongqiang; Fritz, Dominik; Rajshankar, Dhaarmini; Downey, Gregory P; McCulloch, Christopher A

    2014-06-27

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling in fibroblasts is mediated through focal adhesions, organelles that are enriched with adaptor and cytoskeletal proteins that regulate signal transduction. We examined interactions of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with protein-tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTP-α) in IL-1 signaling. In wild type and FAK knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we found by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunostaining, and gene silencing that FAK is required for IL-1-mediated sequestration of PTPα to focal adhesions. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown assays of purified proteins demonstrated a direct interaction between FAK and PTPα, which was dependent on the FAT domain of FAK and by an intact membrane-proximal phosphatase domain of PTPα. Recruitment of PTPα to focal adhesions, IL-1-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum, ERK activation, and IL-6, MMP-3, and MMP-9 expression were all blocked in FAK knock-out fibroblasts. These processes were restored in FAK knock-out cells transfected with wild type FAK, FAT domain, and FRNK. Our data indicate that IL-1-induced signaling through focal adhesions involves interactions between the FAT domain of FAK and PTPα.

  4. The effects of physico-chemical interactions and polymer grafting on interfacial adhesion in thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, Venkat Krishna

    The effects of physico-chemical interactions between the carbon fiber and Bisphenol-A polycarbonate matrix was investigated to understand the factors governing the interfacial adhesion in thermoplastic matrix composites. It was found that, the changes in the amount of oxygen functionality achieved through electrochemical oxidative surface treatment of the carbon fibers didn't affect the level of adhesion, indicating negligible polar and hydrogen bond formation. Composites fabricated from these fibers that were subsequently passivated through thermal hydrogenation up to 1000°C, which removed all the oxygen functionality without affecting the fiber topography, indicated that the mechanical interlocking between the fiber and the matrix didn't have a strong influence on the interfacial adhesion. Grafting low molecular weight BPA-PC and high molecular weight PMMA on to the fiber surface improved the interfacial adhesion. However, the level of improvement was observed to be independent of the fiber surface treatment and the molecular weight of the grafted chains. These results are consistent with the cohesive zone models proposed for the chain pull out and chain scission observed in block copolymers.

  5. Adhesive activity of Lu glycoproteins is regulated by interaction with spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    An, Xiuli; Gauthier, Emilie; Zhang, Xihui; Guo, Xinhua; Anstee, David; Mohandas, Narla; Anne Chasis, Joel

    2008-03-18

    The Lutheran (Lu) and Lu(v13) blood group glycoproteins function as receptors for extracellular matrix laminins. Lu and Lu(v13) are linked to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton through a direct interaction with spectrin. However, neither the molecular basis of the interaction nor its functional consequences have previously been delineated. In the present study, we defined the binding motifs of Lu and Lu(v13) on spectrin and identified a functional role for this interaction. We found that the cytoplasmic domains of both Lu and Lu(v13) bound to repeat 4 of the spectrin chain. The interaction of full-length spectrin dimer to Lu and Lu(v13) was inhibited by repeat 4 of {alpha}-spectrin. Further, resealing of this repeat peptide into erythrocytes led to weakened Lu-cytoskeleton interaction as demonstrated by increased detergent extractability of Lu. Importantly, disruption of the Lu-spectrin linkage was accompanied by enhanced cell adhesion to laminin. We conclude that the interaction of the Lu cytoplasmic tail with the cytoskeleton regulates its adhesive receptor function.

  6. Viscous-elastic interaction as a mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Amir; Tulchinsky, Arie

    2013-11-01

    The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a network of channels between and within the soft structures, containing a viscous liquid. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, that the channel network allows for exit of the viscous liquid and thus improve contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscous flow and elastic forces as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary or van der Waals forces. We study the dynamics of a solid body covered with an array of protruding elastic cylinders, immersed within a viscous liquid, and pressed against a flat surface. Inertia is neglected and the elastic-viscous dynamics yield the governing differential equation describing the relative motion between the body and the surface. The compressed elastic cylinders apply a force acting to separate the solid body from the surface. The relative motion between the body and the surface creates a viscous flow and pressure field resisting the elastic force and significantly reducing the speed of separation. We show that the viscous-elastic interaction can prevent motion tangential and normal to the surface and can create temporary adhesion.

  7. Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Mediates Platelet Adhesion and Thrombus Formation.

    PubMed

    Modjeski, Kristina L; Ture, Sara K; Field, David J; Cameron, Scott J; Morrell, Craig N

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis-associated pathologies, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because platelets are necessary for hemostasis and thrombosis, platelet directed therapies must balance inhibiting platelet function with bleeding risk. Glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) is a large scaffolding protein that localizes and organizes interacting proteins in other cells, such as neurons. We have investigated the role of GRIP1 in platelet function to determine its role as a molecular scaffold in thrombus formation. Platelet-specific GRIP1-/- mice were used to determine the role of GRIP1 in platelets. GRIP1-/- mice had normal platelet counts, but a prolonged bleeding time and delayed thrombus formation in a FeCl3-induced vessel injury model. In vitro stimulation of WT and GRIP1-/- platelets with multiple agonists showed no difference in platelet activation. However, in vivo platelet rolling velocity after endothelial stimulation was significantly greater in GRIP1-/- platelets compared to WT platelets, indicating a potential platelet adhesion defect. Mass spectrometry analysis of GRIP1 platelet immunoprecipitation revealed enrichment of GRIP1 binding to GPIb-IX complex proteins. Western blots confirmed the mass spectrometry findings that GRIP1 interacts with GPIbα, GPIbβ, and 14-3-3. Additionally, in resting GRIP1-/- platelets, GPIbα and 14-3-3 have increased interaction compared to WT platelets. GRIP1 interactions with the GPIb-IX binding complex are necessary for normal platelet adhesion to a stimulated endothelium. PMID:27631377

  8. Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Mediates Platelet Adhesion and Thrombus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Modjeski, Kristina L.; Ture, Sara K.; Field, David J.; Cameron, Scott J.; Morrell, Craig N.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis-associated pathologies, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Because platelets are necessary for hemostasis and thrombosis, platelet directed therapies must balance inhibiting platelet function with bleeding risk. Glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) is a large scaffolding protein that localizes and organizes interacting proteins in other cells, such as neurons. We have investigated the role of GRIP1 in platelet function to determine its role as a molecular scaffold in thrombus formation. Platelet-specific GRIP1-/- mice were used to determine the role of GRIP1 in platelets. GRIP1-/- mice had normal platelet counts, but a prolonged bleeding time and delayed thrombus formation in a FeCl3-induced vessel injury model. In vitro stimulation of WT and GRIP1-/- platelets with multiple agonists showed no difference in platelet activation. However, in vivo platelet rolling velocity after endothelial stimulation was significantly greater in GRIP1-/- platelets compared to WT platelets, indicating a potential platelet adhesion defect. Mass spectrometry analysis of GRIP1 platelet immunoprecipitation revealed enrichment of GRIP1 binding to GPIb-IX complex proteins. Western blots confirmed the mass spectrometry findings that GRIP1 interacts with GPIbα, GPIbβ, and 14-3-3. Additionally, in resting GRIP1-/- platelets, GPIbα and 14-3-3 have increased interaction compared to WT platelets. GRIP1 interactions with the GPIb-IX binding complex are necessary for normal platelet adhesion to a stimulated endothelium. PMID:27631377

  9. Focal Adhesion Kinase Is Involved in Rabies Virus Infection through Its Interaction with Viral Phosphoprotein P

    PubMed Central

    Fouquet, Baptiste; Nikolic, Jovan; Larrous, Florence; Bourhy, Hervé; Wirblich, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rabies virus (RABV) phosphoprotein P is a multifunctional protein: it plays an essential role in viral transcription and replication, and in addition, RABV P has been identified as an interferon antagonist. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen revealed that RABV P interacts with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The binding involved the 106-to-131 domain, corresponding to the dimerization domain of P and the C-terminal domain of FAK containing the proline-rich domains PRR2 and PRR3. The P-FAK interaction was confirmed in infected cells by coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization of FAK with P in Negri bodies. By alanine scanning, we identified a single mutation in the P protein that abolishes this interaction. The mutant virus containing a substitution of Ala for Arg in position 109 in P (P.R109A), which did not interact with FAK, is affected at a posttranscriptional step involving protein synthesis and viral RNA replication. Furthermore, FAK depletion inhibited viral protein expression in infected cells. This provides the first evidence of an interaction of RABV with FAK that positively regulates infection. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus exhibits a small genome that encodes a limited number of viral proteins. To maintain efficient virus replication, some of them are multifunctional, such as the phosphoprotein P. We and others have shown that P establishes complex networks of interactions with host cell components. These interactions have revealed much about the role of P and about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here, we identified another cellular partner of P, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Our data shed light on the implication of FAK in RABV infection and provide evidence that P-FAK interaction has a proviral function. PMID:25410852

  10. Localized Modeling of Biochemical and Flow Interactions during Cancer Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Julie; Gaskin, Byron; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng; Kunz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on one component of a larger research effort to develop a simulation tool to model populations of flowing cells. Specifically, in this study a local model of the biochemical interactions between circulating melanoma tumor cells (TC) and substrate adherent polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is developed. This model provides realistic three-dimensional distributions of bond formation and attendant attraction and repulsion forces that are consistent with the time dependent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) framework of the full system model which accounts local pressure, shear and repulsion forces. The resulting full dynamics model enables exploration of TC adhesion to adherent PMNs, which is a known participating mechanism in melanoma cell metastasis. The model defines the adhesion molecules present on the TC and PMN cell surfaces, and calculates their interactions as the melanoma cell flows past the PMN. Biochemical rates of reactions between individual molecules are determined based on their local properties. The melanoma cell in the model expresses ICAM-1 molecules on its surface, and the PMN expresses the β-2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. In this work the PMN is fixed to the substrate and is assumed fully rigid and of a prescribed shear-rate dependent shape obtained from micro-PIV experiments. The melanoma cell is transported with full six-degrees-of-freedom dynamics. Adhesion models, which represent the ability of molecules to bond and adhere the cells to each other, and repulsion models, which represent the various physical mechanisms of cellular repulsion, are incorporated with the CFD solver. All models are general enough to allow for future extensions, including arbitrary adhesion molecule types, and the ability to redefine the values of parameters to represent various cell types. The model presented in this study will be part of a clinical tool for development of personalized medical treatment programs. PMID:26366568

  11. Aquaporin 0 enhances gap junction coupling via its cell adhesion function and interaction with connexin 50.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jialu; Xu, Ji; Gu, Sumin; Nicholson, Bruce J; Jiang, Jean X

    2011-01-15

    Both connexin 50 (Cx50) and aquaporin 0 (AQP0) have important roles in lens development and homeostasis, and their mutations are associated with human congenital cataracts. We have previously shown that Cx50 directly interacts with AQP0. Here, we demonstrate the importance of the Cx50 intracellular loop (IL) domain in mediating the interaction with AQP0 in the lens in vivo. AQP0 significantly increased (~20-30%) the intercellular coupling and conductance of Cx50 gap junctions. However, this increase was not observed when the IL domain was replaced with those from other lens connexins. The Cx50-AQP0 interaction had no effect on Cx50 hemichannel function. A fusion protein containing three extracellular loop domains of AQP0 efficiently blocked the cell-to-cell adhesion of AQP0 and attenuated the stimulatory effect of AQP0 on Cx50 gap junction conductance. These data suggest that the specific interaction between Cx50 and AQP0 enhances the coupling of Cx50 gap junctions, but not hemichannels, through the cell adhesion function of AQP0. This result establishes a physiological role of AQP0 in the functional regulation of gap junction channels.

  12. The interaction of polyphenols with bilayers: conditions for increasing bilayer adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Huh, N W; Porter, N A; McIntosh, T J; Simon, S A

    1996-01-01

    Because proteins and other molecules with a high polyphenol content are commonly involved in adhesion processes, we are investigating the interactions between polyphenols and biological materials. A naturally occurring polyphenol that binds a variety of proteins and lipids is tannic acid (TA), which contains five digallic acid residues covalently linked to a central D-glucose. A previous study has shown that TA increases the adhesion between apposing phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers and over a very narrow concentration range collapses the interbilayer fluid space from about 15 A to 5 A. To determine the chemical requirements a polyphenolic molecule must possess to increase bilayer adhesion, we have synthesized several simpler TA analogs that vary in their size, shape, and number of gallic acid and hydroxyl groups. X-ray diffraction, absorbance, binding, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were used to investigate the interaction of these polyphenolic molecules with egg PC (EPC) and dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC) bilayers. Of these synthetic polyphenols, only penta-O-galloyl-alpha-D-glucose (PGG) was able to completely mimic the effects of TA by collapsing the interbilayer fluid space from 15 A to 5 A, decreasing the dipole potential by about 300 mV, increasing the transition enthalpy of DPPC liposomes, and inducing an interdigitated phase in DPPC. Binding studies indicated that the fluid space was reduced to 5 A at an EPC:PGG mole ratio of 5:1. We conclude that these polyphenols collapse the fluid space of PC bilayers because they 1) are amphipathic and partition into the bilayers interfacial region, 2) are long enough to span the interbilayer space, 3) contain several gallic acids distributed so that they can partition simultaneously into apposing bilayers, and 4) have sufficient gallic acid residues to interact with all lipid headgroups and cover the bilayer surface. Under these conditions we conclude that the polyphenols from interbilayer bridges. We

  13. Streptococcus suis Interactions with the Murine Macrophage Cell Line J774: Adhesion and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 is an important etiological agent of swine meningitis, and it is also a zoonotic agent. Since one hypothesis of the pathogenesis of S. suis infection is that bacteria enter the bloodstream and invade the meninges and other tissues in close association with mononuclear phagocytes, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of S. suis type 2 to adhere to macrophages. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was standardized to simply and accurately measure the rate of bacterial attachment to phagocytic cells. Results were confirmed by plate counting. Adhesion was dependent on bacterial concentration and incubation time and was not affected by cytochalasin pretreatment of macrophages. Inhibition studies showed that the sialic acid moiety of the S. suis capsule would be, at least in part, responsible for bacterial recognition by macrophages. Serum preopsonization of bacteria increased adhesion levels. Complement would be partially implicated in the serum-enhanced binding of S. suis to cells. Adhesion varied among different S. suis type 2 isolates. However, high bacterial concentrations of several isolates were cytotoxic for cells, and these cytotoxic effects correlated with suilysin production. Indeed, hemolytic strain supernatants, as well as purified suilysin, reproduced cytotoxic effects observed with live bacteria, and these effects were inhibited by cholesterol pretreatment. Bacterial adhesion and cytotoxicity were confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We hypothesize that attachment of bacteria to phagocytes could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. suis infection by allowing bacterial dissemination and causing a bacteremia and/or septicemia. This interaction could also be related to the activation of the host inflammatory response observed during meningitis. PMID:12117940

  14. Aire knockdown in medullary thymic epithelial cells affects Aire protein, deregulates cell adhesion genes and decreases thymocyte interaction.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Nicole; Assis, Amanda Freire; Cotrim-Sousa, Larissa Cotrim; Lopes, Gabriel Sarti; Mosella, Maritza Salas; Lima, Djalma Sousa; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that even a partial reduction of Aire mRNA levels by siRNA-induced Aire knockdown (Aire KD) has important consequences to medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire knockdown is sufficient to reduce Aire protein levels, impair its nuclear location, and cause an imbalance in large-scale gene expression, including genes that encode cell adhesion molecules. These genes drew our attention because adhesion molecules are implicated in the process of mTEC-thymocyte adhesion, which is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central self-tolerance. Accordingly, we consider the following: 1) mTECs contribute to the elimination of self-reactive thymocytes through adhesion; 2) Adhesion molecules play a crucial role during physical contact between these cells; and 3) Aire is an important transcriptional regulator in mTECs. However, its role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion remains unclear. Because Aire controls adhesion molecule genes, we hypothesized that the disruption of its expression could influence mTEC-thymocyte interaction. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine Aire(+) mTEC cell line as a model system to reproduce mTEC-thymocyte adhesion in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of the mTEC cell line revealed that Aire KD led to the down-modulation of more than 800 genes, including those encoding for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e., the extracellular matrix constituent Lama1, the CAM family adhesion molecules Vcam1 and Icam4, and those that encode peripheral tissue antigens. Thymocytes co-cultured with Aire KD mTECs had a significantly reduced capacity to adhere to these cells. This finding is the first direct evidence that Aire also plays a role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion. PMID:27505711

  15. Aire knockdown in medullary thymic epithelial cells affects Aire protein, deregulates cell adhesion genes and decreases thymocyte interaction.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Nicole; Assis, Amanda Freire; Cotrim-Sousa, Larissa Cotrim; Lopes, Gabriel Sarti; Mosella, Maritza Salas; Lima, Djalma Sousa; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that even a partial reduction of Aire mRNA levels by siRNA-induced Aire knockdown (Aire KD) has important consequences to medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire knockdown is sufficient to reduce Aire protein levels, impair its nuclear location, and cause an imbalance in large-scale gene expression, including genes that encode cell adhesion molecules. These genes drew our attention because adhesion molecules are implicated in the process of mTEC-thymocyte adhesion, which is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central self-tolerance. Accordingly, we consider the following: 1) mTECs contribute to the elimination of self-reactive thymocytes through adhesion; 2) Adhesion molecules play a crucial role during physical contact between these cells; and 3) Aire is an important transcriptional regulator in mTECs. However, its role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion remains unclear. Because Aire controls adhesion molecule genes, we hypothesized that the disruption of its expression could influence mTEC-thymocyte interaction. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine Aire(+) mTEC cell line as a model system to reproduce mTEC-thymocyte adhesion in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of the mTEC cell line revealed that Aire KD led to the down-modulation of more than 800 genes, including those encoding for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e., the extracellular matrix constituent Lama1, the CAM family adhesion molecules Vcam1 and Icam4, and those that encode peripheral tissue antigens. Thymocytes co-cultured with Aire KD mTECs had a significantly reduced capacity to adhere to these cells. This finding is the first direct evidence that Aire also plays a role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion.

  16. Hydrogel-colloid interfacial interactions: a study of tailored adhesion using optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Amir; Hill, Reghan J

    2016-08-21

    Dynamics of colloidal particles adhering to soft, deformable substrates, such as tissues, biofilms, and hydrogels play a key role in many biological and biomimetic processes. These processes, including, but not limited to colloid-based delivery, stitching, and sorting, involve microspheres exploring the vicinity of soft, sticky materials in which the colloidal dynamics are affected by the fluid environment (e.g., viscous coupling), inter-molecular interactions between the colloids and substrates (e.g., Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory), and the viscoelastic properties of contact region. To better understand colloidal dynamics at soft interfaces, an optical tweezers back-focal-plane interferometry apparatus was developed to register the transverse Brownian motion of a silica microsphere in the vicinity of polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel films. The time-dependent mean-squared displacements are well described by a single exponential relaxation, furnishing measures of the transverse interfacial diffusion coefficient and binding stiffness. Substrates with different elasticities were prepared by changing the PA crosslinking density, and the inter-molecular interactions were adjusted by coating the microspheres with fluid membranes. Stiffer PA hydrogels (with bulk Young's moduli ≈1-10 kPa) immobilize the microspheres more firmly (lower diffusion coefficient and position variance), and coating the particles with zwitterionic lipid bilayers (DOPC) completely eliminates adhesion, possibly by repulsive dispersion forces. Remarkably, embedding polyethylene glycol-grafted lipid bilayers (DSPE-PEG2k-Amine) in the zwitterionic fluid membranes produces stronger adhesion, possibly because of polymer-hydrogel attraction and entanglement. This study provides new insights to guide the design of nanoparticles and substrates with tunable adhesion, leading to smarter delivery, sorting, and screening of micro- and nano-systems. PMID:27425660

  17. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha interacts with laminin and functions as a pro-adhesive cytokine.

    PubMed

    Hershkoviz, R; Goldkorn, I; Lider, O

    1995-05-01

    Certain cytokines, chemokines and growth factors interact with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, in particular, sulphated polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Recently, we demonstrated that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), an inflammatory cytokine, can bind fibronectin (FN), a cell-adhesive glycoprotein of the ECM, and that TNF-alpha bound to FN enhances the binding of T cells to the glycoprotein. In the present study, we studied the interactions of TNF-alpha and laminin (LN), another glycoprotein present in basement membranes and extracellular matrices. 125I-labelled TNF-alpha was found to bind to immobilized LN, and more avidly to the E1 and P1 fragments of LN, which contain its integrin- and non-integrin-dependent cell-adhesive sites, suggesting that cryptic TNF-alpha-binding sites are exposed upon proteolytic fragmentation of LN by enzymes such as elastase or pepsin. The bound cytokine did not dissociate from the LN and its fragments during a 24-hr period, indicating that in vivo LN can serve to restrict TNF-alpha adjacent to inflammatory sites. The LN-associated TNF-alpha retained at least some of its biological activities, since both diffusible and, to a greater extent, LN-bound TNF-alpha elevated the beta 1-integrin-dependent adhesion to LN of phorbol ester-activated human CD4+ T cells. Thus, LN and TNF-alpha may act in concert to transmit synergistic activating signals to infiltrating leucocytes, and thereby regulate immune cell reactions in extravascular inflammatory tissue. PMID:7635514

  18. Differentiation of neuronal growth cones: specialization of filopodial tips for adhesive interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, H C; Lankford, K L; Klein, W L

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive contacts made by filopodia of developing neurons are important in neurite growth and in the formation of synaptic junctions. In the present work, filopodial interactions of cultured chicken retina neurons were studied by using video-enhanced contrast, differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy and the high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM). Use of the HVEM to examine whole mounts of fixed cells showed that filopodia in older cultures developed an appearance that might be expected of nascent synapses, becoming enlarged at their endings and accumulating organelles resembling synaptic vesicles. VEC-DIC microscopy, used to observe the motility and adhesive properties of filopodia in living cells, showed there was a particularly high affinity between filopodia tips. Contacting filopodia typically repositioned themselves so they could attach at a tip-to-tip position, occasionally bending as much as 90 degrees to achieve this preferred orientation. Interacting filopodia frequently remained together as they pushed or pulled on each other, moved laterally together, or stretched tightly and underwent intense vibratory movements. Such linked motility occurred even when apparent gaps existed between the filopodia. Examination of these gaps with the HVEM revealed filamentous structures linking the apposed membranes. The filamentous links were 10-13 nm in diameter and 30-100 nm long. Although it has not yet been established that the filaments reflect the native configuration of the interconnecting materials, the structures seem likely to be associated with the strongly adhesive behavior of the filopodial tips. The possible significance of these structural and functional properties of filopodia tips to axon growth and synapse formation is discussed. Images PMID:3865227

  19. Hydrogel-colloid interfacial interactions: a study of tailored adhesion using optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Amir; Hill, Reghan J

    2016-08-21

    Dynamics of colloidal particles adhering to soft, deformable substrates, such as tissues, biofilms, and hydrogels play a key role in many biological and biomimetic processes. These processes, including, but not limited to colloid-based delivery, stitching, and sorting, involve microspheres exploring the vicinity of soft, sticky materials in which the colloidal dynamics are affected by the fluid environment (e.g., viscous coupling), inter-molecular interactions between the colloids and substrates (e.g., Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory), and the viscoelastic properties of contact region. To better understand colloidal dynamics at soft interfaces, an optical tweezers back-focal-plane interferometry apparatus was developed to register the transverse Brownian motion of a silica microsphere in the vicinity of polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogel films. The time-dependent mean-squared displacements are well described by a single exponential relaxation, furnishing measures of the transverse interfacial diffusion coefficient and binding stiffness. Substrates with different elasticities were prepared by changing the PA crosslinking density, and the inter-molecular interactions were adjusted by coating the microspheres with fluid membranes. Stiffer PA hydrogels (with bulk Young's moduli ≈1-10 kPa) immobilize the microspheres more firmly (lower diffusion coefficient and position variance), and coating the particles with zwitterionic lipid bilayers (DOPC) completely eliminates adhesion, possibly by repulsive dispersion forces. Remarkably, embedding polyethylene glycol-grafted lipid bilayers (DSPE-PEG2k-Amine) in the zwitterionic fluid membranes produces stronger adhesion, possibly because of polymer-hydrogel attraction and entanglement. This study provides new insights to guide the design of nanoparticles and substrates with tunable adhesion, leading to smarter delivery, sorting, and screening of micro- and nano-systems.

  20. PAK–PIX interactions regulate adhesion dynamics and membrane protrusion to control neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Medina, Miguel; Gregus, Kelly A.; Gomez, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The roles of P21-activated kinase (PAK) in the regulation of axon outgrowth downstream of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are poorly understood. Here we show that PAK1–3 and PIX are expressed in the developing spinal cord and differentially localize to point contacts and filopodial tips within motile growth cones. Using a specific interfering peptide called PAK18, we found that axon outgrowth is robustly stimulated on laminin by partial inhibition of PAK–PIX interactions and PAK function, whereas complete inhibition of PAK function stalls axon outgrowth. Furthermore, modest inhibition of PAK–PIX stimulates the assembly and turnover of growth cone point contacts, whereas strong inhibition over-stabilizes adhesions. Point mutations within PAK confirm the importance of PIX binding. Together our data suggest that regulation of PAK–PIX interactions in growth cones controls neurite outgrowth by influencing the activity of several important mediators of actin filament polymerization and retrograde flow, as well as integrin-dependent adhesion to laminin. PMID:23321640

  1. A simple adhesion assay for studying interactions between platelets and endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian-Xiang; Gao, Xing-Hua; Pan, Rong; Lu, Dan; Dai, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays a key role during various physiological and pathological processes. Many studies have been performed to understand the interaction of platelets with endothelial cells (ECs) during the past decades. Modulation of their interaction has been shown to be therapeutically useful in thrombotic diseases. Some methods of labeling platelets such as counting and radiolabeling have been applied in the study of the platelets-ECs interaction, but these methods did not obtain full approval. A rapid, simple and sensitive assay for platelets-ECs interaction was developed in this paper. Platelets were labeled with Sudan Black B (SBB) before adding to confluent ECs monolayer. Non-adherent platelets were removed by washing with PBS. The adherent platelets were lysed with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the absorbance was recorded at 595 nm by spectrophotometer. A linear correlation was observed between the absorbance of SBB and the number of platelets. By employing the SBB method, the influence of heparin on platelets-ECs interactions was observed. Heparin (3-100 units/mL) obviously reduced platelets adhering to ECs in a concentration-dependent manner.

  2. Noncontact Adhesion and Mechanical Properties Characterization of Nano and Micro-Scale Structures Interacting with Elastic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi Vahdat, Armin

    At nano/micrometer scales, adhesion, a weak intermolecular interaction (van der Waals force), compared to several other type of forces often dominates the deformation and mechanics of nano/micro-scale structures. Accurate adhesion characterization of nano/micro-scale particles and thin-films (nm-scale) with various substrates is critically important in various industries. In semiconductor industries, understanding and characterizing particle-substrate adhesion bond and interfacial adhesion of thin films plays a critical role in fabricating defect-free structures. In this dissertation, ultrasonic-based techniques along with novel mathematical models are introduced to accurate adhesion energy characterization of nano/micro-scale particles and thin-films (Graphene layer is used as thin-film) in a non-contact manner. In the case of nano/micro-scale particles adhesion characterization, particle-substrate adhesion bond is characterized based on complex vibrational dynamics of micro-spherical particles on flat substrates subjected to ultrasonic base excitations. In the thin-films adhesion characterization case, the interfacial adhesion energy between thin films and various substrates is extracted based on the micro-spherical particles complex dynamics affected by the presence of thin-films on the vibrating substrates. Also in order to study the anisotropic adhesion properties and the rolling dynamic of nano/micro-scale particles as the most important dynamic in particle removal techniques, a novel non-contact manipulation/transport technique is introduced. In this technique, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) fields are employed to roll the particles on dry substrates in a non-contact manner in order to eliminate the inaccuracies and undesirable property modifications of contact-based techniques. Adhesion and mechanics of nano/micro-scale objects is affected by the viscoelastic properties of the contacting materials. Therefore, a novel and non-destructive technique along with a

  3. Interactions between multiple cell types in parallel microfluidic channels: monitoring platelet adhesion to an endothelium in the presence of an anti-adhesion drug.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chia-Jui; D'Amico Oblak, Teresa; Spence, Dana M

    2008-10-01

    A simple method for immobilizing endothelial cells in the channels of a microfluidic device fabricated with soft lithography is presented that requires no surface oxidation of the substrate material used in conjunction with the microfluidic device and is operable even with a reversible seal. Specifically, optimal conditions for culturing bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (bPAECs) to the surface of a Petri dish were investigated. The parameters investigated included fibronectin concentration, temperature, seeding density, and immobilization time. To enhance the utility of the device, all optimization studies, and studies involving platelet adhesion to the immobilized endothelium, were performed in parallel channels, thereby enabling improved throughput over a single channel device. The optimal conditions for cell immobilization included coating the Petri dish with 100 microg/mL fibronectin, a seeding cell density of 1.00 x 10(5) cells mL(-1), and an immobilization time of 90 min at 37 degrees C. The device was then employed to monitor the physical interaction (adhesion) of platelets to the immobilized endothelium in the presence of a known platelet activator (ADP) and a drug inhibitor of platelet activation. The number of platelets adhering to the endothelial cells in the channels increased from 17.0 +/- 2.3 in the absence of ADP to 63.2 +/- 2.4 in the presence of 5.00 microM ADP. Moreover, the data presented here also shows that inhibition of endothelium nitric oxide (NO) production, a recognized inhibitor of platelet adhesion to the endothelium, increased the number of platelets adhering to the surface to 35.4 +/- 1.0. In the presence of NO inhibition and 5.00 microM ADP, the affect on platelet adhesion was further increased to 127 +/- 5.2. Finally, this device was employed to investigate the effect of a drug known to inhibit platelet adhesion (clopidogrel) and, in the presence of the drug, the platelet adhesion due to activation by 5.00 microM ADP

  4. Neurite outgrowth of neuroblastoma cells: dependence on adhesion surface--cell surface interactions

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth of C 1300 neuroblastoma cells, which were dispersed from adherent cultures or grown in suspension, was studied on different protein-coated surfaces. Of 29 different surface structures studied, including surfaces treated with various fibronectins, lectins, glycosidases, or glycosyltransferases capable of stimulating fibroblast spreading, only the surfaces coated with plasma fibronectin or with a protein mixture secreted by C6 glioma cells displayed an extensive activity in the sprouting assay. Neurite outgrowth was inhibited by brain gangliosides and by colominic acid (a sialic acid polymer). A 50% inhibition of neurite outgrowth of N18 neuroblasts induced by the glioma cell proteins was observed at the following approximate concentration: 100 microM (0.2 mg/ml) GD1A ganglioside, 20 microM (0.04 mg/ml) GT1B ganglioside, and 5 mg/ml colominic acid. Specificity of inhibition was suggested by the finding that a few polyanionic substances tested were not inhibitory in the sprouting assay, and that the type of gangliosides inhibiting sprouting were found to be major sialoglycolipids of the neuroblasts. A hypothesis is discussed, according to which neurite outgrowth of neuroblasts is stimulated by adhesion involving interactions of the adhesion-mediating protein with cell surface carbohydrates characteristic of brain gangliosides. PMID:6699078

  5. Phosphomannosyl receptors may participate in the adhesive interaction between lymphocytes and high endothelial venules

    SciTech Connect

    Stoolman, L.M.; Tenforde, T.S.; Rosen, S.D.

    1984-10-01

    Normal and malignant lymphocytes can migrate from the bloodstream into lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. This process helps distribute normal lymphocytes throughout the lymphoid system and may provide a portal of entry for circulating malignant cells. An adhesive interaction between lymphocytes and the endothelium of postcapillary venules is the first step in the migratory process. The authors have recently shown that the simple sugars L-fucose and D-mannose, and an L-fucose-rich polysaccharide (fucoidin), can inhibit this adhesive interaction in vitro. The authors now report that mannose-6-phosphate, the structurally related sugar fructose-1-phosphate, and a phosphomannan, core polysaccharide from the yeast Hansenula holstii (PPME) are also potent inhibitors. Mannose-6-phosphate and fructose-1-phosphate were potent inhibitors of lymphocyte attachment (one-half maximal inhibition at 2-3 mM). Mannose-1-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate had slight inhibitory activity, while glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and galactose-6-phosphate had no significant activity (at 10 mM). In addition, the phosphomannan core polysaccharide was a potent inhibitor (one-half maximal inhibition at 10-20 ..mu..g/ml); dephosphorylation with alkaline phosphatase resulted in loss of its inhibitory activity. Preincubation of the lymphocytes, but not the lymph node frozen sections, with PPME resulted in persistent inhibition of binding. Neither the monosaccharides nor the polysaccharide suppressed protein synthesis nor decreased the viability of the lymphocytes. Furthermore, inhibitory activity did not correlate with an increase in negative charge on the lymphocyte surface (as measured by cellular electrophoresis). 27 references, 7 figures.

  6. Pressure sensitive microparticle adhesion through biomimicry of the pollen-stigma interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haisheng; Qu, Zihao; Meredith, J Carson

    2016-03-21

    Many soft biomimetic synthetic adhesives, optimized to support macroscopic masses (∼kg), have been inspired by geckos, insects and other animals. Far less work has investigated bioinspired adhesion that is tuned to micro- and nano-scale sizes and forces. However, such adhesive forces are extremely important in the adhesion of micro- and nanoparticles to surfaces, relevant to a wide range of industrial and biological systems. Pollens, whose adhesion is critical to plant reproduction, are an evolutionary-optimized system for biomimicry to engineer tunable adhesion between particles and micro-patterned soft matter surfaces. In addition, the adhesion of pollen particles is relevant to topics as varied as pollinator ecology, transport of allergens, and atmospheric phenomena. We report the first observation of structurally-derived pressure-sensitive adhesion of a microparticle by using the sunflower pollen and stigma surfaces as a model. This strong, pressure-sensitive adhesion results from interlocking between the pollen's conical spines and the stigma's receptive papillae. Inspired by this behavior, we fabricated synthetic polymeric patterned surfaces that mimic the stigma surface's receptivity to pollen. These soft mimics allow the magnitude of the pressure-sensitive response to be tuned by adjusting the size and spacing of surface features. These results provide an important new insight for soft material adhesion based on bio-inspired principles, namely that ornamented microparticles and micro-patterned surfaces can be designed with complementarity that enable a tunable, pressure-sensitive adhesion on the microparticle size and length scale.

  7. Pressure sensitive microparticle adhesion through biomimicry of the pollen-stigma interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haisheng; Qu, Zihao; Meredith, J Carson

    2016-03-21

    Many soft biomimetic synthetic adhesives, optimized to support macroscopic masses (∼kg), have been inspired by geckos, insects and other animals. Far less work has investigated bioinspired adhesion that is tuned to micro- and nano-scale sizes and forces. However, such adhesive forces are extremely important in the adhesion of micro- and nanoparticles to surfaces, relevant to a wide range of industrial and biological systems. Pollens, whose adhesion is critical to plant reproduction, are an evolutionary-optimized system for biomimicry to engineer tunable adhesion between particles and micro-patterned soft matter surfaces. In addition, the adhesion of pollen particles is relevant to topics as varied as pollinator ecology, transport of allergens, and atmospheric phenomena. We report the first observation of structurally-derived pressure-sensitive adhesion of a microparticle by using the sunflower pollen and stigma surfaces as a model. This strong, pressure-sensitive adhesion results from interlocking between the pollen's conical spines and the stigma's receptive papillae. Inspired by this behavior, we fabricated synthetic polymeric patterned surfaces that mimic the stigma surface's receptivity to pollen. These soft mimics allow the magnitude of the pressure-sensitive response to be tuned by adjusting the size and spacing of surface features. These results provide an important new insight for soft material adhesion based on bio-inspired principles, namely that ornamented microparticles and micro-patterned surfaces can be designed with complementarity that enable a tunable, pressure-sensitive adhesion on the microparticle size and length scale. PMID:26883733

  8. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression and functional role of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) was investigated. Tissue specimens were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=56) or chronic pancreatitis (CP; n=10), who underwent pancreatic resection, and from normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=10). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the localization and expression of ALCAM in pancreatic tissues. Subsequently, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to assess the expression of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, as well as in PSCs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure ALCAM levels in cell culture medium stimulated by hypoxia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor-β. Silencing of ALCAM was performed using ALCAM small interfering (si)RNA and immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the inhibition efficiency. An invasion assay and a cell interaction assay were performed to assess the invasive ability and co-cultured adhesive potential of Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, as well as PSCs. Histologically, ALCAM expression was generally weak or absent in pancreatic cancer cells, but was markedly upregulated in PSCs in pancreatic cancer tissues. ALCAM was highly expressed in PSCs from CP tissues and PSCs surrounding pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as in pancreatic cancer cells. ALCAM mRNA was highly expressed in PSCs, with a low to moderate expression in T3M4 and Panc-1 cells. Similar to the mRNA expression, immunoblotting demonstrated that ALCAM protein levels were high in PSCs and T3M4 cells, but low in Panc-1 cells. The expression of TNF-α increased, while hypoxia decreased the secretion of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc-1 and T3M4 cells, and also in

  9. Adhesion receptors involved in HSC and early-B cell interactions with bone marrow microenvironment.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, Maria; Lhoumeau, Anne-Catherine; Mancini, Stéphane J C; Aurrand-Lions, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoiesis takes place in the bone marrow of adult mammals and is the process by which blood cells are replenished every day throughout life. Differentiation of hematopoietic cells occurs in a stepwise manner through intermediates of differentiation that could be phenotypically identified. This has allowed establishing hematopoietic cell classification with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at the top of the hierarchy. HSCs are mostly quiescent and serve as a reservoir for maintenance of lifelong hematopoiesis. Over recent years, it has become increasingly clear that HSC quiescence is not only due to intrinsic properties, but is also mediated by cognate interactions between HSCs and surrounding cells within micro-anatomical sites called “niches”. This hematopoietic/stromal crosstalk model also applies to more mature progenitors such as B cell progenitors, which are thought to reside in distinct “niches”. This prompted many research teams to search for specific molecular mechanisms supporting leuko-stromal crosstalk in the bone marrow and acting at specific stage of differentiation to regulate hematopoietic homeostasis. Here, we review recent data on adhesion mechanisms involved in HSCs and B cell progenitors interactions with surrounding bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:26495446

  10. Interactions of CuO nanoparticles with the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa: adhesion, uptake, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Chenchen; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-11-01

    The potential adverse effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) have increasingly attracted attention. Combining electron microscopic and toxicological investigations, we determined the adhesion, uptake, and toxicity of CuO NPs to eukaryotic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. CuO NPs were toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 72 h EC50 of 45.7 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy showed that CuO NPs were attached onto the surface of the algal cells and interacted with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the organisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that EPS layer of algae was thickened by nearly 4-fold after CuO NPs exposure, suggesting a possible protective mechanism. In spite of the thickening of EPS layer, CuO NPs were still internalized by endocytosis and were stored in algal vacuoles. TEM and electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the internalized CuO NPs were transformed to Cu2O NPs (d-spacing, ∼0.213 nm) with an average size approximately 5 nm. The toxicity investigation demonstrated that severe membrane damage was observed after attachment of CuO NPs with algae. Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial depolarization were also noted upon exposure to CuO NPs. This work provides useful information on understanding the role of NPs-algae physical interactions in nanotoxicity.

  11. Interactions of CuO nanoparticles with the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa: adhesion, uptake, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Chenchen; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-11-01

    The potential adverse effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) have increasingly attracted attention. Combining electron microscopic and toxicological investigations, we determined the adhesion, uptake, and toxicity of CuO NPs to eukaryotic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. CuO NPs were toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 72 h EC50 of 45.7 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy showed that CuO NPs were attached onto the surface of the algal cells and interacted with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the organisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that EPS layer of algae was thickened by nearly 4-fold after CuO NPs exposure, suggesting a possible protective mechanism. In spite of the thickening of EPS layer, CuO NPs were still internalized by endocytosis and were stored in algal vacuoles. TEM and electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the internalized CuO NPs were transformed to Cu2O NPs (d-spacing, ∼0.213 nm) with an average size approximately 5 nm. The toxicity investigation demonstrated that severe membrane damage was observed after attachment of CuO NPs with algae. Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial depolarization were also noted upon exposure to CuO NPs. This work provides useful information on understanding the role of NPs-algae physical interactions in nanotoxicity. PMID:27345461

  12. An in vitro study on bacterial growth interactions and intestinal epithelial cell adhesion characteristics of probiotic combinations.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Mahta; Adams, Michelle Catherine

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine long-term growth interactions of five probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei 01, Lactobacillus plantarum HA8, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12) either alone or in combination with Propionibacterium jensenii 702 in a co-culture system and to determine their adhesion ability to human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Growth patterns of probiotic Lactobacillus strains were not considerably affected by the presence of P. jensenii 702, whereas lactobacilli exerted a strong antagonistic action against P. jensenii 702. In the co-culture of Bif. lactis Bb12 and P. jensenii 702, a significant synergistic influence on growth of both bacteria was observed (P < 0.05). The results of adhesion assay showed that when probiotic strains were tested in combination, there was evidence of an associated effect on percentage adherence. However, in most cases these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adhesion percentage of Lb. casei 01 and Lb. rhamnosus GG both decreased significantly in the presence of P. jensenii 702 compared to their adhesion levels when alone (P < 0.05). These results show that the survival and percentage adhesion of some probiotic strains may be influenced by the presence of other strains and this should be considered when formulating in the probiotic products. PMID:19949794

  13. Focal adhesion kinase regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Baotran; Huang, Grace; Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Previous microarray gene profiling study detected inverse regulation between expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and FAK, where down-regulation of FAK by siRNA in MCF-7 cells caused up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA level, and in contrast up-regulation of doxycyclin- induced FAK caused repression of TXNIP. In the present report, we show that overexpression of FAK in MCF-7 cells repressed TXNIP promoter activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) down-regulated endogenous FAK and up-regulated TXNIP protein level, and treatment with 5-FU decreased FAK protein expression and up-regulated TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. Moreover, silencing of FAK with siRNA increased TXNIP protein expression, while overexpression of FAK inhibited TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. In addition, treatment of DBTRG glioblastoma cells with FAK inhibitor Y15 increased TXNIP mRNA, decreased cancer cell viability and increased apoptosis. These results for the first time demonstrate FAK-regulated TXNIP expression which is important for apoptotic, survival and oxidative stress signaling pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23387972

  14. Polysialic Acid Directs Tumor Cell Growth by Controlling Heterophilic Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seidenfaden, Ralph; Krauter, Andrea; Schertzinger, Frank; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA), a carbohydrate polymer attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promotes neural plasticity and tumor malignancy, but its mode of action is controversial. Here we establish that PSA controls tumor cell growth and differentiation by interfering with NCAM signaling at cell-cell contacts. Interactions between cells with different PSA and NCAM expression profiles were initiated by enzymatic removal of PSA and by ectopic expression of NCAM or PSA-NCAM. Removal of PSA from the cell surface led to reduced proliferation and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), inducing enhanced survival and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Blocking with an NCAM-specific peptide prevented these effects. Combinatorial transinteraction studies with cells and membranes with different PSA and NCAM phenotypes revealed that heterophilic NCAM binding mimics the cellular responses to PSA removal. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PSA masks heterophilic NCAM signals, having a direct impact on tumor cell growth. This provides a mechanism for how PSA may promote the genesis and progression of highly aggressive PSA-NCAM-positive tumors. PMID:12897159

  15. Cell-type specific adhesive interactions of skeletal myoblasts with thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J C; Lawler, J

    1994-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that may play important roles in the morphogenesis and repair of skeletal muscle. To begin to explore the role of thrombospondin-1 in this tissue, we have examined the interactions of three rodent skeletal muscle cell lines, C2C12, G8, and H9c2, with platelet TSP-1. The cells secrete thrombospondin and incorporate it into the cell layer in a distribution distinct from that of fibronectin. Myoblasts attach and spread on fibronectin- or thrombospondin-coated substrates with similar time and concentration dependencies. Whereas cells adherent on fibronectin organize actin stress fibers, cells adherent on TSP-1 display prominent membrane ruffles and lamellae that contain radial actin microspikes. Attachment to thrombospondin-1 or the 140-kDa tryptic fragment is mediated by interactions with the type 1 repeats and the carboxy-terminal globular domain. Attachment is not inhibited by heparin, GRGDSP peptide, or VTCG peptide but is inhibited by chondroitin sulphate A. Integrins of the beta 1 or alpha V subgroups do not appear to be involved in myoblast attachment to TSP-1; instead, this process depends in part on cell surface chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. Whereas the central 70-kDa chymotryptic fragment of TSP-1 does not support myoblast attachment, the carboxy-terminal domain of TSP-1 expressed as a fusion protein in the bacterial expression vector, pGEX, supported myoblast attachment to 30% the level of intact TSP-1. Thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) is also present in skeletal muscle and a fusion protein containing the carboxy-terminal domain of TSP-4 also supported myoblast adhesion, although this protein was less active on a molar basis than the TSP-1 fusion protein. Thus, the carboxyterminal domain of TSP-1 appears to contain a primary attachment site for myoblasts, and this activity is present in a second member of the thrombospondin family. Images PMID:7519904

  16. Highly loaded interactive mixtures for dry powder inhalers: prediction of the adhesion capacity using surface energy and solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Wagner, K G; Dowe, U; Zadnik, J

    2005-05-01

    In order to correlate drug adhesion properties of a highly loaded interactive mixture for the use in dry powder inhalers with the surface energy and to establish a link to the solubility parameter, surface free energy was detected for micronized substances (salbutamol sulfate, salbutamol base, theophylline and alpha-lactose monohydrate) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Interactive mixtures with coarse crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier were prepared at loading levels from 7.5 to 20% (w/w) and analyzed with respect to their adhesion capacity (CA) using the air jet sieving method. Solubility parameters were taken from literature or calculated. As a result the CA was independent of the drug load and correlated linearly with volume specific surface energy interaction (SEIv) values of the adherents (R2 = 0.98498). A link between SEIv and the size normalized solubility parameter (delta(tot)/d50) was found. Consequently, plotting delta(tot)/d50 versus CA resulted also in a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.99140). Overall a powerful tool was established to judge and quantify adhesion properties of highly loaded interactive mixtures even for estimates in early preformulation at a time where just the molecular structure of the active ingredient is known.

  17. Drosophila Furrowed/Selectin is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule stabilizing Frizzled and intercellular interactions during PCP establishment

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Mei-Ling; Mlodzik, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Summary Establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in a tissue requires coordination of directional signals from cell to cell. It is thought that this is mediated by the core PCP factors, which include cell adhesion molecules. Here, we demonstrate that furrowed, the Drosophila Selectin, is required for PCP generation. Disruption of PCP in furrowed-deficient flies results from a primary defect in Fz levels and cell adhesion. Furrowed localizes at/near apical junctions, largely co-localizing with Frizzled and Flamingo (Fmi). It physically interacts with and stabilizes Frizzled, and further, it mediates intercellular Frizzled-Van Gogh (Vang)/Strabismus interactions, similarly to Fmi. Furrowed does so through a homophilic cell adhesion role that is distinct from its known carbohydrate-binding function described during vertebrate blood-cell/endothelial cell interactions. Importantly, the carbohydrate function is dispensable for PCP establishment. In vivo studies suggest that Furrowed functions partially redundantly with Fmi, mediating intercellular Frizzled-Vang interactions between neighboring cells. PMID:23973164

  18. A protein interaction map for cell-cell adhesion regulators identifies DUSP23 as a novel phosphatase for β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Lisa Leon; Ng, Mei Rosa; Sowa, Mathew E.; Selfors, Laura M.; White, Anne; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Singh, Pragya; Dhakal, Sabin; Harper, J. Wade; Brugge, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is central to morphogenesis and maintenance of epithelial cell state. We previously identified 27 candidate cell-cell adhesion regulatory proteins (CCARPs) whose down-regulation disrupts epithelial cell-cell adhesion during collective migration. Using a protein interaction mapping strategy, we found that 18 CCARPs link to core components of adherens junctions or desmosomes. We further mapped linkages between the CCARPs and other known cell-cell adhesion proteins, including hits from recent screens uncovering novel components of E-cadherin adhesions. Mechanistic studies of one novel CCARP which links to multiple cell-cell adhesion proteins, the phosphatase DUSP23, revealed that it promotes dephosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr 142 and enhances the interaction between α- and β-catenin. DUSP23 knockdown specifically diminished adhesion to E-cadherin without altering adhesion to fibronectin matrix proteins. Furthermore, DUSP23 knockdown produced “zipper-like” cell-cell adhesions, caused defects in transmission of polarization cues, and reduced coordination during collective migration. Thus, this study identifies multiple novel connections between proteins that regulate cell-cell interactions and provides evidence for a previously unrecognized role for DUSP23 in regulating E-cadherin adherens junctions through promoting the dephosphorylation of β-catenin. PMID:27255161

  19. Using surface interactions to tune adhesion and morphology in polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoo, Beverly Yoshiko

    Surface interactions govern physical behavior at polymer interfaces. The first part of this dissertation focuses on surface interactions and the adhesion between PET and gelatin, two surfaces that would not normally adhere with each other. However, by plasma-treating the PET, the two materials can be joined. The fracture energy of this PET/gelatin interface was measured using the asymmetric double cantilever beam (ACDB) technique and it was determined that increasing the treatment time and power of the plasma on PET increased the fracture energy of the interface. Additionally, due to the hydroscopic nature of gelatin, higher relative humidity during testing also increased the interfacial fracture energy. The second part of the dissertation examines surface interactions in polymer blends. Thermoplastic blends enjoy large-scale commercial appeal for both engineering and economic reasons. Blends can be tuned to improve various materials properties, such as elastic modulus or impact resistance. Although blends offer many advantageous benefits, the thermodynamics of these blends are not fully understood, since each particular blend has its own behavior and morphology based on processing conditions. Even more complicated morphologies could be obtained by adding filler particles. The main interest of this area of research is the formation of co-continuous morphologies by adding particles in a blend of two homopolymers. In our system, one of the homopolymers coated the particles. At very high particle concentrations, the colloidal particles facilitated the transport of aqueous solutions. This research explored the role of particle concentration in the blends, as well as the role of concentration of the homopolymer that wets the particles. In order to study the morphology and determine the percolation threshold, the resulting microstructures were imaged in real space using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal

  20. Methodologies for screening of bacteria-carbohydrate interactions: anti-adhesive milk oligosaccharides as a case study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jonathan A; Mariño, Karina; Rudd, Pauline M; Carrington, Stephen D; Slattery, Helen; Hickey, Rita M

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the capacity of glycan-based compounds to disrupt microbial binding to mucosal epithelia. Therefore, oligosaccharides have potential application in the prevention of certain bacterial diseases. However, current screening methods for the identification of anti-adhesive oligosaccharides have limitations: they are time-consuming and require large amounts of oligosaccharides. There is a need to develop analytical techniques which can quickly screen for, and structurally define, anti-adhesive oligosaccharides prior to using human cell line models of infection. Considering this, we have developed a rapid method for screening complex oligosaccharide mixtures for potential anti-adhesive activity against bacteria. Our approach involves the use of whole bacterial cells to "deplete" free oligosaccharides from solution. As a case study, the free oligosaccharides from the colostrum of Holstein Friesian cows were screened for interactions with whole Escherichia coli cells. Reductions in oligosaccharide concentrations were determined by High pH Anion Exchange Chromatography and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC-HPLC). Oligosaccharide structures were confirmed by a combination of HILIC-HPLC, exoglycosidase digestion and off-line negative ion mode MS/MS. The depletion assay confirmed selective bacterial interaction with certain bovine oligosaccharides which in previous studies, by other methodologies, had been shown to interact with E. coli. In particular, the bacterial cells depleted the following oligosaccharides in a population dependent manner: 3'-sialyllactose, disialyllactose, and 6'-sialyllactosamine. The assay methodology was further validated by studies in which we demonstrated the inhibitory activity of 3'-sialyllactose, and a mixture of bovine colostrum oligosaccharides, on E. coli adhesion to differentiated HT-29 cells. PMID:22507447

  1. Resolving Non-Specific and Specific Adhesive Interactions of Catechols at Solid/Liquid Interfaces at the Molecular Scale.

    PubMed

    Utzig, Thomas; Stock, Philipp; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-08-01

    The adhesive system of mussels evolved into a powerful and adaptive system with affinity to a wide range of surfaces. It is widely known that thereby 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) plays a central role. However underlying binding energies remain unknown at the single molecular scale. Here, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy to estimate binding energies of single catechols with a large range of opposing chemical functionalities. Our data demonstrate significant interactions of Dopa with all functionalities, yet most interactions fall within the medium-strong range of 10-20 kB T. Only bidentate binding to TiO2 surfaces exhibits a higher binding energy of 29 kB T. Our data also demonstrate at the single-molecule level that oxidized Dopa and amines exhibit interaction energies in the range of covalent bonds, confirming the important role of Dopa for cross-linking in the bulk mussel adhesive. We anticipate that our approach and data will further advance the understanding of biologic and technologic adhesives. PMID:27374053

  2. Rapid functional analysis in Xenopus oocytes of Po protein adhesive interactions.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Colma, D R

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a coupled Xenopus oocyte expression system for evaluating the functional effects of mutations in known or suspected adhesion molecules, which allows for a very rapid assessment of intercellular adhesion. As a model protein, we first used Protein zero (Po), an adhesion molecule that mediates self-adhesion of the Schwann cell plasma membrane to form compact myelin in the mammalian PNS. A wide variety of mutations in Po cause certain human peripheral neuropathies, such as the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1B and Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS). After wild-type Po mRNA is injected, the protein is synthesized and correctly targeted to the oocyte cell surface. When two oocytes are paired, wild-type Po redistributes and concentrates at the cell-cell apposition region, and by electron microscopy, the oocyte pairs show close cell-cell appositions and are devoid of the microvilli that are observed in uninjected oocyte pairs. These are hallmark features of highly adhesive cell:cell interfaces. Several point mutations in Po were engineered, corresponding to the molecular defects in the CMT type 1B or DSS. The proteins encoded by these mutations reached the cell surface but failed to concentrate at the oocyte interface. Po carrying a point mutation that is found in DSS is not targeted on the plasma membrane and fail to accumulate at the cell-cell contact site. PMID:11519730

  3. Interaction morphology and bond strength of nanofilled simplified-step adhesives to acid etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Reis, André Figueiredo; Mitra, Sumita B.; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of nanofillers incorporated into adhesives on the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) and interfacial micromorphology to dentin. Methods: The occlusal enamel of 5 human molars was removed and each tooth sectioned into four quarters. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond (SB-unfilled), OptiBond Solo Plus (OS-barium aluminoborosilicate, 400nm Ø), Prime & Bond NT (NT-colloidal silica, 7–40 nm Ø) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2-colloidal silica, 5nm Ø). Cylinders of resin-based composite were constructed on the adhesive layers. After 24-hour storage, the restored tooth-quadrants were sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens (0.8 mm2, cross-sectional area) and submitted to μ-TBS at a cross-speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = .05). Twenty-eight additional teeth were used for interfacial micro-morphologic analysis by SEM (16-teeth) and TEM (12-teeth). The dentin surfaces of 32 discs were treated with the adhesives (8 discs for adhesive) and laminated to form disc-pairs using a flowable resin composite for SEM/EDS analysis. For TEM, 90nm-thick nondemineralized unstained sections were processed. Results: SB2 showed significant higher bond strength than SB, OS and NT. The SEM/EDS and TEM analysis revealed nanofillers infiltrated within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer. Fillers were concentrated around patent tubular orifices and in the adhesive layer for OS and NT. Conclusion: The presence of nanofillers within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer suggests its importance in the improvement of the μ-TBS. PMID:23077413

  4. An investigation of adhesive/adherend and fiber/matrix interactions. Part B: SEM/ESCA analysis of fracture surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B.; Widyani, E.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesion was studied with emphasis on the characterization of surface oxide layers, the analysis of fracture surfaces, and the interaction of matrices and fibers. A number of surface features of the fractured lap shear samples were noted in the SEM photomicrographs including the beta phase alloy of the Ti 6-4 adherend, the imprint of the adherend on the adhesive failure surface, increased void density for high temperature samples, and the alumina filler particles. Interfacial failure of some of the fractured lap shear samples is invariably characterized by the appearance of an ESCA oxygen photopeak at 530.3 eV assigned to the surface oxide layer of Ti 6-4 adherend. The effect of grit blasting on carbon fiber composites is evident in the SEM analysis. A high surface fluorine concentration on the composite surface is reduced some ten fold by grit blasting.

  5. Interaction of mixed mode loading on cyclic debonding in adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Rezaizadeh, M. A.; Ramamurthy, G.

    1985-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of an adhesively-bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize the fracture mode dependence of cyclic debonding. The system studied consisted of graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 adhesive. Several types of specimens are tested which provide the cyclic debond growth rate measurements under various load conditions: mode 1, mixed mode 1 to 2, and mostly mode 2. This study shows that the total strain-energy-release rate is the governing factor for cyclic debonding.

  6. Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy study of physicochemical interaction between human dentin and etch-&-rinse adhesives in a simulated moist bond technique.

    PubMed

    Ubaldini, Adriana L M; Baesso, Mauro L; Sehn, Elizandra; Sato, Francielle; Benetti, Ana R; Pascotto, Renata C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide the physicochemical interactions at the interfaces between two commercial etch-&-rinse adhesives and human dentin in a simulated moist bond technique. Six dentin specimens were divided into two groups (n=3) according to the use of two different adhesive systems: (a) 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydrate (4-META), and (b) HEMA. The Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy was performed before and after dentin treatment with 37% phosphoric acid, with adhesive systems and also for the adhesive systems alone. Acid-conditioning resulted in a decalcification pattern. Adhesive treated spectra subtraction suggested the occurrence of chemical bonding to dentin expressed through modifications of the OH stretching peak (3340 cm(-1)) and symmetric CH stretching (2900 cm(-1)) for both adhesives spectra; a decrease of orthophosphate absorption band (1040 to 970 cm(-1)) for adhesive A and a better resolved complex band formation (1270 to 970 cm(-1)) for adhesive B were observed. These results suggested the occurrence of chemical bonding between sound human dentin and etch-&-rinse adhesives through a clinical typical condition.

  7. On the incompatibilities of interaction scales and processes with focus on the work of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2016-08-01

    The mutual compatibility of Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities (CED) and surface/interface tensions are evaluated. It is shown that the partial contributions (dispersive, Lifshitz-van der Waals, dipolar induction, dipolar orientation, polar, acid, base and hydrogen bond) to Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities and surface/interface tensions are mutually inconsistent. The published reference data for a single set of liquids is moreover shown to be exceedingly scattered; making the parallel use of these scales challenging. Reference processes designed for bringing two and three phases into mutual contact are conflicting. The two-phase processes within Hamaker and exchange energy density (EED) frameworks agree, but the three-phase models differ. As a free-standing parameter the EED is however comparable. The two-phase adhesion process is shown to be incompatible with the other contact processes and the three-phase adhesion process is opposite to them. One reason for this controversy is the different averaging of interfacial properties. While interfacial Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities are geometric averages of corresponding intervening phase properties, this practice is replaced by the work of adhesion being geometrically averaged as works of cohesion. As a result, there exist three conflicting models for the adhesion process: the Dupré work of adhesion, the Girifalco-Good geometric averaged works of cohesion and Fowkes reduced interfacial or interphasial tension process. None of these agree with the commonly accepted standard Hamaker contact processes and they should be replaced with the compatible extended work of adhesion process originally suggested by Dupré. The models offered for the conversion of Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities to surface tensions involve conversion factors and equilibrium distances between

  8. On the incompatibilities of interaction scales and processes with focus on the work of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2016-08-01

    The mutual compatibility of Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities (CED) and surface/interface tensions are evaluated. It is shown that the partial contributions (dispersive, Lifshitz-van der Waals, dipolar induction, dipolar orientation, polar, acid, base and hydrogen bond) to Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities and surface/interface tensions are mutually inconsistent. The published reference data for a single set of liquids is moreover shown to be exceedingly scattered; making the parallel use of these scales challenging. Reference processes designed for bringing two and three phases into mutual contact are conflicting. The two-phase processes within Hamaker and exchange energy density (EED) frameworks agree, but the three-phase models differ. As a free-standing parameter the EED is however comparable. The two-phase adhesion process is shown to be incompatible with the other contact processes and the three-phase adhesion process is opposite to them. One reason for this controversy is the different averaging of interfacial properties. While interfacial Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities are geometric averages of corresponding intervening phase properties, this practice is replaced by the work of adhesion being geometrically averaged as works of cohesion. As a result, there exist three conflicting models for the adhesion process: the Dupré work of adhesion, the Girifalco-Good geometric averaged works of cohesion and Fowkes reduced interfacial or interphasial tension process. None of these agree with the commonly accepted standard Hamaker contact processes and they should be replaced with the compatible extended work of adhesion process originally suggested by Dupré. The models offered for the conversion of Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities to surface tensions involve conversion factors and equilibrium distances between

  9. Lectin Receptor Kinases Participate in Protein-Protein Interactions to Mediate Plasma Membrane-Cell Wall Adhesions in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Gouget, Anne; Senchou, Virginie; Govers, Francine; Sanson, Arnaud; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Canut, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between plant cell walls and plasma membranes are essential for cells to function properly, but the molecules that mediate the structural continuity between wall and membrane are unknown. Some of these interactions, which are visualized upon tissue plasmolysis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), are disrupted by the RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) tripeptide sequence, a characteristic cell adhesion motif in mammals. In planta induced-O (IPI-O) is an RGD-containing protein from the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans that can disrupt cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through its RGD motif. To identify peptide sequences that specifically bind the RGD motif of the IPI-O protein and potentially play a role in receptor recognition, we screened a heptamer peptide library displayed in a filamentous phage and selected two peptides acting as inhibitors of the plasma membrane RGD-binding activity of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the two peptides also disrupted cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions. Sequence comparison of the RGD-binding peptides with the Arabidopsis proteome revealed 12 proteins containing amino acid sequences in their extracellular domains common with the two RGD-binding peptides. Eight belong to the receptor-like kinase family, four of which have a lectin-like extracellular domain. The lectin domain of one of these, At5g60300, recognized the RGD motif both in peptides and proteins. These results imply that lectin receptor kinases are involved in protein-protein interactions with RGD-containing proteins as potential ligands, and play a structural and signaling role at the plant cell surfaces. PMID:16361528

  10. Analysis of Phosphorylation-dependent Protein Interactions of Adhesion and Degranulation Promoting Adaptor Protein (ADAP) Reveals Novel Interaction Partners Required for Chemokine-directed T cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Kuropka, Benno; Witte, Amelie; Sticht, Jana; Waldt, Natalie; Majkut, Paul; Hackenberger, Christian P R; Schraven, Burkhart; Krause, Eberhard; Kliche, Stefanie; Freund, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stimulation of T cells leads to distinct changes of their adhesive and migratory properties. Signal propagation from activated receptors to integrins depends on scaffolding proteins such as the adhesion and degranulation promoting adaptor protein (ADAP)(1). Here we have comprehensively investigated the phosphotyrosine interactome of ADAP in T cells and define known and novel interaction partners of functional relevance. While most phosphosites reside in unstructured regions of the protein, thereby defining classical SH2 domain interaction sites for master regulators of T cell signaling such as SLP76, Fyn-kinase, and NCK, other binding events depend on structural context. Interaction proteomics using different ADAP constructs comprising most of the known phosphotyrosine motifs as well as the structured domains confirm that a distinct set of proteins is attracted by pY571 of ADAP, including the ζ-chain-associated protein kinase of 70 kDa (ZAP70). The interaction of ADAP and ZAP70 is inducible upon stimulation either of the T cell receptor (TCR) or by chemokine. NMR spectroscopy reveals that the N-terminal SH2 domains within a ZAP70-tandem-SH2 construct is the major site of interaction with phosphorylated ADAP-hSH3(N) and microscale thermophoresis (MST) indicates an intermediate binding affinity (Kd = 2.3 μm). Interestingly, although T cell receptor dependent events such as T cell/antigen presenting cell (APC) conjugate formation and adhesion are not affected by mutation of Y571, migration of T cells along a chemokine gradient is compromised. Thus, although most phospho-sites in ADAP are linked to T cell receptor related functions we have identified a unique phosphotyrosine that is solely required for chemokine induced T cell behavior.

  11. The interaction between Staphylococcus aureus SdrD and desmoglein 1 is important for adhesion to host cells

    PubMed Central

    Askarian, Fatemeh; Ajayi, Clement; Hanssen, Anne-Merethe; van Sorge, Nina M.; Pettersen, Ingvild; Diep, Dzung B.; Sollid, Johanna U. E.; Johannessen, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known as a frequent colonizer of the skin and mucosa. Among bacterial factors involved in colonization are adhesins such as the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). Serine aspartate repeat containing protein D (SdrD) is involved in adhesion to human squamous cells isolated from the nose. Here, we identify Desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) as a novel interaction partner for SdrD. Genetic deletion of sdrD in S. aureus NCTC8325-4 through allelic replacement resulted in decreased bacterial adherence to Dsg1- expressing HaCaT cells in vitro. Complementary gain-of-function was demonstrated by heterologous expression of SdrD in Lactococcus lactis, which increased adherence to HaCaT cells. Also ectopic expression of Dsg1 in HEK293 cells resulted in increased adherence of S. aureus NCTC8325-4 in vitro. Increased adherence of NCTC8325-4, compared to NCTC8325-4ΔsdrD, to the recombinant immobilized Dsg1 demonstrated direct interaction between SdrD and Dsg1. Specificity of SdrD interaction with Dsg1 was further verified using flow cytometry and confirmed binding of recombinant SdrD to HaCaT cells expressing Dsg1 on their surface. These data demonstrate that Dsg1 is a host ligand for SdrD. PMID:26924733

  12. The atomic nature of polymer-metal interactions in adhesion, friction and wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Adhesion experiments with polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyimide contacting tungsten indicate that the polymers bond chemically to the clean metal surface. Polymer chain fragments which transfer to the surface of tungsten in field ion microscopy adhesion studies are highly oriented. Auger emission spectroscopy of PTFE transfer films to various metal surfaces indicates that the PTFE is bonded to the metal surface via the carbon atom. With PTFE in sliding contact with different orientations of aluminum, metal orientation is found to influence surfaces in sliding. The lowest friction and least amount of surface damage is detected on the highest atomic density (111) plane. The friction process itself can initiate polymer film formation from simple organic molecules.

  13. Dual role of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM)/CD146 in lymphocyte endothelium interaction: MCAM/CD146 promotes rolling via microvilli induction in lymphocyte and is an endothelial adhesion receptor.

    PubMed

    Guezguez, Borhane; Vigneron, Pascale; Lamerant, Nathalie; Kieda, Claudine; Jaffredo, Thierry; Dunon, Dominique

    2007-11-15

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM)/CD146 is expressed as two isoforms differing by their cytoplasmic domain (MCAM long (MCAM-l) and MCAM short (MCAM-s)). MCAM being expressed by endothelial cells and activated T cells, we analyzed its involvement in lymphocyte trafficking. The NK cell line NKL1 was transfected by MCAM isoforms and submitted to adhesion on both the endothelial cell monolayer and recombinant molecules under shear stress. MCAM-l transfection reduced rolling velocity and increased NKL1 adhesion on the endothelial cell monolayer and VCAM-1. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that MCAM-l induced microvilli formation and extension. In contrast, MCAM short or mock transfection had no effect on adhesion of NKL1 cells and microvilli formation. As shown by mutagenesis, serine 32 of the MCAM-l cytoplasmic tail, belonging to a putative protein kinase C phosphorylation site, was necessary for MCAM-l-actin cytoskeleton interaction and microvilli induction. Accordingly, chelerythrine chloride, a protein kinase C inhibitor, abolished MCAM-l-induced microvilli and rolling of MCAM-l-transfected NKL1 cells. Inhibition of adhesion under shear stress by anti-MCAM Abs suggested that both lymphoid MCAM-l and endothelial MCAM were also directly involved in lymphocyte endothelium interaction. MCAM-l-transfected NKL1 and activated CD4 T cells adhered to rMCAM under shear stress whereas anti-MCAM Ab treatment inhibited this process. Taken together, these data establish that MCAM is involved in the initial steps of lymphocyte endothelium interaction. By promoting the rolling on the inflammation marker VCAM-1 via microvilli induction and displaying adhesion receptor activity involving possible homophilic MCAM-l-MCAM-l interactions, MCAM might be involved in the recruitment of activated T cells to inflammation sites.

  14. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure–function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin–matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. PMID:25168639

  15. Direct interaction of v-Src with the focal adhesion kinase mediated by the Src SH2 domain.

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Z; Chen, H C; Nowlen, J K; Taylor, S J; Shalloway, D; Guan, J L

    1994-01-01

    The recently described focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in signal transduction pathways initiated by cell adhesion receptor integrins and by neuropeptide growth factors. To examine the mechanisms by which FAK relays signals from the membrane to the cell interior, we carried out a series of experiments to detect potential FAK interactions with proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that are important intracellular signaling molecules. Using v-Src-transformed NIH3T3 cells, we showed that FAK was present in the immune-complex precipitated by anti-Src antibody, suggesting potential interaction of FAK with v-Src in vivo. We also showed potentially direct interaction of FAK with v-Src in vivo using the yeast two-hybrid system. Using recombinant FAK expressed in insect cells and bacterial fusion proteins containing Src SH2 domains, we showed direct binding of FAK to the Src SH2 domain but not to the SH3 domain in vitro. A kinase-defective mutant of FAK, which is not autophosphorylated, did not interact with the Src SH2 domain under the same conditions, suggesting the involvement of the FAK autophosphorylation sites. Treatment of FAK with a protein-tyrosine phosphatase decreased its binding to the Src SH2 domain, whereas autophosphorylation in vitro increased its binding. These results confirm the importance of FAK autophosphorylation sites in its interaction with SH2 domain-containing proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that FAK may mediate signal transduction events initiated on the cell surface by kinase activation and autophosphorylation that result in its binding to other key intracellular signaling molecules. Images PMID:8054685

  16. Functional Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Pili in Relation to Adhesion and Immunomodulatory Interactions with Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Claes, Ingmar; Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Marien, Eyra; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a probiotic with good survival capacity in the human gut, has well-documented adhesion properties and health effects. Recently, spaCBA-encoded pili that bind to human intestinal mucus were identified on its cell surface. Here, we report on the phenotypic analysis of a spaCBA pilus knockout mutant in comparison with the wild type and other adhesin mutants. The SpaCBA pilus of L. rhamnosus GG showed to be key for efficient adherence to the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line and biofilm formation. Moreover, the spaCBA mutant induces an elevated level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA in Caco-2 cells compared to the wild type, possibly involving an interaction of lipoteichoic acid with Toll-like receptor 2. In contrast, an L. rhamnosus GG mutant without exopolysaccharides but with an increased exposure of pili leads to the reduced expression of IL-8. Using Transwells to partition bacteria from Caco-2 cells, IL-8 induction is blocked completely regardless of whether wild-type or mutant L. rhamnosus GG cells are used. Taken together, our data suggest that L. rhamnosus GG SpaCBA pili, while promoting strong adhesive interactions with IECs, have a functional role in balancing IL-8 mRNA expression induced by surface molecules such as lipoteichoic acid. PMID:22020518

  17. Functional analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG pili in relation to adhesion and immunomodulatory interactions with intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lebeer, Sarah; Claes, Ingmar; Tytgat, Hanne L P; Verhoeven, Tine L A; Marien, Eyra; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; Vos, Willem M de; Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J De; Vanderleyden, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a probiotic with good survival capacity in the human gut, has well-documented adhesion properties and health effects. Recently, spaCBA-encoded pili that bind to human intestinal mucus were identified on its cell surface. Here, we report on the phenotypic analysis of a spaCBA pilus knockout mutant in comparison with the wild type and other adhesin mutants. The SpaCBA pilus of L. rhamnosus GG showed to be key for efficient adherence to the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line and biofilm formation. Moreover, the spaCBA mutant induces an elevated level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA in Caco-2 cells compared to the wild type, possibly involving an interaction of lipoteichoic acid with Toll-like receptor 2. In contrast, an L. rhamnosus GG mutant without exopolysaccharides but with an increased exposure of pili leads to the reduced expression of IL-8. Using Transwells to partition bacteria from Caco-2 cells, IL-8 induction is blocked completely regardless of whether wild-type or mutant L. rhamnosus GG cells are used. Taken together, our data suggest that L. rhamnosus GG SpaCBA pili, while promoting strong adhesive interactions with IECs, have a functional role in balancing IL-8 mRNA expression induced by surface molecules such as lipoteichoic acid.

  18. An investigation of adhesive/adherend and fiber/matrix interactions. Part A: Surface characterization of titanium dioxide, titantium and titanium 6% Al to 4% V powders: Interaction with water, hydrogen chloride and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siriwardane, R. V.; Wightman, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The titanium dioxide surface is discussed. Polymer adhesive are also discussed. Titanium powders are considered. Characterization techniques are also considered. Interactions with polymers, water vapor, and HCl are reported. Adsorbents are characterized.

  19. Structural basis for synaptic adhesion mediated by neuroligin-neurexin interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Heli; Shim, Ann H R; Focia, Pamela J; He, Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    The heterophilic synaptic adhesion molecules neuroligins and neurexins are essential for establishing and maintaining neuronal circuits by modulating the formation and maturation of synapses. The neuroligin-neurexin adhesion is Ca2+-dependent and regulated by alternative splicing. We report a structure of the complex at a resolution of 2.4 A between the mouse neuroligin-1 (NL1) cholinesterase-like domain and the mouse neurexin-1beta (NX1beta) LNS (laminin, neurexin and sex hormone-binding globulin-like) domain. The structure revealed a delicate neuroligin-neurexin assembly mediated by a hydrophilic, Ca2+-mediated and solvent-supplemented interface, rendering it capable of being modulated by alternative splicing and other regulatory factors. Thermodynamic data supported a mechanism wherein splicing site B of NL1 acts by modulating a salt bridge at the edge of the NL1-NX1beta interface. Mapping neuroligin mutations implicated in autism indicated that most such mutations are structurally destabilizing, supporting deficient neuroligin biosynthesis and processing as a common cause for this brain disorder.

  20. Control of shape and size of nanopillar assembly by adhesion-mediated elastocapillary interaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung H; Pokroy, Boaz; Mahadevan, L; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2010-11-23

    Control of self-organization of nanofibers into regular clusters upon evaporation-induced assembly is receiving increasing attention due to the potential importance of this process in a range of applications including particle trapping, adhesives, and structural color. Here we present a comprehensive study of this phenomenon using a periodic array of polymeric nanopillars with tunable parameters as a model system to study how geometry, mechanical properties, as well as surface properties influence capillary-induced self-organization. In particular, we show that varying the parameters of the building blocks of self-assembly provides us with a simple means of controlling the size, chirality, and anisotropy of complex structures. We observe that chiral assemblies can be generated within a narrow window for each parameter even in the absence of chiral building blocks or a chiral environment. Furthermore, introducing anisotropy in the building blocks provides a way to control both the chirality and the size of the assembly. While capillary-induced self-assembly has been studied and modeled as a quasi-static process involving the competition between only capillary and elastic forces, our results unequivocally show that both adhesion and kinetics are equally important in determining the final assembly. Our findings provide insight into how multiple parameters work together in capillary-induced self-assembly and provide us with a diverse set of options for fabricating a variety of nanostructures by self-assembly. PMID:21038896

  1. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges (Porifera): an ancestor cell-cell adhesion event based on the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Eduardo; Coutinho, Cristiano C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-08-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are ancient and simple eumetazoans. They constitute key organisms in the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals. We now demonstrated that pure sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges are responsible for the species-specific cell-cell interaction in these invertebrates. This conclusion was based on the following observations: (1) each species of marine sponge has a single population of sulfated polysaccharide, which differ among the species in their sugar composition and sulfate content; (2) sulfated polysaccharides from sponge interact with each other in a species-specific way, as indicated by an affinity chromatography assay, and this interaction requires calcium; (3) homologous, but not heterologous, sulfated polysaccharide inhibits aggregation of dissociated sponge cells; (4) we also observed a parallel between synthesis of the sulfated polysaccharide and formation of large aggregates of sponge cells, known as primmorphs. Once aggregation reached a plateau, the demand for the de novo synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides ceased. Heparin can mimic the homologous sulfated polysaccharide on the in vitro interaction and also as an inhibitor of aggregation of the dissociated sponge cells. However, this observation is not relevant for the biology of the sponge since heparin is not found in the invertebrate. In conclusion, marine sponges display an ancestor event of cell-cell adhesion, based on the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

  2. Exploring the interaction between human focal adhesion kinase and inhibitors: a molecular dynamic simulation and free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jiu-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Long; Wang, Yan; Li, Ye; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Zheng, Qing-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Focal adhesion kinase is an important target for the treatment of many kinds of cancers. Inhibitors of FAK are proposed to be the anticancer agents for multiple tumors. The interaction characteristic between FAK and its inhibitors is crucial to develop new inhibitors. In the present article, we used Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation method to explore the characteristic of interaction between FAK and three inhibitors (PHM16, TAE226, and ligand3). The MD simulation results together with MM-GB/SA calculations show that the combinations are enthalpy-driven process. Cys502 and Asp564 are both essential residues due to the hydrogen bond interactions with inhibitors, which was in good agreement with experimental data. Glu500 can form a non-classical hydrogen bond with each inhibitor. Arg426 can form electrostatic interactions with PHM16 and ligand3, while weaker with TAE226. The electronic static potential was employed, and we found that the ortho-position methoxy of TAE226 has a weaker negative charge than the meta-position one in PHM16 or ligand3. Ile428, Val436, Ala452, Val484, Leu501, Glu505, Glu506, Leu553, Gly563 Leu567, Ser568 are all crucial residues in hydrophobic interactions. The key residues in this work will be available for further inhibitor design of FAK and also give assistance to further research of cancer.

  3. Novel secreted isoform of adhesion molecule ICAM-4: Potential regulator of membrane-associated ICAM-4 interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Spring, Frances A.; Parons, Stephen F.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2003-02-18

    ICAM-4, a newly characterized adhesion molecule, is expressed early in human erythropoiesis and functions as a ligand for binding a4b1 and aV integrin-expressing cells. Within the bone marrow, erythroblasts surround central macrophages forming erythroblastic islands. Evidence suggests that these islands are highly specialized subcompartments where cell adhesion events, in concert with cytokines, play critical roles in regulating erythropoiesis and apoptosis. Since erythroblasts express a4b1 and ICAM-4 and macrophages exhibit aV, ICAM-4 is an attractive candidate for mediating cellular interactions within erythroblastic islands. To determine whether ICAM-4 binding properties are conserved across species, we first cloned and sequenced the murine homologue. The translated amino acid sequence showed 68 percent overall identity with human ICAM-4. Using recombinant murine ICAM-4 extracellular domains, we discovered that hematopoietic a4b1-expressing HEL cells and non-hematopoietic aV-expressing FLY cells adhered to mouse ICAM-4. Cell adhesion studies showed that FLY and HEL cells bound to mouse and human proteins with similar avidity. These data strongly suggest conservation of integrin-binding properties across species. Importantly, we characterized a novel second splice cDNA that would be predicted to encode an ICAM-4 isoform, lacking the membrane-spanning domain. Erythroblasts express both isoforms of ICAM-4. COS-7 cells transfected with GFP constructs of prototypic or novel ICAM-4 cDNA showed different cellular localization patterns. Moreover, analysis of tissue culture medium revealed that the novel ICAM-4 cDNA encodes a secreted protein. We postulate that secretion of this newly described isoform, ICAM-4S, may modulate binding of membrane-associated ICAM-4 and could thus play a critical regulatory role in erythroblast molecular attachments.

  4. Role of membrane glycoproteins in the interaction of blood platelets with the vessel wall--the study on platelet adhesion to in vitro cultured subendothelial matrix.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Y; Handa, M; Nagai, H; Kamata, T; Anbo, H; Kawano, K; Araki, Y; Yamamoto, M; Ikeda, Y; Watanabe, K

    1989-12-01

    Adhesion of platelets to the subendothelium is an essential step in hemostasis and thrombosis. Several receptors for adhesive macromolecules have been identified on platelets and are included in the integrin family. To clarify the role of platelet membrane glycoproteins in the interaction of platelets with the subendothelium, 51Cr-labeled platelet adhesion assay and antibody-blocking experiments were performed by using in vitro cultured subendothelium under the static condition. The platelet adhesion in this assay was inhibited by anti-GPIa (VLA-2), GPIc (VLA-5) and -GPIc'-(VLA-6) antibodies, while anti-GPIb and -GPIIb/IIIa antibodies had no effect. Platelets from the patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia could also attach to the subendothelium, whereas those from a patient whose platelets lacked GPIa failed to attach to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The monoclonal antibodies against fibronectin and laminin which recognized the cell binding domain of these molecules inhibited the platelet adhesion when they were pre-treated with ECM. Furthermore, antibody-blocking experiments revealed that the percent inhibition by the combination of anti-GPIa, -GPIc and -GPIc' antibodies used herein was approximately 75%. They did not completely inhibit the attachment. These results suggest that the interactions of collagen, fibronectin and laminin with their receptors on platelets are involved in the mechanism of platelet adhesion to subendothelium.

  5. Structure-based site-directed photo-crosslinking analyses of multimeric cell-adhesive interactions of voltage-gated sodium channel β subunits

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Haruko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Shoji, Shisako; Ishizuka-Katsura, Yoshiko; Tosaki, Asako; Oyama, Fumitaka; Terada, Takaho; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    The β1, β2, and β4 subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels reportedly function as cell adhesion molecules. The present crystallographic analysis of the β4 extracellular domain revealed an antiparallel arrangement of the β4 molecules in the crystal lattice. The interface between the two antiparallel β4 molecules is asymmetric, and results in a multimeric assembly. Structure-based mutagenesis and site-directed photo-crosslinking analyses of the β4-mediated cell-cell adhesion revealed that the interface between the antiparallel β4 molecules corresponds to that in the trans homophilic interaction for the multimeric assembly of β4 in cell-cell adhesion. This trans interaction mode is also employed in the β1-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, the β1 gene mutations associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) impaired the β1-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which should underlie the GEFS+ pathogenesis. Thus, the structural basis for the β-subunit-mediated cell-cell adhesion has been established. PMID:27216889

  6. Infection of orthopedic implants with emphasis on bacterial adhesion process and techniques used in studying bacterial-material interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Marta; Monteiro, Fernando J.; Ferraz, Maria P.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens in orthopedic implant infections and they are the principal causative agents of two major types of infection affecting bone: septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, which involve the inflammatory destruction of joint and bone. Bacterial adhesion is the first and most important step in implant infection. It is a complex process influenced by environmental factors, bacterial properties, material surface properties and by the presence of serum or tissue proteins. Properties of the substrate, such as chemical composition of the material, surface charge, hydrophobicity, surface roughness and the presence of specific proteins at the surface, are all thought to be important in the initial cell attachment process. The biofilm mode of growth of infecting bacteria on an implant surface protects the organisms from the host immune system and antibiotic therapy. The research for novel therapeutic strategies is incited by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This work will provide an overview of the mechanisms and factors involved in bacterial adhesion, the techniques that are currently being used studying bacterial-material interactions as well as provide insight into future directions in the field. PMID:23507884

  7. Dynamic and Static Interactions between p120 Catenin and E-Cadherin Regulate the Stability of Cell-Cell Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiyama, Noboru; Lee, Seung-Hye; Liu, Shuang; Li, Guang-Yao; Smith, Matthew J.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2010-04-26

    The association of p120 catenin (p120) with the juxtamembrane domain (JMD) of the cadherin cytoplasmic tail is critical for the surface stability of cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesion complexes. Here, we present the crystal structure of p120 isoform 4A in complex with the JMD core region (JMD{sub core}) of E-cadherin. The p120 armadillo repeat domain contains modular binding pockets that are complementary to electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the JMD{sub core}. Single-residue mutations within the JMD{sub core}-binding site of p120 abolished its interaction with E- and N-cadherins in vitro and in cultured cells. These mutations of p120 enabled us to clearly differentiate between N-cadherin-dependent and -independent steps of neuronal dendritic spine morphogenesis crucial for synapse development. NMR studies revealed that p120 regulates the stability of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion by associating with the majority of the JMD, including residues implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Hakai-dependent ubiquitination of E-cadherin, through its discrete dynamic and static binding sites.

  8. Raver1 Interactions with Vinculin and RNA Suggest a Feed-Forward Pathway in Directing mRNA to Focal Adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Hyuck; Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Yogesha, S.D.; Izard, Tina; Scripps

    2009-09-11

    The translational machinery of the cell relocalizes to focal adhesions following the activation of integrin receptors. This response allows for rapid, local production of components needed for adhesion complex assembly and signaling. Vinculin links focal adhesions to the actin cytoskeleton following its activation by integrin signaling, which severs intramolecular interactions of vinculin's head and tail (Vt) domains. Our vinculin:raver1 crystal structures and binding studies show that activated Vt selectively interacts with one of the three RNA recognition motifs of raver1, that the vinculin:raver1 complex binds to F-actin, and that raver1 binds selectively to RNA, including a sequence found in vinculin mRNA. Further, mutation of residues that mediate interaction of raver1 with vinculin abolish their colocalization in cells. These findings suggest a feed-forward model where vinculin activation at focal adhesions provides a scaffold for recruitment of raver1 and its mRNA cargo to facilitate the production of components of adhesion complexes.

  9. Nucleation theory with delayed interactions: An application to the early stages of the receptor-mediated adhesion/fusion kinetics of lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudino, Antonio; Pannuzzo, Martina

    2010-01-01

    A semiquantitative theory aimed to describe the adhesion kinetics between soft objects, such as living cells or vesicles, has been developed. When rigid bodies are considered, the adhesion kinetics is successfully described by the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) picture, where the energy profile of two approaching bodies is given by a two asymmetrical potential wells separated by a barrier. The transition probability from the long-distance to the short-distance minimum defines the adhesion rate. Conversely, soft bodies might follow a different pathway to reach the short-distance minimum: thermally excited fluctuations give rise to local protrusions connecting the approaching bodies. These transient adhesion sites are stabilized by short-range adhesion forces (e.g., ligand-receptor interactions between membranes brought at contact distance), while they are destabilized both by repulsive forces and by the elastic deformation energy. Above a critical area of the contact site, the adhesion forces prevail: the contact site grows in size until the complete adhesion of the two bodies inside a short-distance minimum is attained. This nucleation mechanism has been developed in the framework of a nonequilibrium Fokker-Planck picture by considering both the adhesive patch growth and dissolution processes. In addition, we also investigated the effect of the ligand-receptor pairing kinetics at the adhesion site in the time course of the patch expansion. The ratio between the ligand-receptor pairing kinetics and the expansion rate of the adhesion site is of paramount relevance in determining the overall nucleation rate. The theory enables one to self-consistently include both thermodynamics (energy barrier height) and dynamic (viscosity) parameters, giving rise in some limiting cases to simple analytical formulas. The model could be employed to rationalize fusion kinetics between vesicles, provided the short-range adhesion transition is the rate

  10. Progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB differentially contribute to breast cancer cell migration through interaction with focal adhesion kinase complexes.

    PubMed

    Bellance, Catherine; Khan, Junaid A; Meduri, Geri; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Lombès, Marc; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2013-05-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) and progestins affect mammary tumorigenesis; however, the relative contributions of PR isoforms A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively) in cancer cell migration remains elusive. By using a bi-inducible MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing PRA and/or PRB, we analyzed the effect of conditional PR isoform expression. Surprisingly, unliganded PRB but not PRA strongly enhanced cell migration as compared with PR(-) cells. 17,21-Dimethyl-19-norpregna-4,9-dien-3,20-dione (R5020) progestin limited this effect and was counteracted by the antagonist 11β-(4-dimethyl-amino)-phenyl-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486). Of importance, PRA coexpression potentiated PRB-mediated migration, whereas PRA alone was ineffective. PR isoforms differentially regulated expressions of major players of cell migration, such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, uPA receptor (uPAR), and β1-integrin, which affect focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Moreover, unliganded PRB but not PRA enhanced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and colocalized with activated FAK in cell protrusions. Because PRB, as well as PRA, coimmunoprecipitated with FAK, both isoforms can interact with FAK complexes, depending on their respective nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In addition, FAK degradation was coupled to R5020-dependent turnovers of PRA and PRB. Such an effect of PRB/PRA expression on FAK signaling might thus affect adhesion/motility, underscoring the implication of PR isoforms in breast cancer invasiveness and metastatic evolution with underlying therapeutic outcomes.

  11. Progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB differentially contribute to breast cancer cell migration through interaction with focal adhesion kinase complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bellance, Catherine; Khan, Junaid A.; Meduri, Geri; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Lombès, Marc; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) and progestins affect mammary tumorigenesis; however, the relative contributions of PR isoforms A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively) in cancer cell migration remains elusive. By using a bi-inducible MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing PRA and/or PRB, we analyzed the effect of conditional PR isoform expression. Surprisingly, unliganded PRB but not PRA strongly enhanced cell migration as compared with PR(–) cells. 17,21-Dimethyl-19-norpregna-4,9-dien-3,20-dione (R5020) progestin limited this effect and was counteracted by the antagonist 11β-(4-dimethyl­amino)­phenyl-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)­estra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486). Of importance, PRA coexpression potentiated PRB-mediated migration, whereas PRA alone was ineffective. PR isoforms differentially regulated expressions of major players of cell migration, such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, uPA receptor (uPAR), and β1-integrin, which affect focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Moreover, unliganded PRB but not PRA enhanced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and colocalized with activated FAK in cell protrusions. Because PRB, as well as PRA, coimmunoprecipitated with FAK, both isoforms can interact with FAK complexes, depending on their respective nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In addition, FAK degradation was coupled to R5020-dependent turnovers of PRA and PRB. Such an effect of PRB/PRA expression on FAK signaling might thus affect adhesion/motility, underscoring the implication of PR isoforms in breast cancer invasiveness and metastatic evolution with underlying therapeutic outcomes. PMID:23485561

  12. Fenretinide Perturbs Focal Adhesion Kinase in Premalignant and Malignant Human Oral Keratinocytes. Fenretinide’s chemopreventive mechanisms include ECM interactions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Byungdo B.; Li, Suyang; Tong, Meng; Holpuch, Andrew S.; Spinney, Richard; Wang, Daren; Border, Michael B.; Liu, Zhongfa; Sarode, Sachin; Pei, Ping; Schwendeman, Steven; Mallery, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane-associated protein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), modulates cell-extracellular matrix interactions and also conveys pro-survival and proliferative signals. Notably, increased intraepithelial FAK levels accompany transformation of premalignant oral intraepithelial neoplasia (OIN) to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OIN chemoprevention is a patient-centric, optimal strategy to prevent OSCC’s co-morbidities and mortality. The cancer chemopreventive and synthetic vitamin A derivative, fenretinide, has demonstrated protein-binding capacities e.g. mTOR and retinol binding protein interactions. These studies employed a continuum of human oral keratinocytes (normal-HPV E6/E7-transduced-OSCC) to assess potential fenretinide-FAK drug protein interactions and functional consequences on cellular growth regulation and motility. Molecular modeling studies demonstrated fenretinide has ~200-fold greater binding affinity relative to the natural ligand (ATP) at FAK’s kinase domain. Fenretinide also shows intermediate binding at FAK’s FERM domain and interacts at the ATP-binding site of the closest FAK analogue, Pyk2. Fenretinide significantly suppressed proliferation via induction of apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle blockade. Fenretinide-treated cells also demonstrated F-actin disruption, significant inhibition of both directed migration and invasion of a synthetic basement membrane, and decreased phosphorylation of growth-promoting kinases. A commercially available FAK inhibitor did not suppress cell invasion. Notably, while FAK’s FERM domain directs cell invasion, FAK inhibitors target the kinase domain. In addition, FAK-specific siRNA treated cells showed an intermediate cell migration capacity; data which suggest co-contribution of the established migrating-enhancing Pyk2. Our data imply that fenretinide is uniquely capable of disrupting FAK’s and Pyk2’s pro-survival and mobility-enhancing effects and further extend fenretinide’s chemopreventive

  13. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M.; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Summary The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell–cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar– or Vrp1–WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation. PMID:22992459

  14. Dock mediates Scar- and WASp-dependent actin polymerization through interaction with cell adhesion molecules in founder cells and fusion-competent myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kaipa, Balasankara Reddy; Shao, Huanjie; Schäfer, Gritt; Trinkewitz, Tatjana; Groth, Verena; Liu, Jianqi; Beck, Lothar; Bogdan, Sven; Abmayr, Susan M; Önel, Susanne-Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of fusion in FCMs, and a thin sheath of actin in FCs and/or growing muscles. The formation of these actin structures depends on recognition and adhesion of myoblasts that is mediated by cell surface receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. However, the connection of the cell surface receptors with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization is poorly understood. To date only the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Crk has been suggested to link cell adhesion with Arp2/3-based actin polymerization in FCMs. Here, we propose that the SH2-SH3 adaptor protein Dock, like Crk, links cell adhesion with actin polymerization. We show that Dock is expressed in FCs and FCMs and colocalizes with the cell adhesion proteins Sns and Duf at cell-cell contact points. Biochemical data in this study indicate that different domains of Dock are involved in binding the cell adhesion molecules Duf, Rst, Sns and Hbs. We emphasize the importance of these interactions by quantifying the enhanced myoblast fusion defects in duf dock, sns dock and hbs dock double mutants. Additionally, we show that Dock interacts biochemically and genetically with Drosophila Scar, Vrp1 and WASp. Based on these data, we propose that Dock links cell adhesion in FCs and FCMs with either Scar- or Vrp1-WASp-dependent Arp2/3 activation.

  15. An investigation of adhesive/adherend and fiber matrix interactions. [Ti 6-4 surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B.; Siriwardane, R.; Wightman, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Research during the report period focused on continued scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of lap shear samples and flatwise tensile specimens and on the surface characterization of TiO2, Ti 6-4, and Ti powders with particular emphasis on their interaction with primer solutions of both polyphenylquinoxaline and LaRC-13 polyimide. The use of SEM and XPS in the analysis of Ti 6-4 adherend surfaces is described as well as differences in Ti 6-4 surface composition after different chemical pretreatments. Analysis of fractured surfaces is used to established the failure mode. The surface acidity of Ti 6-4 coupons can be established by reflectance visible spectroscopy using indicator dyes.

  16. Dynein interacts with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM180) to tether dynamic microtubules and maintain synaptic density in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Perlson, Eran; Hendricks, Adam G; Lazarus, Jacob E; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Gradus, Tal; Tokito, Mariko; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2013-09-27

    Cytoplasmic dynein is well characterized as an organelle motor, but dynein also acts to tether and stabilize dynamic microtubule plus-ends in vitro. Here we identify a novel and direct interaction between dynein and the 180-kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Optical trapping experiments indicate that dynein bound to beads via the NCAM180 interaction domain can tether projecting microtubule plus-ends. Live cell assays indicate that the NCAM180-dependent recruitment of dynein to the cortex leads to the selective stabilization of microtubules projecting to NCAM180 patches at the cell periphery. The dynein-NCAM180 interaction also enhances cell-cell adhesion in heterologous cell assays. Dynein and NCAM180 co-precipitate from mouse brain extract and from synaptosomal fractions, consistent with an endogenous interaction in neurons. Thus, we examined microtubule dynamics and synaptic density in primary cortical neurons. We find that depletion of NCAM, inhibition of the dynein-NCAM180 interaction, or dampening of microtubule dynamics with low dose nocodazole all result in significantly decreased in synaptic density. Based on these observations, we propose a working model for the role of dynein at the synapse, in which the anchoring of the motor to the cortex via binding to an adhesion molecule mediates the tethering of dynamic microtubule plus-ends to potentiate synaptic stabilization.

  17. Interaction of alpha-actinin with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex via alpha-catenin

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cadherins are Ca(2+)-dependent, cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion. Extracellularly, transmembrane cadherins such as E- , P-, and N-cadherin self-associate, while intracellularly they interact indirectly with the actin-based cytoskeleton. Several intracellular proteins termed catenins, including alpha-catenin, beta- catenin, and plakoglobin, are tightly associated with these cadherins and serve to link them to the cytoskeleton. Here, we present evidence that in fibroblasts alpha-actinin, but not vinculin, colocalizes extensively with the N-cadherin/catenin complex. This is in contrast to epithelial cells where both cytoskeletal proteins colocalize extensively with E-cadherin and catenins. We further show that alpha- actinin, but not vinculin, coimmunoprecipitates specifically with alpha- and beta-catenin from N- and E-cadherin-expressing cells, but only if alpha-catenin is present. Moreover, we show that alpha-actinin coimmunoprecipitates with the N-cadherin/catenin complex in an actin- independent manner. We therefore propose that cadherin/catenin complexes are linked to the actin cytoskeleton via a direct association between alpha-actinin and alpha-catenin. PMID:7790378

  18. Anabolic androgens affect the competitive interactions in cell migration and adhesion between normal mouse urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chen, Chi-Cheng; Hung, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Chang, Chawnshang; Shyr, Chih-Rong

    2014-09-26

    The urothelium is constantly rebuilt by normal urothelial cells to regenerate damaged tissues caused by stimuli in urine. However, the urothelial carcinoma cells expand the territory by aberrant growth of tumor cells, which migrate and occupy the damaged tissues to spread outside and disrupt the normal cells and organized tissues and form a tumor. Therefore, the interaction between normal urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells affect the initiation and progression of urothelial tumors if normal urothelial cells fail to migrate and adhere to the damages sites to regenerate the tissues. Here, comparing normal murine urothelial cells with murine urothelial carcinoma cells (MBT-2), we found that normal cells had less migration ability than carcinoma cells. And in our co-culture system we found that carcinoma cells had propensity migrating toward normal urothelial cells and carcinoma cells had more advantages to adhere than normal cells. To reverse this condition, we used anabolic androgen, dihyrotestosterone (DHT) to treat normal cells and found that DHT treatment increased the migration ability of normal urothelial cells toward carcinoma cells and the adhesion capacity in competition with carcinoma cells. This study provides the base of a novel therapeutic approach by using anabolic hormone-enforced normal urothelial cells to regenerate the damage urothelium and defend against the occupancy of carcinoma cells to thwart cancer development and recurrence.

  19. Multicomponent adhesive hard sphere models and short-ranged attractive interactions in colloidal or micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzillo, Domenico; Giacometti, Achille; Fantoni, Riccardo; Sollich, Peter

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the dependence of the stickiness parameters tij=1/(12τij) —where the τij are the conventional Baxter parameters—on the solute diameters σi and σj in multicomponent sticky hard sphere (SHS) models for fluid mixtures of mesoscopic neutral particles. A variety of simple but realistic interaction potentials, utilized in the literature to model short-ranged attractions present in real solutions of colloids or reverse micelles, is reviewed. We consider: (i) van der Waals attractions, (ii) hard-sphere-depletion forces, (iii) polymer-coated colloids, and (iv) solvation effects (in particular hydrophobic bonding and attractions between reverse micelles of water-in-oil microemulsions). We map each of these potentials onto an equivalent SHS model by requiring the equality of the second virial coefficients. The main finding is that, for most of the potentials considered, the size-dependence of tij(T,σi,σj) can be approximated by essentially the same expression, i.e., a simple polynomial in the variable σiσj/σij2 , with coefficients depending on the temperature T , or—for depletion interactions—on the packing fraction η0 of the depletant particles.

  20. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection.

  1. Folliculin, the product of the Birt-Hogg-Dube tumor suppressor gene, interacts with the adherens junction protein p0071 to regulate cell-cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Medvetz, Doug A; Khabibullin, Damir; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Ongusaha, Pat P; Goncharova, Elena A; Schlechter, Tanja; Darling, Thomas N; Hofmann, Ilse; Krymskaya, Vera P; Liao, James K; Huang, Hayden; Henske, Elizabeth P

    2012-01-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) is a tumor suppressor gene syndrome associated with fibrofolliculomas, cystic lung disease, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. In seeking to elucidate the pathogenesis of BHD, we discovered a physical interaction between folliculin (FLCN), the protein product of the BHD gene, and p0071, an armadillo repeat containing protein that localizes to the cytoplasm and to adherens junctions. Adherens junctions are one of the three cell-cell junctions that are essential to the establishment and maintenance of the cellular architecture of all epithelial tissues. Surprisingly, we found that downregulation of FLCN leads to increased cell-cell adhesion in functional cell-based assays and disruption of cell polarity in a three-dimensional lumen-forming assay, both of which are phenocopied by downregulation of p0071. These data indicate that the FLCN-p0071 protein complex is a negative regulator of cell-cell adhesion. We also found that FLCN positively regulates RhoA activity and Rho-associated kinase activity, consistent with the only known function of p0071. Finally, to examine the role of Flcn loss on cell-cell adhesion in vivo, we utilized keratin-14 cre-recombinase (K14-cre) to inactivate Flcn in the mouse epidermis. The K14-Cre-Bhd(flox/flox) mice have striking delays in eyelid opening, wavy fur, hair loss, and epidermal hyperplasia with increased levels of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. These data support a model in which dysregulation of the FLCN-p0071 interaction leads to alterations in cell adhesion, cell polarity, and RhoA signaling, with broad implications for the role of cell-cell adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of human disease, including emphysema and renal cell carcinoma. PMID:23139756

  2. Interaction with glycosaminoglycans is required for cyclophilin B to trigger integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes to extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Allain, Fabrice; Vanpouille, Christophe; Carpentier, Mathieu; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Durieux, Sandrine; Spik, Geneviève

    2002-03-01

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are cyclosporin A-binding proteins that are involved in inflammatory events. We have reported that CyPB interacts with two types of cell-surface-binding sites. The first site corresponds to a functional receptor and requires interaction with the central core of CyPB. This region is highly conserved in cyclophilins, suggesting that CyPA and CyPB might share biological activities mediated by interaction with this receptor. The second site is identified with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the binding region located in the N terminus of CyPB. The difference in the N-terminal extensions of CyPA and CyPB suggests that a unique interaction with GAGs might account for selective activity of CyPB. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed the lymphocyte responses triggered by CyPA, CyPB, and CyPB(KKK-), a mutant unable to interact with GAGs. The three ligands seemed capable enough to elicit calcium signal and chemotaxis by binding to the same signaling receptor. In contrast, only CyPB enhanced firm adhesion of T cells to the extracellular matrix. This activity depended on the interactions with GAGs and signaling receptor. CyPB-mediated adhesion required CD147 presumably because it was a costimulatory molecule and was related to an activation of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins. Finally, we showed that CyPB was capable mainly to enhance T cell adhesion of the CD4+CD45RO+ subset. The present data indicate that CyPB rather than CyPA is a proinflammatory factor for T lymphocytes and highlight the crucial role of CyPB-GAG interaction in the chemokine-like activity of this protein.

  3. Surface molecules regulating rolling and adhesion to endothelium of neutrophil granulocytes and MDA-MB-468 breast carcinoma cells and their interaction.

    PubMed

    Strell, C; Lang, K; Niggemann, B; Zaenker, K S; Entschladen, F

    2007-12-01

    The extravasation of leukocytes and tumor cells is a multi-step process with the involvement of various adhesion molecules depending on the three steps rolling, adhesion, and diapedesis. We have developed an in vitro model, by which we investigated the rolling and adhesion of neutrophil granulocytes and MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells to lung endothelial cells under physiological flow-conditions. We found that norepinephrine had an inhibitory function on the fMLP-promoted adhesion of neutrophil granulocytes due to a down-regulation of beta2-integrin. Furthermore, neutrophil granulocytes serve as linking cells for the interaction of the MDA-MB-468 cells with the endothelium, which are both beta2-integrin negative, but express the beta2-integrin ligand ICAM-1. In addition, we show here that N-cadherin is up-regulated on the endothelial cells and on neutrophil granulocytes in response to fMLP. This up-regulation resulted in a significant increase of adherent MDA-MB-468 cells, which are also N-cadherin positive.

  4. The Interaction Affinity between Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4) Analyzed by Quantitative FRET

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Han; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), a member of integrin superfamily, interacts with its major counter ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and plays an important role in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and immunological synapse formation. However, irregular expressions of these proteins may also lead to several autoimmune diseases and metastasis cancer. Thus, quantifying the interaction affinity of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction is of fundamental importance in further understanding the nature of this interaction and drug discovery. In this study, we report an ‘in solution’ steady state organic fluorophore based quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay to quantify this interaction in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd). We have used, in our FRET assay, the Alexa Fluor 488-VLA-4 conjugate as the donor, and Alexa Fluor 546-VCAM-1 as the acceptor. From the FRET signal analysis, Kd of this interaction was determined to be 41.82 ± 2.36 nM. To further confirm our estimation, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique to obtain Kd = 39.60 ± 1.78 nM, which is in good agreement with the result obtained by FRET. This is the first reported work which applies organic fluorophore based ‘in solution’ simple quantitative FRET assay to obtain the dissociation constant of the VCAM-1/VLA-4 interaction, and is also the first quantification of this interaction. Moreover, the value of Kd can serve as an indicator of abnormal protein-protein interactions; hence, this assay can potentially be further developed into a drug screening platform of VLA-4/VCAM-1 as well as other protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25793408

  5. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  6. The FAK–Arp2/3 interaction promotes leading edge advance and haptosensing by coupling nascent adhesions to lamellipodia actin

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Vinay; Fischer, R. S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is initiated in response to biochemical or physical cues in the environment that promote actin-mediated lamellipodial protrusion followed by the formation of nascent integrin adhesions (NAs) within the protrusion to drive leading edge advance. Although FAK is known to be required for cell migration through effects on focal adhesions, its role in NA formation and lamellipodial dynamics is unclear. Live-cell microscopy of FAK−/− cells with expression of phosphorylation deficient or a FERM-domain mutant deficient in Arp2/3 binding revealed a requirement for FAK in promoting the dense formation, transient stabilization, and timely turnover of NA within lamellipodia to couple actin-driven protrusion to adhesion and advance of the leading edge. Phosphorylation on Y397 of FAK promotes dense NA formation but is dispensable for transient NA stabilization and leading edge advance. In contrast, transient NA stabilization and advance of the cell edge requires FAK–Arp2/3 interaction, which promotes Arp2/3 localization to NA and reduces FAK activity. Haptosensing of extracellular matrix (ECM) concentration during migration requires the interaction between FAK and Arp2/3, whereas FAK phosphorylation modulates mechanosensing of ECM stiffness during spreading. Taken together, our results show that mechanistically separable functions of FAK in NA are required for cells to distinguish distinct properties of their environment during migration. PMID:26842895

  7. FRET Based Quantification and Screening Technology Platform for the Interactions of Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) with InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Núñez, David; Hu, Shih-Yang; Domingo, María Pilar; Pardo, Julian; Karmenyan, Artashes; Chiou, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple ‘in solution’ steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd) of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc) as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.93±1.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. PMID:25032811

  8. Moesin Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Region of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3 and Is Redistributed to the Uropod of T Lymphocytes during Cell Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Serrador, Juan M.; Alonso-Lebrero, José L.; Pozo, Miguel A. del; Furthmayr, Heinz; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Calvo, Javier; Lozano, Francisco; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    During activation, T lymphocytes become motile cells, switching from a spherical to a polarized shape. Chemokines and other chemotactic cytokines induce lymphocyte polarization with the formation of a uropod in the rear pole, where the adhesion receptors intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-3, and CD44 redistribute. We have investigated membrane–cytoskeleton interactions that play a key role in the redistribution of adhesion receptors to the uropod. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the ERM proteins radixin and moesin localized to the uropod of human T lymphoblasts treated with the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted), a polarization-inducing agent; radixin colocalized with arrays of myosin II at the neck of the uropods, whereas moesin decorated the most distal part of the uropod and colocalized with ICAM-1, ICAM-3, and CD44 molecules. Two other cytoskeletal proteins, β-actin and α-tubulin, clustered at the cell leading edge and uropod, respectively, of polarized lymphocytes. Biochemical analysis showed that moesin coimmunoprecipitates with ICAM-3 in T lymphoblasts stimulated with either RANTES or the polarization- inducing anti–ICAM-3 HP2/19 mAb, as well as in the constitutively polarized T cell line HSB-2. In addition, moesin is associated with CD44, but not with ICAM-1, in polarized T lymphocytes. A correlation between the degree of moesin–ICAM-3 interaction and cell polarization was found as determined by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis done in parallel. The moesin–ICAM-3 interaction was specifically mediated by the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-3 as revealed by precipitation of moesin with a GST fusion protein containing the ICAM-3 cytoplasmic tail from metabolically labeled Jurkat T cell lysates. The interaction of moesin with ICAM-3 was greatly diminished when RANTES-stimulated T lymphoblasts were pretreated with the myosin-disrupting drug butanedione monoxime, which

  9. Synthesis of Cell-Adhesive Anisotropic Multifunctional Particles by Stop Flow Lithography and Streptavidin-Biotin Interactions.

    PubMed

    Bong, Ki Wan; Kim, Jae Jung; Cho, Hansang; Lim, Eugene; Doyle, Patrick S; Irimia, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Cell-adhesive particles are of significant interest in biotechnology, the bioengineering of complex tissues, and biomedical research. Their applications range from platforms to increase the efficiency of anchorage-dependent cell culture to building blocks to loading cells in heterogeneous structures to clonal-population growth monitoring to cell sorting. Although useful, currently available cell-adhesive particles can accommodate only homogeneous cell culture. Here, we report the design of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles with tunable cell-adhesive regions as first step toward micropatterned cell cultures on particles. We employed stop flow lithography (SFL), the coupling reaction between amine and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and streptavidin-biotin chemistry to adjust the localization of conjugated collagen and poly-L-lysine on the surface of microscale particles. Using the new particles, we demonstrate the attachment and formation of tight junctions between brain endothelial cells. We also demonstrate the geometric patterning of breast cancer cells on particles with heterogeneous collagen coatings. This new approach avoids the exposure of cells to potentially toxic photoinitiators and ultraviolet light and decouples in time the microparticle synthesis and the cell culture steps to take advantage of the most recent advances in cell patterning available for traditional culture substrates. PMID:26545155

  10. Adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2014-04-18

    The adhesion behaviors of superhydrophobic surfaces have become an emerging topic to researchers in various fields as a vital step in the interactions between materials and organisms/materials. Controlling the chemical compositions and topological structures via various methods or technologies is essential to fabricate and modulate different adhesion properties, such as low-adhesion, high-adhesion and anisotropic adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces. We summarize the recent developments in both natural superhydrophobic surfaces and artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with various adhesions and also pay attention to superhydrophobic surfaces switching between low- and high-adhesion. The methods to regulate or translate the adhesion of superhydrophobic surfaces can be considered from two perspectives. One is to control the chemical composition and change the surface geometric structure on the surfaces, respectively or simultaneously. The other is to provide external stimulations to induce transitions, which is the most common method for obtaining switchable adhesions. Additionally, adhesion behaviors on solid-solid interfaces, such as the behaviors of cells, bacteria, biomolecules and icing on superhydrophobic surfaces are also noticeable and controversial. This review is aimed at giving a brief and crucial overview of adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Focal Adhesion Kinase Directly Interacts with TSC2 Through Its FAT Domain and Regulates Cell Proliferation in Cashmere Goat Fetal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xu; Bao, Wenlei; Yang, Jiaofu; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Dongsheng; Liang, Yan; Li, Shuyu; Wang, Yanfeng; Feng, Xue; Hao, Huifang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that senses a variety of extracellular signals, such as growth factors and integrins, to control the process of cell proliferation and metabolism. We cloned three goat FAK transcript variants (KM655805, KM658268, and KM658269) that encode 1052, 1006, and 962 amino-acid residue proteins. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the putative FAK protein contains an FERM domain, a PTK domain, two Proline-rich regions, and a focal adhesion-targeting (FAT) domain. All the three transcript variants of FAK were detected in seven different goat tissues, and variant 1 had the most accumulation whereas variant 2 and variant 3 had lower accumulation. Treatment of goat fetal fibroblasts (GFbs) with a specific FAK inhibitor, TAE226, inhibited cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and induced damage to the cell morphology in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further research demonstrated that FAK directly interacted with TSC2 (Tuberous sclerosis 2) tuberin domain through its C-terminus, which contains the complete FAT domain. In conclusion, our results indicated that FAK may be widely expressed in Cashmere goat tissues and its products participate in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and cell proliferation through a direct interaction with TSC2 in GFBs. PMID:27380318

  12. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  13. Thermodynamic evidence for Ca2+-mediated self-aggregation of Lewis X gold glyconanoparticles. A model for cell adhesion via carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Jesús M; Eaton, Peter; Barrientos, Africa G; Menéndez, Margarita; Penadés, Soledad

    2005-05-01

    Thermodynamic evidence for the selective Ca(2+)-mediated self-aggregation via carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions of gold glyconanoparticles functionalized with the disaccharides lactose (lacto-Au) and maltose (malto-Au), or the biologically relevant trisaccharide Lewis X (Le(X)-Au), was obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry. The aggregation process was also directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. It was shown in the case of the trisaccharide Lewis X that the Ca(2+)-mediated aggregation is a slow process that takes place with a decrease in enthalpy of 160 +/- 30 kcal mol(-)(1), while the heat evolved in the case of lactose and maltose glyconanoparticles was very low and thermal equilibrium was quickly achieved. Measurements in the presence of Mg(2+) and Na(+) cations confirm the selectivity for Ca(2+) of Le(X)-Au glyconanoparticles. The relevance of this result to cell-cell adhesion process mediated by carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions is discussed. PMID:15853323

  14. Thermodynamic evidence for Ca2+-mediated self-aggregation of Lewis X gold glyconanoparticles. A model for cell adhesion via carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Jesús M; Eaton, Peter; Barrientos, Africa G; Menéndez, Margarita; Penadés, Soledad

    2005-05-01

    Thermodynamic evidence for the selective Ca(2+)-mediated self-aggregation via carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions of gold glyconanoparticles functionalized with the disaccharides lactose (lacto-Au) and maltose (malto-Au), or the biologically relevant trisaccharide Lewis X (Le(X)-Au), was obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry. The aggregation process was also directly visualized by atomic force microscopy. It was shown in the case of the trisaccharide Lewis X that the Ca(2+)-mediated aggregation is a slow process that takes place with a decrease in enthalpy of 160 +/- 30 kcal mol(-)(1), while the heat evolved in the case of lactose and maltose glyconanoparticles was very low and thermal equilibrium was quickly achieved. Measurements in the presence of Mg(2+) and Na(+) cations confirm the selectivity for Ca(2+) of Le(X)-Au glyconanoparticles. The relevance of this result to cell-cell adhesion process mediated by carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions is discussed.

  15. Increased erythrocyte adhesion to VCAM-1 during pulsatile flow: Application of a microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    White, Jennell; Lancelot, Moira; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hines, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by microvascular occlusion mediated by adhesive interactions of sickle erythrocytes (SSRBCs) to the endothelium. Most in vitro flow adhesion assays measure SSRBC adhesion during continuous flow, although in vivo SSRBC adhesive interactions occur during pulsatile flow. Using a well-plate microfluidic flow adhesion system, we demonstrate that isolated SSRBCs adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) at greater levels during pulsatile versus continuous flow. A significant increase in adhesive interactions was observed between all pulse frequencies 1 Hz to 2 Hz (60–120 beats/min) when compared to non-pulsatile flow. Adhesion of isolated SSRBCs and whole blood during pulsatile flow was unaffected by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and exposure of SSRBCs to pulsatile flow did not affect the intrinsic adhesive properties of SSRBCs. The cell type responsible for increased adhesion of whole blood varied from patient to patient. We conclude that low flow periods of the pulse cycle allow more adhesive interactions between sickle erythrocytes and VCAM-1, and sickle erythrocyte adhesion in the context of whole blood may better reflect physiologic cellular interactions. The microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay used in this study may have applications for clinical assessment of sickle erythrocyte adhesion during pulsatile flow. PMID:24898561

  16. The Structure of Treponema pallidum Tp0751 (Pallilysin) Reveals a Non-canonical Lipocalin Fold That Mediates Adhesion to Extracellular Matrix Components and Interactions with Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pětrošová, Helena; Lithgow, Karen V.; Hof, Rebecca; Wetherell, Charmaine; Kao, Wei-Chien; Lin, Yi-Pin; Ebady, Rhodaba; Cameron, Caroline E.

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Treponema pallidum disseminates widely throughout the host and extravasates from the vasculature, a process that is at least partially dependent upon the ability of T. pallidum to interact with host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Defining the molecular basis for the interaction between T. pallidum and the host is complicated by the intractability of T. pallidum to in vitro culturing and genetic manipulation. Correspondingly, few T. pallidum proteins have been identified that interact directly with host components. Of these, Tp0751 (also known as pallilysin) displays a propensity to interact with the ECM, although the underlying mechanism of these interactions remains unknown. Towards establishing the molecular mechanism of Tp0751-host ECM attachment, we first determined the crystal structure of Tp0751 to a resolution of 2.15 Å using selenomethionine phasing. Structural analysis revealed an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a profile of short conserved regions consistent with a non-canonical lipocalin fold. Using a library of native and scrambled peptides representing the full Tp0751 sequence, we next identified a subset of peptides that showed statistically significant and dose-dependent interactions with the ECM components fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen IV. Intriguingly, each ECM-interacting peptide mapped to the lipocalin domain. To assess the potential of these ECM-coordinating peptides to inhibit adhesion of bacteria to host cells, we engineered an adherence-deficient strain of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to heterologously express Tp0751. This engineered strain displayed Tp0751 on its surface and exhibited a Tp0751-dependent gain-of-function in adhering to human umbilical vein endothelial cells that was inhibited in the presence of one of the ECM-interacting peptides (p10). Overall, these data provide the first structural insight into the

  17. The adhesion GPCR Gpr56 regulates oligodendrocyte development via interactions with Gα12/13 and RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Sarah D.; Garcia, Cynthia; Piao, Xianhua; Gutmann, David H.; Monk, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    In the vertebrate central nervous system, myelinating oligodendrocytes are postmitotic and derive from proliferative oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The molecular mechanisms that govern oligodendrocyte development are incompletely understood, but recent studies implicate the adhesion class of G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) as important regulators of myelination. Here, we use zebrafish and mouse models to dissect the function of the aGPCR Gpr56 in oligodendrocyte development. We show that gpr56 is expressed during early stages of oligodendrocyte development. Additionally, we observe a significant reduction of mature oligodendrocyte number and of myelinated axons in gpr56 zebrafish mutants. This reduction results from decreased OPC proliferation, rather than increased cell death or altered neural precursor differentiation potential. Finally, we show that these functions are mediated by Gα12/13 proteins and Rho activation. Together, our data establish Gpr56 as a regulator of oligodendrocyte development. PMID:25607772

  18. Study on the Effects of Adipic Acid on Properties of Dicyandiamide-Cured Electrically Conductive Adhesive and the Interaction Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Chao; Fu, Yonggao; Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Xiaojian; Li, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    A small quantity of adipic acid was found to improve the performance of dicyandiamide-cured electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) by enhancing its electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. The mechanism of action of the adipic acid and its effects on the ECA were examined. The results indicated that adipic acid replaced the electrically insulating lubricant on the surface of the silver flakes, which significantly improved the electrical conductivity. Specifically, one of the acidic functional groups in adipic acid reacted with the silver flakes, and an amidation reaction occurred between the other acidic functional group in adipic acid and the dicyandiamide, which participated in the curing reaction. Therefore, adipic acid may act as a coupling agent to improve the overall ECA performance.

  19. Alpha2,6-sialic acid on platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) regulates its homophilic interactions and downstream antiapoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Kitazume, Shinobu; Imamaki, Rie; Ogawa, Kazuko; Komi, Yusuke; Futakawa, Satoshi; Kojima, Soichi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Marth, Jamey D; Paulson, James C; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2010-02-26

    Antiangiogenesis therapies are now part of the standard repertoire of cancer therapies, but the mechanisms for the proliferation and survival of endothelial cells are not fully understood. Although endothelial cells are covered with a glycocalyx, little is known about how endothelial glycosylation regulates endothelial functions. Here, we show that alpha2,6-sialic acid is necessary for the cell-surface residency of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays multiple roles in cell adhesion, mechanical stress sensing, antiapoptosis, and angiogenesis. As a possible underlying mechanism, we found that the homophilic interactions of PECAM in endothelial cells were dependent on alpha2,6-sialic acid. We also found that the absence of alpha2,6-sialic acid down-regulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 2 and rendered the cells more prone to mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, as evaluated using PECAM- deficient endothelial cells. The present findings open up a new possibility that modulation of glycosylation could be one of the promising strategies for regulating angiogenesis. PMID:20048157

  20. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 m

  1. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-01

    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction.

  2. The ancillary protein 1 of Streptococcus pyogenes FCT-1 pili mediates cell adhesion and biofilm formation through heterophilic as well as homophilic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Becherelli, Marco; Manetti, Andrea G O; Buccato, Scilla; Viciani, Elisa; Ciucchi, Laura; Mollica, Giulia; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Imma

    2012-01-01

    Summary Gram-positive pili are known to play a role in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells and in the formation of biofilm microbial communities. In the present study we undertook the functional characterization of the pilus ancillary protein 1 (AP1_M6) from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates expressing the FCT-1 pilus variant, known to be strong biofilm formers. Cell binding and biofilm formation assays using S. pyogenes in-frame deletion mutants, Lactococcus expressing heterologous FCT-1 pili and purified recombinant AP1_M6, indicated that this pilin is a strong cell adhesin that is also involved in bacterial biofilm formation. Moreover, we show that AP1_M6 establishes homophilic interactions that mediate inter-bacterial contact, possibly promoting bacterial colonization of target epithelial cells in the form of three-dimensional microcolonies. Finally, AP1_M6 knockout mutants were less virulent in mice, indicating that this protein is also implicated in GAS systemic infection. PMID:22320452

  3. Interaction of actin with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) receptor in liposomes is Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongze; Niesen, Michiel J M; Hu, Weidong; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Shively, John E

    2011-08-01

    The regulation of binding of G-actin to cytoplasmic domains of cell surface receptors is a common mechanism to control diverse biological processes. To model the regulation of G-actin binding to a cell surface receptor we used the cell-cell adhesion molecule carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1-S) in which G-actin binds to its short cytoplasmic domain (12 amino acids; Chen, C. J., Kirshner, J., Sherman, M. A., Hu, W., Nguyen, T., and Shively, J. E. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5749-5760). A liposome model system demonstrates that G-actin binds to the cytosolic domain peptide of CEACAM1-S in the presence of negatively charged palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine (POPS) liposomes and Ca(2+). In contrast, no binding of G-actin was observed in palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) liposomes or when a key residue in the peptide, Phe-454, is replaced with Ala. Molecular Dynamics simulations on CEACAM1-S in an asymmetric phospholipid bilayer show migration of Ca(2+) ions to the lipid leaflet containing POPS and reveal two conformations for Phe-454 explaining the reversible availability of this residue for G-actin binding. NMR transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopic analysis of (13)C-labeled Phe-454 CEACAM1-S peptide in liposomes plus actin further confirmed the existence of two peptide conformers and the Ca(2+) dependence of actin binding. These findings explain how a receptor with a short cytoplasmic domain can recruit a cytosolic protein in a phospholipid and Ca(2+)-specific manner. In addition, this model system provides a powerful approach that can be applied to study other membrane protein interactions with their cytosolic targets.

  4. EFFECT OF GROWTH FACTOR-FIBRONECTIN MATRIX INTERACTION ON RAT TYPE II CELL ADHESION AND DNA SYTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Type II cells attach, migrate and proliferate on a provisional fibronectin-rich matrix during alveolar wall repair after lung injury. The combination of cell-substratum interactions via integrin receptors and exposure to local growth factors are likely to initiat...

  5. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  6. Adhesive plasters

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Swain, Ronald L.; Banker, John G.; Edwards, Charlene C.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive plaster compositions are provided by treating particles of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 or Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with dilute acid solutions. The resulting compositions have been found to spontaneously harden into rigid reticulated masses resembling plaster of Paris. Upon heating, the hardened material is decomposed into the oxide, yet retains the reticulated rigid structure.

  7. Alkaloids as Inhibitors of Malate Synthase from Paracoccidioides spp.: Receptor-Ligand Interaction-Based Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies, Antifungal Activity, and the Adhesion Process

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fausto Guimaraes; Neto, Benedito Rodrigues da Silva; Gonçalves, Ricardo Lemes; da Silva, Roosevelt Alves; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Kato, Lucília; Freitas, Carla dos Santos; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Malate synthase plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity and virulence of various fungi, such as those that are human pathogens. Thus, an inhibitor of this enzyme may be used as a powerful antifungal without side effects in patients once these enzymes are absent in humans. Here, we searched for compounds with inhibitory capacity against the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides species (PbMLS). The three-dimensional (3D) structure of PbMLS was determined using the I-TASSER server. Compounds were selected from the ZINC database. Based on the mechanism underlying the interaction of the compounds with PbMLS, it was possible to identify β-carboline moiety as a standard key structure. The compounds with β-carboline moiety that are available in our laboratories were investigated. A total of nine alkaloid compounds were selected. The primary mechanisms of interaction of the alkaloid compounds in the binding pocket of PbMLS were identified and compared with the mechanism of interaction of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We discovered that the amphipathic nature of the compounds, concomitant with the presence of β-carboline moiety, was crucial for their stability in the binding pocket of PbMLS. In addition, the importance of a critical balance of the polar and nonpolar contacts of the compounds in this region was observed. Four β-carboline alkaloid compounds showed the ability to inhibit recombinant PbMLS (PbMLSr) activity, Paracoccidioides species growth, and adhesion of the fungus and PbMLSr to the extracellular matrix components. The cytotoxicity of the alkaloids was also evaluated. PMID:26124176

  8. Alkaloids as inhibitors of malate synthase from Paracoccidioides spp.: receptor-ligand interaction-based virtual screening and molecular docking studies, antifungal activity, and the adhesion process.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fausto Guimaraes; Neto, Benedito Rodrigues da Silva; Gonçalves, Ricardo Lemes; da Silva, Roosevelt Alves; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Kato, Lucília; Freitas, Carla Dos Santos; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2015-09-01

    Paracoccidioides is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Malate synthase plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity and virulence of various fungi, such as those that are human pathogens. Thus, an inhibitor of this enzyme may be used as a powerful antifungal without side effects in patients once these enzymes are absent in humans. Here, we searched for compounds with inhibitory capacity against the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides species (PbMLS). The three-dimensional (3D) structure of PbMLS was determined using the I-TASSER server. Compounds were selected from the ZINC database. Based on the mechanism underlying the interaction of the compounds with PbMLS, it was possible to identify β-carboline moiety as a standard key structure. The compounds with β-carboline moiety that are available in our laboratories were investigated. A total of nine alkaloid compounds were selected. The primary mechanisms of interaction of the alkaloid compounds in the binding pocket of PbMLS were identified and compared with the mechanism of interaction of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We discovered that the amphipathic nature of the compounds, concomitant with the presence of β-carboline moiety, was crucial for their stability in the binding pocket of PbMLS. In addition, the importance of a critical balance of the polar and nonpolar contacts of the compounds in this region was observed. Four β-carboline alkaloid compounds showed the ability to inhibit recombinant PbMLS (PbMLSr) activity, Paracoccidioides species growth, and adhesion of the fungus and PbMLSr to the extracellular matrix components. The cytotoxicity of the alkaloids was also evaluated.

  9. A human model of platelet–leucocyte adhesive interactions during controlled ischaemia in patients with peripheral vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, L; Pirro, M; Lombardini, R; Ciuffetti, G; Dragani, P; Mannarino, E

    2002-01-01

    Aims: In humans, little is known about the effects of platelet–leucocyte interactions on blood viscosity and microvascular perfusion. This study tested the hypotheses that (1) activation and interactions between platelets and leucocytes may have an impact on microvascular blood viscosity and perfusion in patients with stage II peripheral arterial occlusive disease, and (2) a powerful antiplatelet drug such as Clopidogrel might help to improve microvascular perfusion by reducing platelet–leucocyte activation and blood viscosity. Methods: Plasma concentrations of certain markers of leucocyte and platelet activation, in addition to low and high shear rate blood viscosity, were measured before and after a repeated exercise treadmill test. Functional parameters including maximum walking time, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, and half recovery time were also measured. Results: Blocking platelet activation only with a single dose of Clopidogrel (300 mg) did not improve microvascular blood viscosity and perfusion after repeated exercise, but a significant improvement in microvascular perfusion during controlled ischaemia and a lack of post exercise increase in low shear rate blood viscosity was achieved when both platelet and leucocyte activation were suppressed by a relatively longer treatment with Clopidogrel (four days). Conclusions: Clopidogrel, by inhibiting platelet activation and aggregation, might also block the vicious cycle of leucocyte–platelet activation, thus improving the functioning of the microcirculation. PMID:12461065

  10. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  11. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  12. Interactions between lipid-free apolipoprotein-AI and a lipopeptide incorporating the RGDS cell adhesion motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, V.; Hamley, I. W.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of a designed bioactive lipopeptide C16-GGGRGDS, comprising a hexadecyl lipid chain attached to a functional heptapeptide, with the lipid-free apoliprotein, Apo-AI, is examined. This apolipoprotein is a major component of high density lipoprotein and it is involved in lipid metabolism and may serve as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease and Alzheimers' disease. We find via isothermal titration calorimetry that binding between the lipopeptide and Apo-AI occurs up to a saturation condition, just above equimolar for a 10.7 μM concentration of Apo-AI. A similar value is obtained from circular dichroism spectroscopy, which probes the reduction in α-helical secondary structure of Apo-AI upon addition of C16-GGGRGDS. Electron microscopy images show a persistence of fibrillar structures due to self-assembly of C16-GGGRGDS in mixtures with Apo-AI above the saturation binding condition. A small fraction of spheroidal or possibly ``nanodisc'' structures was observed. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data for Apo-AI can be fitted using a published crystal structure of the Apo-AI dimer. The SAXS data for the lipopeptide/Apo-AI mixtures above the saturation binding conditions can be fitted to the contribution from fibrillar structures coexisting with flat discs corresponding to Apo-AI/lipopeptide aggregates.

  13. Osteoblast adhesion on nanophase ceramics.

    PubMed

    Webster, T J; Siegel, R W; Bizios, R

    1999-07-01

    Osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) was investigated in vitro. Osteoblast adhesion to nanophase alumina and titania in the absence of serum from Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was significantly (P < 0.01) less than osteoblast adhesion to alumina and titania in the presence of serum. In the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum in DMEM osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina (23 nm grain size) and titania (32 nm grain size) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than on conventional alumina (177 nm grain size) and titania (2.12 microm grain size), respectively, after 1, 2, and 4 h. Further investigation of the dependence of osteoblast adhesion on alumina and titania grain size indicated the presence of a critical grain size for osteoblast adhesion between 49 and 67 nm for alumina and 32 and 56 nm for titania. The present study provides evidence of the ability of nanophase alumina and titania to simulate material characteristics (such as surface grain size) of physiological bone that enhance protein interactions (such as adsorption, configuration, bioactivity, etc.) and subsequent osteoblast adhesion.

  14. Nanoscale adhesion interactions in carbon nanotube based systems and experimental study of the mechanical properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Meng

    Part I: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a type of 1D nanostructures, which possess extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal, and chemical properties and are promising for a number of applications. For many of their applications, CNTs will be assembled into micro or macro-scale structures (e.g. thin-films and yarns), or integrated with other bulk materials to form heterogeneous material systems and devices (e.g. nanocomposites and solid-state electronics). The interfaces formed among CNTs themselves and between the CNT and other material surfaces play crucial roles in the functioning and performance of CNT-based material systems and devices. Therefore, characterization of the interfacial interaction in CNT-based systems is a critical step to understand the nanoscale interface and tune the system and device design and manufacturing for optimal functioning and performance. In this part of dissertation, a combination of both mechanical and theoretical methods was employed to study the adhesion interactions in CNT-based systems. Part II: Both CNTs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) possess superb mechanical properties and are promising for a great many applications. They can be used in similar applications, such as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites based on their similar mechanical and thermal properties. CNTs are promising for electronics and sensors while BNNTs can be used as electrical insulators due to the tremendous differences of the electrical property. Furthermore, BNNTs can survive in high temperature and hazardous environments because of their resistant to oxidation and harsh chemicals. In order to optimize their applications, their mechanical properties should be fully understood. In this part of the dissertation research, first, the radial elasticity of single-walled CNTs and BNNTs was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM); secondly, the engineering radial deformations in single walled CNTs and BNNTs covered by monolayer grapheme

  15. Interaction of Ubinuclein-1, a nuclear and adhesion junction protein, with the 14-3-3 epsilon protein in epithelial cells: implication of the PKA pathway.

    PubMed

    Conti, Audrey; Sueur, Charlotte; Lupo, Julien; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri; Morand, Patrice; Boyer, Véronique

    2013-03-01

    Ubinuclein-1 is a NACos (Nuclear and Adhesion junction Complex components) protein which shuttles between the nucleus and tight junctions, but its function in the latter is not understood. Here, by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis, we show that Ubinuclein-1 interacts with the 14-3-3ɛ protein both in HT29 colon cells, and AGS gastric cells. This interaction is mediated by an Ubinuclein-1 phosphoserine motif. We show that the arginine residues (R56, R60 and R132) which form the 14-3-3ɛ ligand binding site are responsible for the binding of 14-3-3ɛ to phosphorylated Ubinuclein-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vitro Ubinuclein-1 can be directly phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. This in vitro phosphorylation allows binding of wildtype 14-3-3ɛ. Moreover, treatment of the cells with inhibitors of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, KT5720 or H89, modifies the subcellular localization of Ubinuclein-1. Indeed, KT5720 and H89 greatly increase the staining of Ubinuclein-1 at the tight junctions in AGS gastric cells. In the presence of the kinase inhibitor KT5720, the amount of Ubinuclein-1 in the NP40 insoluble fraction is increased, together with actin. Moreover, treatment of the cells with KT5720 or H89 induces the concentration of Ubinuclein-1 at tricellular intersections of MDCK cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate novel cell signaling trafficking by Ubinuclein-1 via association with 14-3-3ɛ following Ubinuclein-1 phosphorylation by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A.

  16. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD. PMID:27242933

  17. Characterization of Drosophila GDNF Receptor-Like and Evidence for Its Evolutionarily Conserved Interaction with Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM)/FasII

    PubMed Central

    Kallijärvi, Jukka; Stratoulias, Vassilis; Virtanen, Kristel; Hietakangas, Ville; Heino, Tapio I.; Saarma, Mart

    2012-01-01

    Background Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands are secreted growth factors distantly related to the TGF-β superfamily. In mammals, they bind to the GDNF family receptor α (Gfrα) and signal through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the Ret-Gfr-Gdnf signaling system, we have cloned and characterized the first invertebrate Gfr-like cDNA (DmGfrl) from Drosophila melanogaster and generated a DmGfrl mutant allele. Results We found that DmGfrl encodes a large GPI-anchored membrane protein with four GFR-like domains. In line with the fact that insects lack GDNF ligands, DmGfrl mediated neither Drosophila Ret phosphorylation nor mammalian RET phosphorylation. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that DmGfrl is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems throughout Drosophila development, but, surprisingly, DmGfrl and DmRet expression patterns were largely non-overlapping. We generated a DmGfrl null allele by genomic FLP deletion and found that both DmGfrl null females and males are viable but display fertility defects. The female fertility defect manifested as dorsal appendage malformation, small size and reduced viability of eggs laid by mutant females. In male flies DmGfrl interacted genetically with the Drosophila Ncam (neural cell adhesion molecule) homolog FasII to regulate fertility. Conclusion Our results suggest that Ret and Gfrl did not function as an in cis receptor-coreceptor pair before the emergence of GDNF family ligands, and that the Ncam-Gfr interaction predated the in cis Ret-Gfr interaction in evolution. The fertility defects that we describe in DmGfrl null flies suggest that GDNF receptor-like has an evolutionarily ancient role in regulating male fertility and a previously unrecognized role in regulating oogenesis. Significance These results shed light on the evolutionary aspects of the structure, expression and function of Ret-Gfrα and Ncam-Gfrα signaling

  18. Cell surface-expressed moesin-like receptor regulates T cell interactions with tissue components and binds an adhesion-modulating IL-2 peptide generated by elastase.

    PubMed

    Ariel, A; Hershkoviz, R; Altbaum-Weiss, I; Ganor, S; Lider, O

    2001-03-01

    The adhesion of leukocytes to the extracellular matrix (ECM) depends on their responses to variations in the chemotactic signals in their milieu, as well as on the functioning of cytoskeletal and context-specific receptors. Ezrin, radixin, and moesin constitute a family of proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. The surface expression of moesin on T cells and its role in cell adhesion has not been fully elucidated. Recently, we found that IL-2 peptides generated by elastase modified the adhesion of activated T cells to ECM ligands. Here, we further examined the adhesion regulatory effects of EFLNRWIT, one of the IL-2 peptides, as well as the existence and putative function of its receptor on T cells. We found that when presented to T cells in the absence of another activator, the EFLNRWIT peptide induced cell adhesion to vessel wall and ECM components. Binding of a radiolabeled peptide to T cells, precipitation with the immobilized peptide, and amino acid sequencing of the precipitated protein revealed that EFLNRWIT exerts its function via a cell surface-expressed moesin-like moiety, whose constitutive expression on T cells was increased after activation. This notion was further supported by our findings that: 1) anti-moesin mAb inhibited the binding of T cells to the immobilized EFLNRWIT peptide, 2) immobilized recombinant moesin bound the IL-2 peptide, and 3) soluble moesin inhibited the EFLNRWIT-induced T cell adhesion to fibronectin. Interestingly, moesin appears to be generally involved in T cell responses to adhesion-regulating signals. Thus, the IL-2 peptide EFLNRWIT appears to exert its modulating capacities via an adhesion-regulating moesin-like receptor. PMID:11207255

  19. Interaction between Endothelial Protein C Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 to Mediate Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Bernabeu, Maria; Benjamin, Maxwell; Brazier, Andrew Jay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) are candidate receptors for the deadly complication cerebral malaria. However, it remains unclear if Plasmodium falciparum parasites with dual binding specificity are involved in cytoadhesion or different parasite subpopulations bind in brain microvessels. Here, we investigated this issue by studying different subtypes of ICAM-1-binding parasite lines. We show that two parasite lines expressing domain cassette 13 (DC13) of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family have dual binding specificity for EPCR and ICAM-1 and further mapped ICAM-1 binding to the first DBLβ domain following the PfEMP1 head structure in both proteins. As PfEMP1 head structures have diverged between group A (EPCR binders) and groups B and C (CD36 binders), we also investigated how ICAM-1-binding parasites with different coreceptor binding traits influence P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte binding to endothelial cells. Whereas levels of binding to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated endothelial cells from the lung and brain by all ICAM-1-binding parasite lines increased, group A (EPCR and ICAM-1) was less dependent than group B (CD36 and ICAM-1) on ICAM-1 upregulation. Furthermore, both group A DC13 parasite lines had higher binding levels to brain endothelial cells (a microvascular niche with limited CD36 expression). This study shows that ICAM-1 is a coreceptor for a subset of EPCR-binding parasites and provides the first evidence of how EPCR and ICAM-1 interact to mediate parasite binding to both resting and TNF-α-activated primary brain and lung endothelial cells. PMID:27406562

  20. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation.

  1. Nucleation and growth of cadherin adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Mireille; Thoumine, Olivier; Brevier, Julien; Choquet, Daniel; Riveline, Daniel; Mege, Rene-Marc

    2007-11-15

    Cell-cell contact formation relies on the recruitment of cadherin molecules and their anchoring to actin. However, the precise chronology of events from initial cadherin trans-interactions to adhesion strengthening is unclear, in part due to the lack of access to the distribution of cadherins within adhesion zones. Using N-cadherin expressing cells interacting with N-cadherin coated surfaces, we characterized the formation of cadherin adhesions at the ventral cell surface. TIRF and RIC microscopies revealed streak-like accumulations of cadherin along actin fibers. FRAP analysis indicated that engaged cadherins display a slow turnover at equilibrium, compatible with a continuous addition and removal of cadherin molecules within the adhesive contact. Association of cadherin cytoplasmic tail to actin as well as actin cables and myosin II activity are required for the formation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions. Using time lapse microscopy we deciphered how cadherin adhesions form and grow. As lamellipodia protrude, cadherin foci stochastically formed a few microns away from the cell margin. Neo-formed foci coalesced aligned and coalesced with preformed foci either by rearward sliding or gap filling to form cadherin adhesions. Foci experienced collapse at the rear of cadherin adhesions. Based on these results, we present a model for the nucleation, directional growth and shrinkage of cadherin adhesions.

  2. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  3. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Sillicone Rubber Enhanced Cell Adhesion and It May Be through the Interaction of EF1β and γ-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Wang, Yi-cheng; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Xin; Lei, Ze-yuan; Fan, Dong-li

    2014-01-01

    Silicone rubber (SR) is a common soft tissue filler material used in plastic surgery. However, it presents a poor surface for cellular adhesion and suffers from poor biocompatibility. In contrast, hydroxyapatite (HA), a prominent component of animal bone and teeth, can promote improved cell compatibility, but HA is an unsuitable filler material because of the brittleness in mechanism. In this study, using a simple and economical method, two sizes of HA was applied to coat on SR to counteract the poor biocompatibility of SR. Surface and mechanical properties of SR and HA/SRs confirmed that coating with HA changes the surface topology and material properties. Analysis of cell proliferation and adhesion as well as measurement of the expression levels of adhesion related molecules indicated that HA-coated SR significantly increased cell compatibility. Furthermore, mass spectrometry proved that the biocompatibility improvement may be related to elongation factor 1-beta (EF1β)/γ-actin adjusted cytoskeletal rearrangement. PMID:25386892

  4. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  5. Thermal Characterization of Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.

    1999-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Down-selection and performance testing of the structural adhesives resulted in the selection of two candidate replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's Tiga 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. This paper describes rocket motor testing of these two adhesives. Four forty-pound charge motors were fabricated in configurations that would allow side by side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives and the current RSRM adhesives. The motors provided an environment where the thermal performance of adhesives in flame surface bondlines was compared. Results of the FPC testing show that: 1) The phenolic char depths on radial bond lines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used; 2) The adhesive char depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the char depth of the current adhesives; 3) The heat-affected depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the heat-affected depth of the current adhesives; and 4) The ablation rates for both replacement adhesives are slower than that of the current adhesives.

  6. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  7. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  8. Molecular Architecture and Function of Matrix Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Benjamin; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesions mediate important bidirectional interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix. They provide an interactive interface between the extracellular chemical and physical environment and the cellular scaffolding and signaling machinery. This dynamic, reciprocal regulation of intracellular processes and the matrix is mediated by membrane receptors such as the integrins, as well as many other components that comprise the adhesome. Adhesome constituents assemble themselves into different types of cell adhesion structures that vary in molecular complexity and change over time. These cell adhesions play crucial roles in cell migration, proliferation, and determination of cell fate. PMID:21441590

  9. Ins and Outs of Microbial Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virji, Mumtaz

    Microbial adhesion is generally a complex process, involving multiple adhesins on a single microbe and their respective target receptors on host cells. In some situations, various adhesins of a microbe may co-operate in an apparently hierarchical and sequential manner whereby the first adhesive event triggers the target cell to express receptors for additional microbial adhesins. In other instances, adhesins may act in concert leading to high avidity interactions, often a prelude to cellular invasion and tissue penetration. Mechanisms used to target the host include both lectin-like interactions and protein-protein interactions; the latter are often highly specific for the host or a tissue within the host. This reflective chapter aims to offer a point of view on microbial adhesion by presenting some experiences and thoughts especially related to respiratory pathogens and explore if there can be any future hope of controlling bacterial infections via preventing adhesion or invasion stages of microbial pathogenesis.

  10. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi . E-mail: ygong@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-08-18

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the {alpha}{sub v}-containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism.

  11. Adhesive switching of membranes: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Behrisch, Almuth; Sackmann, Erich

    2000-04-01

    We report on a study of a model bioadhesion system: giant vesicles in contact with a supported lipid bilayer. Embedded in both membranes are very low concentrations of homophilic recognition molecules (contact site A receptors) competing with higher concentrations of repeller molecules: polyethylene glycol (PEG) lipids. These repellers mimic the inhibiting effect of the cell glycocalyx on adhesion. The effective adhesive interaction between the two membranes is probed by interferometric analysis of thermal fluctuations. We find two competing states of adhesion: initial weak adhesion is followed by slower aggregation of the adhesion molecules into small, tightly bound clusters that coexist with the regions of weak adhesion. We interpret our results in terms of a double-well intermembrane potential, and we present a theoretical analysis of the intermembrane interaction in the presence of mobile repeller molecules at a fixed chemical potential that shows that the interaction potential indeed should have just such a double-well shape. At a fixed repeller concentration we recover a conventional purely repulsive potential. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of a general amplification mechanism of the action of sparse adhesion molecules by a nonspecific double-well potential. We also discuss the important role of the Helfrich undulation force for the proposed scenario.

  12. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  13. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering.

  14. Molecular Adhesion between Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular adhesion between the major constituents of cartilage extracellular matrix, namely, the highly negatively charged proteoglycan aggrecan and the type II/IX/XI fibrillar collagen network, in simulated physiological conditions. Colloidal force spectroscopy was applied to measure the maximum adhesion force and total adhesion energy between aggrecan end-attached spherical tips (end radius R ≈ 2.5 μm) and trypsin-treated cartilage disks with undamaged collagen networks. Studies were carried out in various aqueous solutions to reveal the physical factors that govern aggrecan–collagen adhesion. Increasing both ionic strength and [Ca2+] significantly increased adhesion, highlighting the importance of electrostatic repulsion and Ca2+-mediated ion bridging effects. In addition, we probed how partial enzymatic degradation of the collagen network, which simulates osteoarthritic conditions, affects the aggrecan–collagen interactions. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in aggrecan–collagen adhesion even when there were no detectable changes at the macro- or microscales. It is hypothesized that the aggrecan–collagen adhesion, together with aggrecan–aggrecan self-adhesion, works synergistically to determine the local molecular deformability and energy dissipation of the cartilage matrix, in turn, affecting its macroscopic tissue properties. PMID:24491174

  15. Evaluation of the micro-shear bond strength of four adhesive systems to dentin with and without adhesive area limitation.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yuan; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Xuehui; Niu, Guangliang; Du, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding ability of four representative dentin-adhesive systems by applying the micro-shear bond strength (μ-SBS) test method and to evaluate the influence of adhesive area limitation on the bond strength. Two different adhesive application methods were used in the μ-SBS test (with and without adhesives area limitation), and four representative adhesive systems were used in this study. Each dentin surface was treated with one of the four representative adhesive systems, and with twenty samples per group (n=20), each of the four groups underwent a μ-SBS test. The results showed that the bond strength was significantly influenced by the adhesive application method (p<0.05), the adhesive type (p<0.05) and the interaction between the two factors (p<0.05). With regard to the four representative dentin-adhesive systems, 3-E&R has a much better bond quality compared to the other adhesive systems. Furthermore, the micro-shear bond strength test method of restricting the area of both the adhesive and the resin is more reliable for evaluating the bonding property of adhesives to dentin, and it is also adequate for comparing the different adhesives systems. PMID:26406058

  16. Ice adhesions in relation to freeze stress.

    PubMed

    Olien, C R; Smith, M N

    1977-10-01

    In freezing, competitive interaction between ice and hydrophilic plant substances causes an energy of adhesion to develop through the interstitial liquid. The thermodynamic basis for the adhesion energy is discussed, with estimates of the energies involved. In this research, effects of adhesion energy were observed microscopically in conjunction with energies of crystallization and frost desiccation. The complex character of ice in intact crown tissue of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the problems of sectioning frozen tissue without producing artifacts led to an alternative study of single barley cells in a mesh of ice and cell wall polymers. Adhesions between ice, cell wall polymers, and the plasmalemma form a complexly interacting system in which the pattern of crystallization is a major factor in determination of stress and injury. PMID:16660124

  17. Hierarchical bioinspired adhesive surfaces-a review.

    PubMed

    Brodoceanu, D; Bauer, C T; Kroner, E; Arzt, E; Kraus, T

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary adherence and climbing agility of geckos on rough surfaces has been attributed to the multiscale hierarchical structures on their feet. Hundreds of thousands of elastic hairs called setae, each of which split into several spatulae, create a large number of contact points that generate substantial adhesion through van der Waals interactions. The hierarchical architecture provides increased structural compliance on surfaces with roughness features ranging from micrometers to millimeters. We review synthetic adhesion surfaces that mimic the naturally occurring hierarchy with an emphasis on microfabrication strategies, material choice and the adhesive performance achieved. PMID:27529743

  18. Analytical cell adhesion chromatography reveals impaired persistence of metastatic cell rolling adhesion to P-selectin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaeho; Edwards, Erin E; McClatchey, P Mason; Thomas, Susan N

    2015-10-15

    Selectins facilitate the recruitment of circulating cells from the bloodstream by mediating rolling adhesion, which initiates the cell-cell signaling that directs extravasation into surrounding tissues. To measure the relative efficiency of cell adhesion in shear flow for in vitro drug screening, we designed and implemented a microfluidic-based analytical cell adhesion chromatography system. The juxtaposition of instantaneous rolling velocities with elution times revealed that human metastatic cancer cells, but not human leukocytes, had a reduced capacity to sustain rolling adhesion with P-selectin. We define a new parameter, termed adhesion persistence, which is conceptually similar to migration persistence in the context of chemotaxis, but instead describes the capacity of cells to resist the influence of shear flow and sustain rolling interactions with an adhesive substrate that might modulate the probability of extravasation. Among cell types assayed, adhesion persistence to P-selectin was specifically reduced in metastatic but not leukocyte-like cells in response to a low dose of heparin. In conclusion, we demonstrate this as an effective methodology to identify selectin adhesion antagonist doses that modulate homing cell adhesion and engraftment in a cell-subtype-selective manner.

  19. Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeshin; Scherer, Norbert F.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2006-08-01

    The glue proteins secreted by marine mussels bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments in which most adhesives function poorly. Studies of these functionally unique proteins have revealed the presence of the unusual amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), which is formed by posttranslational modification of tyrosine. However, the detailed binding mechanisms of dopa remain unknown, and the chemical basis for mussels' ability to adhere to both inorganic and organic surfaces has never been fully explained. Herein, we report a single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of a single dopa residue contacting a wet metal oxide surface reveal a surprisingly high strength yet fully reversible, noncovalent interaction. The magnitude of the bond dissociation energy as well as the inability to observe this interaction with tyrosine suggests that dopa is critical to adhesion and that the binding mechanism is not hydrogen bond formation. Oxidation of dopa, as occurs during curing of the secreted mussel glue, dramatically reduces the strength of the interaction to metal oxide but results in high strength irreversible covalent bond formation to an organic surface. A new picture of the interfacial adhesive role of dopa emerges from these studies, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition from organic to metallic. 3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine | atomic force microscopy | mussel adhesive protein

  20. Water interaction and bond strength to dentin of dye-labelled adhesive as a function of the addition of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Linda; BIM, Odair; LOPES, Adolfo Coelho de Oliveira; FRANCISCONI-DOS-RIOS, Luciana Fávaro; MAENOSONO, Rafael Massunari; D’ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface. PMID:27556201

  1. The Transcription Factors Tec1 and Ste12 Interact with Coregulators Msa1 and Msa2 To Activate Adhesion and Multicellular Development

    PubMed Central

    van der Felden, Julia; Weisser, Sarah; Brückner, Stefan; Lenz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related yeast species, the TEA transcription factor Tec1, together with a second transcription factor, Ste12, controls development, including cell adhesion and filament formation. Tec1-Ste12 complexes control target genes through Tec1 binding sites (TEA consensus sequences [TCSs]) that can be further combined with Ste12 binding sites (pheromone response elements [PREs]) for cooperative DNA binding. The activity of Tec1-Ste12 complexes is known to be under negative control of the Dig1 and Dig2 (Dig1/2) transcriptional corepressors that confer regulation by upstream signaling pathways. Here, we found that Tec1 and Ste12 can associate with the transcriptional coregulators Msa1 and Msa2 (Msa1/2), which were previously found to associate with the cell cycle transcription factor complexes SBF (Swi4/Swi6 cell cycle box binding factor) and MBF (Mbp1/Swi6 cell cycle box binding factor) to control G1-specific transcription. We further show that Tec1-Ste12-Msa1/2 complexes (i) do not contain Swi4 or Mbp1, (ii) assemble at single TCSs or combined TCS-PREs in vitro, and (iii) coregulate genes involved in adhesive and filamentous growth by direct promoter binding in vivo. Finally, we found that, in contrast to Dig proteins, Msa1/2 seem to act as coactivators that enhance the transcriptional activity of Tec1-Ste12. Taken together, our findings add an additional layer of complexity to our understanding of the control mechanisms exerted by the evolutionarily conserved TEA domain and Ste12-like transcription factors. PMID:24732795

  2. Design of a Drug-in-Adhesive Transdermal Patch for Risperidone: Effect of Drug-Additive Interactions on the Crystallization Inhibition and In Vitro/In Vivo Correlation Study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Quan, Peng; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Hanqing; Fang, Liang

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and design an appropriate drug-in-adhesive patch for transdermal delivery of risperidone (RISP). Various formulation factors were investigated by in vitro permeation study using excised rabbit skin. Increasing the drug concentration in the pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) was used to enhance the drug permeation. To overcome the high crystallization tendency of the patch, several crystallization inhibitors such as PVP, PEG, and surfactants and fatty acids were evaluated by microscopy study. The mechanism of crystallization inhibition was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, and FT-IR studies. RISP and its active metabolite were determined after topical application of the optimized transdermal patch, and the in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with the intravenous administration group. The microscopy study indicated that fatty acid greatly inhibited the crystallization of RISP in PSA. The inhibition was attributed to the drug-additive interaction between amino group of RISP and the carboxyl group of fatty acid which was further confirmed by (1)H-NMR and FT-IR studies. The optimal permeation profile was obtained with the patches containing 5% RISP and 5% oleic acid in Duro-Tak(®) 87-2287. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited a sustained absorption and metabolism profile and well correlated with the in vitro permeation data. PMID:27522527

  3. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  4. Gecko adhesion: evolutionary nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Autumn, Kellar; Gravish, Nick

    2008-05-13

    If geckos had not evolved, it is possible that humans would never have invented adhesive nanostructures. Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1ms-1. Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive in requiring both strong attachment and easy rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). The gecko adhesive differs dramatically from conventional adhesives. Conventional PSAs are soft viscoelastic polymers that degrade, foul, self-adhere and attach accidentally to inappropriate surfaces. In contrast, gecko toes bear angled arrays of branched, hair-like setae formed from stiff, hydrophobic keratin that act as a bed of angled springs with similar effective elastic modulus to that of PSAs. Setae are self-cleaning and maintain function for months during repeated use in dirty conditions. Setae are an anisotropic 'frictional adhesive' in that adhesion requires maintenance of a proximally directed shear load, enabling either a tough bond or spontaneous detachment. Gecko-like synthetic adhesives may become the glue of the future-and perhaps the screw of the future as well.

  5. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  6. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample. PMID:22397643

  7. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  8. Tissue Mechanics and Adhesion during Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Joseph H.; Davidson, Lance A.

    2014-01-01

    During development cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment through cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Many proteins involved in these adhesions serve both mechanical and signaling roles. In this review we will focus on the mechanical roles of these proteins and their complexes in transmitting force or stress from cell to cell or from cell to the extracellular matrix. As forces operate against tissues they establish tissue architecture, extracellular matrix assembly, and pattern cell shapes. As tissues become more established, adhesions play a major role integrating cells with the mechanics of their local environment. Adhesions may serve as both a molecular-specific glue, holding defined populations of cells together, and as a lubricant, allowing tissues to slide past one another. We review the biophysical principles and experimental tools used to study adhesion so that we may aid efforts to understand how adhesions guide these movements and integrate their signaling functions with mechanical function. As we conclude we review efforts to develop predictive models of adhesion that can be used to interpret experiments and guide future efforts to control and direct the process of tissue self-assembly during development. PMID:25512299

  9. Characterization of canine platelet adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Pero, Maria Elena; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Cestaro, Anna; Signoriello, Simona; Lombardi, Pietro; Avallone, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Canine platelets have been extensively studied but little is known about specific aspects such as adhesion. Platelet adhesion is a critical step during haemostasis and thrombosis as well as during inflammatory and immunopathogenic responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesive properties of canine platelets using fibrinogen and collagen as substrates immobilized on plates. Adhesion was monitored for 120 min and the effect of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) was assayed. The results showed that canine platelets displayed good adhesion activity that was significantly time-dependent. Moreover, ADP was able to enhance platelet adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. The findings aid knowledge of the adhesion process and suggest a specific role of surface platelet receptors in mediating the interaction with extracellular matrix proteins.

  10. Quantifying adhesion energy of mechanical coatings at atomistic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Deqiang; Peng, Xianghe; Qin, Yi; Feng, Jiling; Wang, Zhongchang

    2011-12-01

    Coatings of transition metal compounds find widespread technological applications where adhesion is known to influence or control functionality. Here, we, by first-principles calculations, propose a new way to assess adhesion in coatings and apply it to analyze the TiN coating. We find that the calculated adhesion energies of both the (1 1 1) and (0 0 1) orientations are small under no residual stress, yet increase linearly once the stress is imposed, suggesting that the residual stress is key to affecting adhesion. The strengthened adhesion is found to be attributed to the stress-induced shrinkage of neighbouring bonds, which results in stronger interactions between bonds in TiN coatings. Further finite elements simulation (FEM) based on calculated adhesion energy reproduces well the initial cracking process observed in nano-indentation experiments, thereby validating the application of this approach in quantifying adhesion energy of surface coating systems.

  11. Supramolecular adhesives to hard surfaces: adhesion between host hydrogels and guest glass substrates through molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yoshinori; Sahara, Taiga; Sekine, Tomoko; Kakuta, Takahiro; Nakahata, Masaki; Otsubo, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Harada, Akira

    2014-10-01

    Supramolecular materials based on host-guest interactions should exhibit high selectivity and external stimuli-responsiveness. Among various stimuli, redox and photo stimuli are useful for its wide application. An external stimuli-responsive adhesive system between CD host-gels (CD gels) and guest molecules modified glass substrates (guest Sub) is focused. Here, the selective adhesion between host gels and guest substrates where adhesion depends on molecular complementarity is reported. Initially, it is thought that adhesion of a gel material onto a hard material might be difficult unless many guest molecules modified linear polymers immobilize on the surface of hard materials. However, reversible adhesion of the CD gels is observed by dissociating and re-forming inclusion complex in response to redox and photo stimuli.

  12. Controlled Adhesion of Silicone Elastomer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Michael

    2000-03-01

    Opportunities exist for controllably enhancing the adhesion of silicone surfaces, ranging from modest enhancement of release force levels of pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) release liners by incorporation of adhesion promoters known as high release additives (HRA), to permanent bonding of silicone elastomers using surface modification techniques such as plasma or corona treatment. Although only a part of the complex interaction of factors contributing to adhesion, surface properties such as wettability are a critical component in the understanding and control of release and adhesion phenomena. Surface characterization studies of low-surface-energy silicones before and after various adhesion modification strategies are reviewed. The silicones include polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fluorosiloxane elastomers and coatings. Techniques used include contact angle, the Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics approach, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Topics addressed are: use of HRA in PDMS release liners, the interaction of PDMS PSAs with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the effect of plasma treatment on PDMS and fluorosiloxane surfaces.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of interfacial adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Yarovsky, I.; Chaffee, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Chromium salts are often used in the pretreatment stages of steel painting processes in order to improve adhesion at the metal oxide/primer interface. Although well established empirically, the chemical basis for the improved adhesion conferred by chromia is not well understood. A molecular level understanding of this behaviour should provide a foundation for the design of materials offering improved adhesion control. Molecular modelling of adhesion involves simulation and analysis of molecular behaviour at the interface between two interacting phases. The present study concerns behaviour at the boundary between the metal coated steel surface (with or without chromium pretreatment) and an organic primer based on a solid epoxide resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. An epoxy resin oligomer of molecular weight 3750 was used as the model for the primer.

  14. Neuron adhesion and strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Aracely; Jian, Kuihuan; Ko, Gladys; Liang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the neuron/material adhesion is important for neuron stimulation and growth. The current challenges remain in the lack of precision of measuring techniques and understanding the behavior of neuron. Here, we report a fluid shear method to investigate adhesion at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface. In this study, the adhesion of 12-day-old chick embryo-retina neurons cultured on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips was measured via parallel disk rotational flow. The shear stress experienced by the cells increases with the disk radius. There is a critical point along the radius (Rc) where the stress experienced by the neurons equals their adhesion. The measured Rc can be used to calculate the neuron adhesion. Our results demonstrate that neurons adhered to the poly-D-lysine had a strain hardening effect. The adhesive shear stress of the neuron-material increased with applied shear (τa). When the τa reached or exceeded the value of 40 dyn/cm2, the adhesion remained constant at approximately 30 dyn/cm2. The present work allowed us not only to quantify the adhesive strength and force but also to evaluate the value of strain hardening at the neuron/poly-D-lysine interface.

  15. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  16. Instant acting adhesive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Haines, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Adhesive developes 80 percent of minimum bond strength of 250 psi less than 30 sec after activation is required. Adhesive is stable, handles easily, is a low toxic hazard, and is useful in industrial and domestic prototype bonding and clamping operations.

  17. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  18. Cadherin-11 localizes to focal adhesions and promotes cell–substrate adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Langhe, Rahul P.; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Bachmann, Michael; Becker, Sarah F.; Gonnermann, Carina; Winter, Claudia; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Alfandari, Dominique; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Franz, Clemens M.; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-01-01

    Cadherin receptors have a well-established role in cell–cell adhesion, cell polarization and differentiation. However, some cadherins also promote cell and tissue movement during embryonic development and tumour progression. In particular, cadherin-11 is upregulated during tumour and inflammatory cell invasion, but the mechanisms underlying cadherin-11 stimulated cell migration are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that cadherin-11 localizes to focal adhesions and promotes adhesion to fibronectin in Xenopus neural crest, a highly migratory embryonic cell population. Transfected cadherin-11 also localizes to focal adhesions in different mammalian cell lines, while endogenous cadherin-11 shows focal adhesion localization in primary human fibroblasts. In focal adhesions, cadherin-11 co-localizes with β1-integrin and paxillin and physically interacts with the fibronectin-binding proteoglycan syndecan-4. Adhesion to fibronectin mediated by cadherin-11/syndecan-4 complexes requires both the extracellular domain of syndecan-4, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of cadherin-11. These results reveal an unexpected role of a classical cadherin in cell–matrix adhesion during cell migration. PMID:26952325

  19. Cadherin-11 localizes to focal adhesions and promotes cell-substrate adhesion.

    PubMed

    Langhe, Rahul P; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Bachmann, Michael; Becker, Sarah F; Gonnermann, Carina; Winter, Claudia; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Alfandari, Dominique; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Franz, Clemens M; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-01-01

    Cadherin receptors have a well-established role in cell-cell adhesion, cell polarization and differentiation. However, some cadherins also promote cell and tissue movement during embryonic development and tumour progression. In particular, cadherin-11 is upregulated during tumour and inflammatory cell invasion, but the mechanisms underlying cadherin-11 stimulated cell migration are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that cadherin-11 localizes to focal adhesions and promotes adhesion to fibronectin in Xenopus neural crest, a highly migratory embryonic cell population. Transfected cadherin-11 also localizes to focal adhesions in different mammalian cell lines, while endogenous cadherin-11 shows focal adhesion localization in primary human fibroblasts. In focal adhesions, cadherin-11 co-localizes with β1-integrin and paxillin and physically interacts with the fibronectin-binding proteoglycan syndecan-4. Adhesion to fibronectin mediated by cadherin-11/syndecan-4 complexes requires both the extracellular domain of syndecan-4, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of cadherin-11. These results reveal an unexpected role of a classical cadherin in cell-matrix adhesion during cell migration. PMID:26952325

  20. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  1. Adhesives in larynx repair.

    PubMed

    Lyons, M B; Lyons, G D; Webster, D; Wheeler, V R

    1989-04-01

    Guinea pig laryngeal fractures were used as a model to compare the ease of application and effectiveness of the fibrinogen-adhesive system with the ease of application and effectiveness of cyanoacrylate glue and control fractures stinted with contralateral gelatin film. Seven fibrin adhesive-treated and two cyanoacrylate glue-treated guinea pigs were perfused after 60 and 35 days, respectively. The larynges were serial sectioned, and the wound sites were compared. The fibrinogen adhesive system was easier to dispense than cyanoacrylate glue, did not require a completely dry surface, and stabilized within 3 minutes. Cartilage segment alignment with focal, complete fracture healing and symmetrical chondrocyte proliferation were seen in fibrogen adhesive-stinted larynges. In the cyanoacrylate glue-treated larynges, there was no alignment and minimal, asymmetrical chondrocyte proliferation. Gelatin film-stinted controls exhibited similar features. Thus, fibrogen adhesive was easier to apply and more effectively bound laryngeal fractures than cyanoacrylate glue or gelatin film.

  2. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thöle, Christian; Brandt, Simone; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-09-15

    Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates) after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS) with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL) led to reduced binding to 3'-sialyl lactose, sialylated Le(a) and Le(x). A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation) indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity.

  3. Acetylated Rhamnogalacturonans from Immature Fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus Inhibit the Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Human Gastric Cells by Interaction with Outer Membrane Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thöle, Christian; Brandt, Simone; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide containing extracts from immature fruits of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known to exhibit antiadhesive effects against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to stomach tissue. The present study investigates structural and functional features of polymers responsible for this inhibition of bacterial attachment to host cells. Ammonium sulfate precipitation of an aqueous extract yielded two fractions at 60% and 90% saturation with significant antiadhesive effects against H. pylori, strain J99, (FE60% 68% ± 15%; FE90% 75% ± 11% inhibition rates) after preincubation of the bacteria at 1 mg/mL. Sequential extraction of okra fruits yielded hot buffer soluble solids (HBSS) with dose dependent antiadhesive effects against strain J99 and three clinical isolates. Preincubation of H. pylori with HBSS (1 mg/mL) led to reduced binding to 3'-sialyl lactose, sialylated Le(a) and Le(x). A reduction of bacterial binding to ligands complementary to BabA and SabA was observed when bacteria were pretreated with FE90%. Structural analysis of the antiadhesive polysaccharides (molecular weight, monomer composition, linkage analysis, stereochemistry, and acetylation) indicated the presence of acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I polymers, decorated with short galactose side chains. Deacetylation of HBSS and FE90% resulted in loss of the antiadhesive activity, indicating esterification being a prerequisite for antiadhesive activity. PMID:26389872

  4. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-06-02

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  5. Probing adhesion forces at the molecular scale

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.C.; Houston, J.E.; Michalske, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Measurements of adhesion forces at the molecular scale, such as those discussed here, are necessary to understand macroscopic boundary-layer behavior such as adhesion, friction, wear, lubrication, and many other important phenomena. The authors` recent interfacial force microscopy (IFM) studies have provided detailed information about the mechanical response of both self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films and the underlying substrates. In addition, they recently demonstrated that the IFM is useful for studying the chemical nature of such films. In this talk, the authors discuss a new method for studying surface interactions and chemical reactions using the IFM. To quantitatively measure the work of adhesion and bond energies between two organic thin films, they modify both a Au substrate and a Au probe with self-assembling organomercaptan molecules having either the same or different end groups (-CH{sub 3}, -NH{sub 2}, and -COOH), and then analyze the force-versus-displacement curves (force profiles) that result from the approach to contact of the two surfaces. Their results show that the magnitude of the adhesive forces measured between methyl-methyl interactions are in excellent agreement with van der Waals calculations using Lifshitz theory and previous experimentally determined values. Moreover, the measured peak adhesive forces scale as expected for van der Waals, hydrogen-bonding, and acid-base interactions.

  6. Adhesion in hydrogels and model glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guvendiren, Murat

    Two main topics are addressed in this dissertation: (1) adhesion in hydrogels; (2) interfacial interactions between model glassy polymers. A self-assembly technique for the formation of hydrogels from acrylic triblock copolymer solutions was developed, based on vapor phase solvent exchange. Structure formation in the gels was characterized by small angle X-ray scattering, and swelling was measured in controlled pH buffer solutions. Strong gels are formed with polymer weight fractions between 0.01 and 0.15, and with shear moduli between 0.6 kPa and 3.5 kPa. Adhesive functionality, based on 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) was also incorporated into the triblock copolymers. The effect of DOPA concentration on gel formation and swelling was investigated in detail. The adhesive properties of DOPA-functionalized hydrogels on TiO2 were investigated with an axisymmetric adhesion method. It was shown that the presence of DOPA enhances the adhesive properties of the hydrogels, but that the effect is minimized at pH values below 10, where the DOPA groups are hydrophobic. Thin film membranes were produced in order to study the specific interactions between DOPA and TiO2 and DOPA and tissue, using a membrane inflation method. The presence of DOPA in the membranes enhances the adhesion on TiO 2 and tissue, although adhesion to tissue requires that the DOPA groups be oxidized while in contact with the tissue of interest. Porous hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were formed by adding salt crystals to the triblock copolymer solution prior to solvent exchange. Salt was then leached out by immersing the gel into water. Structures of the porous hydrogels were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. These hydrogels were shown to be suitable for tissue regeneration and drug delivery applications. Diffusion-mediated adhesion between two component miscible polymer systems having very different glassy temperatures was also investigated. Axisymmetric

  7. Resonance energy transfer imaging of phospholipid vesicle interaction with a planar phospholipid membrane: undulations and attachment sites in the region of calcium-mediated membrane--membrane adhesion

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Membrane fusion of a phospholipid vesicle with a planar lipid bilayer is preceded by an initial prefusion stage in which a region of the vesicle membrane adheres to the planar membrane. A resonance energy transfer (RET) imaging microscope, with measured spectral transfer functions and a pair of radiometrically calibrated video cameras, was used to determine both the area of the contact region and the distances between the membranes within this zone. Large vesicles (5-20 microns diam) were labeled with the donor fluorophore coumarin- phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), while the planar membrane was labeled with the acceptor rhodamine-PE. The donor was excited with 390 nm light, and separate images of donor and acceptor emission were formed by the microscope. Distances between the membranes at each location in the image were determined from the RET rate constant (kt) computed from the acceptor:donor emission intensity ratio. In the absence of an osmotic gradient, the vesicles stably adhered to the planar membrane, and the dyes did not migrate between membranes. The region of contact was detected as an area of planar membrane, coincident with the vesicle image, over which rhodamine fluorescence was sensitized by RET. The total area of the contact region depended biphasically on the Ca2+ concentration, but the distance between the bilayers in this zone decreased with increasing [Ca2+]. The changes in area and separation were probably related to divalent cation effects on electrostatic screening and binding to charged membranes. At each [Ca2+], the intermembrane separation varied between 1 and 6 nm within each contact region, indicating membrane undulation prior to adhesion. Intermembrane separation distances < or = 2 nm were localized to discrete sites that formed in an ordered arrangement throughout the contact region. The area of the contact region occupied by these punctate attachment sites was increased at high [Ca2+]. Membrane fusion may be initiated at these sites of

  8. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor mediates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression through interaction with VEGF receptor-2 (KDR/Flk-1).

    PubMed

    Seye, Cheikh I; Yu, Ningpu; González, Fernando A; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2004-08-20

    UTP stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells through activation of the P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor P2Y(2)R. Here, we demonstrated that activation of the P2Y(2)R induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). RNA interference targeting VEGFR-2 or inhibition of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase activity abolishes P2Y(2)R-mediated VCAM-1 expression. Furthermore, VEGFR-2 and the P2Y(2)R co-localize upon UTP stimulation. Deletion or mutation of two Src homology-3-binding sites in the C-terminal tail of the P2Y(2)R or inhibition of Src kinase activity abolished the P2Y(2)R-mediated transactivation of VEGFR-2 and subsequently inhibited UTP-induced VCAM-1 expression. Moreover, activation of VEGFR-2 by UTP leads to the phosphorylation of Vav2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho family GTPases. Using a binding assay to measure the activity of the small GTPases Rho, we found that stimulation of HCAEC by UTP increased the activity of RhoA and Rac1 (but not Cdc42). Significantly, a dominant negative form of RhoA inhibited P2Y(2)R-mediated VCAM-1 expression, whereas expression of dominant negative forms of Cdc42 and Rac1 had no effect. These data indicate a novel mechanism whereby a nucleotide receptor transactivates a receptor tyrosine kinase to generate an inflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis.

  9. Cytotoxicity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    de Gomes, Pedro Sousa; Figueiral, Maria Helena; Fernandes, Maria Helena R; Scully, Crispian

    2011-12-01

    Ten commercially available denture adhesives, nine soluble formulations (six creams, three powders) and one insoluble product (pad), were analyzed regarding the cytotoxicity profile in direct and indirect assays using L929 fibroblast cells. In the direct assay, fibroblasts were seeded over the surface of a thick adhesive gel (5%, creams; 2.5%, powders and pad). In the indirect assay, cells were cultured in the presence of adhesive extracts prepared in static and dynamic conditions (0.5-2%, creams; 0.25-1%, powders and pad). Cell toxicity was assessed for cell viability/proliferation (MTT assay) and cell morphology (observation of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization by confocal laser scanning microscopy). Direct contact of the L929 fibroblasts with the thick adhesive gels caused no, or only a slight, decrease in cell viability/proliferation. The adhesive extracts (especially those prepared in dynamic conditions) caused significantly higher growth inhibition of fibroblasts and, in addition, caused dose- and time-dependent effects, throughout the 6-72 h exposure time. Also, dose-dependent effects on cell morphology, with evident disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization, were seen in the presence of most adhesives. In conclusion, the adhesives possessed different degrees of cytotoxicity, but similar dose- and time-dependent biological profiles.

  10. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  11. Cell adhesion force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, G.; Giaever, I.; Pettersen, E. O.; Feder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The adhesion forces of cervical carcinoma cells in tissue culture were measured by using the manipulation force microscope, a novel atomic force microscope. The forces were studied as a function of time and temperature for cells cultured on hydrophilic and hydrophobic polystyrene substrates with preadsorbed proteins. The cells attached faster and stronger at 37°C than at 23°C and better on hydrophilic than on hydrophobic substrates, even though proteins adsorb much better to the hydrophobic substrates. Because cell adhesion serves to control several stages in the cell cycle, we anticipate that the manipulation force microscope can help clarify some cell-adhesion related issues. PMID:9892657

  12. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  13. The de-adhesive activity of matricellular proteins: is intermediate cell adhesion an adaptive state?

    PubMed

    Murphy-Ullrich, J E

    2001-04-01

    The process of cellular de-adhesion is potentially important for the ability of a cell to participate in morphogenesis and to respond to injurious stimuli. Cellular de-adhesion is induced by the highly regulated matricellular proteins TSP1 and 2, tenascin-C, and SPARC. These proteins induce a rapid transition to an intermediate state of adhesiveness characterized by loss of actin-containing stress fibers and restructuring of the focal adhesion plaque that includes loss of vinculin and alpha-actinin, but not of talin or integrin. This process involves intracellular signaling mediators, which are engaged in response to matrix protein-receptor interactions. Each of these proteins employs different receptors and signaling pathways to achieve this common morphologic endpoint. What is the function of this intermediate adhesive state and what is the physiologic significance of this action of the matricellular proteins? Given that matricellular proteins are expressed in response to injury and during development, one can speculate that the intermediate adhesive state is an adaptive condition that facilitates expression of specific genes that are involved in repair and adaptation. Since cell shape is maintained in weakly adherent cells, this state might induce survival signals to prevent apoptosis due to loss of strong cell adhesion, but yet allow for cell locomotion. The three matricellular proteins considered here might each preferentially facilitate one or more aspects of this adaptive response rather than all of these equally. Currently, we have only preliminary data to support the specific ideas proposed in this article. It will be interesting in the next several years to continue to elucidate the biological roles of the intermediate adhesive state induced by these matricellular proteins. and focal adhesions in a cell that nevertheless maintains a spread, extended morphology and integrin clustering. TSP1, tenascin-C, and SPARC induce the intermediate adhesive state, as

  14. Effect of interfacial ion structuring on range and magnitude of electric double layer, hydration, and adhesive interactions between mica surfaces in 0.05-3 M Li⁺ and Cs⁺ electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Baimpos, Theodoros; Shrestha, Buddha R; Raman, Sangeetha; Valtiner, Markus

    2014-04-22

    Ions and water structuring at charged-solid/electrolyte interfaces and forces arising from interfacial structuring in solutions above 100 mM concentrations dominate structure and functionality in many physiological, geological, and technological systems. In these concentrations, electrolyte structuring occurs within the range of molecular dimensions. Here, we quantitatively measure and describe electric double layer (EDL) and adhesive interactions at mica-interfaces in aqueous CsCl and LiCl solutions with concentrations ranging from 50 mM to 3 M. Complementarily, using atomic force microscopy and surface forces apparatus experiments we characterize concentration-dependent stark differences in the inner and outer EDL force profiles, and discuss differences between the used methods. From 50 mM to 1 M concentrations, interactions forces measured in CsCl-solutions exhibit strong hydration repulsions, but no diffuse EDL-repulsions beyond the Stern layer. In confinement the weakly hydrated Cs(+) ions condensate into the mica-lattice screening the entire surface charge within the Stern layer. In contrast, strongly hydrated Li(+) ions only partially compensate the surface charge within the Stern layer, leading to the formation of a diffuse outer double layer with DLVO behavior. Both LiCl and CsCl solutions exhibit oscillatory ion-hydration forces at surface separations from 2.2 nm to 4-8 Å. Below 4-8 Å the force profiles are dominated in both cases by forces originating from water and/or ion confinement at the solid/electrolyte/solid interface. Adhesive minima and their location vary strongly with the electrolyte and its concentration due to specific ion correlations across the interface, while dispersion forces between the surfaces are overpowered. Highly concentrated 3 M solutions exhibit solidification of the inner EDL structure and an unexpected formation of additional diffuse EDL forces with an increasing range, as recently measured in ionic liquids. Our results may

  15. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  16. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  17. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  18. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P.; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein–metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S–S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives. PMID:25657841

  19. Focal adhesion molecule Kindlin-1 mediates activation of TGF-β signaling by interacting with TGF-βRI, SARA and Smad3 in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jinfeng; Du, Juan; Wang, Yunling; Yang, Mingzi; Gao, Jianchao; Wei, Xiaofan; Fang, Weigang; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan

    2016-10-20

    Kindlin-1, an integrin-interacting protein, has been implicated in TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Kindlin-1 regulation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling remains elusive. Here, we reported that Kindlin-1 is an important mediator of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling by showing that Kindlin-1 physically interacts with TGF-β receptor I (TβRI), Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) and Smad3. Kindlin-1 is required for the interaction of Smad3 with TβRI, Smad3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and finally the activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway. Functionally, Kindlin-1 promoted colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, and was also required for CRC cell migration and invasion via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Kindlin-1 was found to be increased with the CRC progression from stages I to IV. Importantly, raised expression level of Kindlin-1 correlates with poor outcome in CRC patients. Taken together, we demonstrated that Kindlin-1 promotes CRC progression by recruiting SARA and Smad3 to TβRI and thereby activates TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. Thus, Kindlin-1 is a novel regulator of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and may also be a potential target for CRC therapeutics.

  20. Free energy landscape of receptor-mediated cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianyi; Zaman, Muhammad H.

    2007-01-01

    Receptor-mediated cell adhesion plays a critical role in cell migration, proliferation, signaling, and survival. A number of diseases, including cancer, show a strong correlation between integrin activation and metastasis. A better understanding of cell adhesion is highly desirable for not only therapeutic but also a number of tissue engineering applications. While a number of computational models and experimental studies have addressed the issue of cell adhesion to surfaces, no model or theory has adequately addressed cell adhesion at the molecular level. In this paper, the authors present a thermodynamic model that addresses receptor-mediated cell adhesion at the molecular level. By incorporating the entropic, conformational, solvation, and long- and short-range interactive components of receptors and the extracellular matrix molecules, they are able to predict adhesive free energy as a function of a number of key variables such as surface coverage, interaction distance, molecule size, and solvent conditions. Their method allows them to compute the free energy of adhesion in a multicomponent system where they can simultaneously study adhesion receptors and ligands of different sizes, chemical identities, and conformational properties. The authors' results not only provide a fundamental understanding of adhesion at the molecular level but also suggest possible strategies for designing novel biomaterials.

  1. Work of adhesion and separation between soft elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanshu

    2015-03-01

    The JKR (Johnson-Kendall-Roberts) method is widely used to measure the work of adhesion between soft materials. In this paper, the JKR theory is summarized and three dimensionless parameters are proposed to design a proper JKR experiment. The work of adhesion and the work of separation between two commonly used soft elastomers PDMS (Sylgard 184) and Ecoflex 0300 are obtained with the measured pull-in and pull-off forces using a dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA). The effect of crosslinking density and solvent extraction are examined. It is found that the pull-in adhesion stays more or less constant for all contact pairs we measured. While the effect of crosslinking density is not significant for pristine PDMS, it is very obvious that the higher self-adhesion can be found in less crosslinked PDMS after solvent extraction. Such an effect is even more drastic for PDMS-to-Ecoflex adhesion. A unified adhesion mechanism is proposed to explain these complex adhesion behaviors. It is concluded that the chain-matrix interaction is the most effective adhesion mechanism compared to chain-chain or matrix-matrix interactions and the three interactions are exclusive to each other. This work is supported by the NSF CMMI award under Grant No. 1301335.

  2. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  3. Intrinsic Surface-Drying Properties of Bio-adhesive Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Akdogan, Yasar; Wei, Wei; Huang, Kuo-Ying; Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Danner, Eric W.; Miller, Dusty R.; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Herbert Waite, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sessile marine mussels must “dry” underwater surfaces before adhering to them. Synthetic adhesives have yet to overcome this fundamental challenge. Previous studies of bio-inspired adhesion have largely been performed under applied compressive forces but these are poor predictors of an adhesive’s ability to spontaneously penetrate surface hydration layers. In a force-free approach to measuring molecular-level interaction via the surface water diffusivity, different mussel foot proteins were found to have differential abilities to evict hydration layers from the surfaces—a necessary step for adsorption and adhesion. It was anticipated that Dopa would mediate dehydration given its efficacy forbio-inspired wet adhesion. Instead, hydrophobic side-chains are found to be a critical component in bringing about protein-surface intimacy. This is the first direct measurement of interfacial water dynamics during force-free adsorptive interactions at solid surfaces, and offers guidance for engineering wet adhesives and coatings. PMID:25168789

  4. Cell Adhesion on Amyloid Fibrils Lacking Integrin Recognition Motif.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Reeba S; George, Edna; Singh, Pradeep K; Salot, Shimul; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Sen, Shamik; Maji, Samir K

    2016-03-01

    Amyloids are highly ordered, cross-β-sheet-rich protein/peptide aggregates associated with both human diseases and native functions. Given the well established ability of amyloids in interacting with cell membranes, we hypothesize that amyloids can serve as universal cell-adhesive substrates. Here, we show that, similar to the extracellular matrix protein collagen, amyloids of various proteins/peptides support attachment and spreading of cells via robust stimulation of integrin expression and formation of integrin-based focal adhesions. Additionally, amyloid fibrils are also capable of immobilizing non-adherent red blood cells through charge-based interactions. Together, our results indicate that both active and passive mechanisms contribute to adhesion on amyloid fibrils. The present data may delineate the functional aspect of cell adhesion on amyloids by various organisms and its involvement in human diseases. Our results also raise the exciting possibility that cell adhesivity might be a generic property of amyloids. PMID:26742841

  5. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  6. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  7. Regulation of Cell Adhesion Strength by Peripheral Focal Adhesion Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Elineni, Kranthi Kumar; Gallant, Nathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices is a tightly regulated process that involves the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical events at the cell-adhesive interface. Previous work established the spatiotemporal contributions of adhesive components to adhesion strength and identified a nonlinear dependence on cell spreading. This study was designed to investigate the regulation of cell-adhesion strength by the size and position of focal adhesions (FA). The cell-adhesive interface was engineered to direct FA assembly to the periphery of the cell-spreading area to delineate the cell-adhesive area from the cell-spreading area. It was observed that redistributing the same adhesive area over a larger cell-spreading area significantly enhanced cell-adhesion strength, but only up to a threshold area. Moreover, the size of the peripheral FAs, which was interpreted as an adhesive patch, did not directly govern the adhesion strength. Interestingly, this is in contrast to the previously reported functional role of FAs in regulating cellular traction where sizes of the peripheral FAs play a critical role. These findings demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that two spatial regimes in cell-spreading area exist that uniquely govern the structure-function role of FAs in regulating cell-adhesion strength. PMID:22208188

  8. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John; Walton, Christopher; Folta, James

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  9. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  10. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives. PMID:26513350

  11. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent

  12. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  13. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  14. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  15. Alterations in Adhesion, Transport, and Membrane Characteristics in an Adhesion-Deficient Pseudomonad

    PubMed Central

    DeFlaun, M. F.; Oppenheimer, S. R.; Streger, S.; Condee, C. W.; Fletcher, M.

    1999-01-01

    A stable adhesion-deficient mutant of Burkholderia cepacia G4, a soil pseudomonad, was selected in a sand column assay. This mutant (ENV435) was compared to the wild-type strain by examining the adhesion of the organisms to silica sand and their transport through two aquifer sediments that differed in their sand, silt, and clay contents. We compared the longitudinal transport of the wild type and the adhesion mutant to the transport of a conservative chloride tracer in 25-cm-long glass columns. The transport of the wild-type strain was severely retarded compared to the transport of the conservative tracer in a variety of aquifer sediments, while the adhesion mutant and the conservative tracer traveled at similar rates. An intact sediment core study produced similar results; ENV435 was transported at a faster rate and in much greater numbers than G4. The results of hydrophobic interaction chromatography revealed that G4 was significantly more hydrophobic than ENV435, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significant differences in the lipopolysaccharide O-antigens of the adhesion mutant and the wild type. Differences in this cell surface polymer may explain the decreased adhesion of strain ENV435. PMID:9925613

  16. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is the major adhesion molecule expressed during schistosome granuloma formation.

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, D M; McKerrow, J H

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cell adhesion molecules play a key role in inflammation by initiating leukocyte trafficking. One of the most complex inflammatory responses is the formation of a cellular granuloma. Expression of adhesion molecules during granuloma formation was investigated by using the murine host reaction to schistosome parasite eggs deposited in the liver as a model. By both immunohistochemistry and lymphocyte adhesion assays, the predominant interaction identified was between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and its cognate integrin, leukocyte functional antigen 1 (LFA-1). ICAM-1 expression on sinusoidal endothelium was induced when eggs were first deposited in the liver, peaked in parallel with granuloma size, and was downregulated with modulation of the granuloma. Polyacrylamide beads coated with soluble parasite egg antigens could induce ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells in vitro only in the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha, a cytokine previously shown to be key to granuloma formation. A role for ICAM-1 in recruiting lymphocytes to the hepatic granuloma was also supported by the observation that lymphocytes preincubated with anti-LFA-1 antibody did not bind to granulomas in tissue sections. While ICAM-1 is the predominant adhesion molecule in schistosome egg granuloma formation in wild-type mice, when the ICAM-1 gene is knocked out, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 is upregulated and granuloma formation is preserved. PMID:8890229

  18. Cell adhesion in zebrafish myogenesis: distribution of intermediate filaments, microfilaments, intracellular adhesion structures and extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Costa, Manoel L; Escaleira, Roberta C; Jazenko, Fernanda; Mermelstein, Claudia S

    2008-10-01

    To overcome the limitations of in vitro studies, we have been studying myogenesis in situ in zebrafish embryos, at a sub-cellular level. While in previous works we focused on myofibrillogenesis and some aspects of adhesion structures, here we describe in more detail cell adhesion structures and interactions among cytoskeletal components, membrane and extracellular matrix during zebrafish muscle development. We studied the intermediate filaments, and we describe the full range of desmin distribution in zebrafish development, from perinuclear to striated, until its deposition around the intersomite septa of older somites. This adhesion structure, positive for desmin and actin, has not been previously observed in myogenesis in vitro. We also show that actin is initially located in the intersomite septum region whereas it is confined to the myofibrils later on. While actin localization changes during development, the adhesion complex proteins vinculin, paxillin, talin, dystrophin, laminin and fibronectin always appear exclusively at the intersomite septa, and appear to be co-distributed, even though the extracellular proteins accumulates before the intracellular ones. Contrary to the adhesion proteins, that are continuously distributed, desmin and sarcomeric actin form triangular aggregates among the septa and the cytoskeleton. We studied the cytoskeletal linker plectin as well, and we show that it has a distribution similar to desmin and not to actin. We conclude that the in situ adhesion structures differ from their in vitro counterparts, and that the actual zebrafish embryo myogenesis is quite different than that which occurs in in vitro systems.

  19. Alterations in adhesion, transport, and membrane characteristics in an adhesion-deficient pseudomonad

    SciTech Connect

    DeFlaun, M.F.; Streger, S.; Condee, C.W.; Oppenheimer, S.R.; Fletcher, M.

    1999-02-01

    A stable adhesion-deficient mutant of Burkholderia cepacia G4, a soil pseudomonad, was selected in a sand column assay. This mutant (ENV435) was compared to the wild-type strain by examining the adhesion of the organisms to silica sand and their transport through two aquifer sediments that differed in their sand, silt, and clay contents. The authors compared the longitudinal transport of the wild type and the adhesion mutant to the transport of a conservative chloride tracer in 25-cm-long glass columns. The transport of the wild-type strain was severely retarded compared to the transport of the conservative tracer in a variety of aquifer sediments, while the adhesion mutant and the conservative tracer traveled at similar rates. An intact sediment core study produced similar results; ENV435 was transported at a faster rate and in much greater numbers than G4. The results of hydrophobic interaction chromatography revealed that G4 was significantly more hydrophobic than ENV435, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed significant differences in the lipopolysaccharide O-antigens of the adhesion mutant and the wild type. Differences in this cell surface polymer may explain the decreased adhesion of strain ENV435.

  20. Humidity-enhanced wet adhesion on insect-inspired fibrillar adhesive pads

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Longjian; Kovalev, Alexander; Eichler-Volf, Anna; Steinhart, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Many insect species reversibly adhere to surfaces by combining contact splitting (contact formation via fibrillar contact elements) and wet adhesion (supply of liquid secretion via pores in the insects’ feet). Here, we fabricate insect-inspired fibrillar pads for wet adhesion containing continuous pore systems through which liquid is supplied to the contact interfaces. Synergistic interaction of capillarity and humidity-induced pad softening increases the pull-off force and the work of adhesion by two orders of magnitude. This increase and the independence of pull-off force on the applied load are caused by the capillarity-supported formation of solid–solid contact between pad and the surface. Solid–solid contact dominates adhesion at high humidity and capillarity at low humidity. At low humidity, the work of adhesion strongly depends on the amount of liquid deposited on the surface and, therefore, on contact duration. These results may pave the way for the design of insect-inspired adhesive pads. PMID:25791574

  1. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  2. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  3. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  4. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  5. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  6. Resistance heating releases structural adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glemser, N. N.

    1967-01-01

    Composite adhesive package bonds components together for testing and enables separation when testing is completed. The composite of adhesives, insulation and a heating element separate easily when an electrical current is applied.

  7. 3-D foam adhesive deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1976-01-01

    Bonding method, which reduces amount and weight of adhesive, is applicable to foam-filled honeycomb constructions. Novel features of process include temperature-viscosity control and removal of excess adhesive by transfer to cellophane film.

  8. The role of material properties in adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When two solid surfaces are brought into contact strong adhesive bond forces can develop between the materials. The magnitude of the forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between solids is addressed from a theoretical consideration of the electronic nature of the surfaces and experimentally relating bond forces to the nature of the interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties correlated with adhesion include, atomic or molecular orientation, reconstruction and segregation as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where dissimilar solids are in contact the contribution of each is considered as is the role of their interactive chemistry on bond strength. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structure, crystallographic orientation and state. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers and diamond. They are reviewed both in single and polycrystalline form. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  9. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  10. Adhesion through single peptide aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve; Appleyard, David C.; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Fadiran, Oluwatimilehin O.; Kunkel, Jacquelyn; Lang, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamer and antibody mediated adhesion is central to biological function and valuable in the engineering of “lab on a chip” devices. Single molecule force spectroscopy using optical tweezers enables direct non-equilibrium measurement of these non-covalent interactions for three peptide aptamers selected for glass, polystyrene, and carbon nanotubes. A comprehensive examination of the strong attachment between anti-fluorescein 4-4-20 and fluorescein was also carried out using the same assay. Bond lifetime, barrier width, and free energy of activation are extracted from unbinding histogram data using three single molecule pulling models. The evaluated aptamers appear to adhere stronger than the fluorescein antibody under no- and low-load conditions, yet weaker than antibodies at loads above ~25pN. Comparison to force spectroscopy data of other biological linkages shows the diversity of load dependent binding and provides insight into linkages used in biological processes and those designed for engineered systems. PMID:20795685

  11. The structure of cell-matrix adhesions: the new frontier

    PubMed Central

    Hanein, Dorit; Horwitz, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Adhesions between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are mechanosensitive multi-protein assemblies that transmit force across the cell membrane and regulate biochemical signals in response to the chemical and mechanical environment. These combined functions in force transduction, signaling and mechanosensing contribute to cellular phenotypes that span development, homeostasis and disease. These adhesions form, mature and disassemble in response to actin organization and physical forces that originate from endogenous myosin activity or external forces by the extracellular matrix. Despite advances in our understanding of the protein composition, interactions and regulation, our understanding of matrix adhesion structure and organization, how forces affect this organization, and how these changes dictate specific signaling events is limited. Insights across multiple structural levels are acutely needed to elucidate adhesion structure and ultimately the molecular basis of signaling and mechanotransduction. Here we describe the challenges and recent advances and prospects for unraveling the structure of cell-matrix adhesions and their response to force. PMID:22196929

  12. Modeling and simulation of adhesion between carbon nanotubes and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldum, Alper; Paudel, Naba Raj; Ohashi, Toshiyuki; Dai, Liming

    2008-03-01

    There have been also many experimental studies which were performed to compare the adhesion properties of carbon nanotubes with that of a gecko's foot on smooth surfaces. Yurdumakan et al. measured the adhesive force of multiwalled carbon nanotube hairs and found it to be 200 times higher than that observed for gecko foot-hairs.Here, we present theoretical investigations of CNTs interacting with surfaces. We study the deformation of CNTs and evaluate their adhesion similar to the experimental investigation of a gecko's foot. To study the deformation behavior and adhesion of CNTs, atomistic simulations of capped armchair (10, 10) nanotubes with two different lengths are performed on rigid and relaxed graphite surfaces.Simulations were also performed for different orientations of the nanotube with respect to the graphite surface to study the angular dependence of adhesion and deformation.

  13. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  14. Stress evolution in a conductive adhesive during curing and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yuhai

    2000-10-01

    There is increasing interest in using conductive adhesives, which are composites of polymers and conductive fillers, as replacements for solder in different types of microelectronic assemblies. However, conductive adhesives still suffer from several deficiencies, such as unstable electrical conductivity and inadequate adhesion. The reliability of the conductive adhesive joints is always one of the major considerations during their design and operation, and the curing and thermal stresses generated in polymers and composites during curing, cooling and thermal cycling play a very important role in determining reliability. Because of the mismatch in the mechanical properties between the conductive adhesive and the substrate, appreciable curing and thermal stress is generated during manufacturing, which may be detrimental to the reliability of conductive adhesive joints. In this dissertation, an interactive linear viscoelastic model which considers interaction between the initial gel network and the other networks that form during curing is proposed to simulate stress and volume shrinkage during the thermoset curing process, and an effective method for measuring volume shrinkage during the thermoset cure is developed. A systematic experimental study of the material properties of the conductive adhesive and its epoxy matrix during the curing and cooling processes has been conducted. Based on these experimental data, stresses generated during several spatially homogeneous curing and cooling processes of the conductive adhesive and its epoxy matrix are also calculated. It is found that the conductive adhesive possesses mechanical properties which are substantially different from those of the constituents, and that the conductive adhesive has a relaxation process which is similar to its matrix and generates appreciable curing and thermal stresses during curing and cooling. Finally, a processing procedure designed to provide desired residual stresses is discussed.

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic textured biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A

    2014-06-01

    It is of great interest to use nano- or micro-structured surfaces to inhibit microbial adhesion and biofilm formation and thereby to prevent biomaterial-associated infection, without modification of the surface chemistry or bulk properties of the materials and without use of the drugs. Our previous study showed that a submicron textured polyurethane surface can inhibit staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. To further understand the effect of the geometry of textures on bacterial adhesion as well as the underlying mechanism, in this study, submicron and micron textured polyurethane surfaces featuring ordered arrays of pillars were fabricated and modified to have different wettabilities. All the textured surfaces were originally hydrophobic and showed significant reductions in Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion in phosphate buffered saline or 25% platelet poor plasma solutions under shear, as compared to smooth surfaces. After being subjected to an air glow discharge plasma treatment, all polyurethane surfaces were modified to hydrophilic, and reductions in bacterial adhesion on surfaces were subsequently found to be dependent on the size of the patterns. The submicron patterned surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion, while the micron patterned surfaces led to increased bacterial adhesion. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the S. epidermidis cell surfaces were extracted and purified, and were coated on a glass colloidal surface so that the adhesion force and separation energy in interactions of the EPS and the surface could be measured by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. These results were consistent with the bacterial adhesion observations. Overall, the data suggest that the increased surface hydrophobicity and the decreased availability of the contact area contributes to a reduction in bacterial adhesion to the hydrophobic textured surfaces, while the availability of the contact area is the primary determinant factor

  16. On coating adhesion during impulse plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafal; Okrasa, Sebastian; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Składnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The impulse plasma deposition (IPD) technique is the only method of plasma surface engineering (among plasma-based technologies) that allows a synthesis of layers upon a cold unheated substrate and which ensures a good adhesion. This paper presents a study of plasma impacts upon a copper substrate surface during the IPD process. The substrate was exposed to pulsed N2/Al plasma streams during the synthesis of AlN layers. For plasma-material interaction diagnostics, the optical emission spectroscopy method was used. Our results show that interactions of plasma lead to sputtering of the substrate material. It seems that the obtained adhesion of the layers is the result of a complex surface mechanism combined with the effects of pulsed plasma energy impacts upon the unheated substrate. An example of such a result is the value of the critical load for the Al2O3 layer, which was measured by the scratch-test method to be above 40 N.

  17. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  18. Development of phosphorylated adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.; Jenkins, R. K.; Campbell, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame.

  19. Adhesion barrier reduces postoperative adhesions after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukihiro; Hirata, Yasutaka; Achiwa, Ikuya; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Soto, Hajime; Kobayahsi, Jotaro

    2012-06-01

    Reoperation in cardiac surgery is associated with increased risk due to surgical adhesions. Application of a bioresorbable material could theoretically reduce adhesions and allow later development of a free dissection plane for cardiac reoperation. Twenty-one patients in whom a bioresorbable hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose adhesion barrier had been applied in a preceding surgery underwent reoperations, while 23 patients underwent reoperations during the same period without a prior adhesion barrier. Blinded observers graded the tenacity of the adhesions from surgical video recordings of the reoperations. No excessive bleeding requiring wound reexploration, mediastinal infection, or other complication attributable to the adhesion barrier occurred. Multiple regression analysis showed that shorter duration of the preceding surgery, non-use of cardiopulmonary bypass in the preceding surgery, and use of the adhesion barrier were significantly associated with less tenacious surgical adhesions. The use of a bioresorbable material in cardiac surgery reduced postoperative adhesions, facilitated reoperation, and did not promote complications. The use of adhesion barrier is recommended in planned staged procedures and those in which future reoperation is likely.

  20. Physics of cell elasticity, shape and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, S. A.; Gov, N.; Nicolas, A.; Schwarz, U. S.; Tlusty, T.

    2005-07-01

    We review recent theoretical work that analyzes experimental measurements of the shape, fluctuations and adhesion properties of biological cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of the cytoskeleton and cell elasticity and we contrast the shape and adhesion of elastic cells with fluid-filled vesicles. In red blood cells (RBC), the cytoskeleton consists of a two-dimensional network of spectrin proteins. Our analysis of the wavevector and frequency dependence of the fluctuation spectrum of RBC indicates that the spectrin network acts as a confining potential that reduces the fluctuations of the lipid bilayer membrane. However, since the cytoskeleton is only sparsely connected to the bilayer, one cannot regard the composite cytoskeleton-membrane as a polymerized object with a shear modulus. The sensitivity of RBC fluctuations and shapes to ATP concentration may reflect topological defects induced in the cytoskeleton network by ATP. The shapes of cells that adhere to a substrate are strongly determined by the cytoskeletal elasticity that can be varied experimentally by drugs that depolymerize the cytoskeleton. This leads to a tension-driven retraction of the cell body and a pearling instability of the resulting ray-like protrusions. Recent experiments have shown that adhering cells exert polarized forces on substrates. The interactions of such “force dipoles” in either bulk gels or on surfaces can be used to predict the nature of self-assembly of cell aggregates and may be important in the formation of artificial tissues. Finally, we note that cell adhesion strongly depends on the forces exerted on the adhesion sites by the tension of the cytoskeleton. The size and shape of the adhesion regions are strongly modified as the tension is varied and we present an elastic model that relates this tension to deformations that induce the recruitment of new molecules to the adhesion region. In all these examples, cell shape and adhesion differ from vesicle shape and

  1. Adhesion at WC/diamond interfaces - A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, Haricharan; Rao, M. S. Ramachandra; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2015-06-24

    We investigate the adhesion at the interface of face-centered tungsten-carbide (001) and diamond (001) from density-functional calculations. Four high-symmetry model interfaces, representing different lattice orientations for either side of the interface, are constructed to incorporate different degrees of strain arising due to lattice mismatch. The adhesion, estimated from the ideal work of separation, is found to be in the range of 4 - 7 J m{sup −2} and is comparable to that of metal-carbide interfaces. Maximum adhesion occurs when WC and diamond slabs have the same orientation, even though such a growth induces large epitaxial strain at the interface. From electronic structure calculations, we attribute the adhesion to covalent interaction between carbon p-orbitals as well as partial ionic interaction between the tungsten d- and carbon p-orbitals across the interface.

  2. Coarse-grained molecular simulations of membrane adhesion domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharan, Nadiv; Farago, Oded

    2014-07-01

    We use a coarse-grained molecular model of supported lipid bilayers to study the formation of adhesion domains. We find that this process is a first order phase transition, triggered by a combination of pairwise short range attractive interactions between the adhesion bonds and many-body Casimir-like interactions, mediated by the membrane thermal undulations. The simulation results display an excellent agreement with the recently proposed Weil-Farago two-dimensional lattice model, in which the occupied and empty sites represent, respectively, the adhesion bonds and unbound segments of the membrane. A second phase transition, into a hexatic phase, is observed when the attraction between the adhesion bonds is further strengthened.

  3. Intermediate filaments and the regulation of focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Leube, Rudolf E; Moch, Marcin; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Focal adhesions are localized actin filament-anchoring signalling centres at the cell-extracellular matrix interface. The currently emerging view is that they fulfil an all-embracing coordinating function for the entire cytoskeleton. This review highlights the tight relationship between focal adhesions and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. We summarize the accumulating evidence for direct binding of intermediate filaments to focal adhesion components and their mutual cross-talk through signalling molecules. Examples are presented to emphasize the high degree of complexity of these interactions equipping cells with a precisely controlled machinery for context-dependent adjustment of their biomechanical properties.

  4. Effect of Linomide on adhesion molecules, TNF-alpha, nitrogen oxide, and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hai, A; Hershkoviz, R; Weiss, L; Lider, O; Slavin, S

    2005-02-01

    Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is an immunomodulator with anti-inflammatory effects in rodents with autoimmune diseases. Its mode of action still remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that an investigation of T cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), composed of glycoproteins such as fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), might provide better understanding of their in vivo mode of action in extravascular inflammatory sites. We examined the effect of Linomide on T cell adhesion to intact ECM, and separately to LN, and FN, and on the release and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and nitrogen oxide (NO) in relation to adhesive molecules in non-obese diabetic (NOD) female spleen cells, focusing on intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44. NOD female mice that developed spontaneous autoimmune insulitis, which destroys pancreatic islets and subsequently leads to insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus, were studied. Linomide, given in the drinking water or added to tissue cultures in vitro, inhibited the beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion of T cells to ECM, FN and LN, as well as the production and release of TNFalpha and NO, which play a major role in the induction and propagation of T cell-mediated insulitis. In addition, exposure of T cells to Linomide resulted in increased expression of CD44 and ICAM-1 molecules on spleen cells of Linomide-treated mice; such an increase in adhesion molecule expression may lead to more effective arrest of T cell migration in vivo. The regulation of T-cell adhesion, adhesion receptor expression, and inhibition of TNFalpha and NO secretion by Linomide may explain its beneficial role and provide a new tool for suppressing self-reactive T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases. PMID:15652754

  5. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  6. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair.

    PubMed

    Geim, A K; Dubonos, S V; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Zhukov, A A; Shapoval, S Yu

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force approximately 10(-7) N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of approximately 10 N x cm(-2): sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  7. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair.

    PubMed

    Geim, A K; Dubonos, S V; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Zhukov, A A; Shapoval, S Yu

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force approximately 10(-7) N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of approximately 10 N x cm(-2): sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved. PMID:12776092

  8. Higher-order architecture of cell adhesion mediated by polymorphic synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin and neuroligin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Matoba, Kyoko; Nogi, Terukazu; Iwasaki, Kenji; Takagi, Junichi

    2012-07-26

    Polymorphic adhesion molecules neurexin and neuroligin (NL) mediate asymmetric trans-synaptic adhesion, which is crucial for synapse development and function. It is not known whether or how individual synapse function is controlled by the interactions between variants and isoforms of these molecules with differing ectodomain regions. At a physiological concentration of Ca(2+), the ectodomain complex of neurexin-1 β isoform (Nrx1β) and NL1 spontaneously assembled into crystals of a lateral sheet-like superstructure topologically compatible with transcellular adhesion. Correlative light-electron microscopy confirmed extracellular sheet formation at the junctions between Nrx1β- and NL1-expressing non-neuronal cells, mimicking the close, parallel synaptic membrane apposition. The same NL1-expressing cells, however, did not form this higher-order architecture with cells expressing the much longer neurexin-1 α isoform, suggesting a functional discrimination mechanism between synaptic contacts made by different isoforms of neurexin variants.

  9. Relevance of in vitro tests of adhesive and composite dental materials. A review in 3 parts. Part 3: in vitro tests of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Heintze, Siegward D; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    In the third part of this review of laboratory testing, methods of testing adhesive systems are evaluated. Test set-ups that are used to analyze the restorative material in combination with the adhesive system are presented. Currently, there is no standardized protocol available for the evaluation of adhesives. This complicates any direct comparisons of values between different testing institutes. Therefore, the statistically evaluated ranking of the different adhesives is more important than mean values. Depending on the testing institute, a correlation between bond strength measurements and clinical outcomes may exist. Qualitative analysis of adhesive/tooth interaction can help explain the functioning of a system, but the depth of penetration of the adhesive cannot predict bond strength. Indirect bond measurements or analyses of the interactions of adhesive and composite materials, such as dye penetration or marginal analysis, do not correlate or correlate only partially with clinical findings. Adhesive systems should be tested in vitro and compared to a well-known standard adhesive before they are used in the clinic. Water storage of specimens for several months before testing increases the predictability of the bonding performance of the tested adhesive.

  10. Elucidating the general principles of cell adhesion with a coarse-grained simulation model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiawen; Xie, Zhong-Ru; Wu, Yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an indispensable role in coordinating physiological functions in multicellular organisms. During this process, specific types of cell adhesion molecules interact with each other from the opposite sides of neighboring cells. Following this trans-interaction, many cell adhesion molecules further aggregate into clusters through cis interactions. Beyond the molecule level, adhesion can be affected by multiple cellular factors due to the complexity of membrane microenvironments, including its interplay with cell signaling. However, despite tremendous advances in experimental developments, little is understood about the general principles of cell adhesion and its functional impacts. Here a mesoscopic simulation method is developed to tackle this problem. We illustrated that specific spatial patterns of membrane protein clustering are originated from different geometrical arrangements of their binding interfaces, while the size of clusters is closely regulated by molecular flexibility. Different scenarios of cooperation between trans and cis interactions of cell adhesion molecules were further tested. Additionally, impacts of membrane environments on cell adhesion were evaluated, such as the presence of a cytoskeletal meshwork, the membrane tension and the size effect of different membrane proteins on cell surfaces. Finally, by simultaneously simulating adhesion and oligomerization of signaling receptors, we found that the interplay between these two systems can be either positive or negative, closely depending on the spatial and temporal patterns of their molecular interactions. Therefore, our computational model pave the way for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and its biological functions in regulating cell signaling pathways.

  11. Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; He, Xiaolin

    2012-02-13

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular {beta}-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC {beta}-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular {beta}-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function.

  12. Homophilic adhesion mechanism of neurofascin, a member of the L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J; He, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular β-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC β-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular β-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function. PMID:21047790

  13. Combined Sub-Optimal Doses of Rosuvastatin and Bexarotene Impair Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Mononuclear Cell Adhesion Through Inhibition of Nox5 Signaling Pathways and Increased RXR/PPARα and RXR/PPARγ Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Paula; Martinez de Marañón, Aranzazu; Collado, Aida; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Mononuclear cell (MC) infiltration into the arterial subendothelium is a key event in atherogenesis. Rosuvastatin (Rosu) and bexarotene (Bex) exert anti-inflammatory activity, but serious dose-related adverse effects have emerged. The need for safer and effective strategies to prevent and treat atherosclerosis led us to test the effect of combined use of both drugs on angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced arterial MC recruitment. Results: Vehicle, Rosu (10–30 nM), Bex (0.3–1 μM), or a combination of both were administered to human umbilical arterial endothelial cells (HUAECs) 20 h before stimulation with 1 μM Ang-II (4 h). Surprisingly, a combination of Rosu (10 nM)+Bex (0.3 μM), which did not influence Ang-II-induced MC recruitment when either stimulus was studied alone, significantly reduced this response. This effect was accompanied by diminished Ang-II-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CX3CL1 endothelial expression and CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL5 production. Preincubation of HUAECs with Rosu+Bex inhibited Nox5 expression and Nox5-induced RhoA activation stimulated by Ang-II through increased RXRα, PPARα, and PPARγ expression in addition to RXRα/PPARα and RXRα/PPARγ interactions. In vivo, combined but not single administration of Rosu (1.25 mg/kg/day) and Bex (10 mg/kg/day) significantly diminished Ang-II-induced arteriolar leukocyte adhesion in the cremasteric microcirculation of C57BL/6 mice and atherosclerotic lesion formation in apoE−/− mice subjected to an atherogenic diet. Innovation and Conclusion: Combined administration of Bex+Rosu at suboptimal doses may constitute a new alternative and effective therapy in the control of the vascular inflammation associated to cardiometabolic disorders, since they synergize in their anti-inflammatory actions and may counteract their associated adverse effects. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 901–920. PMID:25602514

  14. [Adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms].

    PubMed

    Gafiţanu, E; Matei, I; Mungiu, O C; Pavelescu, M; Mîndreci, I; Apostol, I; Ionescu, G

    1989-01-01

    The adhesive cutaneous pharmaceutical forms aimed to local action release the drug substance in view of a dermatological, traumatological, antirheumatic, cosmetic action. Two such preparations were obtained and their stability, consistency and pH were determined. The "in vitro" tests of their bioavailability revealed the dynamics of calcium ions release according to the associations of each preparation. The bioavailability determined by evaluating the pharmacological response demonstrated the antiinflammatory action obtained by the association of calcium ions with the components extracted from poplar muds. The therapeutical efficiency of the studied preparations has proved in the treatment of some sport injuries.

  15. Puerperal endometritis and intrauterine adhesions.

    PubMed

    Polishuk, W Z; Anteby, S O; Weinstein, D

    1975-08-01

    The role of puerperal endometritis in intrauterine adhesion formation was studied by hysterography in 171 women who had cesarean sections. Of 28 patients who developed significant endometritis, only one developed intracervical adhesions. In the control group of 143 cases, there was also only one such case. Endometritis alone apparently does not play a significant role in intrauterine and endocervical adhesion formation. The possible role of placental fibroblasts in preventing endometrial regeneration is discussed. PMID:1158622

  16. Adhesion properties of gecko setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ginel; Peattie, Anne; Daniels, Roxanne; Full, Robert; Kenny, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Millions of keratin hairs on gecko feet, called setae, act as a spectacular dry adhesive. Each seta branches into hundreds of smaller fibers that terminate in spatula-shaped ends. Morphological differences between the setae from different gecko species are suspected to affect both single-seta and whole-animal adhesion properties. Single-seta adhesive force measurements made using a MEMS piezoresistive cantilever capable of two-axis measurements are presented.

  17. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Thomas J.; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Banks, M. Katherine

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  18. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis.

  19. Adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens onto nanophase materials.

    PubMed

    Webster, Thomas J; Tong, Zonghua; Liu, Jin; Katherine Banks, M

    2005-07-01

    Nanobiotechnology is a growing area of research, primarily due to the potentially numerous applications of new synthetic nanomaterials in engineering/science. Although various definitions have been given for the word 'nanomaterials' by many different experts, the commonly accepted one refers to nanomaterials as those materials which possess grains, particles, fibres, or other constituent components that have one dimension specifically less than 100 nm. In biological applications, most of the research to date has focused on the interactions between mammalian cells and synthetic nanophase surfaces for the creation of better tissue engineering materials. Although mammalian cells have shown a definite positive response to nanophase materials, information on bacterial interactions with nanophase materials remains elusive. For this reason, this study was designed to assess the adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on nanophase compared to conventional grain size alumina substrates. Results provide the first evidence of increased adhesion of Pseudomonas fluorescens on alumina with nanometre compared to conventional grain sizes. To understand more about the process, polymer (specifically, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid or PLGA) casts were made of the conventional and nanostructured alumina surfaces. Results showed similar increased Pseudomonas fluorescens capture on PLGA casts of nanostructured compared to conventional alumina as on the alumina itself. For these reasons, a key material property shown to enhance bacterial adhesion was elucidated in this study for both polymers and ceramics: nanostructured surface features.

  20. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. PMID:27261363

  1. Nano-scale adhesion in multilayered drug eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Youssefian, Sina; Rahbar, Nima

    2013-02-01

    Using stainless steel 316L for drug-eluting stents needs specific surface finishing due to corrosion phenomena that take place on the metal surface upon prolonged contact with human tissue. Poly (o-chloro-p-xylylene) (Parylene C) is one of the inert and biocompatible materials that are used for 316L coating with γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as an adhesion promoter. In this study, a combination of atomic force microscopy experiments and contact theories have been used to quantify the work of adhesion between parylene C/316L and silane added parylene C/316L. An atomistic simulation has been used, first, to investigate and compare the adhesion at the room temperature with the experiments and then, to investigate the effect of aqueous environment with higher temperature, inside the body, on the adhesion between layers in the structure of drug eluting stent. The simulation results of simplified model for 316L are in good agreement with the experimental results and suggest that the week affiliation between this polymer and 316L is mainly due to Van der Waals interactions. The effect of temperature on the adhesion is found to be regressive and as the water molecules permeate the polymer the adhesion decreases. They also imply that the effect of silane on the adhesion between parylene C and steel is modest.

  2. Topographically Tuning Polymer Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Alfred

    2003-03-01

    Nature often uses geometry on micro and nano length scales to systematically tailor performance in multivariable environments. A great example, which has received much attention recently, is the foot of a gecko. The gecko's foot is covered with hundreds of thousands of "hair"-like protrusions which dictate a gecko's precise control of adhesion through van der Waals forces.(1) In our research, we fabricate controlled structures ranging from the nano to micro length scales on elastomeric surfaces. Our initial results are based on the topography of spherical caps and high-aspect ratio posts that decorate the surface of polydimethylsiloxane layers. Based on initial calculations, we demonstrate how the aspect ratio and inter-feature spacing greatly affects the near-surface compliance, thus impacting the processes of interface formation. The density and shape of the features are also shown to enhance the prevention of interfacial failure. These results are relevant for the refinement of the soft lithography processing technique, the development of smart adhesives, and the fabrication of bonding sites for biological implants. (1) Autumn, K.; Liang, Y.A.; Hsieh, S.T.; Zesch, W.; Chan, W.P.; Kenny,T.W.; Fearing, R.; Full, R.J. Nature 2000, 405, 681-685.

  3. Principles of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Baier, R E

    1992-01-01

    Understanding interfacial phenomena has been of direct relevance and practical benefit to extending the use of dental adhesives. Both surface physics, which describes properties of the inorganic materials' interfacial zones from their actual phase boundaries toward the bulk phases of the solids, and surface chemistry, which describes phenomena at the solid/biological interface and beyond it into the variable organic environment, have been important. High-energy materials include solids that are very hard, have high melting points, strong intermolecular forces, and basically crystalline structures, such as dental enamel. Low-energy materials, such as dentinal collagen, salivary films, and the organic resins of restorative materials, are softer, lower melting, and have weaker intermolecular forces, poorer crystallinity, and surface energies generally less than 100 ergs/cm. It has been a properly renewed emphasis on wetting of dental surfaces and their modification by primer coats, displacing or mixing with water and adsorbed proteinaceous films, that has promoted the success of many recently developed fourth-generation dentin adhesives. Their improved wettability for biological phases correlates directly with their better infiltration and anchoring of composites.

  4. Analysis and testing of adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Bennett, S. J.; Devries, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    An adhesive fracture mechanics approach is described with reference to the identification and design of the best tests for evaluating a given adhesive, the definition of the most meaningful fundamental parameters by which adhesives might be characterized, and the application of these parameters to the design of joints and to the prediction of their performance. Topics include standard adhesive test techniques, the theory of adhesive fracture, and adhesive fracture energy tests. Analytical methods and computer techniques for adhesive bonding, chemical and physical aspects of adhesive fracture, and specific applications and aspects of adhesive fracture mechanics are discussed.

  5. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  6. Stickiness--some fundamentals of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cyprien

    2002-12-01

    We review some adhesion mechanisms that have been understood in the field of synthetic adhesives, and more precisely for adhesives that adhere instantaneously (a property named tackiness) and whose adhesive strength usually depends on the applied pressure (pressure-sensitive adhesives). The discussion includes effects of surface roughness, elasticity, cavitation, viscous and elastic fingering, substrate flexibility. PMID:21680396

  7. Stickiness--some fundamentals of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cyprien

    2002-12-01

    We review some adhesion mechanisms that have been understood in the field of synthetic adhesives, and more precisely for adhesives that adhere instantaneously (a property named tackiness) and whose adhesive strength usually depends on the applied pressure (pressure-sensitive adhesives). The discussion includes effects of surface roughness, elasticity, cavitation, viscous and elastic fingering, substrate flexibility.

  8. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  9. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate.

  10. Stretchable, adhesion-tunable dry adhesive by surface wrinkling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hoon Eui; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Suh, Kahp Y

    2010-02-16

    We introduce a simple yet robust method of fabricating a stretchable, adhesion-tunable dry adhesive by combining replica molding and surface wrinkling. By utilizing a thin, wrinkled polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sheet with a thickness of 1 mm with built-in micropillars, active, dynamic control of normal and shear adhesion was achieved. Relatively strong normal (approximately 10.8 N/cm(2)) and shear adhesion (approximately 14.7 N/cm(2)) forces could be obtained for a fully extended (strained) PDMS sheet (prestrain of approximately 3%), whereas the forces could be rapidly reduced to nearly zero once the prestrain was released (prestrain of approximately 0.5%). Moreover, durability tests demonstrated that the adhesion strength in both the normal and shear directions was maintained over more than 100 cycles of attachment and detachment.

  11. Motion of Elastic Microcapsules on Compliant Surfaces with Adhesive Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maresov, Egor; Kolmakov, German; Balazs, Anna

    2011-03-01

    By integrating mesoscale models for hydrodynamics, micromechanics and adhesion, we examine the fluid driven motion of elastic microcapsules on compliant surfaces. The capsules, modeled as three-dimensional fluid-filled elastic shells, represent polymeric microcapsules or biological cells. Our combined integrated Lattice Boltzmann model/Lattice spring model (LBM/LSM) approach allows for a dynamic interaction between the elastic capsule's wall and surrounding fluid. To capture the interaction between the shell and the surface, we adopt the Bell model, used previously to describe the interaction of biological cell like leukocytes rolling on surfaces under the influence of an imposed shear. The surface of the microcapsule contains receptors with an affinity to adhesive ligands of the substrate. We examine how the parameters of adhesion and rigidity of the capsules and the substrate affect movement of the capsules. The findings provide guidelines for creating smart surfaces that could regulate the microcapsules' motion.

  12. A micro/nano-fabricated gecko-inspired reversible adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northen, Michael Thomas

    The gecko adhesive has been of scientific interest for over two millennia, ever since Aristotle observed a gecko running up and down a tree. Since then, advances in optical and electron microscopy have provided increased information on the structure of the pad of the gecko's foot, for it is the structure that leads to the adhesion and not the chemistry. Each toe contains many ridges, or scansors, displaying arrays of ˜100 mum long, ˜5 mum wide setae, each branching into hundreds of smaller fibers called spatulae, ˜200 nm across and 5 nm thick. The combination of the setal flexibility and the nanoscale compliance of the spatulae creates a large amount of intimate surface contact, enhancing van der Waals interactions, and promoting adhesion. In this work, an adhesive---inspired by the gecko---was micro/nanofabricated. There were two main thrusts in this work. The first was to show the importance of the hierarchical structure on the performance of the gecko adhesive, and the future need to for multiple levels of compliance in synthetic dry adhesives. The second thrust was to create a surface with controllable adhesion. While the adhesion properties of the gecko are of great scientific interest, it is the ability to switch adhesion on and off that provides the technological driving force for mimicking the gecko system. The microscale setae of the gecko have been replicated by microfabricating flexible silicon dioxide freestanding structures ˜100 mum long and ˜10 mum wide. These structures were coated with aligned vertical polymeric nanorods ˜4 mum tall and ˜200 nm in diameter, analogous to the gecko spatulae. Testing of the synthetic structures shows that the multi-scale system provides a 5-fold increase in adhesion over nanorods alone, demonstrating the need for a hierarchical structure. To create a switchable adhesive, the silicon dioxide microstructures were replaced with nickel micro-paddles. When the nickel structures were placed in a magnetic field, a

  13. Adhesion between silica surfaces due to hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Rossetto, Hebert L.; Kendall, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    The adhesion between surfaces can be enhanced significantly by the presence of hydrogen bonding. Confined water at the nanoscale can display behaviour remarkably different to bulk water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between two surfaces. In this work we investigate the role of confined water on the interaction between hydrophilic surfaces, specifically the effect of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase, by measuring the peak adhesive force and the work of adhesion. Atomic force microscope cantilevers presenting hemispherical silica tips were interacted with planar single crystals of silica in the presence of dimethylformamide, ethanol, and formamide; solution compositions in the range 0–100 mol% water were investigated for each molecule. Each molecule was chosen for its ability to hydrogen bond with water molecules, with increasing concentrations likely to disrupt the structure of surface-bound water layers. With the exception of aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of ethanol, all molecules decreased the ability of confined water to enhance the adhesion between the silica surfaces in excess of the predicted theoretical adhesion due to van der Waals forces. The conclusion was that adhesion depends strongly on the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network within the water layers confined between the silica surfaces.

  14. Dynamic adhesion forces between microparticles and substrates in water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Quan; Li, Mingtao; Zhang, Lipeng; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai

    2014-09-23

    The interactions between micrometer-sized particles and substrates in aqueous environment are fundamental to numerous natural phenomena and industrial processes. Here we report a dynamically induced enhancement in adhesion interactions between microparticles and substrates immerged in water, air, and hexane. The dynamic adhesion force was measured by pulling microsized spheres off various substrate (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) surfaces at different retracting velocities. It was observed that when the pull-off velocity varies from 0.02 to 1500 μm/s, there is 100-200% increase in adhesion force in water while it has a 100% increase in nitrogen and hexane. The dynamic adhesion enhancement reduces with increasing effective contact angle defined by the average cosine of wetting angles of the substrates and the particles, and approaches the values measured in dry nitrogen and hexane as the effective contact angle is larger than 90(o). A dynamic model was developed to predict the adhesion forces resulting from this dynamic effect, and the predictions correlate well with the experimental results. The stronger dynamic adhesion enhancement in water is mainly attributed to electrical double layers and the restructuring of water in the contact area between particles and substrates. PMID:25162139

  15. Adhesion between silica surfaces due to hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Rossetto, Hebert L.; Kendall, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    The adhesion between surfaces can be enhanced significantly by the presence of hydrogen bonding. Confined water at the nanoscale can display behaviour remarkably different to bulk water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between two surfaces. In this work we investigate the role of confined water on the interaction between hydrophilic surfaces, specifically the effect of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase, by measuring the peak adhesive force and the work of adhesion. Atomic force microscope cantilevers presenting hemispherical silica tips were interacted with planar single crystals of silica in the presence of dimethylformamide, ethanol, and formamide; solution compositions in the range 0-100 mol% water were investigated for each molecule. Each molecule was chosen for its ability to hydrogen bond with water molecules, with increasing concentrations likely to disrupt the structure of surface-bound water layers. With the exception of aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of ethanol, all molecules decreased the ability of confined water to enhance the adhesion between the silica surfaces in excess of the predicted theoretical adhesion due to van der Waals forces. The conclusion was that adhesion depends strongly on the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network within the water layers confined between the silica surfaces.

  16. Fluorescence Fluctuation Approaches to the Study of Adhesion and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Alexia I.; Kubow, Kristopher E.; Horwitz, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix adhesions are large, multimolecular complexes through which cells sense and respond to their environment. They also mediate migration by serving as traction points and signaling centers and allow the cell to modify the surroucnding tissue. Due to their fundamental role in cell behavior, adhesions are germane to nearly all major human health pathologies. However, adhesions are extremely complex and dynamic structures that include over 100 known interacting proteins and operate over multiple space (nm–µm) and time (ms–min) regimes. Fluorescence fluctuation techniques are well suited for studying adhesions. These methods are sensitive over a large spatiotemporal range and provide a wealth of information including molecular transport dynamics, interactions, and stoichiometry from a single time series. Earlier chapters in this volume have provided the theoretical background, instrumentation, and analysis algorithms for these techniques. In this chapter, we discuss their implementation in living cells to study adhesions in migrating cells. Although each technique and application has its own unique instrumentation and analysis requirements, we provide general guidelines for sample preparation, selection of imaging instrumentation, and optimization of data acquisition and analysis parameters. Finally, we review several recent studies that implement these techniques in the study of adhesions. PMID:23280111

  17. Simulation of Cell Adhesion using a Particle Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnutt, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    An efficient computational method for simulation of cell adhesion through protein binding forces is discussed. In this method, the cells are represented by deformable elastic particles, and the protein binding is represented by a rate equation. The method is first developed for collision and adhesion of two similar cells impacting on each other from opposite directions. The computational method is then applied in a particle-transport model for a cloud of interacting and colliding cells, each of which are represented by particles of finite size. One application might include red blood cells adhering together to form rouleaux, which are chains of red blood cells that are found in different parts of the circulatory system. Other potential applications include adhesion of platelets to a blood vessel wall or mechanical heart valve, which is a precursor of thrombosis formation, or adhesion of cancer cells to organ walls in the lymphatic, circulatory, digestive or pulmonary systems.

  18. Controlling adhesion force by means of nanoscale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Clasohm, Lucy Y; Rao, Akshata; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2011-08-16

    Control of adhesion is a crucial aspect in the design of microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical devices. To understand the dependence of adhesion on nanometer-scale surface roughness, a roughness gradient has been employed. Monomodal roughness gradients were fabricated by means of silica nanoparticles (diameter ∼12 nm) to produce substrates with varying nanoparticle density. Pull-off force measurements on the gradients were performed using (polyethylene) colloidal-probe microscopy under perfluorodecalin, in order to restrict interactions to van der Waals forces. The influence of normal load on pull-off forces was studied and the measured forces compared with existing Hamaker-approximation-based models. We observe that adhesion force reaches a minimum value at an optimum particle density on the gradient sample, where the mean particle spacing becomes comparable with the diameter of the contact area with the polyethylene sphere. We also observe that the effect on adhesion of increasing the normal load depends on the roughness of the surface.

  19. Platelet adhesiveness in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, S.; Pegrum, G. D.; Wolff, Sylvia; Ashton, W. L.

    1967-01-01

    Platelet adhesiveness has been assessed on whole blood from a series of 34 diabetics and 50 control subjects using adenosine diphosphate (A.D.P.) and by adherence to glass microspherules (ballotini). Using both techniques it was possible to demonstrate a significant increase in platelet adhesiveness in the diabetic patients. PMID:5614070

  20. Arachnids Secrete a Fluid over Their Adhesive Pads

    PubMed Central

    Peattie, Anne M.; Dirks, Jan-Henning; Henriques, Sérgio; Federle, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Background Many arachnids possess adhesive pads on their feet that help them climb smooth surfaces and capture prey. Spider and gecko adhesives have converged on a branched, hairy structure, which theoretically allows them to adhere solely by dry (solid-solid) intermolecular interactions. Indeed, the consensus in the literature is that spiders and their smooth-padded relatives, the solifugids, adhere without the aid of a secretion. Methodology and Principal Findings We investigated the adhesive contact zone of living spiders, solifugids and mites using interference reflection microscopy, which allows the detection of thin liquid films. Like insects, all the arachnids we studied left behind hydrophobic fluid footprints on glass (mean refractive index: 1.48–1.50; contact angle: 3.7–11.2°). Fluid was not always secreted continuously, suggesting that pads can function in both wet and dry modes. We measured the attachment forces of single adhesive setae from tarantulas (Grammostola rosea) by attaching them to a bending beam with a known spring constant and filming the resulting deflection. Individual spider setae showed a lower static friction at rest (26%±2.8 SE of the peak friction) than single gecko setae (Thecadactylus rapicauda; 96%±1.7 SE). This may be explained by the fact that spider setae continued to release fluid after isolation from the animal, lubricating the contact zone. Significance This finding implies that tarsal secretions occur within all major groups of terrestrial arthropods with adhesive pads. The presence of liquid in an adhesive contact zone has important consequences for attachment performance, improving adhesion to rough surfaces and introducing rate-dependent effects. Our results leave geckos and anoles as the only known representatives of truly dry adhesive pads in nature. Engineers seeking biological inspiration for synthetic adhesives should consider whether model species with fluid secretions are appropriate to their design goals

  1. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  5. Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Jeanne Norton

    Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical

  6. Synergistic and hierarchical adhesive and topographic guidance of BHK cells.

    PubMed

    Britland, S; Morgan, H; Wojiak-Stodart, B; Riehle, M; Curtis, A; Wilkinson, C

    1996-11-01

    Guided cell movement is a fundamental process in development and regeneration. We have used microengineered culture substrates to study the interaction between model topographic and adhesive guidance cues in steering BHK cell orientation. Grooves 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 microm deep together with pitch-matched aminosilane tracks 5, 12, 25, 50, and 100 microm wide were fabricated on fused silica substrates using photolithographic and dry-etching techniques. The cues were presented to the cells individually, simultaneously in parallel and orthogonally opposed. Cells aligned most strongly to 25-microm-wide adhesive tracks and to 5-microm-wide, 6-microm-deep grooves. Stress fibers and vinculin were found to align with the adhesive tracks and to the grooves and ridges. Cell alignment was profoundly enhanced on all surfaces that presented both cues in parallel. Cells were able to switch alignment from ridges to grooves, and vice versa, depending on the location of superimposed adhesive tracks. Cells aligned preferentially to adhesive tracks superimposed orthogonally over grooves of matched pitch, traversing numerous grooves and ridges. The strength of the cues was more closely matched on narrower 3- and 6-microm-deep gratings with cells showing evidence of alignment to both cues. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed two groups of mutually opposed f-actin stress fibers within the same cell, one oriented with the topographic cues and the other with the adhesive cues. However, the adhesive response was consistently dominant. We conclude that cells are able to detect and respond to multiple guidance cues simultaneously. The adhesive and topographic guidance cues modeled here were capable of interacting both synergistically and hierarchically to guide cell orientation. PMID:8912725

  7. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibits macrophage adhesion to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wirrig, Christiane; McKean, Jenny S; Wilson, Heather M; Nixon, Graeme F

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation in de-endothelialised arteries contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The process that initiates this inflammatory response is the adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to exposed vascular smooth muscle cells, typically stimulated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sphingolipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on the interaction of monocytes/macrophages with vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured using an in vitro assay following incubation with sphingolipids to assess inter-cellular adhesion. We reveal that SPC inhibits the TNF-induced adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This anti-adhesive effect was the result of SPC-induced changes to the smooth muscle cells (but not the macrophages) and was mediated, at least partly, via the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 2. Lipid raft domains were also required. Although SPC did not alter expression or membrane distribution of the adhesion proteins intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion protein-1 in smooth muscle cells, SPC preincubation inhibited the TNF-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) resulting in a subsequent decrease in nitric oxide production. Inhibiting NOS2 activation in smooth muscle cells led to a decrease in the adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This study has therefore delineated a novel pathway which can inhibit the interaction between macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells via SPC-induced repression of NOS2 expression. This mechanism could represent a potential drug target in vascular disease.

  8. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine inhibits macrophage adhesion to vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wirrig, Christiane; McKean, Jenny S; Wilson, Heather M; Nixon, Graeme F

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation in de-endothelialised arteries contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The process that initiates this inflammatory response is the adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to exposed vascular smooth muscle cells, typically stimulated by cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the sphingolipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) on the interaction of monocytes/macrophages with vascular smooth muscle cells. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells and rat bone marrow-derived macrophages were co-cultured using an in vitro assay following incubation with sphingolipids to assess inter-cellular adhesion. We reveal that SPC inhibits the TNF-induced adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This anti-adhesive effect was the result of SPC-induced changes to the smooth muscle cells (but not the macrophages) and was mediated, at least partly, via the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 2. Lipid raft domains were also required. Although SPC did not alter expression or membrane distribution of the adhesion proteins intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion protein-1 in smooth muscle cells, SPC preincubation inhibited the TNF-induced increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) resulting in a subsequent decrease in nitric oxide production. Inhibiting NOS2 activation in smooth muscle cells led to a decrease in the adhesion of macrophages to smooth muscle cells. This study has therefore delineated a novel pathway which can inhibit the interaction between macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells via SPC-induced repression of NOS2 expression. This mechanism could represent a potential drug target in vascular disease. PMID:27402344

  9. Epidural Lysis of Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E.; Hurley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

  10. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  11. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  12. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  13. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  14. Membrane adhesion and the formation of heterogeneities: biology, biophysics, and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, V. D.; O’Halloran, T.J.; Shindell, O.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane adhesion is essential to many vital biological processes. Sites of membrane adhesion are often associated with heterogeneities in the lipid and protein composition of the membrane. These heterogeneities are thought to play functional roles by facilitating interactions between proteins. However, the causal links between membrane adhesion and membrane heterogeneities are not known. Here we survey the state of the field and indicate what we think are understudied areas ripe for development. PMID:25866854

  15. A Review of Cell Adhesion Studies for Biomedical and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Khalili, Amelia; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events. PMID:26251901

  16. A Review of Cell Adhesion Studies for Biomedical and Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Amelia Ahmad; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-08-05

    Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events.

  17. Neutrophil adhesion in leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M L; Schwartz, B R; Etzioni, A; Bayer, R; Ochs, H D; Paulson, J C; Harlan, J M

    1995-01-01

    We have previously reported a newly discovered congenital disorder of neutrophil adhesion, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type 2 (LAD II). The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are similar to those seen in the classic leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, now designated type 1 (LAD I), but the two syndromes differ in the molecular basis of their adhesion defects. LAD I is caused by a deficiency in the CD18 integrin adhesion molecules while LAD II patients are deficient in expression of sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX), a carbohydrate ligand for selectins. In this report we demonstrate that neutrophils from a LAD II patient bind minimally or not at all to recombinant E-selectin, purified platelet P-selectin, or P-selectin expressed on histamine-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but have normal levels of L-selectin and CD11b/CD18 integrin, and adhere to and migrate across endothelium when CD11b/CD18 is activated. We compare LAD I and LAD II patient neutrophil function in vitro, demonstrating that integrin and selectin adhesion molecules have distinct but interdependent roles in neutrophil adhesion during an inflammatory response. Images PMID:8675661

  18. Enhanced adhesion by gecko-inspired hierarchical fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Kim, Seok; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    The complex structures that allow geckos to repeatably adhere to surfaces consist of multilevel branching fibers with specialized tips. We present a novel technique for fabricating similar multilevel structures from polymer materials and demonstrate the fabrication of arrays of two- and three-level structures, wherein each level terminates in flat mushroom-type tips. Adhesion experiments are conducted on two-level fiber arrays on a 12-mm-diameter glass hemisphere, which exhibit both increased adhesion and interface toughness over one-level fiber samples and unstructured control samples. These adhesion enhancements are the result of increased surface conformation as well as increased extension during detachment.

  19. Bacterial Adhesion to Hexadecane (Model NAPL)-Water Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, S.; Zoueki, C. R.; Tufenkji, N.

    2009-05-01

    The rates of biodegradation of NAPLs have been shown to be influenced by the adhesion of hydrocarbon- degrading microorganisms as well as their proximity to the NAPL-water interface. Several studies provide evidence for bacterial adhesion or biofilm formation at alkane- or crude oil-water interfaces, but there is a significant knowledge gap in our understanding of the processes that influence initial adhesion of bacteria on to NAPL-water interfaces. In this study bacterial adhesion to hexadecane, and a series of NAPLs comprised of hexadecane amended with toluene, and/or with asphaltenes and resins, which are the surface active fractions of crude oils, were examined using a Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. The microorganisms employed were Mycobacterium kubicae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida, which are hydrocarbon degraders or soil microorganisms. MATH assays as well as electrophoretic mobility measurements of the bacterial cells and the NAPL droplet surfaces in aqueous solutions were conducted at three solution pHs (4, 6 and 7). Asphaltenes and resins were shown to generally decrease microbial adhesion. Results of the MATH assay were not in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions of bacteria- hydrocarbon interactions based on the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) model of free energy of interaction between the cell and NAPL droplets. In this model the free energy of interaction between two colloidal particles is predicted based on electrical double layer, van der Waals and hydrophobic forces. It is likely that the steric repulsion between bacteria and NAPL surfaces, caused by biopolymers on bacterial surfaces and aphaltenes and resins at the NAPL-water interface contributed to the decreased adhesion compared to that predicted by the XDLVO model.

  20. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  1. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  2. Use of cyanoacrylate adhesives in general surgery.

    PubMed

    García Cerdá, David; Ballester, Antonio Martín; Aliena-Valero, Alicia; Carabén-Redaño, Anna; Lloris, José M

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a review of the use of cyanoacrylate adhesives (CA) in general surgery and digestive surgery, studies the mechanisms of action and interactions of CAs in adherent tissues, and compiles data on the latest experimental and clinical applications. More than seven million traumatic injuries are estimated to occur every year, and between 26 and 90 million surgical procedures using different techniques are performed to close the resulting wounds. Traditional methods not only are both useful and effective, but also have some drawbacks. This review covers a considerable number of surgical procedures for which CAs had satisfactory results. The adhesive facilitated the healing of very diverse tissues, such as solid organs, vascular tissue or the abdominal wall. In other cases, no significant differences were found when CA was compared to traditional methods, with the adhesive standing out as a simple and reliable solution. The number of procedures in which CA was detrimental was very low. This review also collects and describes these. In conclusion, the surgical fields and procedures in which CA was successfully used are highly diverse. This review will allow physicians to determine which techniques were first used experimentally, but finally settled in clinical practice as feasible alternatives to standard treatments.

  3. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-01

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications. PMID:27046671

  4. Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions in connective tissue remodeling and osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Moursi, A.; Zimmerman, D.; Lull, J.; Damsky, C.

    1995-01-01

    The differentiaton of bone cells is a complex multistep process. Bone is somewhat unusual in that it is very actively and continually remodeled in the adult and that maintenance of its mass in the mature organism is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical as well as chemical signals. Bone is also unique because it consists of a very large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mineralized. The integrin family of ECM receptors has been shown to play an important role in tissue morphogenesis in several systems. Our studies on the regulation of matrix remodeling enzymes by integrins in rabbit synovial fibroblasts show that two b1 integrin fibronectin (FN) receptor complexes (alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 1) cooperate in detecting subtle changes in the composition of the ECM. As a result of signal transduction by these integrins, the levels of mRNA and protein for several members of the metalloproteinase family are regulated in these cells. We have also used antibody and RGD peptide perturbation studies to determine the significance of cell/ECM interactions to normal osteogenesis. We found that interactions between the cell binding domain of FN and integrins are required for both normal morphogenesis and gene expression in cultured osteoblasts that differentiate to form bone-like tissue in culture. These data lead us to propose that beta 1 integrins play an important role in osteoblast differentiation as well as in bone remodeling.

  5. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  6. Foreign material in postoperative adhesions.

    PubMed Central

    Luijendijk, R W; de Lange, D C; Wauters, C C; Hop, W C; Duron, J J; Pailler, J L; Camprodon, B R; Holmdahl, L; van Geldorp, H J; Jeekel, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the prevalence of foreign body granulomas in intra-abdominal adhesions in patients with a history of abdominal surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional, multicenter, multinational study, adult patients with a history of one or more previous abdominal operations and scheduled for laparotomy between 1991 and 1993 were examined during surgery. Patients in whom adhesions were present were selected for study. Quantity, distribution, and quality of adhesions were scored, and adhesion samples were taken for histologic examination. RESULTS: In 448 studied patients, the adhesions were most frequently attached to the omentum (68%) and the small bowel (67%). The amount of adhesions was significantly smaller in patients with a history of only one minor operation or one major operation, compared with those with multiple laparotomies (p < 0.001). Significantly more adhesions were found in patients with a history of adhesions at previous laparotomy (p < 0.001), with presence of abdominal abscess, hematoma, and intestinal leakage as complications after former surgery (p = 0.01, p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, respectively), and with a history of an unoperated inflammatory process (p = 0.04). Granulomas were found in 26% of all patients. Suture granulomas were found in 25% of the patients. Starch granulomas were present in 5% of the operated patients whose surgeons wore starch-containing gloves. When suture granulomas were present, the median interval between the present and the most recent previous laparotomy was 13 months. When suture granulomas were absent, this interval was significantly longer--i.e., 30 months (p = 0.002). The percentage of patients with suture granulomas decreased gradually from 37% if the previous laparotomy had occurred up to 6 months before the present operation, to 18% if the previous laparotomy had occurred more than 2 years ago (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The number of adhesions found at laparotomy was significantly

  7. Interfacial adhesion of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    Relative adhesion strengths between AS4, AS1, and XAS carbon fibers and thermoplastic polymers were determined using the embedded single filament test. Polymers studied included polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, polysulfone, polyphenylene oxide blends with polystyrene, and polycarbonate blends with a polycarbonate polysiloxane block copolymer. Fiber surface treatments and sizings improved adhesion somewhat, but adhesion remained well below levels obtained with epoxy matrices. An explanation for the differences between the Hercules and Grafil fibers was sought using X ray photon spectroscopy, wetting, scanning electron microscopy and thermal desorption analysis.

  8. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  9. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  10. Advances in light curing adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Andy

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a new family of light curing adhesives containing a new reactive additive previously not used in optical grade light curing adhesives are obtained with the addition of functionalized cellulositics. Outgassing as low as 10-6 grams/gram has been observed based on headspace sampling. Other additives have lowered the shrinkage rates of positioning adhesives from near 1 percent to less than 0.1 percent with fractional, percentage movements over thermal range of -40 degrees C to +200 degrees C.

  11. Wear mechanism based on adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Various concepts concerning wear mechanisms and deformation behavior observed in the sliding wear track are surveyed. The mechanisms for wear fragment formation is discussed on the basis of adhesion. The wear process under unlubricated sliding conditions is explained in relation to the concept of adhesion at the interface during the sliding process. The mechanism for tearing away the surface layer from the contact area and forming the sliding track contour is explained by assuming the simplified process of material removal based on the adhesion theory.

  12. Supramolecular polymer adhesives: advanced materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Weder, Christoph; de Espinosa, Lucas Montero

    2016-01-21

    Due to their dynamic, stimuli-responsive nature, non-covalent interactions represent versatile design elements that can be found in nature in many molecular processes or materials, where adaptive behavior or reversible connectivity is required. Examples include molecular recognition processes, which trigger biological responses or cell-adhesion to surfaces, and a broad range of animal secreted adhesives with environment-dependent properties. Such advanced functionalities have inspired researchers to employ similar design approaches for the development of synthetic polymers with stimuli-responsive properties. The utilization of non-covalent interactions for the design of adhesives with advanced functionalities such as stimuli responsiveness, bonding and debonding on demand capability, surface selectivity or recyclability is a rapidly emerging subset of this field, which is summarized in this review. PMID:26203784

  13. Nanoscale viscoelastic properties and adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Wright, K. E.; Birch, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    It has shown that altering crosslink density of biopolymers will regulate the morphology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and the subsequent MSCs differentiation. These observations have been found in a wide range of biopolymers. However, a recent work published in Nature Materials has revealed that MSCs morphology and differentiation was unaffected by crosslink density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which remains elusive. To understand such unusual behaviour, we use nanoindentation tests and modelling to characterize viscoelastic properties and surface adhesion of PDMS with different base:crosslink ratio varied from 50:1 (50D) to 10:1 (10D). It has shown that lower crosslink density leads to lower elastic moduli. Despite lower nanoindentation elastic moduli, PDMS with lowest crosslink density has higher local surface adhesion which would affect cell-biomaterials interactions. This work suggests that surface adhesion is likely another important physical cue to regulate cell-biomaterials interactions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-08-17

    Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca < 0.0075), whole-capsule deformation confers the capsule a flattened bottom in contact with the functionalized surface, which hence promotes the rolling-to-firm-adhesion transition. It is consistent with the observations from previous studies that cell deformation promotes the adhesion of cells lying in the rolling regime. However, it is surprising to find that, at relatively high capillary numbers (e.g. 0.0075 < Ca < 0.0175), the effect of capsule deformability on its adhesion dynamics is far more complex than just promoting adhesion. High deformability of capsules makes their bottom take a concave shape with no adhesion bond formation in the middle. The appearance of this specific capsule shape inhibits the transitions of both rolling-to-firm-adhesion and detachment-to-rolling, and it means that capsule deformation no longer promotes the capsule adhesion. Besides, it is interesting to note that, when the capillary number exceeds a critical value (e.g. Ca = 0.0175), the rolling state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape

  15. Gecko Adhesion on Wet and Dry Patterned Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alyssa Y.; Palecek, Amanda M.; Argenbright, Clayton W.; Bernard, Craig; Brennan, Anthony B.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most astounding characteristics of the gecko adhesive system is its versatility. Geckos can locomote across complex substrates in a variety of conditions with apparent ease. In contrast, many of our synthetic pressure sensitive adhesives fail on substrates that are dirty, wet or rough. Although many studies have investigated the effect of environmental challenges on performance, the interaction of multiple, potentially compromising variables is studied less often. Here we focus on substrate structure and surface water, both of which are highly relevant to the biological system and to synthetic design. To do this we utilized a highly controlled, patterned substrate (Sharklet®, by Sharklet® Technologies Inc.). This allowed us to test independently and jointly the effects of reduced surface area substrates, with a defined pattern, on adhesion in both air and water. Our results show that adhesion is not significantly impaired in air, whereas surface area and pattern significantly affect adhesion in water. These findings highlight the need to study multiple parameters that are relevant to the gecko adhesive system to further improve our understanding of the biological system and to design better, more versatile synthetics. PMID:26696412

  16. Adhesion of Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis on a Planar Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eunhyea; Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; Joy, David Charles; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spherical silica particles on surfaces was experimentally and theoretically investigated in this study. Topography analysis via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy indicates that Bt spores are rod shaped, {approx}1.3 {mu}m in length and {approx}0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The adhesion force of Bt spores and silica particles on gold-coated glass was measured at various relative humidity (RH) levels by AFM. It was expected that the adhesion force would vary with RH because the individual force components contributing to the adhesion force depend on RH. The adhesion force between a particle and a planar surface in atmospheric environments was modeled as the contribution of three major force components: capillary, van der Waals, and electrostatic interaction forces. Adhesion force measurements for Bt spore (silica particle) and the gold surface system were comparable with calculations. Modeling results show that there is a critical RH value, which depends on the hydrophobicity of the materials involved, below which the water meniscus does not form and the contribution of the capillary force is zero. As RH increases, the van der Waals force decreases while the capillary force increases to a maximum value.

  17. Carbon nanotube based gecko inspired self-cleaning adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Ge, Liehui; Ajayan, Pulickel; Ali, Dhinojwala

    2008-03-01

    Wall climbing organisms like geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without use of any viscoelastic material. The hairy structure found in gecko feet allows them to obtain intimate contact over a large area thus allowing then to adhere using van der Waals interactions. Not only high adhesion, the geometry of the hairs makes gecko feet self cleaning, thus allowing them to walk continuously without worrying about loosing adhesive strength. Such properties if mimicked synthetically could form basis of a new class of materials, which, unlike conventional adhesives would show two contradictory properties, self cleaning and high adhesion. Such materials would form essential component of applications like wall climbing robot. We tried to synthesize such material using micropatterened vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. When dealing with large areas, probability of defects in the structure increase, forming patterns instead of using uniform film of carbon nanotubes helps to inhibit crack propagation, thus gives much higher adhesive strength than a uniform film. When carbon nanotube patterns with optimized aspect ratio are used, both high adhesion and self cleaning properties are observed.

  18. Gecko Adhesion on Wet and Dry Patterned Substrates.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Palecek, Amanda M; Argenbright, Clayton W; Bernard, Craig; Brennan, Anthony B; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most astounding characteristics of the gecko adhesive system is its versatility. Geckos can locomote across complex substrates in a variety of conditions with apparent ease. In contrast, many of our synthetic pressure sensitive adhesives fail on substrates that are dirty, wet or rough. Although many studies have investigated the effect of environmental challenges on performance, the interaction of multiple, potentially compromising variables is studied less often. Here we focus on substrate structure and surface water, both of which are highly relevant to the biological system and to synthetic design. To do this we utilized a highly controlled, patterned substrate (Sharklet®, by Sharklet® Technologies Inc.). This allowed us to test independently and jointly the effects of reduced surface area substrates, with a defined pattern, on adhesion in both air and water. Our results show that adhesion is not significantly impaired in air, whereas surface area and pattern significantly affect adhesion in water. These findings highlight the need to study multiple parameters that are relevant to the gecko adhesive system to further improve our understanding of the biological system and to design better, more versatile synthetics. PMID:26696412

  19. Amine-functionalized polypyrrole: inherently cell adhesive conducting polymer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Y.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrically conducting polymers have been recognized as novel biomaterials that can electrically communicate with biological systems. For their tissue engineering applications, conducting polymers have been modified to promote cell adhesion for improved interactions between biomaterials and cells/tissues. Conventional approaches to improve cell adhesion involve the surface modification of conducting polymers with biomolecules, such as physical adsorption of cell adhesive proteins and polycationic polymers, or their chemical immobilization; however, these approaches require additional multiple modification steps with expensive biomolecules. In this study, as a simple and effective alternative to such additional biomolecule treatment, we synthesized amine-functionalized polypyrrole (APPy) that inherently presents cell adhesion-supporting positive charges under physiological conditions. The synthesized APPy provides electrical activity in a moderate range and a hydrophilic surface compared to regular polypyrrole (PPy) homopolymers. Under both serum and serum-free conditions, APPy exhibited superior attachment of human dermal fibroblasts and Schwann cells compared to PPy homopolymer controls. Moreover, Schwann cell adhesion onto the APPy copolymer was at least similar to that on poly-L-lysine treated PPy controls. Our results indicate that amine-functionalized conducting polymer substrates will be useful to achieve good cell adhesion and potentially electrically stimulate various cells. In addition, an amine functionality present on conducting polymers can further serve as a novel and flexible platform to chemically tether various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, antibodies, and chemical drugs. PMID:25294089

  20. Physics of adhesion and elasticity of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, S. A.

    2006-03-01

    Forces exerted by adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. By pulling on their environment, cells sense rigidity gradients, boundaries and strains induced by the presence of other cells. Many cell types respond to these signals by actively adjusting the magnitude and direction of the adhesions that connect cells to surfaces or to each other. These adhesions are formed from membrane-bound integrin proteins and other cytoplasmic proteins that form condensed domains that grow in the direction of externally applied or internal, cytoskeletal forces. We present a model for the adsorption of adhesion proteins from the cell interior to the adhesion site and the resulting, force-sensitive anisotropic growth. The theory couples the mechanical forces to the non- linear adsorption dynamics and predicts the growth velocities of the back and front of the adhesion in qualitative agreement with experiment. The adhesion forces generated by a collection of cells in a tissue significantly alter the overall elastic response of the system. We model an ensemble of cells by an extension of the treatment of dielectric response of polar molecules to elastic interactions. By introducing the elastic analogy of the dielectric constant of the medium, we are able to predict the average cell polarization, their orientational order, and the effective material constants.

  1. Single-cell force spectroscopy of pili-mediated adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullan, Ruby May A.; Beaussart, Audrey; Tripathi, Prachi; Derclaye, Sylvie; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Li, James K.; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-12-01

    Although bacterial pili are known to mediate cell adhesion to a variety of substrates, the molecular interactions behind this process are poorly understood. We report the direct measurement of the forces guiding pili-mediated adhesion, focusing on the medically important probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Using non-invasive single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), we quantify the adhesion forces between individual bacteria and biotic (mucin, intestinal cells) or abiotic (hydrophobic monolayers) surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces, bacterial pili strengthen adhesion through remarkable nanospring properties, which - presumably - enable the bacteria to resist high shear forces under physiological conditions. On mucin, nanosprings are more frequent and adhesion forces larger, reflecting the influence of specific pili-mucin bonds. Interestingly, these mechanical responses are no longer observed on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Rather, force curves exhibit constant force plateaus with extended ruptures reflecting the extraction of membrane nanotethers. These single-cell analyses provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms by which piliated bacteria colonize surfaces (nanosprings, nanotethers), and offer exciting avenues in nanomedicine for understanding and controlling the adhesion of microbial cells (probiotics, pathogens).

  2. Gecko Adhesion on Wet and Dry Patterned Substrates.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Palecek, Amanda M; Argenbright, Clayton W; Bernard, Craig; Brennan, Anthony B; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most astounding characteristics of the gecko adhesive system is its versatility. Geckos can locomote across complex substrates in a variety of conditions with apparent ease. In contrast, many of our synthetic pressure sensitive adhesives fail on substrates that are dirty, wet or rough. Although many studies have investigated the effect of environmental challenges on performance, the interaction of multiple, potentially compromising variables is studied less often. Here we focus on substrate structure and surface water, both of which are highly relevant to the biological system and to synthetic design. To do this we utilized a highly controlled, patterned substrate (Sharklet®, by Sharklet® Technologies Inc.). This allowed us to test independently and jointly the effects of reduced surface area substrates, with a defined pattern, on adhesion in both air and water. Our results show that adhesion is not significantly impaired in air, whereas surface area and pattern significantly affect adhesion in water. These findings highlight the need to study multiple parameters that are relevant to the gecko adhesive system to further improve our understanding of the biological system and to design better, more versatile synthetics.

  3. Role of dystrophins and utrophins in platelet adhesion process.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila; Rendón, Alvaro

    2006-07-01

    Platelets are crucial at the site of vascular injury, adhering to the sub-endothelial matrix through receptors on their surface, leading to cell activation and aggregation to form a haemostatic plug. Platelets display focal adhesions as well as stress fibres to contract and facilitate expulsion of growth and pro-coagulant factors contained in the granules and to constrict the clot. The interaction of F-actin with different actin-binding proteins determines the properties and composition of the focal adhesions. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to short dystrophin isoforms (Dp71d and Dp71) and the uthophin gene family (Up400 and Up71), which promote shape change, adhesion, aggregation, and granule centralisation. To elucidate participation of both complexes during the platelet adhesion process, their potential association with integrin beta-1 fraction and the focal adhesion system (alpha-actinin, vinculin and talin) was evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays. It was shown that the short dystrophin-associated protein complex participated in stress fibre assembly and in centralisation of cytoplasmic granules, while the utrophin-associated protein complex assembled and regulated focal adhesions. The simultaneous presence of dystrophin and utrophin complexes indicates complementary structural and signalling mechanisms to the actin network, improving the platelet haemostatic role.

  4. Reversing Adhesion: A Triggered Release Self‐Reporting Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Schenzel, Alexander M.; Klein, Christopher; Rist, Kai; Moszner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Here, the development of an adhesive is reported – generated via free radical polymerization – which can be degraded upon thermal impact within minutes. The degradation is based on a stimuli responsive moiety (SRM) that is incorporated into the network. The selected SRM is a hetero Diels‐Alder (HDA) moiety that features three key properties. First, the adhesive can be degraded at relatively low temperatures (≈80 °C), second the degradation occurs very rapidly (less than 3 min), and third, the degradation of the network can readily be analyzed and quantified due to its self‐reporting nature. The new reversible self‐reporting adhesion system is characterized in detail starting from molecular studies of the retro HDA reaction. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the network, as well as the adhesion forces, are investigated in detail and compared to common methacrylate‐based systems, demonstrating a significant decrease in mechanic stability at elevated temperatures. The current study thus represents a significant advance of the current state of the art for debonding on demand adhesives, making the system interesting for several fields of application including dental adhesives. PMID:27812461

  5. Adhesion in vascular biology

    PubMed Central

    de Rooij, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The vasculature delivers vital support for all other tissues by supplying oxygen and nutrients for growth and by transporting the immune cells that protect and cure them. Therefore, the microvasculature developed a special barrier that is permissive for gasses like oxygen and carbon dioxide, while fluids are kept inside and pathogens are kept out. While maintaining this tight barrier, the vascular wall also allows immune cells to exit at sites of inflammation or damage, a process that is called transmigration. The endothelial cell layer that forms the inner lining of the vasculature is crucial for the vascular barrier function as well as the regulation of transmigration. Therefore, adhesions between vascular endothelial cells are both tight and dynamic and the mechanisms by which they are established, and the mechanisms by which they are controlled have been extensively studied over the past decades. Because of our fundamental strive to understand biology, but also because defects in vascular barrier control cause a variety of clinical problems and treatment strategies may evolve from our detailed understanding of its mechanisms. This special focus issue features a collection of articles that review key components of the development and control of the endothelial cell-cell junction that is central to endothelial barrier function. PMID:25422845

  6. Single Cell Adhesion Assay Using Computer Controlled Micropipette

    PubMed Central

    Salánki, Rita; Hős, Csaba; Orgovan, Norbert; Péter, Beatrix; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and today’s techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5–10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology hundreds of cells adhered to specific macromolecules were measured one by one in a relatively short period of time (∼30 min). We blocked nonspecific cell adhesion by the protein non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG polymer. We found that human primary monocytes are less adherent to fibrinogen than their in vitro differentiated descendants: macrophages and dendritic cells, the latter producing the highest average adhesion force. Validation of the here introduced method was achieved by the hydrostatic step-pressure micropipette manipulation technique. Additionally the result was reinforced in standard microfluidic shear stress channels. Nevertheless, automated micropipette gave higher sensitivity and less side-effect than the shear stress channel. Using our technique, the probed single cells can be easily picked up and further investigated by other techniques; a definite advantage of the computer controlled micropipette. Our experiments revealed the existence of a sub

  7. Single cell adhesion assay using computer controlled micropipette.

    PubMed

    Salánki, Rita; Hős, Csaba; Orgovan, Norbert; Péter, Beatrix; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and today's techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5-10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology hundreds of cells adhered to specific macromolecules were measured one by one in a relatively short period of time (∼30 min). We blocked nonspecific cell adhesion by the protein non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG polymer. We found that human primary monocytes are less adherent to fibrinogen than their in vitro differentiated descendants: macrophages and dendritic cells, the latter producing the highest average adhesion force. Validation of the here introduced method was achieved by the hydrostatic step-pressure micropipette manipulation technique. Additionally the result was reinforced in standard microfluidic shear stress channels. Nevertheless, automated micropipette gave higher sensitivity and less side-effect than the shear stress channel. Using our technique, the probed single cells can be easily picked up and further investigated by other techniques; a definite advantage of the computer controlled micropipette. Our experiments revealed the existence of a sub-population of

  8. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of composites as adherends was studied. Several other variables were studied by fractography: aluminum powder adhesive filler, fiber glass cloth scrim or adhesive carrier, new adhesives PPQ-413 and LARC-13, and strength-test temperature. When the new results were juxtaposed with previous work, it appeared that complex interactions between adhesive, adherend, bonding, and testing conditions govern the observed strength and fracture-surface features. The design parameters likely to have a significant effect upon strength-test results are listed.

  9. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2016-07-12

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  10. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  11. Mechanisms of adhesion in geckos.

    PubMed

    Autumn, Kellar; Peattie, Anne M

    2002-12-01

    The extraordinary adhesive capabilities of geckos have challenged explanation for millennia, since Aristotle first recorded his observations. We have discovered many of the secrets of gecko adhesion, yet the millions of dry, adhesive setae on the toes of geckos continue to generate puzzling new questions and valuable answers. Each epidermally-derived, keratinous seta ends in hundreds of 200 nm spatular tips, permitting intimate contact with rough and smooth surfaces alike. Prior studies suggested that adhesive force in gecko setae was directly proportional to the water droplet contact angle (θ) , an indicator of the free surface energy of a substrate. In contrast, new theory suggests that adhesion energy between a gecko seta and a surface (W(GS)) is in fact proportional to (1 + cosθ), and only for θ > 60°. A reanalysis of prior data, in combination with our recent study, support the van der Waals hypothesis of gecko adhesion, and contradict surface hydrophobicity as a predictor of adhesion force. Previously, we and our collaborators measured the force production of a single seta. Initial efforts to attach a seta failed because of improper 3D orientation. However, by simulating the dynamics of gecko limbs during climbing (based on force plate data) we discovered that, in single setae, a small normal preload, combined with a 5 μm displacement yielded a very large adhesive force of 200 microNewton (μN), 10 times that predicted by whole-animal measurements. 6.5 million setae of a single tokay gecko attached maximally could generate 130 kg force. This raises the question of how geckos manage to detach their feet in just 15 ms. We discovered that simply increasing the angle that the setal shaft makes with the substrate to 30° causes detachment. Understanding how simultaneous attachment and release of millions of setae are controlled will require an approach that integrates levels ranging from molecules to lizards.

  12. Adhesion and non-linear rheology of adhesives with supramolecular crosslinking points.

    PubMed

    Callies, X; Fonteneau, C; Pensec, S; Bouteiller, L; Ducouret, G; Creton, C

    2016-09-14

    Soft supramolecular materials are promising for the design of innovative and highly tunable adhesives. These materials are composed of polymer chains functionalized by strongly interacting moieties, sometimes called "stickers". In order to systematically investigate the effect of the presence of associative groups on the debonding properties of a supramolecular adhesive, a series of supramolecular model systems has been characterized by probe-tack tests. These model materials, composed of linear and low dispersity poly(butylacrylate) chains functionalized in the middle by a single tri-urea sticker, are able to self-associate by six hydrogen bonds and range in molecular weight (Mn) between 5 and 85 kg mol(-1). The linear rheology and the nanostructure of the same materials (called "PnBA3U") were the object of a previous study. At room temperature, the association of polymers via hydrogen bonds induces the formation of rod-like aggregates structured into bundles for Mn < 40 kg mol(-1) and the behavior of a soft elastic material was observed (G'≪G'' and G'∼ω(0)). For higher Mn materials, the filaments were randomly oriented and the polymers displayed a crossover towards viscous behavior although terminal relaxation was not reached in the experimental frequency window. All these materials show, however, similar adhesive properties characterized by a cohesive mode of failure and low debonding energies (Wadh < 40 J m(-2) for a debonding speed of 100 μm s(-1)). The debonding mechanisms observed during the adhesion tests have been investigated in detail with an Image tools analysis developed by our group. The measure of the projected area covered by cavities growing in the adhesive layer during debonding can be used to estimate the true stress in the walls of the cavities and thus to characterize the in situ large strain deformation of the thin layer during the adhesion test itself. This analysis revealed in particular that the PnBA3U materials with Mn < 40 kg mol(-1

  13. Adhesion and non-linear rheology of adhesives with supramolecular crosslinking points.

    PubMed

    Callies, X; Fonteneau, C; Pensec, S; Bouteiller, L; Ducouret, G; Creton, C

    2016-09-14

    Soft supramolecular materials are promising for the design of innovative and highly tunable adhesives. These materials are composed of polymer chains functionalized by strongly interacting moieties, sometimes called "stickers". In order to systematically investigate the effect of the presence of associative groups on the debonding properties of a supramolecular adhesive, a series of supramolecular model systems has been characterized by probe-tack tests. These model materials, composed of linear and low dispersity poly(butylacrylate) chains functionalized in the middle by a single tri-urea sticker, are able to self-associate by six hydrogen bonds and range in molecular weight (Mn) between 5 and 85 kg mol(-1). The linear rheology and the nanostructure of the same materials (called "PnBA3U") were the object of a previous study. At room temperature, the association of polymers via hydrogen bonds induces the formation of rod-like aggregates structured into bundles for Mn < 40 kg mol(-1) and the behavior of a soft elastic material was observed (G'≪G'' and G'∼ω(0)). For higher Mn materials, the filaments were randomly oriented and the polymers displayed a crossover towards viscous behavior although terminal relaxation was not reached in the experimental frequency window. All these materials show, however, similar adhesive properties characterized by a cohesive mode of failure and low debonding energies (Wadh < 40 J m(-2) for a debonding speed of 100 μm s(-1)). The debonding mechanisms observed during the adhesion tests have been investigated in detail with an Image tools analysis developed by our group. The measure of the projected area covered by cavities growing in the adhesive layer during debonding can be used to estimate the true stress in the walls of the cavities and thus to characterize the in situ large strain deformation of the thin layer during the adhesion test itself. This analysis revealed in particular that the PnBA3U materials with Mn < 40 kg mol(-1

  14. Adhesion of nanoscale asperities with power-law profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, David S.; Liu, Jingjing; Carpick, Robert W.; Turner, Kevin T.

    2013-02-01

    The behavior of single-asperity micro- and nanoscale contacts in which adhesion is present is important for the performance of many small-scale mechanical systems and processes, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). When analyzing such problems, the bodies in contact are often assumed to have paraboloidal shapes, thus allowing the application of the familiar Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR), Derjaguin-Müller-Toporov (DMT), or Maugis-Dugdale (M-D) adhesive contact models. However, in many situations the asperities do not have paraboloidal shapes and, instead, have geometries that may be better described by a power-law function. An M-D-n analytical model has recently been developed to extend the M-D model to asperities with power-law profiles. We use a combination of M-D-n analytical modeling, finite element (FE) analysis, and experimental measurements to investigate the behavior of nanoscale adhesive contacts with non-paraboloidal geometries. Specifically, we examine the relationship between pull-off force, work of adhesion, and range of adhesion for asperities with power-law-shaped geometries. FE analysis is used to validate the M-D-n model and examine the effect of the shape of the adhesive interaction potential on the pull-off force. In the experiments, the extended M-D model is applied to analyze pull-off force measurements made on nanoscale tips that are engineered via gradual wear to have power-law shapes. The experimental and modeling results demonstrate that the range of the adhesive interaction is a crucial parameter when quantifying the adhesion of non-paraboloidal tips, quite different than the familiar paraboloidal case. The application of the M-D-n model to the experimental results yields an unusually large adhesion range of 4-5 nm, a finding we attribute to either the presence of long-range van der Waals forces or deviations from continuum theory due to atomic-scale roughness of the tips. Finally, an adhesion map to aid in analysis of pull-off force

  15. Treponema denticola improves adhesive capacities of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Meuric, V; Martin, B; Guyodo, H; Rouillon, A; Tamanai-Shacoori, Z; Barloy-Hubler, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M

    2013-02-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important etiological agent of periodontal disease, is frequently found associated with Treponema denticola, an anaerobic spirochete, in pathogenic biofilms. However, interactions between these two bacteria are not well understood at the molecular level. In this study, we seek to link the influence of T. denticola on the expression of P. gingivalis proteases with its capacities to adhere and to form biofilms. The P. gingivalis genes encoding Arg-gingipain A (RgpA), Lys-gingipain (Kgp), and hemagglutinin A (HagA) were more strongly expressed after incubation with T. denticola compared with P. gingivalis alone. The amounts of the three resulting proteins, all of which contain hemagglutinin adhesion domains, were increased in culture supernatants. Moreover, incubation of P. gingivalis with T. denticola promoted static and dynamic biofilm formation, primarily via a time-dependent enhancement of P. gingivalis adhesion capacities on bacterial partners such as Streptococcus gordonii. Adhesion of P. gingivalis to human cells was also increased. These results showed that interactions of P. gingivalis with other bacterial species, such as T. denticola, induce increased adhesive capacities on various substrata by hemagglutinin adhesion domain-containing proteins. PMID:23194417

  16. Strong adhesion and cohesion of chitosan in aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Woog; Lim, Chanoong; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, a load-bearing biomacromolecule found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects, is a promising biopolymer for the replacement of synthetic plastic compounds. Here, surface interactions mediated by chitosan in aqueous solutions, including the effects of pH and contact time, were investigated using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). Chitosan films showed an adhesion to mica for all tested pH ranges (3.0–8.5), achieving a maximum value at pH 3.0 after a contact time of 1 hr (Wad ~6.4 mJ/m2). We also found weak or no cohesion between two opposing chitosan layers on mica in aqueous buffer until the critical contact time for maximum adhesion (chitosan-mica) was reached. Strong cohesion (Wco ~8.5 mJ/m2) between the films was measured with increasing contact times up to 1 hr at pH 3.0, which is equivalent to ~60% of the strongest, previously reported, mussel underwater adhesion. Such time-dependent adhesion properties are most likely related to molecular or molecular group reorientations and interdigitations. At high pH (8.5), the solubility of chitosan changes drastically, causing the chitosan-chitosan (cohesion) interaction to be repulsive at all separation distances and contact times. The strong contact time and pH-dependent chitosan-chitosan cohesion and adhesion properties provide new insight into the development of chitosan based load-bearing materials. PMID:24138057

  17. Silorane adhesive system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro Júnior, Sylvio; Andrada, Mauro Amaral Caldeira de

    2014-01-01

    Silorane-based composite resin requires a specific adhesive system: a 2-step self-etching adhesive. Clinical protocols are well established and are based on the principles of adhesion to mineralized dental tissues. In this paper, we present a clinical application of the silorane adhesive system in a class-II restoration using silorane-based composite resin.

  18. Hydroxyapatite induces spontaneous polymerization of model self-etch dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ningjing; Bai, Xinyan; Xu, Changqi; Liu, Yi; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to report for the first time the spontaneous polymerization phenomenon of self-etch dental adhesives induced by hydroxylapatite (HAp). Model self-etch adhesives were prepared by using a monomer mixture of bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (2MP) with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The initiator system consisted of camphorquinone (CQ, 0.022 mmol/g) and ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (4E, 0.022-0.088 mmol/g). HAp (2-8 wt.%) was added to the neat model adhesive. In a dark environment, the polymerization was monitored in-situ using ATR/FT-IR, and the mechanical properties of the polymerized adhesives were evaluated using nanoindentation technique. Results indicated that spontaneous polymerization was not observed in the absence of HAp. However, as different amounts of HAp were incorporated into the adhesives, spontaneous polymerization was induced. Higher HAp content led to higher degree of conversion (DC), higher rate of polymerization (RP) and shorter induction period (IP). In addition, higher 4E content also elevated DC and RP and reduced IP of the adhesives. Nanoindentation result suggested that the Young's modulus of the polymerized adhesives showed similar dependence on HAp and 4E contents. In summary, interaction with HAp could induce spontaneous polymerization of the model self-etch adhesives. This result provides important information for understanding the initiation mechanism of the self-etch adhesives, and may be of clinical significance to strengthen the adhesive/dentin interface based on the finding.

  19. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  20. Harnessing tunable scanning probe techniques to measure shear enhanced adhesion of gecko-inspired fibrillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Zhou, James H-W; Zhang, Cheng; Menon, Carlo; Gates, Byron D

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical arrays of mesoscale to nanoscale fibrillar structures on a gecko's foot enable the animal to climb surfaces of varying roughness. Adhesion force between the fibrillar structures and various surfaces is maximized after the gecko drags its foot in one direction, which has also been demonstrated to improve the adhesion forces of artificial fibrillar arrays. Essential conditions that influence the magnitude of these interactions include the lateral distance traveled and velocity between the contacting surfaces, as well as the velocity at which the two surfaces are subsequently separated. These parameters have, however, not been systematically investigated to assess the adhesion properties of artificial adhesives. We introduce a systematic study that investigates these conditions using a scanning probe microscope to measure the adhesion forces of artificial adhesives through a process that mimics the mechanism by which a gecko climbs. The measured adhesion response was different for arrays of shorter and longer fibrils. These results from 9000 independent measurements also provide further insight into the dynamics of the interactions between fibrillar arrays and contacting surfaces. These studies establish scanning probe microscopy techniques as a versatile approach for measuring a variety of adhesion properties of artificial fibrillar adhesives.

  1. Method and Apparatus for the Quantification of Particulate Adhesion Forces on Various Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Atkins, Brad M.; Connell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation strategies for lunar dust adhesion have typically been limited to qualitative analysis. This technical memorandum describes the generation and operation of an adhesion testing device capable of quantitative assessment of adhesion forces between particulates and substrates. An aerosolization technique is described to coat a surface with a monolayer of particulates. Agitation of this surface, via sonication, causes particles to dislodge and be gravitationally fed into an optical particle counter. Experimentally determined adhesion force values are compared to forces calculated from van der Waals interactions and are used to calculate the work of adhesion using Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory. Preliminary results indicate that a reduction in surface energy and available surface area, through topographical modification, improve mitigation of particulate adhesion.

  2. Bead Aggregation Assays for the Characterization of Putative Cell Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Emond, Michelle R.; Jontes, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is fundamental to multicellular life and is mediated by a diverse array of cell surface proteins. However, the adhesive interactions for many of these proteins are poorly understood. Here we present a simple, rapid method for characterizing the adhesive properties of putative homophilic cell adhesion molecules. Cultured HEK293 cells are transfected with DNA plasmid encoding a secreted, epitope-tagged ectodomain of a cell surface protein. Using functionalized beads specific for the epitope tag, the soluble, secreted fusion protein is captured from the culture medium. The coated beads can then be used directly in bead aggregation assays or in fluorescent bead sorting assays to test for homophilic adhesion. If desired, mutagenesis can then be used to elucidate the specific amino acids or domains required for adhesion. This assay requires only small amounts of expressed protein, does not require the production of stable cell lines, and can be accomplished in 4 days. PMID:25350770

  3. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  4. Investigation of organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were investigated to acquire information for a guideline document regarding the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specifically, investigations were made of (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives, (2) effects of long term aging at 150 C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives, (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics, (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive, (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters, (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives, and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed.

  5. Adhesion of epoxy primer to hydrotalcite conversion coated AA2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggat, Robert Benton, III

    Hydrotalcite-based (HT) conversion coatings are being developed as an environmentally benign alternative to chromate conversion coatings (CCC). Accelerated exposure tests were conducted on epoxy primed, HT-modified AA2024 to gauge service performance. HT-based conversion coatings did not perform as well as the CCC when used with an epoxy primer. The current HT chemistries are optimized for stand-alone corrosion protection, however additional research into the primer/HT interactions is necessary before they can be implemented within a coating scheme. The relative contribution of mechanical and physico-chemical interactions in controlling adhesion has been investigated in this study. Practical adhesion tests were used to assess the dry and wet bond strength of epoxy primer on HT coatings using the pull-off tensile strength (POTS) as the figure of merit. The practical adhesion of HT coated samples generally fell between that observed for the CCC and bare AA2024. Laboratory testing was done to assess the physical and chemical properties of HT coatings. Contact angle measurements were performed using powders representative of different HT chemistries to evaluate the dispersive and acid-base character of the surface. The wet POTS correlated with the electrodynamic (dipole + dispersive) parameter of the surface tension. The HT surfaces were found to be predominantly basic. Given the basicity of epoxy, these results indicate that increasing the acidic character of HT coatings may increase the adhesion performance. This was supported by electrokinetic measurements in which the dry POTS was found to increase with decreasing conversion coating iso-electric point. The correlations with the dry and wet state adhesion are interpreted as indicating that dry state adhesion is optimized by minimizing unfavorable polar interactions between the basic epoxy and HT interfaces. Wet state adhesion, where polar interactions are disrupted, is dictated by non-polar bonding. FTIR

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Gecko-inspired Fibrillar Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongkwan

    Over the last decade, geckos' remarkable ability to stick to and climb surfaces found in nature has motivated a wide range of scientific interest in engineering gecko-mimetic surface for various adhesive and high friction applications. The high adhesion and friction of its pads have been attributed to a complex array of hairy structures, which maximize surface area for van der Waals interaction between the toes and the counter-surface. While advances in micro- and nanolithography technique have allowed fabrication of increasingly sophisticated gecko mimetic surfaces, it remains a challenge to produce an adhesive as robust as that of the natural gecko pads. In order to rationally design gecko adhesives, understanding the contact behavior of fibrillar interface is critical. The first chapter of the dissertation introduces gecko adhesion and its potential applications, followed by a brief survey of gecko-inspired adhesives. Challenges that limit the performance of the current adhesives are presented. In particular, it is pointed out that almost all testing of gecko adhesives have been on clean, smooth glass, which is ideal for adhesion due to high surface energy and low roughness. Surfaces in application are more difficult to stick to, so the understanding of failure modes in low energy and rough surfaces is important. The second chapter presents a fabrication method for thermoplastic gecko adhesive to be used for a detailed study of fibrillar interfaces. Low-density polyethylene nanofibers are replicated from a silicon nanowire array fabricated by colloidal lithography and metal-catalyzed chemical etching. This process yields a highly ordered array of nanofibers over a large area with control over fiber diameter, length, and number density. The high yield and consistency of the process make it ideal for a systematic study on factors that affect adhesion and friction of gecko adhesives. The following three chapters examine parameters that affect macroscale friction of

  7. Adhesion and structure properties of protein nanomaterials containing hydrophobic and charged amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinchun; Mo, Xiaoqun; Moore, Robyn; Frazier, Shawnalea J; Iwamoto, Takeo; Tomich, John M; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2006-03-01

    Protein polymers are being used or considered for biobased adhesives and coating materials. Most adhesives derived from macro protein molecules work through receptors or cross-links to bring about adhesion. The adhesion mechanism of protein polymers would lead to better understanding of adhesives and the discovery of new practical properties of protein polymers at both nano- and macro-scales. The objective of this research work was to study adhesion properties of protein polymers at nanoscale (a peptide adhesive with nanometer-scale units that range in size of several nanometers, defined as protein nanomaterial). Seven protein nanomaterial samples with different degrees of adhesive strength were designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All protein nanomaterials contain a common hydrophobic core flanked by charged amino acid sequences. The adhesion properties of the protein nanomaterials were investigated at different pH values and curing temperatures. The protein nanomaterials self aggregate and interact with the wood surface. The protein nanomaterial KKK-FLIVIGSII-KKK identified in this study had high adhesive strength toward wood. It had the highest shear strength at pH 12, with an amino acid sequence that was very hydrophobic and uncharged. This protein nanomaterial underwent structural analyses using circular dichroism, laser-Fourier transform infrared, and laser desorption mass spectrometry. At pH 12 this peptide adopted a pH-induced beta-like conformation. Adhesive strength reflects contributions of both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic and covalent bonds do not appear to be significant factors for adhesion in this study.

  8. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  9. Optimizing Adhesive Design by Understanding Compliance.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-12-23

    Adhesives have long been designed around a trade-off between adhesive strength and releasability. Geckos are of interest because they are the largest organisms which are able to climb utilizing adhesive toepads, yet can controllably release from surfaces and perform this action over and over again. Attempting to replicate the hierarchical, nanoscopic features which cover their toepads has been the primary focus of the adhesives field until recently. A new approach based on a scaling relation which states that reversible adhesive force capacity scales with (A/C)(1/2), where A is the area of contact and C is the compliance of the adhesive, has enabled the creation of high strength, reversible adhesives without requiring high aspect ratio, fibrillar features. Here we introduce an equation to calculate the compliance of adhesives, and utilize this equation to predict the shear adhesive force capacity of the adhesive based on the material components and geometric properties. Using this equation, we have investigated important geometric parameters which control force capacity and have shown that by controlling adhesive shape, adhesive force capacity can be increased by over 50% without varying pad size. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that compliance of the adhesive far from the interface still influences shear adhesive force capacity. Utilizing this equation will allow for the production of adhesives which are optimized for specific applications in commercial and industrial settings. PMID:26618537

  10. Optimizing Adhesive Design by Understanding Compliance.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-12-23

    Adhesives have long been designed around a trade-off between adhesive strength and releasability. Geckos are of interest because they are the largest organisms which are able to climb utilizing adhesive toepads, yet can controllably release from surfaces and perform this action over and over again. Attempting to replicate the hierarchical, nanoscopic features which cover their toepads has been the primary focus of the adhesives field until recently. A new approach based on a scaling relation which states that reversible adhesive force capacity scales with (A/C)(1/2), where A is the area of contact and C is the compliance of the adhesive, has enabled the creation of high strength, reversible adhesives without requiring high aspect ratio, fibrillar features. Here we introduce an equation to calculate the compliance of adhesives, and utilize this equation to predict the shear adhesive force capacity of the adhesive based on the material components and geometric properties. Using this equation, we have investigated important geometric parameters which control force capacity and have shown that by controlling adhesive shape, adhesive force capacity can be increased by over 50% without varying pad size. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that compliance of the adhesive far from the interface still influences shear adhesive force capacity. Utilizing this equation will allow for the production of adhesives which are optimized for specific applications in commercial and industrial settings.

  11. FLRT Structure: Balancing Repulsion and Cell Adhesion in Cortical and Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Seiradake, Elena; del Toro, Daniel; Nagel, Daniel; Cop, Florian; Härtl, Ricarda; Ruff, Tobias; Seyit-Bremer, Gönül; Harlos, Karl; Border, Ellen Clare; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Jones, E. Yvonne; Klein, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Summary FLRTs are broadly expressed proteins with the unique property of acting as homophilic cell adhesion molecules and as heterophilic repulsive ligands of Unc5/Netrin receptors. How these functions direct cell behavior and the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here we use X-ray crystallography to reveal the distinct structural bases for FLRT-mediated cell adhesion and repulsion in neurons. We apply this knowledge to elucidate FLRT functions during cortical development. We show that FLRTs regulate both the radial migration of pyramidal neurons, as well as their tangential spread. Mechanistically, radial migration is controlled by repulsive FLRT2-Unc5D interactions, while spatial organization in the tangential axis involves adhesive FLRT-FLRT interactions. Further, we show that the fundamental mechanisms of FLRT adhesion and repulsion are conserved between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. Our results reveal FLRTs as powerful guidance factors with structurally encoded repulsive and adhesive surfaces. PMID:25374360

  12. New families of adhesion molecules play a vital role in platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, S; Kaplan, C; Catimel, B; McGregor, J L

    1990-07-01

    Adhesion molecules play a crucial part in cell-matrix and in cell-cell interactions. These interactions, which are essential to the body's defense processes, involve adhesion molecules belonging to different families: integrins, immunoglobulins and selectins. Integrins are expressed by a large number of tissues, whereas other adhesion molecule families are restricted to a small number of cell types. A recent symposium dealt with the recruitment of circulating platelets at specific sites, their adhesion to extracellular matrix components and their activation by agonists leading to aggregation or attachment to other cells. These events, supporting hemostasis and thrombosis, involve integrins, selectins and other adhesion molecules. This report focuses on newly reported integrins (GPIa, GPIc, GPIIa), selectins (GMP-140) and GPIIIb, previously known as 'minor' surface oriented platelet glycoproteins. Major membrane glycoproteins such as GPIIb-IIIa (an integrin) and GPIb, which also play a vital role in platelet functions, have been extensively reviewed elsewhere.

  13. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; Williams, S.; McCoy, B.; MacLeod, T.

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development

  14. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and

  15. Elastocapilllarity in insect adhesion: the case of beetle adhesive hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernay, Sophie; Gilet, Tristan; Lambert, Pierre; Federle, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The feet of many insects are covered with dense arrays of hair-like structures called setae. Liquid capillary bridges at the tip of these micrometric structures are responsible for the controlled adhesion of the insect on a large variety of substrates. The resulting adhesion force can exceed several times the body weight of the insect. The high aspect-ratio of setae suggests that flexibility is a key ingredient in this capillary-based adhesion mechanism. There is indeed a strong coupling between their elastic deformation and the shape of the liquid meniscus. In this experimental work, we observe and quantify the local deflection of dock beetle seta tips under perpendicular loading using interference microscopy. Our results are then interpreted in the light of an analytic model of elastocapillarity. This research has been funded by the FRIA/FNRS and the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.

  16. Capillarity-based switchable adhesion.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Michael J; Steen, Paul H

    2010-02-23

    Drawing inspiration from the adhesion abilities of a leaf beetle found in nature, we have engineered a switchable adhesion device. The device combines two concepts: The surface tension force from a large number of small liquid bridges can be significant (capillarity-based adhesion) and these contacts can be quickly made or broken with electronic control (switchable). The device grabs or releases a substrate in a fraction of a second via a low-voltage pulse that drives electroosmotic flow. Energy consumption is minimal because both the grabbed and released states are stable equilibria that persist with no energy added to the system. Notably, the device maintains the integrity of an array of hundreds to thousands of distinct interfaces during active reconfiguration from droplets to bridges and back, despite the natural tendency of the liquid toward coalescence. We demonstrate the scaling of adhesion strength with the inverse of liquid contact size. This suggests that strengths approaching those of permanent bonding adhesives are possible as feature size is scaled down. In addition, controllability is fast and efficient because the attachment time and required voltage also scale down favorably. The device features compact size, no solid moving parts, and is made of common materials.

  17. Capillarity-based switchable adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Michael J.; Steen, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from the adhesion abilities of a leaf beetle found in nature, we have engineered a switchable adhesion device. The device combines two concepts: The surface tension force from a large number of small liquid bridges can be significant (capillarity-based adhesion) and these contacts can be quickly made or broken with electronic control (switchable). The device grabs or releases a substrate in a fraction of a second via a low-voltage pulse that drives electroosmotic flow. Energy consumption is minimal because both the grabbed and released states are stable equilibria that persist with no energy added to the system. Notably, the device maintains the integrity of an array of hundreds to thousands of distinct interfaces during active reconfiguration from droplets to bridges and back, despite the natural tendency of the liquid toward coalescence. We demonstrate the scaling of adhesion strength with the inverse of liquid contact size. This suggests that strengths approaching those of permanent bonding adhesives are possible as feature size is scaled down. In addition, controllability is fast and efficient because the attachment time and required voltage also scale down favorably. The device features compact size, no solid moving parts, and is made of common materials. PMID:20133725

  18. High performance Cu adhesion coating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.W.; Viehbeck, A.; Chen, W.R.; Ree, M.

    1996-12-31

    Poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) (PAEBI) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with imidazole functional groups forming the polymer backbone structure. It is proposed that upon coating PAEBI onto a copper surface the imidazole groups of PAEBI form a bond with or chelate to the copper surface resulting in strong adhesion between the copper and polymer. Adhesion of PAEBI to other polymers such as poly(biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylene diamine) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide is also quite good and stable. The resulting locus of failure as studied by XPS and IR indicates that PAEBI gives strong cohesive adhesion to copper. Due to its good adhesion and mechanical properties, PAEBI can be used in fabricating thin film semiconductor packages such as multichip module dielectric (MCM-D) structures. In these applications, a thin PAEBI coating is applied directly to a wiring layer for enhancing adhesion to both the copper wiring and the polymer dielectric surface. In addition, a thin layer of PAEBI can also function as a protection layer for the copper wiring, eliminating the need for Cr or Ni barrier metallurgies and thus significantly reducing the number of process steps.

  19. Integrin receptors and platelet adhesion to synthetic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S L; Cooper, S L; Albrecht, R M

    1993-05-01

    The activation-independent and -dependent integrin receptors--glycoproteins GPIc-IIa (alpha 5-beta 1) and GPIIb-IIIa (alpha IIb-beta 3)--are involved in platelet adhesion and thrombus growth on damaged subendothelium through interactions with fibrinogen, fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and other adhesive proteins. Because these receptors are used in normal in vivo hemostatic adhesion, they may also have a role for adhesion onto synthetic surfaces in the vasculature. Platelet adhesion in vitro was examined onto Formvar, glass, and four polyurethaneureas with various soft segment chemistries and surface properties. Platelets were pretreated with RGD peptides before and after adhesion. RGD peptide pretreatment inhibited spreading and close contact formation compared to treatment with saline or control RGE peptides, with no observable effect on the number of adherent platelets per area. High-voltage electron microscopy showed abnormally sparse and short microfilament structures with RGD peptide treatment, suggesting an indirect inhibition of actin filament formation. Video-enhanced light microscopy showed a cessation of spreading and a partial reversal of close contacts following RGD peptide application to adherent platelets. Because minimal amounts of plasma proteins are present in column-washed platelet suspensions, and as platelet secretion appeared to be minimal in these experiments, these observations suggest that RGD binding integrin receptors may function in platelet spreading even in the absence of exogenous ligand. As RGD peptides did not affect the numbers of adherent platelets, while producing substantial decreases in the extent of spreading, we suggest that platelet integrins, possibly GPIIb-IIIa, are involved in spreading on synthetic surfaces but not for initial adhesion.

  20. Complex coacervates as a foundation for synthetic underwater adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Wang, Ching Shuen; Shao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Complex coacervation was proposed to play a role in the formation of the underwater bioadhesive of the Sandcastle worm (Phragmatopoma californica) based on the polyacidic and polybasic nature of the glue proteins and the balance of opposite charges at physiological pH. Morphological studies of the secretory system suggested the natural process does not involve complex coacervation as commonly defined. The distinction may not be important because electrostatic interactions likely play an important role in formation of the sandcastle glue. Complex coacervation has also been invoked in the formation of adhesive underwater silk fibers of caddisfly larvae and the adhesive plaques of mussels. A process similar to complex coacervation, that is, condensation and dehydration of biopolyelectrolytes through electrostatic associations, seems plausible for the caddisfly silk. This much is clear, the sandcastle glue complex coacervation model provided a valuable blueprint for the synthesis of a biomimetic, waterborne, underwater adhesive with demonstrated potential for repair of wet tissue. PMID:21081223

  1. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  2. Nanotopographical modification: a regulator of cellular function through focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Manus Jonathan Paul; Richards, R. Geoff; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of biomedical engineering advances, the role of cellular mechanisms, in particular adhesive interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device design has evolved from the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to topographical features or chemical stimuli, a process that has led to the development of next-generation biomaterials for a wide variety of clinical disorders. In vitro studies have identified nanoscale features as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. The focus of this review is on the recent developments concerning the role of nanoscale structures on integrin-mediated adhesion and cellular function with an emphasis on the generation of medical constructs with regenerative applications. PMID:20138244

  3. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  4. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  5. Platelet adhesiveness after blood donation.

    PubMed

    Pegrum, G D; Harrison, K M; Shaw, S

    1971-03-13

    Platelet adhesiveness to glass was measured in healthy blood donors at the time of and eight days after donating 500 ml of blood. By a whole blood method a highly significant increase was found whereas by a method using platelet-rich plasma with added adenosine diphosphate there was only a slightly significant increase. The discrepancy suggested that changes in the red cell population might influence the results. Packed red cells from 19 blood donors obtained at the time of donation and eight days later were mixed with fresh pooled platelets from the same independent persons on each occasion. The whole blood platelet adhesiveness on this mixture showed an increase in every case after blood donation. It is postulated that the increased adhesiveness is influenced by the presence of young red cells.

  6. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  7. Adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis or frozen shoulder is an uncommon entity in athletes. However, it is a common cause of shoulder pain and disability in the general population. Although it is a self limiting ailment, its rather long, restrictive and painful course forces the affected person to seek treatment. Conservative management remains the mainstay treatment of adhesive capsulitis. This includes chiropractic manipulation of the shoulder, therapeutic modalities, mobilization, exercise, soft tissue therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroid injections. Manipulation under anesthesia is advocated when the conservative treatment fails. A case of secondary adhesive capsulitis in a forty-seven-year-old female recreational squash player is presented to illustrate clinical presentation, diagnosis, radiographic assessment and conservative chiropractic management. The patient’s shoulder range of motion was full and pain free with four months of conservative chiropractic care. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  8. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  9. Molecular Architecture of a Complex between an Adhesion Protein from the Malaria Parasite and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1*

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan; Turner, Louise; Christoffersen, Stig; Andrews, Katrina A.; Szestak, Tadge; Zhao, Yuguang; Larsen, Sine; Craig, Alister G.; Higgins, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human tissues or endothelium is central to the pathology caused by the parasite during malaria. It contributes to the avoidance of parasite clearance by the spleen and to the specific pathologies of cerebral and placental malaria. The PfEMP1 family of adhesive proteins is responsible for this sequestration by mediating interactions with diverse human ligands. In addition, as the primary targets of acquired, protective immunity, the PfEMP1s are potential vaccine candidates. PfEMP1s contain large extracellular ectodomains made from CIDR (cysteine-rich interdomain regions) and DBL (Duffy-binding-like) domains and show extensive variation in sequence, size, and domain organization. Here we use biophysical methods to characterize the entire ∼300-kDa ectodomain from IT4VAR13, a protein that interacts with the host receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We show through small angle x-ray scattering that IT4VAR13 is rigid, elongated, and monomeric. We also show that it interacts with ICAM-1 through the DBLβ domain alone, forming a 1:1 complex. These studies provide a first low resolution structural view of a PfEMP1 ectodomain in complex with its ligand. They show that it combines a modular domain arrangement consisting of individual ligand binding domains, with a defined higher order architecture that exposes the ICAM-1 binding surface to allow adhesion. PMID:23297413

  10. Reduction of water surface tension significantly impacts gecko adhesion underwater.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; McClung, Brandon; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The gecko adhesive system is dependent on weak van der Waals interactions that are multiplied across thousands of fine hair-like structures (setae) on geckos' toe pads. Due to the requirements of van der Waals forces, we expect that any interruption between the setae and substrate, such as a water layer, will compromise adhesion. Our recent results suggest, however, that the air layer (plastron) surrounding the superhydrophobic toe pads aid in expelling water at the contact interface and create strong shear adhesion in water when in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. To test the function of the air plastron, we reduced the surface tension of water using two surfactants, a charged anionic surfactant and a neutral nonionic surfactant. We tested geckos on three substrates: hydrophilic glass and two hydrophobic surfaces, glass with a octadecyl trichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). We found that the anionic surfactant inhibited the formation of the air plastron layer and significantly reduced shear adhesion to all three substrates. Interestingly, the air plastron was more stable in the nonionic surfactant treatments than the anionic surfactant treatments and we found that geckos adhered better in the nonionic surfactant than in the anionic surfactant on OTS-SAM and PTFE but not on glass. Our results have implications for the evolution of a superhydrophobic toe pad and highlight some of the challenges faced in designing synthetic adhesives that mimic geckos' toes.

  11. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surface by a nanoelectrode whose position was controlled with a resolution of 10s of nanometers using changes in electrode current to monitor distance from the cell surface. Since this probe was functionalized with fibronectin, a focal contact formed at the contact location. Nascent focal adhesion assembly was confirmed using time-lapse confocal fluorescent images of red fluorescent protein (RFP) – tagged talin, an adapter protein that binds to activated integrins. Binding to the cell was verified by noting a lack of change of electrode current upon retraction of the electrode. This study demonstrates that functionalized nanoelectrodes can enable precisely-timed induction and 3-D mechanical manipulation of focal adhesions and the assay of the detailed molecular kinetics of their assembly. PMID:22247742

  12. The adhesion model considering capillarity for gecko attachment system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-03-01

    Geckos make use of approximately a million microscale hairs (setae) that branch off into hundreds of nanoscale spatulae to cling to different smooth and rough surfaces and detach at will. This hierarchical surface construction gives the gecko the adaptability to create a large real area of contact with surfaces. It is known that van der Waals force is the primary mechanism used to adhere to surfaces, and capillary force is a secondary effect that can further increase adhesive force. To investigate the effects of capillarity on gecko adhesion, we considered the capillary force as well as the solid-to-solid interaction. The capillary force expressed in terms of elliptical integral is calculated by numerical method to cope with surfaces with a wide range of contact angles. The adhesion forces exerted by a single gecko spatula in contact with planes with different contact angles for various relative humidities are calculated, and the contributions of capillary force to total adhesion force are evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Finally, using the three-level hierarchical model recently developed to simulate a gecko seta contacting with random rough surface, the effect of the relative humidity and the hydrophobicity of surface on the gecko adhesion is investigated.

  13. Coordination of contractility, adhesion and flow in migrating Physarum amoebae

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Owen L.; Zhang, Shun; Guy, Robert D.; del Álamo, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    This work examines the relationship between spatio-temporal coordination of intracellular flow and traction stress and the speed of amoeboid locomotion of microplasmodia of Physarum polycephalum. We simultaneously perform particle image velocimetry and traction stress microscopy to measure the velocity of cytoplasmic flow and the stresses applied to the substrate by migrating Physarum microamoebae. In parallel, we develop a mathematical model of a motile cell which includes forces from the viscous cytosol, a poro-elastic, contractile cytoskeleton and adhesive interactions with the substrate. Our experiments show that flow and traction stress exhibit back-to-front-directed waves with a distinct phase difference. The model demonstrates that the direction and speed of locomotion are determined by this coordination between contraction, flow and adhesion. Using the model, we identify forms of coordination that generate model predictions consistent with experiments. We demonstrate that this coordination produces near optimal migration speed and is insensitive to heterogeneity in substrate adhesiveness. While it is generally thought that amoeboid motility is robust to changes in extracellular geometry and the nature of extracellular adhesion, our results demonstrate that coordination of adhesive forces is essential to producing robust migration. PMID:25904525

  14. Dystrophin Dp71f associates with the beta1-integrin adhesion complex to modulate PC12 cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Cerna, Joel; Cerecedo, Doris; Ortega, Arturo; García-Sierra, Francisco; Centeno, Federico; Garrido, Efrain; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2006-10-01

    Dystrophin Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in the brain; however, its function is unknown. To study the role of Dp71 in neuronal cells, we previously generated by antisense treatment PC12 neuronal cell clones with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells). PC12 cells express two different splicing isoforms of Dp71, a cytoplasmic variant called Dp71f and a nuclear isoform called Dp71d. We previously reported that antisense-Dp71 cells display deficient adhesion to substrate and reduced immunostaining of beta1-integrin in the cell area contacting the substrate. In this study, we isolated additional antisense-Dp71 clones to analyze in detail the potential involvement of Dp71f isoform with the beta1-integrin adhesion system of PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence analyses as well as immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the PC12 cell beta1-integrin adhesion complex is composed of beta1-integrin, talin, paxillin, alpha-actinin, FAK and actin. In addition, our results showed that Dp71f associates with most of the beta1-integrin complex components (beta1-integrin, FAK, alpha-actinin, talin and actin). In the antisense-Dp71 cells, the deficiency of Dp71 provokes a significant reduction of the beta1-integrin adhesion complex and, consequently, the deficient adhesion of these cells to laminin. In vitro binding experiments confirmed the interaction of Dp71f with FAK and beta1-integrin. Our data indicate that Dp71f is a structural component of the beta1-integrin adhesion complex of PC12 cells that modulates PC12 cell adhesion by conferring proper complex assembly and/or maintenance.

  15. Dystrophin Dp71f associates with the beta1-integrin adhesion complex to modulate PC12 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Cerna, Joel; Cerecedo, Doris; Ortega, Arturo; García-Sierra, Francisco; Centeno, Federico; Garrido, Efrain; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2006-01-01

    Dystrophin Dp71 is the main product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene in the brain; however, its function is unknown. To study the role of Dp71 in neuronal cells, we previously generated by antisense treatment PC12 neuronal cell clones with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells). PC12 cells express two different splicing isoforms of Dp71, a cytoplasmic variant called Dp71f and a nuclear isoform called Dp71d. We previously reported that antisense-Dp71 cells display deficient adhesion to substrate and reduced immunostaining of β1-integrin in the cell area contacting the substrate. In this study, we isolated additional antisenseDp71 clones to analyze in detail the potential involvement of Dp71f isoform with the β1-integrin adhesion system of PC12 cells. Immunofluorescence analyses as well as immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the PC12 cell β1-integrin adhesion complex is composed of β1-integrin, talin, paxillin, α-actinin, FAK and actin. In addition, our results showed that Dp71f associates with most of the β1-integrin complex components (β1-integrin, FAK, α-actinin, talin and actin). In the antisense-Dp71 cells, the deficiency of Dp71 provokes a significant reduction of the β1-integrin adhesion complex and, consequently, the deficient adhesion of these cells to laminin. In vitro binding experiments confirmed the interaction of Dp71f with FAK and β1-integrin. Our data indicate that Dp71f is a structural component of the β1-integrin adhesion complex of PC12 cells that modulates PC12 cell adhesion by conferring proper complex assembly and/or maintenance. PMID:16935300

  16. Induction of focal adhesions and motility in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Susana A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Vale, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    Focal adhesions are dynamic structures that interact with the extracellular matrix on the cell exterior and actin filaments on the cell interior, enabling cells to adhere and crawl along surfaces. We describe a system for inducing the formation of focal adhesions in normally non-ECM-adherent, nonmotile Drosophila S2 cells. These focal adhesions contain the expected molecular markers such as talin, vinculin, and p130Cas, and they require talin for their formation. The S2 cells with induced focal adhesions also display a nonpolarized form of motility on vitronectin-coated substrates. Consistent with findings in mammalian cells, the degree of motility can be tuned by changing the stiffness of the substrate and was increased after the depletion of PAK3, a p21-activated kinase. A subset of nonmotile, nonpolarized cells also exhibited focal adhesions that rapidly assembled and disassembled around the cell perimeter. Such cooperative and dynamic fluctuations of focal adhesions were decreased by RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of myosin II and focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that this behavior requires force and focal adhesion maturation. These results demonstrate that S2 cells, a cell line that is well studied for cytoskeletal dynamics and readily amenable to protein manipulation by RNAi, can be used to study the assembly and dynamics of focal adhesions and mechanosensitive cell motility.

  17. Estrogen-Dependent Uterine Secretion of Osteopontin Activates Blastocyst Adhesion Competence

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, Mahiro; Bai, Rulan; Nomura, Nana; Nomura, Shintaro; Hirota, Yasushi; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a highly orchestrated process that involves blastocyst-uterine interactions. This process is confined to a defined interval during gestation referred to as the “window of embryo implantation receptivity”. In mice this receptive period is controlled by ovarian estrogen and involves a coordination of blastocyst adhesion competence and uterine receptivity. Mechanisms coordinating the acquisition of blastocyst adhesion competence and uterine receptivity are largely unknown. Here, we show that ovarian estrogen indirectly regulates blastocyst adhesion competence. Acquisition of blastocyst adhesion competence was attributed to integrin activation (e.g. formation of adhesion complexes) rather than de novo integrin synthesis. Osteopontin (OPN) was identified as an estrogen-dependent uterine endometrial gland secretory factor responsible for activating blastocyst adhesion competence. Increased adhesion complex assembly in OPN-treated blastocysts was mediated through focal adhesion kinase (FAK)- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways. These findings define for the first time specific regulatory components of an estrogen-dependent pathway coordinating blastocyst adhesion competence and uterine receptivity. PMID:23152823

  18. Intraperitoneal adhesions--an ongoing challenge between biomedical engineering and the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Brochhausen, Christoph; Schmitt, Volker H; Rajab, Taufiek K; Planck, Constanze N E; Krämer, Bernhard; Wallwiener, Markus; Hierlemann, Helmut; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2011-07-01

    Peritoneal adhesions remain a relevant clinical problem despite the currently available prophylactic barrier materials. So far, the physical separation of traumatized serosa areas using barriers represents the most important clinical strategy for adhesion prevention. However, the optimal material has not yet been found. Further optimization or pharmacological functionalization of these barriers could give an innovative input for peritoneal adhesion prevention. Therefore, a more complete understanding of pathogenesis is required. On the basis of the pathophysiology of adhesion formation the main barriers currently in clinical practice as well as new innovations are discussed in the present review. Physiologically, mesothelial cells play a decisive role in providing a frictionless gliding surface on the serosa. Adhesion formation results from a cascade of events and is regulated by a variety of cellular and humoral factors. The main clinically applied strategy for adhesion prevention is based on the use of liquid or solid adhesion barriers to separate physically any denuded tissue. Both animal and human trials have not yet been able to identify the optimal barrier to prevent adhesion formation in a sustainable way. Therefore, further developments are required for effective prevention of postoperative adhesion formation. To reach this goal the combination of structural modification and pharmacological functionalization of barrier materials should be addressed. Achieving this aim requires the interaction between basic research, materials science and clinical expertise. PMID:21548063

  19. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  20. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  1. Synergistic regulation of cell function by matrix rigidity and adhesive pattern

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shinuo; Fu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions play a critical role in regulating cellular behaviors. Recent studies of cell-ECM interactions have mainly focused on the actomyosin based and adhesion mediated mechanosensing pathways to understand how individual mechanical signals in the cell microenvironment, such as matrix rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern, are sensed by the cell and further trigger downstream intracellular signaling cascades and cellular responses. However, synergistic and collective regulation of cellular behaviors by matrix rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern are still elusive and largely uncharacterized. Here, we generated a library of microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropost arrays to study the synergistic and independent effects of matrix rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern on mechanoresponsive behaviors of both NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We showed that both cell types were mechanosensitive and their cell spreading, FA formation, cytoskeletal contractility, and proliferation were all strongly dependent on both substrate rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern. We further showed that under the same substrate rigidity condition, smaller and closer adhesive ECM islands would cause both cells to spread out more, form more adhesion structures, and have a higher proliferation rate. The influence of adhesive ECM pattern on rigidity-mediated cytoskeletal contractility was cell type specific and was only significant for NIH/3T3. Morphometric analysis of cell populations revealed a strong correlation between focal adhesion and cell spreading, regardless of substrate rigidity and adhesive ECM pattern. We also observed a strong correlation between cellular traction force and cell spreading, with a substantially smaller independent effect of substrate rigidity on traction force. Our study here had determined key aspects of the biomechanical responses of adherent cells to independent and collective changes of

  2. Protein adhesion force dynamics and single adhesion events.

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, G

    1999-01-01

    Using the manipulation force microscope, a novel atomic force microscope, the adhesion forces of bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, ferritin, and lysozyme proteins to glass and polystyrene substrates were characterized by following the force necessary to displace an adsorbed protein-covered microsphere over several orders of magnitude in time. This force was consistent with a power law with exponent a = 0.37 +/- 0.03 on polystyrene, indicating that there is no typical time scale for adhesion on this substrate. On glass, the rate of adhesion depended strongly on protein charge. Forces corresponding to single protein adhesion events were identified. The typical rupture force of a single lysozyme, ferritin, bovine serum albumin, and myoglobin protein adhering to glass was estimated to be 90 +/- 10 pN, 115 +/- 13 pN, 277 +/- 44 pN, and 277 +/- 44 pN, respectively, using a model of the experimental system. These forces, as well as the force amplitudes on hydrophobic polystyrene, correlate with protein stiffness. PMID:10388777

  3. Adhesion of DOPA-Functionalized Model Membranes to Hard and Soft Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Guvendiren, Murat; Brass, David A; Messersmith, Phillip B; Shull, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    The adhesive proteins secreted by marine mussels form a natural glue that cures rapidly to form strong and durable bonds in aqueous environments. These mussel adhesive proteins contain an unusual amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), which is largely responsible for their cohesive and adhesive strengths. In this study, we incorporated DOPA into diblock and triblock polymers and developed a membrane contact experiment to assess the adhesive interactions of these materials with TiO(2) and tissue surfaces. In a typical experiment a micrometer-thick DOPA-functionalized elastomeric membrane is attached to the end of a cylindrical glass tube. Application of a positive pressure to the tube brings the membrane into contact with the surface of interest. The negative pressure needed to separate the membrane from the substrate is a measure of the strength of the adhesive interaction. The test confirms previous results obtained with TiO(2) substrates. Because the membrane geometry is well suited for rough or chemically heterogeneous surfaces, it is ideal for studies of tissue adhesion. DOPA was found to give strong adhesion to tissue surfaces, with the strongest adhesion obtained when the DOPA groups were oxidized while in contact with the tissue surface. PMID:21461121

  4. Degradation mechanisms and stability forecasting and adhesion contacts of metal films with binary dielectric substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarova, S.; Nemirovsky, Y.; Simanovskis, A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors present their conception of degradation and stability on the adhesion contacts of metal films with binary nonmetallic crystals. There are numerous works devoted to the atomic scale determination of adhesion forces and development of adhesion interaction laws. But in the real life the kinetic processes, taking place on the adhesion contact, can lead to such dramatic changes in adhesion strength values that the initial adhesion characteristics do not worth much for practice. Sometimes, adhesion contact with a metal which supposed to be highly adhesive failes in a short period of aging time. What the authors have learned from their studies of the contact processes is that in many cases the aging could not be separately addressed to the individual properties of film metal or to those of the substrate material. It depends mainly on the relationships between the parameters of interacting pair. The question is: what parameters should be taken into account to explain degradation phenomena and to predict them? The purpose of the present work is to show how the relative chemical activity of film metal and substrate cation affects the contact degradation in a vacuum and in different environmental conditions.

  5. The ubiquitous neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM).

    PubMed

    Weledji, Elroy P; Assob, Jules C

    2014-09-01

    Adhesive interactions are important for cell trafficking, differentiation, function and tissue differentiation. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. This review discusses the actions and association of N-CAM and variants, PSA CAM. L1CAM and receptor tyrosine kinase. Their interactions with the interstitial cells of Cajal - the pacemaker cells of the gut in the manifestation of gut motility disorders, expression in carcinomas and mesenchymal tumours are discussed. PMID:25568792

  6. Surgical trauma and CO2-insufflation impact on adhesion formation in parietal and visceral peritoneal lesions.

    PubMed

    Mynbaev, Ospan A; Eliseeva, Marina Yu; Kalzhanov, Zhomart R; Lyutova, Lv; Pismensky, Sergei V; Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Kosmas, Ioannis P

    2013-01-01

    CO2-insufflation and electrocoagulation were advanced as causative factors of postsurgical adhesions. We assumed that severe tissue reaction due to electrocoagulation might obscure CO2-insufflation impact on adhesion formation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects and interactions of surgical trauma and CO2-insufflation on adhesion formation. Prospective-randomized study with 60 rats, equally divided into 3 groups. In the control group, the sidewall adhesion model was induced by monopolar coagulation of the uterine horn and ipsilateral parietal peritoneum and by mechanical damaging - in the opposite side through open laparoscopy without CO2-insufflation. In two other groups, CO2 was insufflated for 60 min at 15 cm of water, either before or after the sidewall model-induction. Parameters of sidewall and lesion site adhesions of parietal peritoneum and uterine horns were evaluated by scoring system and analyzed by two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni posttests, one-way ANOVA Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons test, as well as by two-tailed unpaired Mann-Whitney test. Monopolar coagulation significantly increased peritoneal lesion site adhesion scores, as compared with the scores for mechanical damaging (p=0.0001). Visceral peritoneal lesion sites were more predisposed to adhesion formation than parietal peritoneal lesion sites (p=0.0009), whereas CO2 did not affect parameters of either sidewall or peritoneal lesion site adhesions, regardless of the insufflation mode (p>0.05). The data suggest that both surgical trauma and peritoneal lesion sites had a substantial impact on adhesion formation, whereas CO2 did not interfere with adhesion parameters irrespective of its insufflation mode. These findings may improve our insights into adhesion formation pathophysiology and open new perspectives in developing future adhesion prevention strategies.

  7. [FTIR spectroscopic studies of facial prosthetic adhesives].

    PubMed

    Kang, Biao; Yang, Qing-fang; Liang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Yi-min

    2008-10-01

    According to the composition of the traditional facial prosthetic adhesives, most of adhesives can be classified into two categories: acrylic polymer-based adhesive and silicone-based adhesive. In previous studies, measurements of various mechanical bond strengths were carried out, whereas the functional groups of the adhesives were evaluated seldom during the adhesion. In the present study the analysis of two facial prosthetic adhesives (Epithane and Secure Adhesive) was carried out by using infrared spectroscopy. Two adhesives in the form of fluid or semisolid were submitted to FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The results showed that water and ammonia residue volatilized during the solidification of Epithane, and absorption peak reduction of carbonyl was due to the volatilization of acetate vinyl from Secure Adhesive. Similar silicone functional groups both in the silicone-based adhesive and in silicone elastomer could be the key to higher bond strength between silicone elastomer and skin with silicone-based adhesive. The position, shape of main absorption peaks of three adhesives didn't change, which showing that their main chemicals and basic structures didn't change during solidification. PMID:19123392

  8. Nuclear Signaling from Cadherin Adhesion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Pierre D.; Maher, Meghan T.; Gottardi, Cara J.

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of multicellularity in evolution facilitated cell–cell signaling in conjunction with adhesion. As the ectodomains of cadherins interact with each other directly in trans (as well as in cis), spanning the plasma membrane and associating with multiple other entities, cadherins enable the transduction of “outside-in” or “inside-out” signals. We focus this review on signals that originate from the larger family of cadherins that are inwardly directed to the nucleus, and thus have roles in gene control or nuclear structure–function. The nature of cadherin complexes varies considerably depending on the type of cadherin and its context, and we will address some of these variables for classical cadherins versus other family members. Substantial but still fragmentary progress has been made in understanding the signaling mediators used by varied cadherin complexes to coordinate the state of cell–cell adhesion with gene expression. Evidence that cadherin intracellular binding partners also localize to the nucleus is a major point of interest. In some models, catenins show reduced binding to cadherin cytoplasmic tails favoring their engagement in gene control. When bound, cadherins may serve as stoichiometric competitors of nuclear signals. Cadherins also directly or indirectly affect numerous signaling pathways (e.g., Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinase, Hippo, NFκB, and JAK/STAT), enabling cell–cell contacts to touch upon multiple biological outcomes in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. PMID:25733140

  9. New adhesive withstands temperature extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Seidenberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive, developed for high-temperature components aboard satellites, is useful at both high and low temperatures and exhibits low-vacuum volatility and low shrinkage. System uses polyfunctional epoxy with high aromatic content, low equivalent weight, and more compact polymer than conventional bisphenol A tape.

  10. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins.

  11. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  12. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  13. Unfolding Grammars in Adhesive Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldan, Paolo; Corradini, Andrea; Heindel, Tobias; König, Barbara; Sobociński, Paweł

    We generalize the unfolding semantics, previously developed for concrete formalisms such as Petri nets and graph grammars, to the abstract setting of (single pushout) rewriting over adhesive categories. The unfolding construction is characterized as a coreflection, i.e. the unfolding functor arises as the right adjoint to the embedding of the category of occurrence grammars into the category of grammars.

  14. Fluorescence Reveals Contamination From Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolia, William

    1992-01-01

    Contamination of nearby surfaces from ingredients in some adhesive materials detected by ultraviolet illumination and observation of resulting fluorescence. Identification of contaminants via telltale fluorescence not new; rather, significance lies in method of implementation and potential extension to wider variety of materials and applications.

  15. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  16. Tackifier Dispersions to Make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Development of new processes for tackifier dispersion could improve the production of pressure sensitive adhesives. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) have the ability to adhere to different surfaces with manual or finger pressure.

  17. Curcumin modulates leukocyte and platelet adhesion in murine sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Vachharajani, Vidula; Wang, Si-Wei; Mishra, Nilamadhab; El-Gazzar, Mohammad; Yoza, Barbara; McCall, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Objective Circulating cell-endothelial cell interaction in sepsis is a rate-determining factor in organ dysfunction, and interventions targeting this process have a potential therapeutic value. In this project, we examined whether curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric and an anti-inflammatory agent, could disrupt interactions between circulating blood cells and endothelium and improve survival in a murine model of sepsis. Methods Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis vs. sham surgery. We studied leukocyte and platelet adhesion in cerebral microcirculation using intravital fluorescent video microscopy technique, blood brain barrier dysfunction using Evans Blue leakage method, P-selectin expression using dual radiolabeling technique and survival in mice subjected to Sham, CLP and CLP with curcumin pre-treatment (CLP+Curcumin). Results Curcumin significantly attenuated leukocyte and platelet adhesion in cerebral microcirculation, Evans Blue leakage in the brain tissue and improved survival in mice with CLP. P-selectin expression in mice with CLP+Curcumin was significantly attenuated compared to CLP in various microcirculatory beds including brain. Reduction in platelet adhesion was predominantly via modulation of endothelium by curcumin. Conclusion Curcumin pre-treatment modulates leukocyte and platelet adhesion and blood brain barrier dysfunction in mice with CLP via P-selectin expression and improves survival in mice with CLP. PMID:20690979

  18. Cruzipain Promotes Trypanosoma cruzi Adhesion to Rhodnius prolixus Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Lívia Almeida; Moreira, Otacílio C.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Azambuja, Patrícia; Lima, Ana Paula Cabral Araujo; Britto, Constança; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Branquinha, Marta Helena; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini

    2012-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Cysteine peptidases are relevant to several aspects of the T. cruzi life cycle and are implicated in parasite-mammalian host relationships. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to the parasite-insect host interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated whether cruzipain could be involved in the interaction of T. cruzi with the invertebrate host. We analyzed the effect of treatment of T. cruzi epimastigotes with anti-cruzipain antibodies or with a panel of cysteine peptidase inhibitors (cystatin, antipain, E-64, leupeptin, iodocetamide or CA-074-OMe) on parasite adhesion to Rhodnius prolixus posterior midgut ex vivo. All treatments, with the exception of CA074-OMe, significantly decreased parasite adhesion to R. prolixus midgut. Cystatin presented a dose-dependent reduction on the adhesion. Comparison of the adhesion rate among several T. cruzi isolates revealed that the G isolate, which naturally possesses low levels of active cruzipain, adhered to a lesser extent in comparison to Dm28c, Y and CL Brener isolates. Transgenic epimastigotes overexpressing an endogenous cruzipain inhibitor (pCHAG), chagasin, and that have reduced levels of active cruzipain adhered to the insect gut 73% less than the wild-type parasites. The adhesion of pCHAG parasites was partially restored by the addition of exogenous cruzipain. In vivo colonization experiments revealed low levels of pCHAG parasites in comparison to wild-type. Parasites isolated after passage in the insect presented a drastic enhancement in the expression of surface cruzipain. Conclusions/Significance These data highlight, for the first time, that cruzipain contributes to the interaction of T. cruzi with the insect host. PMID:23272264

  19. Cross-Correlated Fluctuation Analysis Reveals Phosphorylation-Regulated Paxillin-FAK Complexes in Nascent Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Colin K.; Zareno, Jessica; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2011-01-01

    We used correlation methods to detect and quantify interactions between paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in migrating cells. Cross-correlation raster-scan image correlation spectroscopy revealed that wild-type paxillin and the phosphorylation-inhibiting paxillin mutant Y31F-Y118F do not interact with FAK in the cytosol but a phosphomimetic mutant of paxillin, Y31E-Y118E, does. By extending cross-correlation number and brightness analysis to the total internal reflection fluorescence modality, we were able to show that tetramers of paxillin and FAK form complexes in nascent adhesions with a 1:1 stoichiometry ratio. The phosphomimetic mutations on paxillin increase the size of the complex and the assembly rate of nascent adhesions, suggesting that the physical molecular aggregation of paxillin and FAK regulates adhesion formation. In contrast, when phosphorylation is inhibited, the interaction decreases and the adhesions tend to elongate rather than turn over. These direct in vivo data show that the phosphorylation of paxillin is specific to adhesions and leads to localized complex formation with FAK to regulate the dynamics of nascent adhesions. PMID:21281572

  20. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  1. Main concepts of dentin adhesion (review).

    PubMed

    Mamaladze, M; Sanodze, L; Vadachkoria, D

    2009-03-01

    This review examines fundamental concepts in bonding to dentin. Emphasis is placed on the structure and permeability characteristics of dentin and how they may influence its interaction with adhesive resin. Several new techniques to examine the interfaces between resin and dentin are reviewed along with some of their limitations. The advantages and disadvantages of acid etchants/conditioners versus self-etching conditioners/primers are discussed. The problems of matching the surface tension of resin bonding systems to the surface energy of the substrate are reviewed in terms of wetting the various components of dentin. The problems associated with matching the permeability of intertubular dentin to the diffusibility of bonding reagents are explored. Speculation is advanced on how to ensure polymerization and wetting of dentinal collagen. Theoretical problems associated with dentin bonding and with bond testing are reviewed in order to encourage future research in this rapidly developing area. PMID:19359716

  2. Nanoscale characterization of vesicle adhesion by normalized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso Dos Santos, Marcelina; Vézy, Cyrille; Jaffiol, Rodolphe

    2016-06-01

    We recently proposed a straightforward fluorescence microscopy technique to study adhesion of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles. This technique is based on dual observations which combine epi-fluorescence microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy: TIRF images are normalized by epi-fluorescence ones. By this way, it is possible to map the membrane/substrate separation distance with a nanometric resolution, typically ~20 nm, with a maximal working range of 300-400 nm. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that this technique is useful to quantify vesicle adhesion from ultra-weak to strong membrane-surface interactions. Thus, we have examined unspecific and specific adhesion conditions. Concerning unspecific adhesion, we have controlled the strength of electrostatic forces between negatively charged vesicles and various functionalized surfaces which exhibit a positive or a negative effective charge. Specific adhesion was highlighted with lock-and-key forces mediated by the well defined biotin/streptavidin recognition.

  3. Aberrant Glycosylation of Plasma Proteins in Severe Preeclampsia Promotes Monocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kazanjian, Avedis A.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Gafken, Philip R.; Ogata, Yuko; Napolitano, Peter G.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of plasma proteins increases during pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate an anti-inflammatory role of these proteins in normal pregnancies and determine whether aberrant protein glycosylation promotes monocyte adhesion in preeclampsia. Plasma was prospectively collected from nonpregnant controls and nulliparous patients in all 3 trimesters. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the applicable postpartum diagnosis. U937 monocytes were preconditioned with enzymatically deglycosylated plasma, and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was quantified by spectrophotometry. Plasma from nonpregnant controls, first trimester normotensives, and first trimester patients with mild preeclampsia inhibited monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion (P < .05), but plasma from first trimester patients with severe preeclampsia and second and third trimester normotensives did not. Deglycosylating plasma proteins significantly increased adhesion in all the cohorts. These results support a role of plasma glycoprotein interaction in monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion and could suggest a novel therapeutic target for severe preeclampsia. PMID:23757314

  4. Cryopreservation effects on recombinant myoblasts encapsulated in adhesive alginate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hajira F; Sambanis, Athanassios

    2013-06-01

    Cell encapsulation in hydrogels is widely used in tissue engineering applications, including encapsulation of islets or other insulin-secreting cells in pancreatic substitutes. Use of adhesive, biofunctionalized hydrogels is receiving increasing attention as cell-matrix interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) environments can be important for various cell processes. With pancreatic substitutes, studies have indicated benefits of 3-D adhesion on the viability and/or function of insulin-secreting cells. As long-term storage of microencapsulated cells is critical for their clinical translation, cryopreservation of cells in hydrogels is being actively investigated. Previous studies have examined the cryopreservation response of cells encapsulated in non-adhesive hydrogels using conventional freezing and/or vitrification (ice-free cryopreservation); however, none have systematically compared the two cryopreservation methods with cells encapsulated within an adhesive 3-D environment. The latter would be significant, as evidence suggests adhesion influences the cellular response to cryopreservation. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the response to conventional freezing and vitrification of insulin-secreting cells encapsulated in an adhesive biomimetic hydrogel. Recombinant insulin-secreting C2C12 myoblasts were encapsulated in oxidized RGD-alginate and cultured for 1 or 4days post-encapsulation, cryopreserved, and assessed up to 3days post-warming for metabolic activity and insulin secretion, and 1day post-warming for cell morphology. Besides certain transient differences in the vitrified group relative to the fresh control, both conventional freezing and vitrification maintained the metabolism, secretory activity, and morphology of the recombinant C2C12 cells. Thus, due to a simpler procedure and slightly superior results, conventional freezing is recommended over vitrification for the cryopreservation of C2C12 cells encapsulated in oxidized, RGD

  5. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hélène; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment.

  6. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hélène; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

  7. Bridging Adhesion of Mussel-Inspired Peptides: Role of Charge, Chain Length, and Surface Type

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of marine mussels provide attractive design paradigms for engineering synthetic polymers that can serve as high performance wet adhesives and coatings. Although the role of Dopa in promoting adhesion between mussels and various substrates has been carefully studied, the context by which Dopa mediates a bridging or nonbridging macromolecular adhesion to surfaces is not understood. The distinction is an important one both for a mechanistic appreciation of bioadhesion and for an intelligent translation of bioadhesive concepts to engineered systems. On the basis of mussel foot protein-5 (Mfp-5; length 75 res), we designed three short, simplified peptides (15–17 res) and one relatively long peptide (30 res) into which Dopa was enzymatically incorporated. Peptide adhesion was tested using a surface forces apparatus. Our results show that the short peptides are capable of weak bridging adhesion between two mica surfaces, but this adhesion contrasts with that of full length Mfp-5, in that (1) while still dependent on Dopa, electrostatic contributions are much more prominent, and (2) whereas Dopa surface density remains similar in both, peptide adhesion is an order of magnitude weaker (adhesion energy Ead ∼ −0.5 mJ/m2) than full length Mfp-5 adhesion. Between two mica surfaces, the magnitude of bridging adhesion was approximately doubled (Ead ∼ −1 mJ/m2) upon doubling the peptide length. Notably, the short peptides mediate much stronger adhesion (Ead ∼ −3.0 mJ/m2) between mica and gold surfaces, indicating that a long chain length is less important when different interactions are involved on each of the two surfaces. PMID:25540823

  8. Development of hydrocolloid Bi-layer dressing with bio-adhesive and non-adhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Iqbal H; Islam, Jahid M M; Kabir, Wasifa; Rahman, Ataur; Mizan, Maria; Rahman, M Fizur; Amin, Jakia; Khan, Mubarak A

    2016-12-01

    Bio-active bi-layer thin film having both bio-adhesive and non-adhesive end composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin/chitosan/polyethylene glycol (PEG) blend was developed for biomedical applications especially as an alternative of advanced tissue scaffold. The developed composite film was subjected to mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical characterization such as tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (Eb), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluid drainage capacity and biocompatibility. Suitable packaging was also selected and stability study and aging test of the composite film were performed after packing. The incorporation of chitosan and PEG into gelatin showed improved mechanical properties of both TS and Eb, which suggested the occurrence of interaction among gelatin, chitosan and PEG molecules in the composite film. The presence of crosslinking as an interaction of above three polymers was also confirmed by FTIR study. Results from the DSC study suggested increased thermal stability after crosslinking. On the other hand, water uptake studies suggested excellent fluid drainage capability and hydro-stability of the composite film. The proposed dressing also showed excellent biocompatibility. Based on the studies related to the performance with confirmed identity, we concluded that our developed bi-layer film is very potential as an ideal wound dressing material. PMID:27612753

  9. The Analysis of Gene Expression on Fertility Decline in Caenorhabditis elegans after the Treatment with 5-Fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Si; LU, Zhaolian; LIANG, Hongmei; FU, Ximei; ZHANG, Yan; LIU, Xin; BAO, Genshu; JING, Tao; WANG, Xuan; WANG, Meng; WU, Julong; CHEN, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: 5-Fluorouracil could lead to a decline in fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms underlying such an altered fertility phenotype and to illustrate the specific genes and pathways that are involved in the related phenotypic changes in C. elegans. Methods: We isolated total RNA from the samples and used a new method called Digital Gene Expression (DGE), which can rapidly identify genes with altered transcript levels. The random genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Results: We analyzed the results of two methods to draw conclusions based on a comparison between C. elegans and other harmful parasites. Compared with controls, 1147 genes were up-regulated, and 1067 were down-regulated. Overall, 101 up-regulated genes had a log2 ratio higher than 8, whereas the log2 ratio of 141 down-regulated genes was higher than 8. After mapping to the reference database, 4 pathways were confirmed to be involved in this phenomenon, with statistically significant participation from 19 genes. Conclusion: For the first time, the transcript sequence of 5-Fu-treated worms and controls was detected. We found that 4 possible pathways, i.e., ECM-receptor interaction pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Focal adhesion and Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, may be involved in the number decline in the embryos of C. elegans. Specifically, the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and Focal adhesion may be very important pathways that alter the reproduction of C. elegans. PMID:26587470

  10. Adhesion molecules involved in hepoxilin A3-mediated neutrophil transepithelial migration

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, B P; Sin, A; McCormick, B A

    2008-01-01

    A common feature underlying active states of inflammation is the migration of neutrophils (PMNs) from the circulation and across a number of tissue barriers in response to chemoattractant stimuli. Although our group has recently established a discreet role for the PMN chemoattractant, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3) in the process of PMN recruitment, very little is known regarding the interaction of HXA3 with PMNs. To characterize further the event of HXA3-induced PMN transepithelial migration, we sought to determine the adhesion molecules required for migration across different epithelial surfaces (T84 intestinal and A549 airway cells) relative to two well-studied PMN chemoattractants, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Our findings reveal that the adhesion interaction profile of PMN transepithelial migration in response to HXA3 differs from the adhesion interaction profile exhibited by the structurally related eicosanoid LTB4. Furthermore, unique to PMN transepithelial migration induced by gradients of HXA3 was the critical dependency of all four major surface adhesion molecules examined (i.e. CD18, CD47, CD44 and CD55). Our results suggest that the particular chemoattractant gradient imposed, as well as the type of epithelial cell monolayer, each plays a role in determining the adhesion molecules involved in transepithelial migration. Given the complexities of these interactions, our findings are important to consider with respect to adhesion molecules that may be targeted for potential drug development. PMID:18005361

  11. Collagen type I-coating of Ti6Al4V promotes adhesion of osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Geissler, U; Hempel, U; Wolf, C; Scharnweber, D; Worch, H; Wenzel, K

    2000-09-15

    The initial contact of osteoblasts with implant surfaces is an important event for osseointegration of implants. Osseointegration of Ti6Al4V may be improved by precoating of its surface with collagen type I. In this study, the adhesion of rat calvarial osteoblasts to uncoated and collagen type I-coated titanium alloy was investigated over a period of 24 h. Collagen type I-coating accelerates initial adhesion of osteoblasts in the presence of fetal calf serum. One hour after plating, no differences in the percentage of adherent cells between the surfaces investigated were found. Adhesion of osteoblasts to uncoated surfaces was reduced by the GRGDSP peptide by about 70%, whereas adhesion to collagen type I-coated surfaces remained unaffected by treatment of the cells with the peptide. Cell adhesion to coated materials was reduced by about 80% by anti-integrin beta1 antibody. The integrin beta1 antibody did not influence the adhesion to uncoated titanium alloy. The results suggest that osteoblasts adhere to collagen type I-coated materials via integrin beta1 but not by interacting with RGD peptides, whereas adhesion to uncoated titanium alloy is mediated by RGD sequences but not via integrin beta1. Fibronectin does not seem to be involved in the adhesion of osteoblasts to either coated or uncoated titanium alloy. PMID:10880125

  12. Effects of endodontic tri-antibiotic paste on bond strengths of dentin adhesives to coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakoucheki, Parvin; Walter, Ricardo; Jahromi, Maryam Zare; Mirsattari, Sanaz; Akbarzadeh, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tri-antibiotic paste (TAP) on microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) of dental adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted molars had their occlusal surfaces flattened to expose dentin. They were divided into two groups, i.e., control group with no dentin treatment and experimental group with dentin treatment with TAP. After 10 days, specimens were bonded using self-etch (Filtek P90 adhesive) or etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond Plus) adhesives and restored with composite resin. Teeth were sectioned into beams, and the specimens were subjected to MTBS test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between dentin treatment and adhesive on MTBS to coronal dentin (p = 0.003). Despite a trend towards worse MTBS being noticed in the experimental groups, TAP application showed no significant effect on MTBS (p = 0.064). Conclusions The etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond Plus presented higher mean bond strengths than the self-etch adhesive Filtek P90, irrespective of the group. The superior bond performance for Adper Single Bond when compared to Filtek P90 adhesive was confirmed by a fewer number of adhesive failures. The influence of TAP in bond strength is insignificant. PMID:25984475

  13. Adhesive Force of a Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, to a Flat Smooth Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Katsumi; Egashira, Kai; Toukai, Tadashi; Ogushi, Jun

    The adhesion of a spider mite to a surface of a flat smooth plate is investigated as a model for micromachine parts to adhere to and move on such surfaces. The measurement of adhesive force is carried out under various conditions in which plate material, surface roughness of a plate and environmental humidity are differed. The adhesion mechanism is also discussed. Of the forces acting between a spider mite and a surface, one from dispersion interaction is the most dominant because (1) there is a high correlation between the adhesive force and the dispersion force component of surface energy with adhesive forces of 8.2µN for glass, 9.7µN for mica, 9.9µN for silicon and 12.1µN for gold, and because (2) high humidity and high surface roughness reduce the adhesive force. For strong adhesion based on work of adhesion, spider mites have tenent hairs with a bell-shaped end.

  14. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  15. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    PubMed

    Pesika, Noshir S; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-18

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  16. Modeling of adhesion in tablet compression - I. atomic force microscopy and molecular simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J. J.; Li, T.; Bateman, S. D.; Erck, R.; Morris, K. R.; Energy Technology; Purdue Univ.; Novartis Pharmaceutical Corp.

    2003-04-01

    Adhesion problems during tablet manufacturing have been observed to be dependent on many formulation and process factors including the run time on the tablet press. Consequently, problems due to sticking may only become apparent towards the end of the development process when a prolonged run on the tablet press is attempted for the first time. It would be beneficial to predict in a relative sense if a formulation or new chemical entity has the potential for adhesion problems early in the development process. It was hypothesized that favorable intermolecular interaction between the drug molecules and the punch face is the first step or criterion in the adhesion process. Therefore, the rank order of adhesion during tablet compression should follow the rank order of these energies of interaction. The adhesion phenomenon was investigated using molecular simulations and contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three model compounds were chosen from a family of profen compounds. Silicon nitride AFM tips were modified by coating a 20-nm iron layer on the surfaces by sputter coating. Profen flat surfaces were made by melting and recrystallization. The modified AFM probe and each profen surface were immersed in the corresponding profen saturated water during force measurements using AFM. The work of adhesion between iron and ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and flurbiprofen in vacuum were determined to be -184.1, -2469.3, -17.3 mJ {center_dot} m-2, respectively. The rank order of the work of adhesion between iron and profen compounds decreased in the order: ketoprofen > ibuprofen > flurbiprofen. The rank order of interaction between the drug molecules and the iron superlattice as predicted by molecular simulation using Cerius2 is in agreement with the AFM measurements. It has been demonstrated that Atomic Force Microscopy is a powerful tool in studying the adhesion phenomena between organic drug compounds and metal surface. The study has provided insight into the adhesion problems

  17. Nanocapillary Adhesion between Parallel Plates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study capillary adhesion from a nanometer scale liquid bridge between two parallel flat solid surfaces. The capillary force, Fcap, and the meniscus shape of the bridge are computed as the separation between the solid surfaces, h, is varied. Macroscopic theory predicts the meniscus shape and the contribution of liquid/vapor interfacial tension to Fcap quite accurately for separations as small as two or three molecular diameters (1-2 nm). However, the total capillary force differs in sign and magnitude from macroscopic theory for h ≲ 5 nm (8-10 diameters) because of molecular layering that is not included in macroscopic theory. For these small separations, the pressure tensor in the fluid becomes anisotropic. The components in the plane of the surface vary smoothly and are consistent with theory based on the macroscopic surface tension. Capillary adhesion is affected by only the perpendicular component, which has strong oscillations as the molecular layering changes.

  18. Particle adhesion in powder coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Wankum, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Williams, S.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electrostatic powder coating is a widely used industrial painting process. It has three major advantages: (1) it provides high quality durable finish, (2) the process is environmentally friendly and does not require the use of organic solvents, and (3) it is economically competitive. The adhesion of electrostatically deposited polymer paint particles on the grounded conducting substrate depends upon many parameters: (a) particle size and shape distributions, (b) electrostatic charge distributions, (c) electrical resistivity, (d) dielectric strength of the particles, (e) thickness of the powder film, (f) presence and severity of the back corona, and (g) the conductivity and surface properties of the substrate. The authors present a model on the forces of deposition and adhesion of corona charged particles on conducting substrates.

  19. Nanocapillary Adhesion between Parallel Plates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study capillary adhesion from a nanometer scale liquid bridge between two parallel flat solid surfaces. The capillary force, Fcap, and the meniscus shape of the bridge are computed as the separation between the solid surfaces, h, is varied. Macroscopic theory predicts the meniscus shape and the contribution of liquid/vapor interfacial tension to Fcap quite accurately for separations as small as two or three molecular diameters (1-2 nm). However, the total capillary force differs in sign and magnitude from macroscopic theory for h ≲ 5 nm (8-10 diameters) because of molecular layering that is not included in macroscopic theory. For these small separations, the pressure tensor in the fluid becomes anisotropic. The components in the plane of the surface vary smoothly and are consistent with theory based on the macroscopic surface tension. Capillary adhesion is affected by only the perpendicular component, which has strong oscillations as the molecular layering changes. PMID:27413872

  20. Host Selection of Microbiota via Differential Adhesion.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Kirstie; Schluter, Jonas; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Smith, Adrian L; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-04-13

    The host epithelium is the critical interface with microbial communities, but the mechanisms by which the host regulates these communities are poorly understood. Here we develop the hypothesis that hosts use differential adhesion to select for and against particular members of their microbiota. We use an established computational, individual-based model to study the impact of host factors that regulate adhesion at the epithelial surface. Our simulations predict that host-mediated adhesion can increase the competitive advantage of microbes and create ecological refugia for slow-growing species. We show how positive selection via adhesion can be transformed into negative selection if the host secretes large quantities of a matrix such as mucus. Our work predicts that adhesion is a powerful mechanism for both positive and negative selection within the microbiota. We discuss molecules-mucus glycans and IgA-that affect microbe adhesion and identify testable predictions of the adhesion-as-selection model. PMID:27053168

  1. Adhesive mechanisms in cephalopods: a review.

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Klepal, Waltraud

    2006-01-01

    Several genera of cephalopods (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions, which are used for attachment to the substratum, for mating and to capture prey. These adhesive structures are located in different parts of the body, viz. in the digital tentacles (Nautilus), in the ventral surface of the mantle and fourth arm pair (Sepia), in the dorsal epidermis (Euprymna), or in the dorsal mantle side and partly on the fins (Idiosepius). Adhesion in Sepia is induced by suction of dermal structures on the mantle, while for Nautilus, Euprymna and Idiosepius adhesion is probably achieved by chemical substances. Histochemical studies indicate that in Nautilus and Idiosepius secretory cells that appear to be involved in adhesion stain for carbohydrates and protein, whilst in Euprymna only carbohydrates are detectable. De-adhesion is either achieved by muscle contraction of the tentacles and mantle (Nautilus and Sepia) or by secretion of substances (Euprymna). The de-adhesive mechanism used by Idiosepius remains unknown. PMID:17110356

  2. Adhesive mechanisms in cephalopods: a review.

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Klepal, Waltraud

    2006-01-01

    Several genera of cephalopods (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions, which are used for attachment to the substratum, for mating and to capture prey. These adhesive structures are located in different parts of the body, viz. in the digital tentacles (Nautilus), in the ventral surface of the mantle and fourth arm pair (Sepia), in the dorsal epidermis (Euprymna), or in the dorsal mantle side and partly on the fins (Idiosepius). Adhesion in Sepia is induced by suction of dermal structures on the mantle, while for Nautilus, Euprymna and Idiosepius adhesion is probably achieved by chemical substances. Histochemical studies indicate that in Nautilus and Idiosepius secretory cells that appear to be involved in adhesion stain for carbohydrates and protein, whilst in Euprymna only carbohydrates are detectable. De-adhesion is either achieved by muscle contraction of the tentacles and mantle (Nautilus and Sepia) or by secretion of substances (Euprymna). The de-adhesive mechanism used by Idiosepius remains unknown.

  3. Quantifying the forces driving cell-cell adhesion in a fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Alsteens, David; Van Dijck, Patrick; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its ability to form biofilms on implanted medical devices, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes frequent infections in humans. A hallmark of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of two types of cells, budding yeast cells and growing hyphae, which are bound together and embedded in extracellular matrix material. Although cell-cell adhesion is critical to biofilm formation, architecture and cohesion, we know little about the fundamental forces behind this interaction. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in yeast-hyphae adhesion, focusing on the role of Als (Agglutinin-like sequence) proteins as prototypes of cell adhesion molecules. We show that adhesion between individual yeast and hyphal cells involves strong, short-range cohesive interactions (1.1 nN ± 0.2 nN; 86 ± 33 nm), and weak, long-range tether interactions (0.4 ± 0.2 nN; 234 ± 81 nm). Control experiments demonstrate that these interactions originate from cell surface proteins that are specific to C. albicans. Using mutant strains deficient for Als expression, we find that Als3 proteins, primarily expressed on the germ tube, play a key role in establishing strong cohesive adhesion. We suggest a model in which cohesive adhesion during biofilm formation originates from tight hydrophobic interactions between Als tandem repeat domains on adjacent cells. When subjected to force, the two interacting cell surfaces detach but the cell bodies remain tethered through macromolecular extensions. Our results represent the first direct, non-invasive measurement of adhesion forces between interacting fungal cells, and provide novel insights into the molecular origin of the cohesive strength of fungal biofilms. PMID:24152214

  4. Approaching improved adhesive bonding repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlette, Christian; Müller, Tobias; Roβmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Today, the precision of micro-optics assembly is mostly limited by the accuracy of the bonding process ― and in the case of adhesive bonding by the prediction and compensation of adhesive shrinkage during curing. In this contribution, we present a novel approach to address adhesive bonding based on hybrid control system theory. In hybrid control, dynamic systems are described as "plants" which produce discrete and/or continuous outputs from given discrete and/or continuous inputs, thus yielding a hybrid state space description of the system. The task of hybrid controllers is to observe the plant and to generate a discrete and/or continuous input sequence that guides or holds the plant in a desired target state region while avoiding invalid or unwanted intermediate states. Our approach is based on a series of experiments carried out in order to analyze, define and decouple the dependencies of adhesive shrinkage on multiple parameters, such as application geometries, fixture forces and UV intensities. As some of the dependencies describe continuous effects (e.g. shrinkage from UV intensity) and other dependencies describe discrete state transitions (e.g. fixture removal during curing), the resulting model of the overall bonding process is a hybrid dynamic system in the general case. For this plant model, we then propose a concept of sampling-based parameter search as a basis to design suitable hybrid controllers, which have the potential to optimize process control for a selection of assembly steps, thus improving the repeatability of related production steps like beam-shaping optics or mounting of turning mirrors for fiber coupling.

  5. Polymer nanocarriers for dentin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Medina-Castillo, A L; Toledano, M

    2014-12-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP- N : Active nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days' immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be

  6. Adhesion Forces Between Individual Ligand-Receptor Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ernst-Ludwig; Moy, Vincent T.; Gaub, Hermann E.

    1994-04-01

    The adhesion force between the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever derivatized with avidin and agarose beads functionalized with biotin, desthiobiotin, or iminobiotin was measured. Under conditions that allowed only a limited number of molecular pairs to interact, the force required to separate tip and bead was found to be quantized in integer multiples of 160 ± 20 piconewtons for biotin and 85 ± 15 piconewtons for iminobiotin. The measured force quanta are interpreted as the unbinding forces of individual molecular pairs.

  7. Adhesive Nanoparticles as Local Probes of Membrane Curvature.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Canalejo, Jaime; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-10-14

    Biological and biomimetic membranes display complex shapes with nonuniform curvature. Because the interaction of adhesive nanoparticles with such membranes depends on the local membrane curvature, different segments of the same membrane can differ in their engulfment behavior. For a single vesicle in contact with many nanoparticles, we predict ten distinct engulfment patterns as well as morphological transitions between these patterns, which are directly accessible to experiment.

  8. Theoretical study of the competition between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Li, Bo

    2009-07-01

    Adhesions between neighboring cells or between cells and their surrounding tissue/matrix play a crucial role in a wide range of biological processes. In order to investigate the competitive mechanisms between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions, we here develop a theoretical framework for multiple interacting cells lying on a planar matrix coated with distributed ligands. This model allows us to study, from the viewpoints of energy and statistics, the effects of such physical mechanisms as binding energy of bonds, nonspecific interactions, elastic deformation of cell membranes, and mixing entropy. Our calculations show that cell-matrix adhesion cannot occur when the ligand density on the matrix is lower than a threshold value, and cell-cell adhesion does not happen for a high ligand density. Glycocalyx repulsion plays a more important role in cell-matrix adhesion than in cell-cell adhesion. In addition, it is found that the cell-cell adhesion density decreases as the number of cells increases.

  9. Nectin spot: a novel type of nectin-mediated cell adhesion apparatus.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Kiyohito; Takai, Yoshimi

    2016-09-15

    Nectins are Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily cell adhesion molecules constituting a family with four members, all of which have three Ig-like loops at their extracellular regions. Nectins play roles in the formation of a variety of cell-cell adhesion apparatuses. There are at least three types of nectin-mediated cell adhesions: afadin- and cadherin-dependent, afadin-dependent and cadherin-independent, and afadin- and cadherin-independent. In addition, nectins trans-interact with nectin-like molecules (Necls) with three Ig-like loops and other Ig-like molecules with one to three Ig-like loops. Furthermore, nectins and Necls cis-interact with membrane receptors and integrins, some of which are associated with the nectin-mediated cell adhesions, and play roles in the regulation of many cellular functions, such as cell polarization, movement, proliferation, differentiation, and survival, co-operatively with these cell surface proteins. The nectin-mediated cell adhesions are implicated in a variety of diseases, including genetic disorders, neural disorders, and cancers. Of the three types of nectin-mediated cell adhesions, the afadin- and cadherin-dependent apparatus has been most extensively investigated, but the examples of the third type of apparatus independent of afadin and cadherin are recently increasing and its morphological and functional properties have been well characterized. We review here recent advances in research on this type of nectin-mediated cell adhesion apparatus, which is named nectin spot. PMID:27621480

  10. Culinary Medicine-Jalebi Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2016-02-01

    Culinary terms have been used to describe anatomy (bean-shaped kidneys), pathology (strawberry gall bladder), clinical signs (café-au-lait spots), radiological images (sausage-shaped pancreas), etc. While Indian cuisine is popular all over the world, no Indian dish finds mention in medical terminology. In intra-abdominal adhesions, sometimes, the intestinal loops are so densely adherent that it is difficult to make out proximal from distal and it is impossible to separate them without injuring the bowel resulting in spill of contents-resection is the only option (Fig. 1). Jalebi, an Indian dessert, has a single long tubular strip of fried batter filled with sugary syrup so intertwined that it is impossible to discern its ends; if broken, the syrup spills out-the best way to relish it is to chew the whole piece (Fig. 2). Because of these similarities between them, I propose to name dense intra-abdominal adhesions as 'jalebi adhesions.' PMID:27186047

  11. Adhesive evaluation of new polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, Terry L.; Progar, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 10 to 15 years, the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several novel high temperature polyimide adhesives for anticipated needs of the aerospace industry. These developments have resulted from fundamental studies of structure-property relationships in polyimides. Recent research at LaRC has involved the synthesis and evaluation of copolyimides which incorporate both flexibilizing bridging groups and meta-linked benzene rings. The purpose was to develop systems based on low cost, readily available monomers. Two of these copolyimides evaluated as adhesives for bonding titanium alloy, Ti(6Al-4V), are identified as LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2. Lap shear strength (LSS) measurements were used to determine the strength and durability of the adhesive materials. LSS results are presented for LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI lap shear specimens thermally exposed in air at 232 C for up to 5000 hrs. LARC-TPI was shown to perform better than the copolymer LARC-STPI which exhibited poor thermooxidative performance possibly due to the amines used which would tend to oxidize easier than the benzophenone system in LARC-TPI.

  12. Super-complexes of adhesion GPCRs and neural guidance receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Verity A.; Mehmood, Shahid; Chavent, Matthieu; Roversi, Pietro; Carrasquero, Maria; del Toro, Daniel; Seyit-Bremer, Goenuel; Ranaivoson, Fanomezana M.; Comoletti, Davide; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Robinson, Carol V.; Klein, Rüdiger; Seiradake, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Latrophilin adhesion-GPCRs (Lphn1–3 or ADGRL1–3) and Unc5 cell guidance receptors (Unc5A–D) interact with FLRT proteins (FLRT1–3), thereby promoting cell adhesion and repulsion, respectively. How the three proteins interact and function simultaneously is poorly understood. We show that Unc5D interacts with FLRT2 in cis, controlling cell adhesion in response to externally presented Lphn3. The ectodomains of the three proteins bind cooperatively. Crystal structures of the ternary complex formed by the extracellular domains reveal that Lphn3 dimerizes when bound to FLRT2:Unc5, resulting in a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 (FLRT2:Unc5D:Lphn3). This 1:1:2 complex further dimerizes to form a larger ‘super-complex' (2:2:4), using a previously undescribed binding motif in the Unc5D TSP1 domain. Molecular dynamics simulations, point-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry demonstrate the stability and molecular properties of these complexes. Our data exemplify how receptors increase their functional repertoire by forming different context-dependent higher-order complexes. PMID:27091502

  13. Preferential adhesion of leukocytes near bifurcations is endothelium independent.

    PubMed

    Tousi, Nazanin; Wang, Bin; Pant, Kapil; Kiani, Mohammad F; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar

    2010-12-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial interactions play central roles in many pathological conditions. However, the in vivo mechanisms responsible for nonuniform spatial distribution of adhering leukocytes to endothelial cells in microvascular networks are not clear. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo methodologies to explain of this complex phenomenon. A mouse cremaster muscle model was used to study the spatial distribution of leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in vivo. A PDMS-based synthetic microvascular network (SMN) device was used to study interactions of functionalized microspheres using a receptor-ligand system in a (endothelial) cell-free environment for the in vitro studies. Our in vivo and in vitro findings indicate that both leukocytes in vivo and microspheres in vitro preferentially adhere near bifurcation (within 1-2 diameters from the bifurcation). This adhesion pattern was found to be independent of the diameter of the vessels. These findings support our hypothesis that the fluidic patterns near bifurcations/junctions, and not the presence or cellular aspects of the system (e.g. cell deformation, cell signaling, heterogeneous distribution of adhesion molecules), is the main controlling factor behind the preferential adhesion patterns of leukocytes near bifurcations. PMID:20624406

  14. Super-complexes of adhesion GPCRs and neural guidance receptors.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Verity A; Mehmood, Shahid; Chavent, Matthieu; Roversi, Pietro; Carrasquero, Maria; Del Toro, Daniel; Seyit-Bremer, Goenuel; Ranaivoson, Fanomezana M; Comoletti, Davide; Sansom, Mark S P; Robinson, Carol V; Klein, Rüdiger; Seiradake, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Latrophilin adhesion-GPCRs (Lphn1-3 or ADGRL1-3) and Unc5 cell guidance receptors (Unc5A-D) interact with FLRT proteins (FLRT1-3), thereby promoting cell adhesion and repulsion, respectively. How the three proteins interact and function simultaneously is poorly understood. We show that Unc5D interacts with FLRT2 in cis, controlling cell adhesion in response to externally presented Lphn3. The ectodomains of the three proteins bind cooperatively. Crystal structures of the ternary complex formed by the extracellular domains reveal that Lphn3 dimerizes when bound to FLRT2:Unc5, resulting in a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 (FLRT2:Unc5D:Lphn3). This 1:1:2 complex further dimerizes to form a larger 'super-complex' (2:2:4), using a previously undescribed binding motif in the Unc5D TSP1 domain. Molecular dynamics simulations, point-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry demonstrate the stability and molecular properties of these complexes. Our data exemplify how receptors increase their functional repertoire by forming different context-dependent higher-order complexes. PMID:27091502

  15. A measurement system analysis with design of experiments: Investigation of the adhesion performance of a pressure sensitive adhesive with the probe tack test.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Marc; Leopold, Claudia S

    2015-12-30

    The tack of a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) is not an inherent material property and strongly depends on the measurement conditions. Following the concept of a measurement system analysis (MSA), influencing factors of the probe tack test were investigated by a design of experiments (DoE) approach. A response surface design with 38 runs was built to evaluate the influence of detachment speed, dwell time, contact force, adhesive film thickness and API content on tack, determined as the maximum of the stress strain curve (σmax). It could be shown that all investigated factors have a significant effect on the response and that the DoE approach allowed to detect two-factorial interactions between the dwell time, the contact force, the adhesive film thickness and the API content. Surprisingly, it was found that tack increases with decreasing and not with increasing adhesive film thickness. PMID:26428630

  16. A measurement system analysis with design of experiments: Investigation of the adhesion performance of a pressure sensitive adhesive with the probe tack test.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Marc; Leopold, Claudia S

    2015-12-30

    The tack of a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) is not an inherent material property and strongly depends on the measurement conditions. Following the concept of a measurement system analysis (MSA), influencing factors of the probe tack test were investigated by a design of experiments (DoE) approach. A response surface design with 38 runs was built to evaluate the influence of detachment speed, dwell time, contact force, adhesive film thickness and API content on tack, determined as the maximum of the stress strain curve (σmax). It could be shown that all investigated factors have a significant effect on the response and that the DoE approach allowed to detect two-factorial interactions between the dwell time, the contact force, the adhesive film thickness and the API content. Surprisingly, it was found that tack increases with decreasing and not with increasing adhesive film thickness.

  17. Influence of cement type and thickness on polyfiber post adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoğlu, Emel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Yilmaz, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the effect of two different post space diameters and related resin cement film thicknesses on the bond strength of a polyfiber post. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 premolars were randomly divided into two according to the post space diameter: 1.1 mm and 1.5 mm. Then each group was divided into three sub-groups according to luting cement used: RelyX U100, Panavia F2.0/ED primer, Clearfil SA cement. Spirapost was then luted into the canal using luting cements. Two slices were obtained from each root specimen. Push-out tests were performed. Data was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Connover post-hoc and Mann-Whitney U-test (P < 0.05). Results: Push-out bond strength was found to vary significantly according to type of adhesive system and post space diameter size (P < 0.05). The self-adhesive resin cement RelyX U100 had significantly higher bond strengths compared with the other adhesive system (P < 0.05). The self-etch adhesive system (Panavia F2.0) showed significantly lower bond strengths compared with the other systems (P < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between the luting systems and post space diameter (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increases in post space diameter significantly reduced the bond strength of Spirapost to root dentine for both groups. PMID:24944450

  18. Blood coagulation and platelet adhesion on polyaniline films.

    PubMed

    Humpolíček, Petr; Kuceková, Zdenka; Kašpárková, Věra; Pelková, Jana; Modic, Martina; Junkar, Ita; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Lehocký, Marián

    2015-09-01

    Polyaniline is a promising conducting polymer with still increasing application potential in biomedicine. Its surface modification can be an efficient way how to introduce desired functional groups and to control its properties while keeping the bulk characteristics of the material unchanged. The purpose of the study was to synthetize thin films of pristine conducting polyaniline hydrochloride, non-conducting polyaniline base and polyaniline modified with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPSA) and investigate chosen parameters of their hemocompatibility. The modification was performed either by introduction of PAMPSA during the synthesis or by reprotonation of polyaniline base. The polyaniline hydrochloride and polyaniline base had no impact on blood coagulation and platelet adhesion. By contrast, the polyaniline reprotonated with PAMPSA completely hindered coagulation thanks to its interaction with coagulation factors Xa, Va and IIa. The significantly lower platelets adhesion was also found on this surface. Moreover, this film maintains its conductivity at pH of 6, which is an improvement in comparison with standard polyaniline hydrochloride losing most of its conductivity at pH of 4. Polyaniline film with PAMPSA introduced during synthesis had an impact on platelet adhesion but not on coagulation. The combined conductivity, anticoagulation activity, low platelet adhesion and improved conductivity at pH closer to physiological, open up new possibilities for application of polyaniline reprotonated by PAMPSA in blood-contacting devices, such as catheters or blood vessel grafts.

  19. Theory and Simulations of Adhesion Receptor Dimerization on Membrane Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yinghao; Honig, Barry; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium constants of trans and cis dimerization of membrane bound (2D) and freely moving (3D) adhesion receptors are expressed and compared using elementary statistical-thermodynamics. Both processes are mediated by the binding of extracellular subdomains whose range of motion in the 2D environment is reduced upon dimerization, defining a thin reaction shell where dimer formation and dissociation take place. We show that the ratio between the 2D and 3D equilibrium constants can be expressed as a product of individual factors describing, respectively, the spatial ranges of motions of the adhesive domains, and their rotational freedom within the reaction shell. The results predicted by the theory are compared to those obtained from a novel, to our knowledge, dynamical simulations methodology, whereby pairs of receptors perform realistic translational, internal, and rotational motions in 2D and 3D. We use cadherins as our model system. The theory and simulations explain how the strength of cis and trans interactions of adhesive receptors are affected both by their presence in the constrained intermembrane space and by the 2D environment of membrane surfaces. Our work provides fundamental insights as to the mechanism of lateral clustering of adhesion receptors after cell-cell contact and, more generally, to the formation of lateral microclusters of proteins on cell surfaces. PMID:23528081

  20. Force nanoscopy of cell mechanics and cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufrêne, Yves F.; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2013-05-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to mechanical stimuli in their environment and have several evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to these cues. It is becoming increasingly recognized that many cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, possess a diverse set of proteins to translate mechanical cues into biochemical signalling and to mediate cell surface interactions such as cell adhesion. Moreover, the mechanical properties of cells are involved in regulating cell function as well as serving as indicators of disease states. Importantly, the recent development of biophysical tools and nanoscale methods has facilitated a deeper understanding of the role that physical forces play in modulating cell mechanics and cell adhesion. Here, we discuss how atomic force microscopy (AFM) has recently been used to investigate cell mechanics and cell adhesion at the single-cell and single-molecule levels. This knowledge is critical to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern mechanosensing, mechanotransduction, and mechanoresponse in living cells. While pushing living cells with the AFM tip provides a means to quantify their mechanical properties and examine their response to nanoscale forces, pulling single surface proteins with a functionalized tip allows one to understand their role in sensing and adhesion. The combination of these nanoscale techniques with modern molecular biology approaches, genetic engineering and optical microscopies provides a powerful platform for understanding the sophisticated functions of the cell surface machinery, and its role in the onset and progression of complex diseases.

  1. Blood coagulation and platelet adhesion on polyaniline films.

    PubMed

    Humpolíček, Petr; Kuceková, Zdenka; Kašpárková, Věra; Pelková, Jana; Modic, Martina; Junkar, Ita; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Lehocký, Marián

    2015-09-01

    Polyaniline is a promising conducting polymer with still increasing application potential in biomedicine. Its surface modification can be an efficient way how to introduce desired functional groups and to control its properties while keeping the bulk characteristics of the material unchanged. The purpose of the study was to synthetize thin films of pristine conducting polyaniline hydrochloride, non-conducting polyaniline base and polyaniline modified with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPSA) and investigate chosen parameters of their hemocompatibility. The modification was performed either by introduction of PAMPSA during the synthesis or by reprotonation of polyaniline base. The polyaniline hydrochloride and polyaniline base had no impact on blood coagulation and platelet adhesion. By contrast, the polyaniline reprotonated with PAMPSA completely hindered coagulation thanks to its interaction with coagulation factors Xa, Va and IIa. The significantly lower platelets adhesion was also found on this surface. Moreover, this film maintains its conductivity at pH of 6, which is an improvement in comparison with standard polyaniline hydrochloride losing most of its conductivity at pH of 4. Polyaniline film with PAMPSA introduced during synthesis had an impact on platelet adhesion but not on coagulation. The combined conductivity, anticoagulation activity, low platelet adhesion and improved conductivity at pH closer to physiological, open up new possibilities for application of polyaniline reprotonated by PAMPSA in blood-contacting devices, such as catheters or blood vessel grafts. PMID:26119372

  2. A role for adherons in neural retina cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Embryonic chick neural retina cells release glycoprotein complexes, termed adherons, into their culture medium. When absorbed onto the surface of petri dishes, neural retina adherons increase the initial rate of neural retina cell adhesion; they also stimulate the rate of cell-cell aggregation. Adheron-stimulated adhesion is tissue specific, and the spontaneous aggregation of neural retina cells is inhibited by monovalent Fab' fragments prepared from an antiserum against neural retina adherons. Therefore cell surface antigenic determinants shared with adherons are involved in normal cell-cell adhesions. The particles from the heterogeneous neural retina population contain many proteins and several glycosaminoglycans. The adherons migrate as a symmetrical 12S peak on sucrose gradients and are predominantly 15-nm spheres when examined by electron microscopy. Finally, the specific activity of neural retina adherons increases from embryonic days 7 through 12 and then declines. These results suggest that glycoprotein particles may be involved in some of the adhesive interactions between neural retina cells and between the cells and their environment. PMID:6187755

  3. Study of the time effect on the strength of cell-cell adhesion force by a novel nano-picker

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yajing; Nakajima, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} A nano-picker is developed for single cell adhesion force measurement. {yields} The adhesion of picker-cell has no influence to the cell-cell measurement result. {yields} Cell-cell adhesion force has a rise at the first few minutes and then becomes constant. -- Abstract: Cell's adhesion is important to cell's interaction and activates. In this paper, a novel method for cell-cell adhesion force measurement was proposed by using a nano-picker. The effect of the contact time on the cell-cell adhesion force was studied. The nano-picker was fabricated from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever by nano fabrication technique. The cell-cell adhesion force was measured based on the deflection of the nano-picker beam. The result suggests that the adhesion force between cells increased with the increasing of contact time at the first few minutes. After that, the force became constant. This measurement methodology was based on the nanorobotic manipulation system inside an environmental scanning electron microscope. It can realize both the observation and manipulation of a single cell at nanoscale. The quantitative and precise cell-cell adhesion force result can be obtained by this method. It would help us to understand the single cell interaction with time and would benefit the research in medical and biological fields potentially.

  4. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  5. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature. PMID:12203646

  6. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature.

  7. Anionic deep cavitands enable the adhesion of unmodified proteins at a membrane bilayer.

    PubMed

    Ghang, Yoo-Jin; Perez, Lizeth; Morgan, Melissa A; Si, Fang; Hamdy, Omar M; Beecher, Consuelo N; Larive, Cynthia K; Julian, Ryan R; Zhong, Wenwan; Cheng, Quan; Hooley, Richard J

    2014-12-28

    An anionic self-folding deep cavitand is capable of immobilizing unmodified proteins and enzymes at a supported lipid bilayer interface, providing a simple, soft bioreactive surface that allows enzymatic function under mild conditions. The adhesion is based on complementary charge interactions, and the hosts are capable of binding enzymes such as trypsin at the bilayer interface: the catalytic activity is retained upon adhesion, allowing selective reactions to be performed at the membrane surface. PMID:25366572

  8. Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Mawad, Damia; Barton, Matthew; Piller, Sabine C.; Longo, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Materials and Methods. Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ˜0.1wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (wavelength = 532 nm, Fluence ˜110 J/cm2, spot size ˜5 mm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results and Conclusion. The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine (15±2 kPa, n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5±0.1 kPa (n = 8) when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26 °C to 32 °C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  9. Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Téllez, J. P.; Harirchian-Saei, S.; Li, Y.; Menon, C.

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved.

  10. Molecular mechanisms regulating CD13-mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Gerber, Claire; Rahman, M Mamunur; Vernier, Kaitlyn M; Pereira, Flavia E; Subramani, Jaganathan; Caromile, Leslie A; Shapiro, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    CD13/Aminopeptidase N is a transmembrane metalloproteinase that is expressed in many tissues where it regulates various cellular functions. In inflammation, CD13 is expressed on myeloid cells, is up-regulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation and mediates monocyte/endothelial adhesion by homotypic interactions. In animal models the lack of CD13 alters the profiles of infiltrating inflammatory cells at sites of ischaemic injury. Here, we found that CD13 expression is enriched specifically on the pro-inflammatory subset of monocytes, suggesting that CD13 may regulate trafficking and function of specific subsets of immune cells. To further dissect the mechanisms regulating CD13-dependent trafficking we used the murine model of thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis. Peritoneal monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were significantly decreased in inflammatory exudates from global CD13KO animals when compared with wild-type controls. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type and CD13KO primary myeloid cells, or wild-type myeloid cells pre-treated with CD13-blocking antibodies into thioglycollate-challenged wild-type recipients demonstrated fewer CD13KO or treated cells in the lavage, suggesting that CD13 expression confers a competitive advantage in trafficking. Similarly, both wild-type and CD13KO cells were reduced in infiltrates in CD13KO recipients, confirming that both monocytic and endothelial CD13 contribute to trafficking. Finally, murine monocyte cell lines expressing mouse/human chimeric CD13 molecules demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of the protein mediates CD13 adhesion. Therefore, this work verifies that the altered inflammatory trafficking in CD13KO mice is the result of aberrant myeloid cell subset trafficking and further defines the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:24627994

  11. Swelling equilibrium of dentin adhesive polymers formed on the water-adhesive phase boundary: Experiments and micromechanical model

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    During their application to the wet, oral environment, dentin adhesives can experience phase separation and composition change which can compromise the quality of the hybrid layer formed at the dentin-adhesive interface. The chemical composition of polymer phases formed in the hybrid layer can be represented using a ternary water-adhesive phase diagram. In this paper, these polymer phases have been characterized using a suite of mechanical tests and swelling experiments. The experimental results were evaluated using granular micromechanics based model that incorporates poro-mechanical effects and polymer-solvent thermodynamics. The variation of the model parameters and model-predicted polymer properties has been studied as a function of composition along the phase boundary. The resulting structure-property correlations provide insight into interactions occurring at the molecular level in the saturated polymer system. These correlations can be used for modeling the mechanical behavior of hybrid layer, and are expected to aid in the design and improvement of water-compatible dentin adhesive polymers. PMID:24076070

  12. Adhesion of Human B Cells to Germinal Centers in Vitro Involves VLA-4 and INCAM-110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Arnold S.; Munro, J. Michael; Rice, G. Edgar; Bevilacqua, Michael P.; Morimoto, Chikao; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Rhynhart, Kurt; Pober, Jordan S.; Nadler, Lee M.

    1990-08-01

    Human B lymphocytes localize and differentiate within the microenvironment of lymphoid germinal centers. A frozen section binding assay was developed for the identification of those molecules involved in the adhesive interactions between B cells and lymphoid follicles. Activated human B cells and B cell lines were found to selectively adhere to germinal centers. The VLA-4 molecule on the lymphocyte and the adhesion molecule INCAM-110, expressed on follicular dendritic cells, supported this interaction. This cellular interaction model can be used for the study of how B cells differentiate.

  13. Generation of Shear Adhesion Map Using SynVivo Synthetic Microvascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley M.; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Cell/particle adhesion assays are critical to understanding the biochemical interactions involved in disease pathophysiology and have important applications in the quest for the development of novel therapeutics. Assays using static conditions fail to capture the dependence of adhesion on shear, limiting their correlation with in vivo environment. Parallel plate flow chambers that quantify adhesion under physiological fluid flow need multiple experiments for the generation of a shear adhesion map. In addition, they do not represent the in vivo scale and morphology and require large volumes (~ml) of reagents for experiments. In this study, we demonstrate the generation of shear adhesion map from a single experiment using a microvascular network based microfluidic device, SynVivo-SMN. This device recreates the complex in vivo vasculature including geometric scale, morphological elements, flow features and cellular interactions in an in vitro format, thereby providing a biologically realistic environment for basic and applied research in cellular behavior, drug delivery, and drug discovery. The assay was demonstrated by studying the interaction of the 2 µm biotin-coated particles with avidin-coated surfaces of the microchip. The entire range of shear observed in the microvasculature is obtained in a single assay enabling adhesion vs. shear map for the particles under physiological conditions. PMID:24893648

  14. Initial stages of cell-matrix adhesion can be mediated and modulated by cell-surface hyaluronan.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Ella; Geiger, Benjamin; Addadi, Lia

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual temporal and spatial gap exists between the first encounter of a cell with an adhesive substrate and the advanced stages of focal adhesion formation. Although ample information is available on focal adhesions structure and function, the mechanism of the first interaction events and the nature of the molecules mediating them are largely unknown. In this paper we identify cell-surface-associated hyaluronan as a mediator and modulator of the first steps of adhesion of A6 and other cells to conventional tissue culture substrates as well as to the surfaces of calcium-(R,R)-tartrate tetrahydrate crystals. Treatment of A6 cells with hyaluronidase suppresses their rapid interactions with these adhesive substrates, and incubation of either the hyaluronidase-treated cells or the substrate with hyaluronan restores cell adhesion. In contrast, excess hyaluronan on both the cells and the substrate strongly inhibits adhesion. We thus propose that cell-surface-associated hyaluronan can mediate and modulate cell-matrix adhesion at the very first encounter with the substrate. It may promote it through the establishment of exquisitely stereospecific chemical interactions or inhibit it by virtue of steric exclusion and/or electrostatic repulsion. PMID:11916844

  15. Anti-Lewis X Antibody Promotes Helicobacter pylori Adhesion to Gastric Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Shew-Meei; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lei, Huan-Yao; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2007-01-01

    Lewis X (Lex) antigen is expressed on the human gastric mucosa and the O-specific chain of lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori. This antigen can induce autoantibodies, which may be involved in bacterial colonization and thus deserve further investigation. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effects of anti-Le monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on H. pylori adhesion. A babA2 mutant was also constructed to evaluate the effect of an anti-Lex MAb on adhesion. The bacterial agglutination and in situ adhesion assays were used to confirm the anti-Lex MAb effect on H. pylori adhesion. This study revealed that an anti-Lex MAb, but not an anti-Leb MAb or an anti-Ley MAb, could enhance the adhesion of H. pylori strains that expressed high levels of Lex antigen to AGS cells. The enhancement was not found on an H. pylori strain with a low level of Lex antigen. Anti-Lex MAb could increase the adhesion of both the wild-type strain and its isogenic babA2 mutant to AGS cells. When AGS cells were pretreated with anti-Lex MAb, the adhesion of the babA2 mutant also increased. Only anti-Lex MAb could promote bacterial agglutination, and the in situ adhesion assay further confirmed that adding anti-Lex MAb resulted in denser bacterial adhesion on the gastric epithelia collected from clinical patients. These results suggest anti-Lex MAb could specifically enhance the adhesion abilities of H. pylori strains through a mechanism by which anti-Lex MAb promotes bacterial aggregation and mediates bivalent interaction (antigen-antibody-antigen) between bacteria and host cells. PMID:17371866

  16. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  17. Using Engineered Single-Chain Antibodies to Correlate Molecular Binding Properties and Nanoparticle Adhesion Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Haun, Jered B.; Pepper, Lauren R.; Boder, Eric T.; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Elucidation of the relationship between targeting molecule binding properties and the adhesive behavior of therapeutic or diagnostic nanocarriers would aid in the design of optimized vectors and lead to improved efficacy. We measured the adhesion of 200 nm diameter particles under fluid flow that was mediated by a diverse array of molecular interactions, including recombinant single-chain antibodies (scFvs), full antibodies, and the avidin/biotin interaction. Within the panel of scFvs, we used a family of mutants that display a spectrum of binding kinetics, allowing us to compare nanoparticle adhesion to bond chemistry. In addition, we explored the effect of molecular size by inserting a protein linker into the scFv fusion construct and by employing scFvs that are specific for targets with vastly different sizes. Using computational models we extracted multivalent kinetic rate constants for particle attachment and detachment from the adhesion data and correlated the results to molecular binding properties. Our results indicate that the factors that increase encounter probability, such as adhesion molecule valency and size, directly enhance the rate of nanoparticle attachment. Bond kinetics had no influence on scFv-mediated nanoparticle attachment within the kinetic range tested however, but did appear to effect antibody/antigen and avidin/biotin mediated adhesion. We attribute this finding to a combination of multivalent binding and differences in bond mechanical strength between recombinant scFvs and the other adhesion molecules. Nanoparticle detachment probability correlated directly with adhesion molecule valency and size, as well as the logarithm of the affinity for all molecules tested. Based on this work, scFvs can serve as viable targeting receptors for nanoparticles, but improvements to their bond mechanical strength would likely be required to fully exploit their tunable kinetic properties and maximize the adhesion efficiency of nanoparticles that bear

  18. Using engineered single-chain antibodies to correlate molecular binding properties and nanoparticle adhesion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Haun, Jered B; Pepper, Lauren R; Boder, Eric T; Hammer, Daniel A

    2011-11-15

    Elucidation of the relationship between targeting molecule binding properties and the adhesive behavior of therapeutic or diagnostic nanocarriers would aid in the design of optimized vectors and lead to improved efficacy. We measured the adhesion of 200-nm-diameter particles under fluid flow that was mediated by a diverse array of molecular interactions, including recombinant single-chain antibodies (scFvs), full antibodies, and the avidin/biotin interaction. Within the panel of scFvs, we used a family of mutants that display a spectrum of binding kinetics, allowing us to compare nanoparticle adhesion to bond chemistry. In addition, we explored the effect of molecular size by inserting a protein linker into the scFv fusion construct and by employing scFvs that are specific for targets with vastly different sizes. Using computational models, we extracted multivalent kinetic rate constants for particle attachment and detachment from the adhesion data and correlated the results to molecular binding properties. Our results indicate that the factors that increase encounter probability, such as adhesion molecule valency and size, directly enhance the rate of nanoparticle attachment. Bond kinetics had no influence on scFv-mediated nanoparticle attachment within the kinetic range tested, however, but did appear to affect antibody/antigen and avidin/biotin mediated adhesion. We attribute this finding to a combination of multivalent binding and differences in bond mechanical strength between recombinant scFvs and the other adhesion molecules. Nanoparticle detachment probability correlated directly with adhesion molecule valency and size, as well as the logarithm of the affinity for all molecules tested. On the basis of this work, scFvs can serve as viable targeting receptors for nanoparticles, but improvements to their bond mechanical strength would likely be required to fully exploit their tunable kinetic properties and maximize the adhesion efficiency of nanoparticles that

  19. Tenascins and the Importance of Adhesion Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Tenascins are a family of extracellular matrix proteins that evolved in early chordates. There are four family members: tenascin-X, tenascin-R, tenascin-W, and tenascin-C. Tenascin-X associates with type I collagen, and its absence can cause Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. In contrast, tenascin-R is concentrated in perineuronal nets. The expression of tenascin-C and tenascin-W is developmentally regulated, and both are expressed during disease (e.g., both are associated with cancer stroma and tumor blood vessels). In addition, tenascin-C is highly induced by infections and inflammation. Accordingly, the tenascin-C knockout mouse has a reduced inflammatory response. All tenascins have the potential to modify cell adhesion either directly or through interaction with fibronectin, and cell-tenascin interactions typically lead to increased cell motility. In the case of tenascin-C, there is a correlation between elevated expression and increased metastasis in several types of tumors. PMID:21441591

  20. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives.

  1. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:27182547

  2. Effect of dispersion method and CNT loading on the quality and performance of nanocomposite soy protein/CNTs adhesive for wood application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afolabi, Ayo Samuel; Oluwafolakemi Sadare, Olawumi; Olawale Daramola, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this article the effect of dispersion method and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading on the quality and performance of a nanocomposite adhesive is reported. The nanocomposite soy protein isolate adhesive was successfully developed by incorporating CNTs into the soy protein isolate (SPI) for enhanced bond strength and water resistance. Dispersion methods, namely mechanical (shear) mixing and mechanical/sonication were employed to aid good dispersion and interfacial interaction between soy protein matrix and the carbon nanofillers during the preparation of the adhesive. The concentration of the CNT was varied from 0.1–0.7 wt% in the nanocomposite adhesive. The morphology and the surface chemistry of the adhesives were checked with SEM and FTIR, respectively. The shear strength of the developed adhesives was investigated according to European standard (EN-204) for interior wood application on a tensile testing machine. The morphological structure of the nanocomposite adhesive obtained from SEM images showed homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in SPI using the two dispersion methods; shear mixing and sonication/shear mixing. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed chemical functionalities and successful interaction between CNTs and SPI adhesive. Thermogravimetric profile of the adhesive samples showed that the newly developed nanocomposite adhesive was thermally stable at a temperature up to about 600 °C at a higher percentage loading of 0.5 wt% CNTs. The result showed that sonication method of dispersion of CNTs into the SPI adhesive had a higher shear strength compared to the mechanical method of dispersion both at dry and wet state.

  3. Effect of dispersion method and CNT loading on the quality and performance of nanocomposite soy protein/CNTs adhesive for wood application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afolabi, Ayo Samuel; Oluwafolakemi Sadare, Olawumi; Olawale Daramola, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this article the effect of dispersion method and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading on the quality and performance of a nanocomposite adhesive is reported. The nanocomposite soy protein isolate adhesive was successfully developed by incorporating CNTs into the soy protein isolate (SPI) for enhanced bond strength and water resistance. Dispersion methods, namely mechanical (shear) mixing and mechanical/sonication were employed to aid good dispersion and interfacial interaction between soy protein matrix and the carbon nanofillers during the preparation of the adhesive. The concentration of the CNT was varied from 0.1-0.7 wt% in the nanocomposite adhesive. The morphology and the surface chemistry of the adhesives were checked with SEM and FTIR, respectively. The shear strength of the developed adhesives was investigated according to European standard (EN-204) for interior wood application on a tensile testing machine. The morphological structure of the nanocomposite adhesive obtained from SEM images showed homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in SPI using the two dispersion methods; shear mixing and sonication/shear mixing. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed chemical functionalities and successful interaction between CNTs and SPI adhesive. Thermogravimetric profile of the adhesive samples showed that the newly developed nanocomposite adhesive was thermally stable at a temperature up to about 600 °C at a higher percentage loading of 0.5 wt% CNTs. The result showed that sonication method of dispersion of CNTs into the SPI adhesive had a higher shear strength compared to the mechanical method of dispersion both at dry and wet state.

  4. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  5. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  6. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by str