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Sample records for adhesion molecule integrin

  1. cis Interaction of the Cell Adhesion Molecule CEACAM1 with Integrin β3

    PubMed Central

    Brümmer, Jens; Ebrahimnejad, Alireza; Flayeh, Raid; Schumacher, Udo; Löning, Thomas; Bamberger, Ana-Maria; Wagener, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    CEACAM1 is a cell adhesion molecule that has been implicated in a number of physiological processes (eg, tumor suppressor in epithelial tissues, potent angiogenic factor in microvessel formation, microbial receptor in human granulocytes and epithelial cells). The mechanism of CEACAM1 action is still largely unresolved but recent findings demonstrated that the cytoplasmic CEACAM1 domain is linked indirectly to the actin-based cytoskeleton. We have isolated integrin β3 as an associated protein using CEACAM1 tail affinity purification. This association depends on phosphorylation of Tyr-488 in the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed in vivo colocalization of both molecules in human granulocytes and epithelial cells. Furthermore, the concentrated colocalization at the tumor-stroma interface of invading melanoma masses suggests a functional role of CEACAM1-integrin β3 interaction in melanoma invasion. Moreover, colocalization of the two adhesion molecules is also found at the apical surface of glandular cells of pregnancy endometrium. Colocalization of CEACAM1 and integrin β3 at the transitional zone from proliferative to invasive extravillous trophoblast of the maternal-fetal interface supports a role for CEACAM1/integrin β3 complexes in cell invasion. PMID:11485912

  2. Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219

  3. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B supports lymphocyte rolling and adhesion through interaction with alpha4beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Ralf J; Hardt, Katja; Hatting, Max; Bistrian, Roxana; Diehl, Sandra; Radeke, Heinfried H; Podda, Maurizio; Schön, Michael P; Kaufmann, Roland; Henschler, Reinhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Santoso, Sentot; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2009-10-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), JAM-B and JAM-C have been implicated in leucocyte transmigration. As JAM-B binds to very late activation antigen (VLA)-4, a leucocyte integrin that contributes to rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells through binding to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, we hypothesized that JAM-B is also involved in leucocyte rolling and firm adhesion. To test this hypothesis, intravital microscopy of murine skin microvasculature was performed. Rolling interactions of murine leucocytes were significantly affected by blockade of JAM-B [which reduced rolling interactions from 9.1 +/- 2.6% to 3.2 +/- 1.2% (mean +/- standard deviation)]. To identify putative ligands, T lymphocytes were perfused over JAM-B-coated slides in a dynamic flow chamber system. JAM-B-dependent rolling and sticking interactions were observed at low shear stress [0.3 dyn/cm(2): 220 +/- 71 (mean +/- standard deviation) versus 165 +/- 88 rolling (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney rank sum test) and 2.6 +/- 1.3 versus 1.0 +/- 0.7 sticking cells/mm(2)/min (P = 0.026; Mann-Whitney rank sum test) on JAM-B- compared with baseline], but not at higher shear forces (1.0 dyn/cm(2)). As demonstrated by antibody blocking experiments, JAM-B-mediated rolling and sticking of T lymphocytes was dependent on alpha4 and beta1 integrin, but not JAM-C expression. To investigate whether JAM-B-mediated leucocyte-endothelium interactions are involved in a disease-relevant in vivo model, adoptive transfer experiments in 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reactions were performed in mice in the absence or in the presence of a function-blocking JAM-B antibody. In this model, JAM-B blockade during the sensitization phase impaired the generation of the immune response to DNFB, which was assessed as the increase in ear swelling in untreated, DNFB-challenged mice, by close to 40% [P = 0.037; analysis of variance (anova)]. Overall, JAM-B appears to

  4. Nucleation and Growth of Integrin Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Atilgan, Erdinç; Ovryn, Ben

    2009-01-01

    We present a model that provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that govern the formation of the earliest integrin adhesions ex novo from an approximately planar plasma membrane. Using an analytic analysis of the free energy of a dynamically deformable membrane containing freely diffusing receptors molecules and long repeller molecules that inhibit integrins from binding with ligands on the extracellular matrix, we predict that a coalescence of polymerizing actin filaments can deform the membrane toward the extracellular matrix and facilitate integrin binding. Monte Carlo simulations of this system show that thermally induced membrane fluctuations can either zip-up and increase the radius of a nucleated adhesion or unzip and shrink an adhesion, but the fluctuations cannot bend the ventral membrane to nucleate an adhesion. To distinguish this integrin adhesion from more mature adhesions, we refer to this early adhesion as a nouveau adhesion. PMID:19413961

  5. Human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and rat homologue NILE are ligands for integrin alpha v beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Integrin alpha v beta 3 is distinct in its capacity to recognize the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) in many extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the recognition of ECM components, alpha v beta 3 can interact with the neural cell adhesion molecule L1-CAM; a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). M21 melanoma cells displayed significant Ca(++)-dependent adhesion and spreading on immunopurified rat L1 (NILE). This adhesion was found to be dependent on the expression of the alpha v-integrin subunit and could be significantly inhibited by an antibody to the alpha v beta 3 heterodimer. M21 cells also displayed some alpha v beta 3-dependent adhesion and spreading on immunopurified human L1. Ligation between this ligand and alpha v beta 3 was also observed to promote significant haptotactic cell migration. To map the site of alpha v beta 3 ligation we used recombinant L1 fragments comprising the entire extracellular domain of human L1. Significant alpha v beta 3-dependent adhesion and spreading was evident on a L1 fragment containing Ig-like domains 4, 5, and 6. Importantly, mutation of an RGD sequence present in the sixth Ig-like domain of L1 abrogated M21 cell adhesion. We conclude that alpha v beta 3-dependent recognition of human L1 is dependent on ligation of this RGD site. Despite high levels of L1 expression the M21 melanoma cells did not display significant adhesion via a homophilic L1-L1 interaction. These data suggest that M21 melanoma cells recognize and adhere to L1 through a mechanism that is primarily heterophilic and integrin dependent. Finally, we present evidence that melanoma cells can shed and deposit L1 in occluding ECM. In this regard, alpha v beta 3 may recognize L1 in a cell-cell or cell- substrate interaction. PMID:8636223

  6. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  7. Integrin-mediated adhesion complex

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau

    2010-01-01

    The integrin-mediated adhesion machinery is the primary cell-matrix adhesion mechanism in Metazoa. The integrin adhesion complex, which modulates important aspects of the cell physiology, is composed of integrins (alpha and beta subunits) and several scaffolding and signaling proteins. Integrins appeared to be absent in all non-metazoan eukaryotes so-far analyzed, including fungi, plants and choanoflagellates, the sister-group to Metazoa. Thus, integrins and, therefore, the integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling mechanism was considered a metazoan innovation. Recently, a broad comparative genomic analysis including new genome data from several unicellular organisms closely related to fungi and metazoans shattered previous views. The integrin adhesion and signaling complex is not specific to Metazoa, but rather it is present in apusozoans and holozoan protists. Thus, this important signaling and adhesion system predated the origin of Fungi and Metazoa, and was subsequently lost in fungi and choanoflagellates. This finding suggests that cooption played a more important role in the origin of Metazoa than previously believed. Here, we hypothesize that the integrin adhesome was ancestrally involved in signaling. PMID:21057645

  8. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  9. Physiology and pathophysiology of selectins, integrins, and IgSF cell adhesion molecules focusing on inflammation. A paradigm model on infectious endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Golias, Christos; Batistatou, Anna; Bablekos, Georgios; Charalabopoulos, Alexandros; Peschos, Dimitrios; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-06-01

    The development of adhesion bonds, either among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial process. These interactions are mediated by some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs are ubiquitously expressed proteins playing a central role in controlling cell migration, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Besides their key function in physiological maintenance of tissue integrity, CAMs play an eminent role in various pathological processes such as cardiovascular disorders, atherogenesis, atherosclerotic plaque progression and regulation of the inflammatory response. CAMs such as selectins, integrins, and immunoglobulin superfamily take part in interactions between leukocyte and vascular endothelium (leukocyte rolling, arrest, firm adhesion, migration). Experimental data and pathologic observations support the assumption that pathogenic microorganisms attach to vascular endothelial cells or sites of vascular injury initiating intravascular infections. In this review a paradigm focusing on cell adhesion molecules pathophysiology and infective endocarditis development is given.

  10. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer. PMID:24147211

  11. Amino Acid Sequences Mediating Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Binding to Integrin Alpha 4: Homologous DSP Sequence Found for JC Polyoma VP1 Coat Protein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4) to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3). For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  12. αdβ2 Integrin Is Expressed on Human Eosinophils and Functions as an Alternative Ligand for Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Mitchell H.; Van der Vieren, Monica; Sterbinsky, Sherry A.; Michael Gallatin, W.; Hoffman, Patricia A.; Staunton, Donald E.; Bochner, Bruce S.

    1998-01-01

    The β2 family of integrins, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, and αd, are expressed on most leukocytes. We show that the newest member of this family, αd, is expressed on human eosinophils in peripheral blood, and surface expression can be upregulated within minutes by phorbol ester or calcium ionophore A23187. Culture of eosinophils with interleukin 5 (IL-5) leads to a two- to fourfold increase in αd levels by 3–7 d without a change in α4 integrin expression. Eosinophils isolated from late phase bronchoalveolar lavage fluids express αd at levels similar to that seen after 3 d of IL-5 culture. Regarding αdβ2 ligands, in both freshly isolated and IL-5–cultured eosinophils, as well as αdβ2-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, αdβ2 can function as a ligand for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). This conclusion is based on the ability of monoclonal antibodies to αd, β2, or VCAM-1 to block cell attachment in static adhesion assays. In experiments with eosinophils, the relative contribution of αdβ2 integrin– mediated adhesion is enhanced after IL-5 culture. These experiments demonstrate that αdβ2 is an alternative ligand for VCAM-1, and this integrin may play a role in eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 in states of chronic inflammation. PMID:9841932

  13. Influence of β2-Integrin Adhesion Molecule Expression and Pulmonary Infection with Pasteurella haemolytica on Cytokine Gene Expression in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haa-Yung; Kehrli, Marcus E.; Brogden, Kim A.; Gallup, Jack M.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    β2-Integrins are leukocyte adhesion molecules composed of alpha (CD11a, -b, -c, or -d) and beta (CD18) subunit heterodimers. Genetic CD18 deficiency results in impaired neutrophil egress into tissues that varies between conducting airways and alveoli of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether CD18 deficiency in cattle affects proinflammatory cytokine (PIC) expression in pulmonary tissue after respiratory infection with Pasteurella haemolytica. Cattle were infected with P. haemolytica via fiberoptic deposition of organisms into the posterior part of the right cranial lung lobe. Animals were euthanized at 2 or 4 h postinoculation (p.i.), and tissues were collected to assess PIC gene expression using antisense RNA probes specific for bovine interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) along with the β-actin (β-Act) housekeeping gene. Expression of PIC was induced at 2 h p.i. in P. haemolytica-infected cattle and continued to 4 h p.i. At 2 h p.i., induction of gene expression and increase of cells that expressed PIC were observed both in CD18+ and CD18− cattle after inoculation of P. haemolytica. The induction of gene expression with P. haemolytica inoculation was more prominent in CD18− cattle than in CD18+ cattle by comparison to pyrogen-free saline (PFS)-inoculated control animals. At 4 h p.i., however, the induction of PIC, especially IL-1α, IL-6, and IFN-γ, in the lungs of CD18+ cattle inoculated with P. haemolytica was greater than that in lungs of the CD18− cattle. IFN-γ and TNF-α genes were not increased in P. haemolytica-inoculated CD18− cattle lungs compared to the PFS-inoculated control lungs at 4 h p.i. In PFS-inoculated lungs, we generally observed a higher percentage of cells and higher level of gene expression in the lungs of CD18− cattle than in the lungs of CD18+ cattle, especially at 4 h p.i. The rate of neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of CD18− cattle at

  14. The Lutheran/Basal Cell Adhesion Molecule Promotes Tumor Cell Migration by Modulating Integrin-mediated Cell Attachment to Laminin-511 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Ogawa, Takaho; Sudo, Ryo; Yamada, Yuji; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-matrix interactions are critical for tumor cell migration. Lutheran (Lu), also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM), competes with integrins for binding to laminin α5, a subunit of LM-511, a major component of basement membranes. Here we show that the preferential binding of Lu/B-CAM to laminin α5 promotes tumor cell migration. The attachment of Lu/B-CAM transfectants to LM-511 was slightly weaker than that of control cells, and this was because Lu/B-CAM disturbed integrin binding to laminin α5. Lu/B-CAM induced a spindle cell shape with pseudopods and promoted cell migration on LM-511. In addition, blocking with an anti-Lu/B-CAM antibody led to a flat cell shape and inhibited migration on LM-511, similar to the effects of an activating integrin β1 antibody. We conclude that tumor cell migration on LM-511 requires that Lu/B-CAM competitively modulates cell attachment through integrins. We suggest that this competitive interaction is involved in a balance between static and migratory cell behaviors. PMID:24036115

  15. Regulation of integrin-mediated adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Daniel V.; Calderwood, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular environment and bidirectionally relay signals across the cell membrane. These processes are critical for cell attachment, migration, differentiation, and survival, and therefore play essential roles in metazoan development, physiology, and pathology. Integrin-mediated adhesions are regulated by diverse factors, including the conformation-specific affinities of integrin receptors for their extracellular ligands, the clustering of integrins and their intracellular binding partners into discrete adhesive structures, mechanical forces exerted on the adhesion, and the intracellular trafficking of integrins themselves. Recent advances shed light onto how the interaction of specific intracellular proteins with the short cytoplasmic tails of integrins controls each of these activities. PMID:26189062

  16. Focal Adhesion Kinase Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening via Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Kristin E.; Dumbauld, David W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Hanks, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell–ECM forces. PMID:19297531

  17. Integrin-Associated Complexes Form Hierarchically with Variable Stoichiometry during Nascent Adhesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Alexia I.; Zareno, Jessica; Moissoglu, Konstadinos; Plow, Edward; Gratton, Enrico; Horwitz, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background A complex network of putative molecular interactions underlies the architecture and function of cell-matrix adhesions. Most of these interactions are implicated from co-immunoprecipitation studies using expressed components; but few have been demonstrated or characterized functionally in living cells. Results We introduce fluorescence fluctuation methods to determine, at high spatial and temporal resolution, ‘when’ and ‘where’ molecular complexes form and their stoichiometry in nascent adhesions (NAs). We focus on integrin-associated molecules implicated in integrin-activation and in the integrin-actin linkage in NAs and show that these molecules form integrin containing complexes hierarchically within the adhesion itself. Integrin and kindlin reside in a molecular complex as soon as adhesions are visible; talin, while also present early, associates with the integrin-kindlin complex only after NAs have formed and in response to myosin II activity. Furthermore, talin and vinculin association precedes the formation of the integrin-talin complex. Finally, α-actinin enters NAs periodically and in clusters that transiently associate with integrins. The absolute number and stoichiometry of these molecules varies among the molecules studied and changes as adhesions mature. Conclusions These observations suggest a working model for NA assembly, whereby transient α-actinin- integrin complexes help nucleate NAs within the lamellipodium. Subsequently integrin complexes containing kindlin, but not talin, emerge. Once NAs have formed, myosin II activity promotes talin association with the integrin-kindlin complex in a stoichiometry consistent with each talin molecule linking two integrin-kindlin complexes. PMID:25088556

  18. Small GTPase Rho signaling is involved in {beta}1 integrin-mediated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand on osteoblasts and osteoclast maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Fumihiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Okada, Yosuke; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kurose, Hitoshi; Mogami, Akira; Tanaka, Yoshiya . E-mail: tanaka@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-27

    We assessed the characteristics of human osteoblasts, focusing on small GTPase Rho signaling. {beta}1 Integrin were highly expressed on osteoblasts. Engagement of {beta}1 integrins by type I collagen augmented expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts. Rho was activated by {beta}1 stimulation in osteoblasts. {beta}1 Integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL was inhibited by transfection with adenoviruses encoding C3 transferase or pretreated with Y-27632, specific Rho and Rho-kinase inhibitors. Engagement of {beta}1 integrin on osteoblasts induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNC) in a coculture system of osteoblasts and peripheral monocytes, but this action was completely abrogated by transfection of C3 transferase. Our results indicate the direct involvement of Rho-mediated signaling in {beta}1 integrin-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 and RANKL and RANKL-dependent osteoclast maturation. Thus, Rho-mediated signaling in osteoblasts seems to introduce major biases to bone resorption.

  19. Minimal synthetic cells to study integrin-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Frohnmayer, Johannes P; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Eberhard, Christian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Mollenhauer, Christine; Boehm, Heike; Kessler, Horst; Geiger, Benjamin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-10-12

    To shed light on cell-adhesion-related molecular pathways, synthetic cells offer the unique advantage of a well-controlled model system with reduced molecular complexity. Herein, we show that liposomes with the reconstituted platelet integrin αIIb β3 as the adhesion-mediating transmembrane protein are a functional minimal cell model for studying cellular adhesion mechanisms in a defined environment. The interaction of these synthetic cells with various extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The data indicated that integrin was functionally incorporated into the lipid vesicles, thus enabling integrin-specific adhesion of the engineered liposomes to fibrinogen- and fibronectin-functionalized surfaces. Then, we were able to initiate the detachment of integrin liposomes from these surfaces in the presence of the peptide GRGDSP, a process that is even faster with our newly synthesized peptide mimetic SN529, which specifically inhibits the integrin αIIb β3 .

  20. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  1. Interface Immobilization Chemistry of cRGD-based Peptides Regulates Integrin Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pallarola, Diego; Bochen, Alexander; Boehm, Heike; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq R; Spatz, Joachim P; Kessler, Horst

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of specific surface receptors of the integrin family with different extracellular matrix-based ligands is of utmost importance for the cellular adhesion process. A ligand consists of an integrin-binding group, here cyclic RGDfX, a spacer molecule that lifts the integrin-binding group from the surface and a surface anchoring group. c(-RGDfX-) peptides are bound to gold nanoparticle structured surfaces via polyproline, polyethylene glycol or aminohexanoic acid containing spacers of different lengths. Although keeping the integrin-binding c(-RGDfX-) peptides constant for all compounds, changes of the ligand's spacer chemistry and length reveal significant differences in cell adhesion activation and focal adhesion formation. Polyproline-based peptides demonstrate improved cell adhesion kinetics and focal adhesion formation compared with common aminohexanoic acid or polyethylene glycol spacers. Binding activity can additionally be improved by applying ligands with two head groups, inducing a multimeric effect. This study gives insights into spacer-based differences in integrin-driven cell adhesion processes and remarkably highlights the polyproline-based spacers as suitable ligand-presenting templates for surface functionalization. PMID:25810710

  2. Increase of β2-integrin on adhesion of THP-1 cells to collagen vitrigel membrane.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Tadashi; Kuroda, Yukie; Ishida, Seiichi; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Oshikata, Ayumi; Shimizu, Kumiko; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki; Akiyama, Takumi; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-04

    When human monocyte-derived leukemia (THP-1) cells, which are floating cells, are stimulated with lipid peroxides, or Streptococcus suis, these cells adhere to a plastic plate or endothelial cells. However, it is unclear whether or not non-stimulated THP-1 cells adhere to collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM). In this study, firstly, we investigated the rate of adhesion of THP-1 cells to CVM. When THP-1 cells were not stimulated, the rate of adhesion to CVM was high. Then, to identify adhesion molecules involved in adhesion of THP-1 cells to CVM, expressions of various cell adhesion molecules on the surface of THP-1 cells adhering to CVM were measured. β-actin, β-catenin, and β1-integrin expressions did not change in non-stimulated THP-1 cells cultured on CVM compared with those in cells cultured in a flask, but β2-integrin expression markedly increased.

  3. Mixed Extracellular Matrix Ligands Synergistically Modulate Integrin Adhesion and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Catherine D.; Petrie, Timothy A.; García, Andrés J

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components through cell-surface integrin receptors is essential to the formation, maintenance and repair of numerous tissues, and therefore represents a central theme in the design of bioactive materials that successfully interface with the body. While the adhesive responses associated with a single ligand have been extensively analyzed, the effects of multiple integrin subtypes binding to multivalent ECM signals remain poorly understood. In the present study, we generated a high throughput platform of non-adhesive surfaces presenting well-defined, independent densities of two integrin-specific engineered ligands for the type I collagen (COL-I) receptor α2β1 and the fibronectin (FN) receptor α5β1 to evaluate the effects of integrin cross-talk on adhesive responses. Engineered surfaces displayed ligand density-dependent adhesive effects, and mixed ligand surfaces significantly enhanced cell adhesion strength and focal adhesion assembly compared to single FN and COL-I ligand surfaces. Moreover, surfaces presenting mixed COL-I/FN ligands synergistically enhanced FAK activation compared to the single ligand substrates. The enhanced adhesive activities of the mixed ligand surfaces also promoted elevated proliferation rates. Our results demonstrate interplay between multivalent ECM ligands in adhesive responses and downstream cellular signaling. PMID:18613064

  4. Episialin (MUC1) overexpression inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Episialin (MUC1) is a transmembrane molecule with a large mucin-like extracellular domain protruding high above the cell surface. The molecule is located at the apical side of most glandular epithelial cells, whereas in carcinoma cells it is often present at the entire surface and it is frequently expressed in abnormally large quantities. We have previously shown that overexpression of episialin reduces cell- cell interactions. Here we show that the integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix of transfectants of a melanoma cell line (A375), a transformed epithelial cell line (MDCK-ras-e) and a human breast epithelial cell line (HBL-100) is reduced by high levels of episialin. This reduction can be reversed by inducing high avidity of the beta 1 integrins by mAb TS2/16 (at least for beta 1-mediated adhesion). The adhesion can also be restored by redistribution of episialin on the cell surface by monoclonal antibodies into patches or caps. Similarly, capping of episialin on ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma cells, growing in suspension, caused adherence and spreading of these cells. We propose that there is a delicate balance between adhesion and anti-adhesion forces in episialin expressing cells, which can be shifted towards adhesion by strengthening the integrin-mediated adhesion, or towards anti-adhesion by increasing the level of expression of episialin. PMID:7698991

  5. Integrin-Generated Forces Lead to Streptavidin-Biotin Unbinding in Cellular Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Jurchenko, Carol; Chang, Yuan; Narui, Yoshie; Zhang, Yun; Salaita, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between chemical and mechanical signals plays an important role in cell biology, and integrin receptors are the primary molecules involved in sensing and transducing external mechanical cues. We used integrin-specific probes in molecular tension fluorescence microscopy to investigate the pN forces exerted by integrin receptors in living cells. The molecular tension fluorescence microscopy probe consisted of a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys(Cys) (cRGDfK(C)) peptide tethered to the terminus of a polyethylene glycol polymer that was attached to a surface through streptavidin-biotin linkage. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism was used to visualize tension-driven extension of the polymer. Surprisingly, we found that integrin receptors dissociate streptavidin-biotin tethered ligands in focal adhesions within 60 min of cell seeding. Although streptavidin-biotin binding affinity is described as the strongest noncovalent bond in nature, and is ∼106 - 108 times larger than that of integrin-RGD affinity, our results suggest that individual integrin-ligand complexes undergo a marked enhancement in stability when the receptor assembles in the cell membrane. Based on the observation of streptavidin-biotin unbinding, we also conclude that the magnitude of integrin-ligand tension in focal adhesions can reach values that are at least 10 fold larger than was previously estimated using traction force microscopy-based methods. PMID:24703305

  6. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  7. Integrin adhesions suppress syncytium formation in the Drosophila larval epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Antunes, Marco; Anderson, Aimee E.; Kadrmas, Julie L.; Jacinto, Antonio; Galko, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Integrins are critical for barrier epithelial architecture. Integrin loss in vertebrate skin leads to blistering and wound healing defects. However, how Integrins and associated proteins maintain the regular morphology of epithelia is not well understood. We found that targeted knockdown of the integrin focal adhesion (FA) complex components βIntegrin, PINCH, and Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), caused formation of multinucleate epidermal cells within the Drosophila larval epidermis. This phenotype was specific to the Integrin FA complex and not due to secondary effects on polarity or junctional structures. The multinucleate cells resembled the syncytia caused by physical wounding. Live imaging of wound-induced syncytium formation in the pupal epidermis suggested direct membrane breakdown leading to cell-cell fusion and consequent mixing of cytoplasmic contents. Activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, which occurs upon wounding, also correlated with syncytium formation induced by PINCH knockdown. Further, ectopic JNK activation directly caused epidermal syncytium formation. No mode of syncytium formation including that induced by wounding, genetic loss-of FA-proteins, or local JNK hyperactivation, involved misregulation of mitosis or apoptosis. Finally, the mechanism of epidermal syncytium formation following JNK hyperactivation and wounding appeared to be direct disassembly of FA complexes. In conclusion, the loss of function phenotype of Integrin FA components in the larval epidermis resembles a wound. Integrin FA loss in mouse and human skin also causes a wound-like appearance. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected role for proper Integrin-based adhesion in suppressing larval epidermal cell-cell fusion– a role that may be conserved in other epithelia. PMID:26255846

  8. Changes in membrane sphingolipid composition modulate dynamics and adhesion of integrin nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Christina; Manzo, Carlo; Keijzer, Sandra de; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; García-Parajo, Maria F.; Cambi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential constituents of the plasma membrane (PM) and play an important role in signal transduction by modulating clustering and dynamics of membrane receptors. Changes in lipid composition are therefore likely to influence receptor organisation and function, but how this precisely occurs is difficult to address given the intricacy of the PM lipid-network. Here, we combined biochemical assays and single molecule dynamic approaches to demonstrate that the local lipid environment regulates adhesion of integrin receptors by impacting on their lateral mobility. Induction of sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity reduced sphingomyelin (SM) levels by conversion to ceramide (Cer), resulting in impaired integrin adhesion and reduced integrin mobility. Dual-colour imaging of cortical actin in combination with single molecule tracking of integrins showed that this reduced mobility results from increased coupling to the actin cytoskeleton brought about by Cer formation. As such, our data emphasizes a critical role for the PM local lipid composition in regulating the lateral mobility of integrins and their ability to dynamically increase receptor density for efficient ligand binding in the process of cell adhesion. PMID:26869100

  9. Cell Adhesion on Amyloid Fibrils Lacking Integrin Recognition Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Reeba S.; George, Edna; Singh, Pradeep K.; Salot, Shimul; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Sen, Shamik; Maji, Samir K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are highly ordered, cross-β-sheet-rich protein/peptide aggregates associated with both human diseases and native functions. Given the well established ability of amyloids in interacting with cell membranes, we hypothesize that amyloids can serve as universal cell-adhesive substrates. Here, we show that, similar to the extracellular matrix protein collagen, amyloids of various proteins/peptides support attachment and spreading of cells via robust stimulation of integrin expression and formation of integrin-based focal adhesions. Additionally, amyloid fibrils are also capable of immobilizing non-adherent red blood cells through charge-based interactions. Together, our results indicate that both active and passive mechanisms contribute to adhesion on amyloid fibrils. The present data may delineate the functional aspect of cell adhesion on amyloids by various organisms and its involvement in human diseases. Our results also raise the exciting possibility that cell adhesivity might be a generic property of amyloids. PMID:26742841

  10. Dynamic regulation of the structure and functions of integrin adhesions.

    PubMed

    Wolfenson, Haguy; Lavelin, Irena; Geiger, Benjamin

    2013-03-11

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to tissue morphogenesis and coherence and provide cells with vital environmental cues. These apparently static structures display remarkable plasticity and dynamic properties: they exist in multiple, interconvertible forms that are constantly remodeled in response to changes in ECM properties, cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and signaling processes. Thus, integrin-mediated environmental sensing enables cells to adapt to chemical and physical properties of the surrounding matrix by modulating their proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This intriguing interplay between the apparently robust structure of matrix adhesions and their highly dynamic properties is the focus of this article.

  11. Clustering of α5β1 integrins determines adhesion strength whereas αvβ3 and talin enable mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Gauthier, Nils C.; del Rio, Armando; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    A key molecular link between cells and the extracellular matrix is the binding between fibronectin and integrins α5β1 and αvβ3. However, the roles of these different integrins in establishing adhesion remain unclear. We tested the adhesion strength of fibronectin-integrin-cytoskeleton linkages by applying physiological nanonewton forces to fibronectin-coated magnetic beads bound to cells. We report that the clustering of fibronectin domains within 40 nm led to integrin α5β1 recruitment, and increased the ability to sustain force by over six-fold. This force was supported by α5β1 integrin clusters. Importantly, we did not detect a role of either integrin αvβ3 or talin 1 or 2 in maintaining adhesion strength. Instead, these molecules enabled the connection to the cytoskeleton and reinforcement in response to an applied force. Thus, high matrix forces are primarily supported by clustered α5β1 integrins, while less stable links to αvβ3 integrins initiate mechanotransduction, resulting in reinforcement of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages through talin-dependent bonds. PMID:19805288

  12. Integrin binding and mechanical tension induce movement of mRNA and ribosomes to focal adhesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicurel, M. E.; Singer, R. H.; Meyer, C. J.; Ingber, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) activates signalling pathways that control cell behaviour by binding to cell-surface integrin receptors and inducing the formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs). In addition to clustered integrins, FACs contain proteins that mechanically couple the integrins to the cytoskeleton and to immobilized signal-transducing molecules. Cell adhesion to the ECM also induces a rapid increase in the translation of preexisting messenger RNAs. Gene expression can be controlled locally by targeting mRNAs to specialized cytoskeletal domains. Here we investigate whether cell binding to the ECM promotes formation of a cytoskeletal microcompartment specialized for translational control at the site of integrin binding. High-resolution in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA and ribosomes rapidly and specifically localized to FACs that form when cells bind to ECM-coated microbeads. Relocation of these protein synthesis components to the FAC depended on the ability of integrins to mechanically couple the ECM to the contractile cytoskeleton and on associated tension-moulding of the actin lattice. Our results suggest a new type of gene regulation by integrins and by mechanical stress which may involve translation of mRNAs into proteins near the sites of signal reception.

  13. αV-class integrins exert dual roles on α5β1 integrins to strengthen adhesion to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Strohmeyer, Nico; Colo, Georgina P.; Helenius, Jonne; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Schiller, Herbert B.; Fässler, Reinhard; Müller, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Upon binding to the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, αV-class and α5β1 integrins trigger the recruitment of large protein assemblies and strengthen cell adhesion. Both integrin classes have been functionally specified, however their specific roles in immediate phases of cell attachment remain uncharacterized. Here, we quantify the adhesion of αV-class and/or α5β1 integrins expressing fibroblasts initiating attachment to fibronectin (≤120 s) by single-cell force spectroscopy. Our data reveals that αV-class integrins outcompete α5β1 integrins. Once engaged, αV-class integrins signal to α5β1 integrins to establish additional adhesion sites to fibronectin, away from those formed by αV-class integrins. This crosstalk, which strengthens cell adhesion, induces α5β1 integrin clustering by RhoA/ROCK/myosin-II and Arp2/3-mediated signalling, whereas overall cell adhesion depends on formins. The dual role of both fibronectin-binding integrin classes commencing with an initial competition followed by a cooperative crosstalk appears to be a basic cellular mechanism in assembling focal adhesions to the extracellular matrix. PMID:28128308

  14. HIV-1 gp120 Glycoprotein Interacting with Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3-grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN) Down-Regulates Tight Junction Proteins to Disrupt the Blood Retinal Barrier and Increase Its Permeability.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi-Wen; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Ai-Ping; Ge, Shengfang; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun; Li, Tai-Sheng; Jin, Xia; Wang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Liang

    2016-10-28

    Approximately 70% of HIV-1 infected patients acquire ocular opportunistic infections and manifest eye disorders during the course of their illness. The mechanisms by which pathogens invade the ocular site, however, are unclear. Under normal circumstances, vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which possess a well developed tight junction complex, form the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) to prevent pathogen invasion. We hypothesize that disruption of the BRB allows pathogen entry into ocular sites. The hypothesis was tested using in vitro models. We discovered that human RPE cells could bind to either HIV-1 gp120 glycoproteins or HIV-1 viral particles. Furthermore, the binding was mediated by dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) expressed on RPE cells. Upon gp120 binding to DC-SIGN, cellular NF-κB signaling was triggered, leading to the induction of matrix metalloproteinases, which subsequently degraded tight junction proteins and disrupted the BRB integrity. DC-SIGN knockdown or prior blocking with a specific antibody abolished gp120-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression and reduced the degradation of tight junction proteins. This study elucidates a novel mechanism by which HIV, type 1 invades ocular tissues and provides additional insights into the translocation or invasion process of ocular complication-associated pathogens.

  15. Adhesion molecules in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Asrar, A.; Geboes, K.; Al-Kharashi, S.; Tabbara, K.; Missotten, L.; Desmet, V.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Adhesion molecules play a key role in the selective recruitment of different leucocyte population to inflammatory sites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of adhesion molecules in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—The presence and distribution of adhesion molecules were studied in 14 conjunctival biopsy specimens from seven patients with active VKC and in four normal conjunctival biopsy specimens. We used a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3), lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). In addition, a panel of mAbs were used to characterise the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, ICAM-1 was expressed on the vascular endothelium only, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 on epithelial and stromal mononuclear cells , and VLA-4 on stromal mononuclear cells. The expression of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was absent. The number of cells expressing adhesion molecules was found to be markedly increased in all VKC specimens. This was concurrent with a heavy inflammatory infiltrate. Strong ICAM-1 expression was induced on the basal epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was expressed on stromal mononuclear cells. LFA-1 and ICAM-3 were expressed on the majority of epithelial and stromal infiltrating mononuclear cells. VLA-4 expression was noted on stromal mononuclear cells. Compared with controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more ICAM-3+, LFA-1+, and VLA-4+ cells. VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 were induced on the vascular endothelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS—Increased expression of adhesion molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC.

 PMID

  16. Mechanosensitive components of integrin adhesions: Role of vinculin

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Paul; Stutchbury, Ben; Jethwa, Devina; Ballestrem, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    External forces play a key role in shaping development and normal physiology. Aberrant responses to forces, or changes in the nature of such forces, are implicated in a variety of diseases. Cells contain several types of adhesions, linking them to their external environment. It is through these adhesions that forces are both sensed (from the outside inwards) and applied (from inside to out). Furthermore, several adhesion-based proteins are sensitive to changes in intracellular forces, utilising them for activation and regulation. Here, we outline how vinculin, a key component of integrin-mediated adhesions linking the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix (ECM), is regulated by force and acts as force transducing protein. We discuss the role of vinculin in vivo and its place in health and disease; summarise the proposed mechanisms by which vinculin is recruited to and activated at integrin-ECM adhesions; and discuss recent findings that place vinculin as the major force sensing and transmitting component of cell–matrix adhesion complexes. Finally, we discuss the role of vinculin in regulating the cellular responses to both the physical properties of the external environment and to externally applied physical stimuli. PMID:26607713

  17. Reelin promotes the adhesion and drug resistance of multiple myeloma cells via integrin β1 signaling and STAT3.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Yan, Fan; Zhao, Dandan; Lv, Meng; Liang, Xiaodong; Dai, Hui; Qin, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Jie; Sun, Xiuyuan; Yin, Yanhui; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Jin; Ge, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that is essential for neuron migration and positioning. The expression of reelin in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its association with cell adhesion and survival were investigated. Overexpression, siRNA knockdown, and the addition of recombinant protein of reelin were used to examine the function of reelin in MM cells. Clinically, high expression of reelin was negatively associated with progression-free survival and overall survival. Functionally, reelin promoted the adhesion of MM cells to fibronectin via activation of α5β1 integrin. The resulting phosphorylation of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) led to the activation of Src/Syk/STAT3 and Akt, crucial signaling molecules involved in enhancing cell adhesion and protecting cells from drug-induced cell apoptosis. These findings indicate reelin's important role in the activation of integrin-β1 and STAT3/Akt pathways in multiple myeloma and highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting reelin/integrin/FAK axis.

  18. JAM-L-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is regulated in cis by alpha4beta1 integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Luissint, Anny-Claude; Lutz, Pierre G; Calderwood, David A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Bourdoulous, Sandrine

    2008-12-15

    Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are endothelial and epithelial adhesion molecules involved in the recruitment of circulating leukocytes to inflammatory sites. We show here that JAM-L, a protein related to the JAM family, is restricted to leukocytes and promotes their adhesion to endothelial cells. Cis dimerization of JAM-L is required to engage in heterophilic interactions with its cognate counter-receptor CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor). Interestingly, JAM-L expressed on neutrophils binds CAR independently of integrin activation. However, on resting monocytes and T lymphocytes, which express the integrin VLA-4, JAM-L molecules engage in complexes with VLA-4 and mainly accumulate in their monomeric form. Integrin activation is required for the dissociation of JAM-L-VLA-4 complexes and the accumulation of functional JAM-L dimers, which indicates that the leukocyte integrin VLA-4 controls JAM-L function in cis by controlling its dimerization state. This provides a mechanism through which VLA-4 and JAM-L functions are coordinately regulated, allowing JAM-L to strengthen integrin-dependent adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells.

  19. Regulation of cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and Rac-1 by integrin linked kinase.

    PubMed

    Boulter, Etienne; Grall, Dominique; Cagnol, Sébastien; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors of the integrin family initiate changes in cell shape and motility by recruiting signaling components that coordinate these events. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is one such partner of beta1 integrins that participates in dynamic rearrangement of cell-matrix adhesions and cell spreading by mechanisms that are not well understood. To further elucidate the role of ILK in these events, we engineered a chimeric molecule comprising ILK fused to a membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein (ILK-GFP-F). ILK-GFP-F is highly enriched in cell-matrix adhesions, and its expression in fibroblasts leads to an accumulation of focal adhesions (2-5 microm) and elongated adhesions (>5 microm). ILK-GFP-F enhances cell spreading on fibronectin and induces a constitutive increase in the levels of GTP-bound Rac-1. Conversely, ILK knock-down by siRNA transfection decreases active Rac-1. Endogenous ILK was found to associate with PKL (paxillin kinase linker) and the Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor betaPIX. Further, expression of a dominant negative betaPIX mutant reversed the increase in active Rac-1 levels of ILK-GFP-F-expressing cells, thus placing betaPIX in the pathway leading from ILK to Rac-1 activation. However, expression of constitutively active Rac only partially restores the spreading defects of ILK-depleted cells, suggesting that an additional ILK-dependent signal is required for cell spreading.

  20. Endothelial Lu/BCAM glycoproteins are novel ligands for red blood cell alpha4beta1 integrin: role in adhesion of sickle red blood cells to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    El Nemer, Wassim; Wautier, Marie-Paule; Rahuel, Cécile; Gane, Pierre; Hermand, Patricia; Galactéros, Frédéric; Wautier, Jean-Luc; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline

    2007-04-15

    The Lutheran (Lu) blood group and basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM) antigens are both carried by 2 glycoprotein isoforms of the immunoglobulin superfamily representing receptors for the laminin alpha(5) chain. In addition to red blood cells, Lu/BCAM proteins are highly expressed in endothelial cells. Abnormal adhesion of red blood cells to the endothelium could potentially contribute to the vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle cell disease. Considering the presence of integrin consensus-binding sites in Lu/BCAM proteins, we investigated their potential interaction with integrin alpha(4)beta(1), the unique integrin expressed on immature circulating sickle red cells. Using cell adhesion assays under static and flow conditions, we demonstrated that integrin alpha(4)beta(1) expressed on transfected cells bound to chimeric Lu-Fc protein. We showed that epinephrine-stimulated sickle cells, but not control red cells, adhered to Lu-Fc via integrin alpha(4)beta(1) under flow conditions. Antibody-mediated activation of integrin alpha(4)beta(1) induced adhesion of sickle red cells to primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells; this adhesion was inhibited by soluble Lu-Fc and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Fc proteins. This novel interaction between integrin alpha(4)beta(1) in sickle red cells and endothelial Lu/BCAM proteins could participate in sickle cell adhesion to endothelium and potentially play a role in vaso-occlusive episodes.

  1. [Adhesion molecules and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Hopps, E; Caimi, G

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play a significant role in leukocyte migration across the endothelium and are also involved in regulating immune system. It is shown that diabetic patients have an increase of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sICAM-2, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin) considered an integral part of inflammatory state. This inflammation is responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk of these patients. There is a close link between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, coagulopathy and inflammation and between these factors and the vascular damage. Various studies have showed the potential role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathy. They promote leukocyte recruitment, which is one of the initial steps in the genesis of atherosclerotic plaque. Adhesion molecules are also involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1; sICAM-1 would have a particular immunomodulatory role in the process of destroying beta-cells and could be used as a subclinical marker of insulitis. Plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules correlate with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity; they are associated with the development of nephropathy, retinopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke and obliterant peripheral arterial disease in diabetic type 1 and 2. Given the role of these molecules in endothelial dysfunction genesis and tissue damage associated with diabetes, they could constitute a therapeutic target for the prevention of genesis and progression of chronic complications of diabetic disease.

  2. CD31/PECAM-1 is a ligand for alpha v beta 3 integrin involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To protect the body efficiently from infectious organisms, leukocytes circulate as nonadherent cells in the blood and lymph, and migrate as adherent cells into tissues. Circulating leukocytes in the blood have first to adhere to and then to cross the endothelial lining. CD31/PECAM- 1 is an adhesion molecule expressed by vascular endothelial cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and naive T lymphocytes. It is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF), with six Ig-like homology units mediating leukocyte-endothelial interactions. The adhesive interactions mediated by CD31 are complex and include homophilic (CD31-CD31) or heterophilic (CD31-X) contacts. Soluble, recombinant forms of CD31 allowed us to study the heterophilic interactions in leukocyte adhesion assays. We show that the adhesion molecule alpha v beta 3 integrin is a ligand for CD31. The leukocytes revealed adhesion mediated by the second Ig-like domain of CD31, and this binding was inhibited by alpha v beta 3 integrin-specific antibodies. Moreover alpha v beta 3 was precipitated by recombinant CD31 from cell lysates. These data establish a third IgSF-integrin pair of adhesion molecules, CD31-alpha v beta 3 in addition to VCAM-1, MadCAM-1/alpha 4 integrins, and ICAM/beta 2 integrins, which are major components mediating leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Identification of a further versatile adhesion pair broadens our current understanding of leukocyte-endothelial interactions and may provide the basis for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and metastasis formation. PMID:7542249

  3. Superresolution imaging of the cytoplasmic phosphatase PTPN22 links integrin-mediated T cell adhesion with autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Burn, Garth L; Cornish, Georgina H; Potrzebowska, Katarzyna; Samuelsson, Malin; Griffié, Juliette; Minoughan, Sophie; Yates, Mark; Ashdown, George; Pernodet, Nicolas; Morrison, Vicky L; Sanchez-Blanco, Cristina; Purvis, Harriet; Clarke, Fiona; Brownlie, Rebecca J; Vyse, Timothy J; Zamoyska, Rose; Owen, Dylan M; Svensson, Lena M; Cope, Andrew P

    2016-10-04

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane proteins that play a fundamental role in the migration of leukocytes to sites of infection or injury. We found that protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) inhibits signaling by the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in effector T cells. PTPN22 colocalized with its substrates at the leading edge of cells migrating on surfaces coated with the LFA-1 ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Knockout or knockdown of PTPN22 or expression of the autoimmune disease-associated PTPN22-R620W variant resulted in the enhanced phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of integrins. Superresolution imaging revealed that PTPN22-R620 (wild-type PTPN22) was present as large clusters in unstimulated T cells and that these disaggregated upon stimulation of LFA-1, enabling increased association of PTPN22 with its binding partners at the leading edge. The failure of PTPN22-R620W molecules to be retained at the leading edge led to increased LFA-1 clustering and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Our data define a previously uncharacterized mechanism for fine-tuning integrin signaling in T cells, as well as a paradigm of autoimmunity in humans in which disease susceptibility is underpinned by inherited phosphatase mutations that perturb integrin function.

  4. Modulation of integrin α4β1 by ADAM28 promotes lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Owen J; English, William R; Roberts, Stephanie; Ager, Ann; Newham, Peter; Murphy, Gillian

    2011-10-01

    ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a family of type I transmembrane glycoproteins related to snake venom metalloproteases and disintegrins. They are regulatory proteins that modulate intercellular adhesion and the bioavailability of growth factors, and have been implicated in many disease states, including cancer, immunity and inflammation. One member of the ADAM family, ADAM28, has been reported to bind to the integrin α4β1 in humans; however, the distribution of ADAM28 and the biological consequences of ADAM28-α4β1 interactions are yet to be fully elucidated. The expression of ADAM28 in human and murine tissues was examined by multiple Affymetrix microarray analyses, real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. We found that ADAM28 has a relatively restricted expression pattern in mouse and human and is highly expressed in the B-lymphocyte lineage, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemic B-cells. The murine B-lymphoma line L1-2 and recombinant soluble murine ADAM28 were used to investigate ADAM28-α4β1 interactions. Our data reveal that ADAM28 binding to α4β1 is typical of integrin-ligand interactions, since it is attenuated by anti-functional integrin antibodies, and is enhanced by Mn2+ and the integrin mAb (monoclonal antibody) 9EG7. However, a key finding was that soluble ADAM28 unexpectedly enhanced α4β1-dependent cell adhesion to VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In so doing ADAM28 was able to influence lymphocyte adhesion to, and migration through, endothelial monolayers, suggesting a physiological role for ADAM28 in regulating the specific spatial and temporal transendothelial migration of lymphocytes.

  5. Silencing of VAMP3 inhibits cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Luftman, Kevin; Hasan, Nazarul; Day, Paul; Hardee, Deborah; Hu Chuan

    2009-02-27

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In cell migration, integrins are endocytosed from the plasma membrane or the cell surface, transported in vesicles and exocytosed actively at the cell front. In the present study, we examined the roles of VAMP3, a SNARE protein that mediates exocytosis, in cell migration and integrin trafficking. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing of VAMP3 inhibited chemotactic cell migration by more than 60% without affecting cell proliferation. VAMP3 silencing reduced the levels of {beta}1 integrin at the cell surface but had no effect on total cellular {beta}1 integrin, indicating that VAMP3 is required for trafficking of {beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, VAMP3 silencing diminished cell adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that VAMP3-dependent integrin trafficking is crucial in cell migration and cell adhesion to laminin.

  6. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA mediates integrin LFA-1 de-adhesion during T lymphocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicole A; Oakes, Patrick W; Hyun, Young-Min; Lee, Dooyoung; Chin, Y Eugene; Chin, Eugene Y; King, Michael R; Springer, Timothy A; Shimaoka, Motomu; Tang, Jay X; Reichner, Jonathan S; Kim, Minsoo

    2008-01-21

    Precise spatial and temporal regulation of cell adhesion and de-adhesion is critical for dynamic lymphocyte migration. Although a great deal of information has been learned about integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 adhesion, the mechanism that regulates efficient LFA-1 de-adhesion from intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 during T lymphocyte migration is unknown. Here, we show that nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MyH9) is recruited to LFA-1 at the uropod of migrating T lymphocytes, and inhibition of the association of MyH9 with LFA-1 results in extreme uropod elongation, defective tail detachment, and decreased lymphocyte migration on ICAM-1, without affecting LFA-1 activation by chemokine CXCL-12. This defect was reversed by a small molecule antagonist that inhibits both LFA-1 affinity and avidity regulation, but not by an antagonist that inhibits only affinity regulation. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of the contact zone between migrating T lymphocytes and ICAM-1 substrate revealed that inactive LFA-1 is selectively localized to the posterior of polarized T lymphocytes, whereas active LFA-1 is localized to their anterior. Thus, during T lymphocyte migration, uropodal adhesion depends on LFA-1 avidity, where MyH9 serves as a key mechanical link between LFA-1 and the cytoskeleton that is critical for LFA-1 de-adhesion.

  7. All-trans-retinoic acid induces integrin-independent B-cell adhesion to ADAM disintegrin domains.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Lance C; Lingo, Joshuah D; Grandon, Rachel A; Kelley, Melissa D

    2008-04-15

    Cell adhesion is an integral aspect of immunity facilitating extravasation of immune cells during homing and activation. All -trans-Retinoic acid ( t-RA) regulates leukocyte differentiation, proliferation, and transmigration. However, the role of t-RA in immune cell adhesion is poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated the impact of t-RA and its metabolism on B and T cell adhesion. Specifically, we address the impact of t-RA on the adhesive properties of the human mature B and T cell lines RPMI 8866, Daudi and Jurkats. The effect of t-RA exposure on cell adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a well-established integrin counter receptor involved in immunity, and to nonconventional ADAM integrin ligands was assessed. We show for the first time that t-RA potently induces B cell adhesion in an integrin-independent manner to both VCAM-1 and select ADAM disintegrin domains. Using retinoid extraction and reverse-phase HPLC analysis, we identify the retinoid that is functionally responsible for this augmented adhesion. We also provide evidence that this novel t-RA adhesive response is not prototypical of lymphocytes since both Daudi and Jurkats do not alter their adhesive properties upon t-RA treatment. Further, the t-RA metabolic profiles between these lineages is distinct with 9- cis-retinoic acid being exclusively detected in Jurkat media. This study is the first to demonstrate that t-RA directly induces B cell adhesion in an integrin-independent manner and is not contingent upon t-RA metabolism.

  8. The interaction between uPAR and vitronectin triggers ligand-independent adhesion signalling by integrins

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Schulte, Carsten; Buttiglione, Valentina; De Lorenzi, Valentina; Piontini, Andrea; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Podestà, Alessandro; Madsen, Chris D; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a non-integrin vitronectin (VN) cell adhesion receptor linked to the plasma membrane by a glycolipid anchor. Through structure–function analyses of uPAR, VN and integrins, we document that uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to VN triggers a novel type of integrin signalling that is independent of integrin–matrix engagement. The signalling is fully active on VN mutants deficient in integrin binding site and is also efficiently transduced by integrins deficient in ligand binding. Although integrin ligation is dispensable, signalling is crucially dependent upon an active conformation of the integrin and its association with intracellular adaptors such as talin. This non-canonical integrin signalling is not restricted to uPAR as it poses no structural constraints to the receptor mediating cell attachment. In contrast to canonical integrin signalling, where integrins form direct mechanical links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, the molecular mechanism enabling the crosstalk between non-integrin adhesion receptors and integrins is dependent upon membrane tension. This suggests that for this type of signalling, the membrane represents a critical component of the molecular clutch. PMID:25168639

  9. Integrin-dependent force transmission to the extracellular matrix by α-actinin triggers adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Cusachs, Pere; del Rio, Armando; Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Gauthier, Nils C.; Biais, Nicolas; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesions are mechanosensitive elements that enable mechanical communication between cells and the extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate a major mechanosensitive pathway in which α-actinin triggers adhesion maturation by linking integrins to actin in nascent adhesions. We show that depletion of the focal adhesion protein α-actinin enhances force generation in initial adhesions on fibronectin, but impairs mechanotransduction in a subsequent step, preventing adhesion maturation. Expression of an α-actinin fragment containing the integrin binding domain, however, dramatically reduces force generation in depleted cells. This behavior can be explained by a competition between talin (which mediates initial adhesion and force generation) and α-actinin for integrin binding. Indeed, we show in an in vitro assay that talin and α-actinin compete for binding to β3 integrins, but cooperate in binding to β1 integrins. Consistently, we find opposite effects of α-actinin depletion and expression of mutants on substrates that bind β3 integrins (fibronectin and vitronectin) versus substrates that only bind β1 integrins (collagen). We thus suggest that nascent adhesions composed of β3 integrins are initially linked to the actin cytoskeleton by talin, and then α-actinin competes with talin to bind β3 integrins. Force transmitted through α-actinin then triggers adhesion maturation. Once adhesions have matured, α-actinin recruitment correlates with force generation, suggesting that α-actinin is the main link transmitting force between integrins and the cytoskeleton in mature adhesions. Such a multistep process enables cells to adjust forces on matrices, unveiling a role of α-actinin that is different from its well-studied function as an actin cross-linker. PMID:23515331

  10. Kindlin-3 Is Essential for the Resting α4β1 Integrin-mediated Firm Cell Adhesion under Shear Flow Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling; Lin, ChangDong; Yan, ZhanJun; Wang, Shu; Zhang, YouHua; Wang, ShiHui; Wang, JunLei; Liu, Cui; Chen, JianFeng

    2016-05-06

    Integrin-mediated rolling and firm cell adhesion are two critical steps in leukocyte trafficking. Integrin α4β1 mediates a mixture of rolling and firm cell adhesion on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) when in its resting state but only supports firm cell adhesion upon activation. The transition from rolling to firm cell adhesion is controlled by integrin activation. Kindlin-3 has been shown to bind to integrin β tails and trigger integrin activation via inside-out signaling. However, the role of kindlin-3 in regulating resting α4β1-mediated cell adhesion is not well characterized. Herein we demonstrate that kindlin-3 was required for the resting α4β1-mediated firm cell adhesion but not rolling adhesion. Knockdown of kindlin-3 significantly decreased the binding of kindlin-3 to β1 and down-regulated the binding affinity of the resting α4β1 to soluble VCAM-1. Notably, it converted the resting α4β1-mediated firm cell adhesion to rolling adhesion on VCAM-1 substrates, increased cell rolling velocity, and impaired the stability of cell adhesion. By contrast, firm cell adhesion mediated by Mn(2+)-activated α4β1 was barely affected by knockdown of kindlin-3. Structurally, lack of kindlin-3 led to a more bent conformation of the resting α4β1. Thus, kindlin-3 plays an important role in maintaining a proper conformation of the resting α4β1 to mediate both rolling and firm cell adhesion. Defective kindlin-3 binding to the resting α4β1 leads to a transition from firm to rolling cell adhesion on VCAM-1, implying its potential role in regulating the transition between integrin-mediated rolling and firm cell adhesion.

  11. Cell Adhesion Molecules in Chemically-Induced Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules are integral cell-membrane proteins that maintain cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion, and in some cases, act as regulators of intracellular signaling cascades. In the kidney, cell adhesion molecules such as the cadherins, the catenins, ZO-1, occludin and the claudins are essential for maintaining the epithelial polarity and barrier integrity that are necessary for the normal absorption/excretion of fluid and solutes. A growing volume of evidence indicates that these cell adhesion molecules are important early targets for a variety of nephrotoxic substances including metals, drugs, and venom components. In addition, it is now widely appreciated that molecules such as ICAM-1, the integrins and selectins play important roles in the recruitment of leukocytes and inflammatory responses that are associated with nephrotoxic injury. This review summarizes the results of recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicating that these cell adhesion molecules may be primary molecular targets in many types of chemically-induced renal injury. Some of the specific agents that are discussed include Cd, Hg, Bi, cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine) (DCVC) and various venom toxins. This review also includes a discussion of the various mechanisms by which these substances can affect cell adhesion molecules in the kidney. PMID:17316817

  12. Simulated Microgravity Alters Actin Cytoskeleton and Integrin-Mediated Focal Adhesions of Cultured Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershovich, P. M.; Gershovic, J. G.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cytoskeletal alterations occur in several cell types including lymphocytes, glial cells, and osteoblasts, during spaceflight and under simulated microgravity (SMG) (3, 4). One potential mechanism for cytoskeletal gravisensitivity is disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM) and integrin interactions. Focal adhesions are specialized sites of cell-matrix interaction composed of integrins and the diversity of focal adhesion-associated cytoplasmic proteins including vinculin, talin, α-actinin, and actin filaments (4, 5). Integrins produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMG on F-actin cytoskeleton structure, vinculin focal adhesions, expression of some integrin subtypes and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hMSCs). Simulated microgravity was produced by 3D-clinostat (Dutch Space, Netherlands). Staining of actin fibers with TRITC-phalloidin showed reorganization even after 30 minutes of simulated microgravity. The increasing of cells number with abnormal F-actin was observed after subsequent terms of 3D-clinorotation (6, 24, 48, 120 hours). Randomization of gravity vector altered dimensional structure of stress fibers and resulted in remodeling of actin fibers inside the cells. In addition, we observed vinculin redistribution inside the cells after 6 hours and prolonged terms of clinorotation. Tubulin fibers in a contrast with F-actin and vinculin didn't show any reorganization even after long 3Dclinorotation (120 hours). The expression of integrin α2 increased 1,5-6-fold in clinorotated hMSCs. Also we observed decrease in number of VCAM-1-positive cells and changes in expression of ICAM-1. Taken together, our findings indicate that SMG leads to microfilament and adhesion alterations of hMSCs most probably associated with involvement of some integrin subtypes.

  13. Muscle beta1D integrin reinforces the cytoskeleton-matrix link: modulation of integrin adhesive function by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Belkin, A M; Retta, S F; Pletjushkina, O Y; Balzac, F; Silengo, L; Fassler, R; Koteliansky, V E; Burridge, K; Tarone, G

    1997-12-15

    Expression of muscle-specific beta1D integrin with an alternatively spliced cytoplasmic domain in CHO and GD25, beta1 integrin-minus cells leads to their phenotypic conversion. beta1D-transfected nonmuscle cells display rounded morphology, lack of pseudopodial activity, retarded spreading, reduced migration, and significantly enhanced contractility compared with their beta1A-expressing counterparts. The transfected beta1D is targeted to focal adhesions and efficiently displaces the endogenous beta1A and alphavbeta3 integrins from the sites of cell-matrix contact. This displacement is observed on several types of extracellular matrix substrata and leads to elevated stability of focal adhesions in beta1D transfectants. Whereas a significant part of cellular beta1A integrin is extractable in digitonin, the majority of the transfected beta1D is digitonin-insoluble and is strongly associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Increased interaction of beta1D integrin with the actin cytoskeleton is consistent with and might be mediated by its enhanced binding to talin. In contrast, beta1A interacts more strongly with alpha-actinin, than beta1D. Inside-out driven activation of the beta1D ectodomain increases ligand binding and fibronectin matrix assembly by beta1D transfectants. Phenotypic effects of beta1D integrin expression in nonmuscle cells are due to its enhanced interactions with both cytoskeletal and extracellular ligands. They parallel the transitions that muscle cells undergo during differentiation. Modulation of beta1 integrin adhesive function by alternative splicing serves as a physiological mechanism reinforcing the cytoskeleton- matrix link in muscle cells. This reflects the major role for beta1D integrin in muscle, where extremely stable association is required for contraction.

  14. Muscle β1D Integrin Reinforces the Cytoskeleton–Matrix Link: Modulation of Integrin Adhesive Function by Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Belkin, Alexey M.; Retta, S. Francesco; Pletjushkina, Olga Y.; Balzac, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Fassler, Reinhard; Koteliansky, Victor E.; Burridge, Keith; Tarone, Guido

    1997-01-01

    Expression of muscle-specific β1D integrin with an alternatively spliced cytoplasmic domain in CHO and GD25, β1 integrin-minus cells leads to their phenotypic conversion. β1D-transfected nonmuscle cells display rounded morphology, lack of pseudopodial activity, retarded spreading, reduced migration, and significantly enhanced contractility compared with their β1A-expressing counterparts. The transfected β1D is targeted to focal adhesions and efficiently displaces the endogenous β1A and αvβ3 integrins from the sites of cell–matrix contact. This displacement is observed on several types of extracellular matrix substrata and leads to elevated stability of focal adhesions in β1D transfectants. Whereas a significant part of cellular β1A integrin is extractable in digitonin, the majority of the transfected β1D is digitonin-insoluble and is strongly associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Increased interaction of β1D integrin with the actin cytoskeleton is consistent with and might be mediated by its enhanced binding to talin. In contrast, β1A interacts more strongly with α-actinin, than β1D. Inside-out driven activation of the β1D ectodomain increases ligand binding and fibronectin matrix assembly by β1D transfectants. Phenotypic effects of β1D integrin expression in nonmuscle cells are due to its enhanced interactions with both cytoskeletal and extracellular ligands. They parallel the transitions that muscle cells undergo during differentiation. Modulation of β1 integrin adhesive function by alternative splicing serves as a physiological mechanism reinforcing the cytoskeleton– matrix link in muscle cells. This reflects the major role for β1D integrin in muscle, where extremely stable association is required for contraction. PMID:9396762

  15. Single-Molecule Studies of Integrins by AFM-Based Force Spectroscopy on Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Robert H.

    The characterization of cell adhesion between two living cells at the single-molecule level, i.e., between one adhesion receptor and its counter-receptor, appears to be an experimental challenge. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used in its force spectroscopy mode to determine unbinding forces of a single pair of adhesion receptors, even with a living cell as a probe. This chapter provides an overview of AFM force measurements of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands. A focus is given to major integrins expressed on leukocytes, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). These receptors are crucial for leukocyte trafficking in health and disease. LFA-1 and VLA-1 can be activated within the bloodstream from a low-affinity to a high-affinity receptor by chemokines in order to adhere strongly to the vessel wall before the receptor-bearing leukocytes extravasate. The experimental considerations needed to provide near-physiological conditions for a living cell and to be able to measure adequate forces at the single-molecule level are discussed in detail. AFM technology has been developed into a modern and extremely sensitive tool in biomedical research. It appears now that AFM force spectroscopy could enter, within a few years, medical applications in diagnosis and therapy of cancer and autoimmune diseases.

  16. The integrins.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yoshikazu; Ye, Xiaojing; Simon, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The integrins are a superfamily of cell adhesion receptors that bind to extracellular matrix ligands, cell-surface ligands, and soluble ligands. They are transmembrane alphabeta heterodimers and at least 18 alpha and eight beta subunits are known in humans, generating 24 heterodimers. Members of this family have been found in mammals, chicken and zebrafish, as well as lower eukaryotes, including sponges, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (two alpha and one beta subunits, generating two integrins) and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster (five alpha and one beta, generating five integrins). The alpha and beta subunits have distinct domain structures, with extracellular domains from each subunit contributing to the ligand-binding site of the heterodimer. The sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) was identified as a general integrin-binding motif, but individual integrins are also specific for particular protein ligands. Immunologically important integrin ligands are the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), immunoglobulin superfamily members present on inflamed endothelium and antigen-presenting cells. On ligand binding, integrins transduce signals into the cell interior; they can also receive intracellular signals that regulate their ligand-binding affinity. Here we provide a brief overview that concentrates mostly on the organization, structure and function of mammalian integrins, which have been more extensively studied than integrins in other organisms.

  17. Adhesive and Migratory Effects of Phosphophoryn Are Modulated by Flanking Peptides of the Integrin Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Kobuke, Seiji; Haruyama, Naoto; Hoshino, Hiroaki; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2014-01-01

    Phosphophoryn (PP) is generated from the proteolytic cleavage of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). Gene duplications in the ancestor dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) genomic sequence created the DSPP gene in toothed animals. PP and DMP-1 are phosphorylated extracellular matrix proteins that belong to the family of small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs). Many SIBLING members have been shown to evoke various cell responses through the integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) domain; however, the RGD-dependent function of PP is not yet fully understood. We demonstrated that recombinant PP did not exhibit any obvious cell adhesion ability, whereas the simultaneously purified recombinant DMP-1 did. A cell adhesion inhibitory analysis was performed by pre-incubating human osteosarcoma MG63 cells with various PP peptides before seeding onto vitronectin. The results obtained revealed that the incorporation of more than one amino acid on both sides of the PP-RGD domain was unable to inhibit the adhesion of MG63 cells onto vitronectin. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of a peptide containing the PP-RGD domain with an open carboxyl-terminal side (H-463SDESDTNSESANESGSRGDA482-OH) was more potent than that of a peptide containing the RGD domain with an open amino-terminal side (H-478SRGDASYTSDESSDDDNDSDSH499-OH). This phenomenon was supported by the potent cell adhesion and migration abilities of the recombinant truncated PP, which terminated with Ala482. Furthermore, various point mutations in Ala482 and/or Ser483 converted recombinant PP into cell-adhesive proteins. Therefore, we concluded that the Ala482-Ser483 flanking sequence, which was detected in primates and mice, was the key peptide bond that allowed the PP-RGD domain to be sequestered. The differential abilities of PP and DMP-1 to act on integrin imply that DSPP was duplicated from DMP-1 to serve as a crucial extracellular protein for tooth development rather than as an integrin

  18. Methamphetamine-associated cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-5.

    PubMed

    Conant, Katherine; Lonskaya, Irina; Szklarczyk, Arek; Krall, Caroline; Steiner, Joseph; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen; Lim, Seung T

    2011-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that, used in excess, may be neurotoxic. Although the mechanisms that underlie its addictive potential are not completely understood, in animal models matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors can reduce behavioral correlates of addiction. In addition, evidence from genome-wide association studies suggests that polymorphisms in synaptic cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), known MMP substrates, are linked to addictive potential in humans. In the present study, we examined the ability of MA to stimulate cleavage of intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5), a synaptic CAM expressed on dendritic spines in the telencephalon. Previous studies have shown that shedding of ICAM-5 is associated with maturation of dendritic spines, and that MMP-dependent shedding occurs with long term potentiation. Herein, we show that MA stimulates ectodomain cleavage of ICAM-5 in vitro, and that this is abrogated by a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor. We also show that an acute dose of MA, administered in vivo, is associated with cleavage of ICAM-5 in murine hippocampus and striatum. This occurs within 6 h and is accompanied by an increase in MMP-9 protein. In related experiments, we examined the potential consequences of ICAM-5 shedding. We demonstrate that the ICAM-5 ectodomain can interact with β(1) integrins, and that it can stimulate β(1) integrin-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin, an event that has previously been linked to MMP-dependent spine maturation. Together these data support an emerging appreciation of MMPs as effectors of synaptic plasticity and suggest a mechanism by which MA may influence the same.

  19. Titin-Based Nanoparticle Tension Sensors Map High-Magnitude Integrin Forces within Focal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Galior, Kornelia; Liu, Yang; Yehl, Kevin; Vivek, Skanda; Salaita, Khalid

    2016-01-13

    Mechanical forces transmitted through integrin transmembrane receptors play important roles in a variety of cellular processes ranging from cell development to tumorigenesis. Despite the importance of mechanics in integrin function, the magnitude of integrin forces within adhesions remains unclear. Literature suggests a range from 1 to 50 pN, but the upper limit of integrin forces remains unknown. Herein we challenge integrins with the most mechanically stable molecular tension probe, which is comprised of the immunoglobulin 27th (I27) domain of cardiac titin flanked with a fluorophore and gold nanoparticle. Cell experiments show that integrin forces unfold the I27 domain, suggesting that integrin forces exceed ∼30-40 pN. The addition of a disulfide bridge within I27 "clamps" the probe and resists mechanical unfolding. Importantly, incubation with a reducing agent initiates SH exchange, thus unclamping I27 at a rate that is dependent on the applied force. By recording the rate of S-S reduction in clamped I27, we infer that integrins apply 110 ± 9 pN within focal adhesions of rat embryonic fibroblasts. The rates of S-S exchange are heterogeneous and integrin subtype-dependent. Nanoparticle titin tension sensors along with kinetic analysis of unfolding demonstrate that a subset of integrins apply tension many fold greater than previously reported.

  20. Contributions of the Integrin β1 Tail to Cell Adhesive Forces

    PubMed Central

    Elloumi-Hannachi, Imen; García, José R.; Shekeran, Asha; García, Andrés J.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin receptors connect the extracellular matrix to the cell cytoskeleton to provide essential forces and signals. To examine the contributions of the β1 integrin cytoplasmic tail to adhesive forces, we generated cell lines expressing wild-type and tail mutant β1 integrins in β1-null fibroblasts. Deletion of β1 significantly reduced cell spreading, focal adhesion assembly, and adhesive forces, and expression of hβ1 integrin in these cells restored adhesive functions. Cells expressing a truncated tail mutant had impaired spreading, fewer and smaller focal adhesions, reduced integrin binding to fibronectin, and lower adhesion strength and traction forces compared to hβ1-expressing cells. All these metrics were equivalent to those for β1-null cells, demonstrating that the β1 tail is essential to these adhesive functions. Expression of the constitutively-active D759A hβ1 mutant restored many of these adhesive functions in β1-null cells, although with important differences when compared to wild-type β1. Even though there were no differences in integrin-fibronectin binding and adhesion strength between hβ1- and hβ1-D759A-expressing cells, hβ1-D759A-expressing cells assembled more but smaller adhesions than hβ1-expressing cells. Importantly, hβ1-D759A-expressing cells generated lower traction forces compared to hβ1-expressing cells. These differences between hβ1- and hβ1-D759A-expressing cells suggest that regulation of integrin activation is important for fine-tuning cell spreading, focal adhesion assembly, and traction force generation. PMID:25460334

  1. Neuropilin-2 regulates α6β1 integrin in the formation of focal adhesions and signaling.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Pursell, Bryan; Standley, Clive; Fogarty, Kevin; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-01-15

    The neuropilins (NRPs) contribute to the function of cancer cells in their capacity as VEGF receptors. Given that NRP2 is induced in breast cancer and correlates with aggressive disease, we examined the role of NRP2 in regulating the interaction of breast cancer cells with the ECM. Using epithelial cells from breast tumors, we defined NRP2(high) and NRP2(low) populations that differed in integrin expression and adhesion to laminin. Specifically, the NRP2(high) population adhered more avidly to laminin and expressed high levels of the α6β1 integrin than the NRP2(low) population. The NRP2(high) population formed numerous focal adhesions on laminin that were not seen in the NRP2(low) population. These results were substantiated using breast carcinoma cell lines that express NRP2 and α6β1 integrin. Depletion experiments revealed that adhesive strength on laminin but not collagen is dependent on NRP2, and that VEGF is needed for adhesion on laminin. A specific interaction between NRP2 and α6β1 integrin was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. NRP2 is necessary for focal adhesion formation on laminin and for the association of α6β1 integrin with the cytoskeleton. NRP2 also facilitates α6β1-integrin-mediated activation of FAK and Src. Unexpectedly, we discovered that NRP2 is located in focal adhesions on laminin. The mechanism by which NRP2 regulates the interaction of α6β1 integrin with laminin to form focal adhesions involves PKC activation. Together, our data reveal a new VEGF-NRP2 signaling pathway that activates the α6β1 integrin and enables it to form focal adhesions and signal. This pathway is important in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  2. Dependence of corneal keratocyte adhesion, spreading, and integrin β1 expression on deacetylated chitosan coating.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chou, Shih-Feng; Lai, Jui-Yang; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-06-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the regulation of corneal keratocyte adhesion, spreading, morphology, and integrin gene expression on chitosan coating due to the effects of deacetylation. The degree of deacetylation (DD) in chitosan materials was confirmed by elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In this study, chitosan samples with the same molecular weight level but varying DD (74.1 ± 0.5%, 84.4 ± 0.7%, and 94.2 ± 0.5%) were obtained by heat-alkaline treatment under a nitrogen atmosphere. For higher DD groups, the biopolymer carried abundant amino groups since the deacetylation process removed larger amount of acetyl groups from the chitosan molecules. Results showed that the mechanical stability and crystallinity of the chitosan coatings significantly increased with increasing DD value. Fibronectin adsorption, keratocyte adhesion, and cell spreading exhibited a positive correlation with DD due to the chemical functionality of polysaccharides (bearing acetyl and amino groups) and increase of substrate stiffness and crystallinity. In particular, when adhered to chitosan coatings with a DD value of 74.1%, the keratocytes appeared to be fibroblastic, elongated, and spindle shape, indicating a loss of their characteristic dendritic morphology. Furthermore, the gene expression of integrin β1 (i.e., a cell-matrix adhesion molecule) was significantly up-regulated on the chitosan coatings with higher DD, which supports favorable attachment of corneal keratocytes. Our findings suggest that DD-mediated physicochemical properties of chitosan coatings greatly affect cell-substrate crosstalk during corneal keratocyte cultivation.

  3. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Jung, Juliana Elizabeth; Silva de Castro, Caio César; de Noronha, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. The average value of the immunohistochemically positive reaction area of the vitiligo specimens was 3053.2μm(2), compared with the observed value of 3431.8μm(2) in non vitiligo skin (p=0.003) for laminin. The immuno-positive area was 7174.6μm(2) (vitiligo) and 8966.7μm(2) (non lesional skin) for integrin (p=0.042). A reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the basal layer of the epidermis in vitiligo samples was also observed (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to the expression of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and collagen IV between vitiligo and non lesional skin. Our results suggest that an impairment in adhesion exists in vitiligo skin, which is supported by the diminished immunohistochemical expression of laminin, beta1 integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1.

  4. Temporal changes in integrin-mediated cardiomyocyte adhesion secondary to chronic cardiac volume overload in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James A.; Gardner, Jason D.; Brower, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have established integrins as cell surface receptors that mediate cardiomyocyte-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachments. This study sought to determine the contributions of the myocardial β1- and β3-integrin subunits to ventricular dilatation and coronary flow regulation using a blood-perfused isolated heart preparation. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte adhesion to collagen types I and IV, fibronectin, and laminin with and without a β1-integrin subunit neutralizing antibody was assessed during the course of remodeling secondary to a sustained cardiac volume overload, including the onset of heart failure. Isolated cardiomyocytes were obtained during the initial, compensated, and decompensated phases of remodeling resulting from an aortocaval fistula created in 8-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blocking the β1-integrin subunit in isolated normal hearts produced ventricular dilatation, whereas this was not the case when the β3-subunit was blocked. Substantial reductions in cardiomyocyte adhesion coincided with the previously documented development of ventricular dilatation and decreased contractility postfistula, with the β1-integrin contribution to adhesion ranging from 28% to 73% over the course of remodeling being essentially substrate independent. In contrast, both integrin subunits were found to be involved in regulating coronary vascular resistance. It is concluded that marked reductions in integrin-mediated cardiomyocyte adhesion to the ECM play a significant role in the progression of adverse myocardial remodeling that leads to heart failure. Furthermore, although both the β1- and β3-integrin subunits were involved in regulating coronary vascular resistance, only inhibition of β1-integrin-mediated adhesion resulted in ventricular dilatation of the normal heart. PMID:24163072

  5. Biomimetic design of platelet adhesion inhibitors to block integrin α2β1-collagen interactions: II. Inhibitor library, screening, and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Yan

    2014-04-29

    Platelet adhesion on collagen mediated by integrin α2β1 has been proven important in arterial thrombus formation, leading to an exigent demand on development of potent inhibitors for the integrin α2β1-collagen binding. In the present study, a biomimetic design strategy of platelet adhesion inhibitors was established, based on the affinity binding model of integrin proposed in part I. First, a heptapeptide library containing 8000 candidates was designed to functionally mimic the binding motif of integrin α2β1. Then, each heptapeptide in the library was docked onto a collagen molecule for the assessment of its affinity, followed by a screening based on its structure similarity to the original structure in the affinity binding model. Eight candidates were then selected for further screening by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Thereafter, three candidates chosen from MD simulations were separately added into the physiological saline containing separated integrin and collagen, to check their abilities for blocking the integrin-collagen interaction using MD simulations. Of these three candidates, significant inhibition was observed in the presence of LWWNSYY. Finally, the binding affinity of LWWNSYY for collagen was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Moreover, significant inhibition of platelet adhesion in the presence of LWWNSYY has been experimentally validated. This work has thus developed an effective strategy for the biomimetic design of peptide-based platelet adhesion inhibitors.

  6. STROBE-compliant integrin through focal adhesion involve in cancer stem cell and multidrug resistance of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Luwei; Yin, Fuqiang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the root of carcinoma relapse and drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Hunting for the potential CSC genes and explain their functions would be a feasible strategy to meet the challenge of the drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In this study, we performed bioinformatic approaches such as biochip data extraction and pathway enrichment analyses to elucidate the mechanism of the CSC genes in regulation of drug resistance. Potential key genes, integrins, were identified to be related to CSC in addition to their associations with drug resistance and prognosis in ovarian cancer. A total of 36 ovarian CSC genes involved in regulation of drug resistance were summarized, and potential drug resistance-related CSC genes were identified based on 3 independent microarrays retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles. Pathway enrichment of CSC genes associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer indicated that focal adhesion signaling might play important roles in CSC genes-mediated drug resistance. Integrins are members of the adhesion molecules family, and integrin subunit alpha 1, integrin subunit alpha 5, and integrin subunit alpha 6 (ITGA6) were identified as central CSC genes and their expression in side population cells, cisplatin-resistant SKOV3 (SKOV3/DDP2) cells, and cisplatin-resistant A2780 (A2780/DDP) cells were dysregulated as measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The high expression of ITGA6 in 287 ovarian cancer patients of TCGA cohort was significantly associated with poorer progression-free survival. This study provide the basis for further understanding of CSC genes in regulation of drug resistance in ovarian cancer, and integrins could be a potential biomarker for prognosis of ovarian cancer. PMID:28328815

  7. Integrin Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Melissa; Odde, Srinivas; Neamati, Nouri

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that function as mechanosensors, adhesion molecules and signal transduction platforms in a multitude of biological processes. As such, integrins are central to the etiology and pathology of many disease states. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of integrins is of great interest for the treatment and prevention of disease. In the last two decades several integrin-targeted drugs have made their way into clinical use, many others are in clinical trials and still more are showing promise as they advance through preclinical development. Herein, this review examines and evaluates the various drugs and compounds targeting integrins and the disease states in which they are implicated. PMID:21547158

  8. Bistable regulation of integrin adhesiveness by a bipolar metal ion cluster.

    PubMed

    Chen, JianFeng; Salas, Azucena; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-12-01

    Integrin alpha(4)beta(7) mediates rolling adhesion in Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) + Mg(2+), and firm adhesion in Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), mimicking the two key steps in leukocyte accumulation in inflamed vasculature. We mutated an interlinked linear array of three divalent cation-binding sites present in integrin beta-subunit I-like domains. The middle, metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) is required for both rolling and firm adhesion. One polar site, that adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS), is required for rolling because its mutation results in firm adhesion. The other polar site, the ligand-induced metal binding site (LIMBS), is required for firm adhesion because its mutation results in rolling. The LIMBS mediates the positive regulatory effects of low Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas the ADMIDAS mediates the negative regulatory effects of higher Ca(2+) concentrations, which are competed by Mn(2+). The bipolar sites thus stabilize two alternative phases of adhesion.

  9. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD. PMID:27242933

  10. Dynamin2 controls Rap1 activation and integrin clustering in human T lymphocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Eppler, Felix J.

    2017-01-01

    Leukocyte trafficking is crucial to facilitate efficient immune responses. Here, we report that the large GTPase dynamin2, which is generally considered to have a key role in endocytosis and membrane remodeling, is an essential regulator of integrin-dependent human T lymphocyte adhesion and migration. Chemical inhibition or knockdown of dynamin2 expression significantly reduced integrin-dependent T cell adhesion in vitro. This phenotype was not observed when T cells were treated with various chemical inhibitors which abrogate endocytosis or actin polymerization. We furthermore detected dynamin2 in signaling complexes and propose that it controls T cell adhesion via FAK/Pyk2- and RapGEF1-mediated Rap1 activation. In addition, the dynamin2 inhibitor-induced reduction of lymphocyte adhesion can be rescued by Rap1a overexpression. We demonstrate that the dynamin2 effect on T cell adhesion does not involve integrin affinity regulation but instead relies on its ability to modulate integrin valency. Taken together, we suggest a previously unidentified role of dynamin2 in the regulation of integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion via a Rap1 signaling pathway. PMID:28273099

  11. Integrin endosomal signalling suppresses anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Alanko, Jonna; Mai, Anja; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Schauer, Kristine; Kaukonen, Riina; Saari, Markku; Goud, Bruno; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs) transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localises with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage-independence and metastasis. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors functioning as integrators of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) driven cues, the cellular cytoskeleton and the cellular signalling apparatus 1.Upon adhesion, integrins trigger the formation of plasma-membrane proximal large mechanosensing and signal-transmitting protein clusters depicted as “adhesomes” 2, 3. In addition, integrins undergo constant endocytic traffic to facilitate focal adhesion turnover, cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis 4. For other receptor systems it is well established that endocytic membrane traffic regulates bioavailability of cell-surface molecules and therefore the intensity and/or specificity of receptor-initiated signals 5, 6. Although active integrins and their ligands have been detected in endosomes 7–9 and increased integrin recycling to the plasma membrane contributes

  12. Sialylation of Integrin beta1 is Involved in Radiation-Induced Adhesion and Migration in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Hae-June; Seo, Woo Duck; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Previously, we reported that radiation-induced ST6 Gal I gene expression was responsible for an increase of integrin beta1 sialylation. In this study, we have further investigated the function of radiation-mediated integrin beta1 sialylation in colon cancer cells. Methods and Materials: We performed Western blotting and lectin affinity assay to analyze the expression and level of sialylated integrin beta1. After exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), adhesion and migration of cells were measured by in vitro adhesion and migration assay. Results: IR increased sialylation of integrin beta1 responsible for its increased protein stability and adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells. However, for cells with an N-glycosylation site mutant of integrin beta1 located on the I-like domain (Mu3), these effects were dramatically inhibited. In addition, integrin beta1-mediated radioresistance was not observed in cells containing this mutant. When sialylation of integrin beta1 was targeted with a sulfonamide chalcone compound, inhibition of radiation-induced sialylation of integrin beta1 and inhibition of radiation-induced adhesion and migration occurred. Conclusion: The increase of integrin beta1 sialylation by ST6 Gal I is critically involved in radiation-mediated adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells. From these findings, integrin beta1 sialylation may be a novel target for overcoming radiation-induced survival, especially radiation-induced adhesion and migration.

  13. Ancient origin of the integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling machinery.

    PubMed

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Roger, Andrew J; Lang, Franz B; King, Nicole; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of animals (metazoans) from their unicellular ancestors required the emergence of novel mechanisms for cell adhesion and cell-cell communication. One of the most important cell adhesion mechanisms for metazoan development is integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling. The integrin adhesion complex mediates critical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix, modulating several aspects of cell physiology. To date this machinery has been considered strictly metazoan specific. Here we report the results of a comparative genomic analysis of the integrin adhesion machinery, using genomic data from several unicellular relatives of Metazoa and Fungi. Unexpectedly, we found that core components of the integrin adhesion complex are encoded in the genome of the apusozoan protist Amastigomonas sp., and therefore their origins predate the divergence of Opisthokonta, the clade that includes metazoans and fungi. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that key components of this apparatus have been lost independently in fungi and choanoflagellates. Our data highlight the fact that many of the key genes that had formerly been cited as crucial for metazoan origins have a much earlier origin. This underscores the importance of gene cooption in the unicellular-to-multicellular transition that led to the emergence of the Metazoa.

  14. Ancient origin of the integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Roger, Andrew J.; Lang, Franz B.; King, Nicole; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of animals (metazoans) from their unicellular ancestors required the emergence of novel mechanisms for cell adhesion and cell–cell communication. One of the most important cell adhesion mechanisms for metazoan development is integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling. The integrin adhesion complex mediates critical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix, modulating several aspects of cell physiology. To date this machinery has been considered strictly metazoan specific. Here we report the results of a comparative genomic analysis of the integrin adhesion machinery, using genomic data from several unicellular relatives of Metazoa and Fungi. Unexpectedly, we found that core components of the integrin adhesion complex are encoded in the genome of the apusozoan protist Amastigomonas sp., and therefore their origins predate the divergence of Opisthokonta, the clade that includes metazoans and fungi. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that key components of this apparatus have been lost independently in fungi and choanoflagellates. Our data highlight the fact that many of the key genes that had formerly been cited as crucial for metazoan origins have a much earlier origin. This underscores the importance of gene cooption in the unicellular-to-multicellular transition that led to the emergence of the Metazoa. PMID:20479219

  15. Endothelin-3 stimulates cell adhesion and cooperates with β1-integrins during enteric nervous system ontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gazquez, Elodie; Watanabe, Yuli; Broders-Bondon, Florence; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Heysch, Julie; Baral, Viviane; Bondurand, Nadège; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-3 (EDN3) and β1-integrins are required for the colonization of the embryonic gut by enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to form the enteric nervous system (ENS). β1-integrin-null ENCCs exhibit migratory defects in a region of the gut enriched in EDN3 and in specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We investigated the putative role of EDN3 on ENCC adhesion properties and its functional interaction with β1-integrins during ENS development. We show that EDN3 stimulates ENCC adhesion to various ECM components in vitro. It induces rapid changes in ENCC shape and protrusion dynamics favouring sustained growth and stabilization of lamellipodia, a process coincident with the increase in the number of focal adhesions and activated β1-integrins. In vivo studies and ex-vivo live imaging revealed that double mutants for Itgb1 and Edn3 displayed a more severe enteric phenotype than either of the single mutants demonstrated by alteration of the ENS network due to severe migratory defects of mutant ENCCs taking place early during the ENS development. Altogether, our results highlight the interplay between the EDN3 and β1-integrin signalling pathways during ENS ontogenesis and the role of EDN3 in ENCC adhesion. PMID:27905407

  16. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-III is caused by mutations in KINDLIN3 affecting integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Lena; Howarth, Kimberley; McDowall, Alison; Patzak, Irene; Evans, Rachel; Ussar, Siegfried; Moser, Markus; Metin, Ayse; Fried, Mike; Tomlinson, Ian; Hogg, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Integrins are the major adhesion receptors of leukocytes and platelets. β1 and β2 integrin function on leukocytes is crucial for a successful immune response and the platelet integrin αIIbβ3 initiates the process of blood clotting through binding fibrinogen1-3. Integrins on circulating cells bind poorly to their ligands but become active after ‘inside-out’ signaling through other membrane receptors4,5. Subjects with leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD-I) do not express β2 integrins because of mutations in the gene specifying the β2 subunit, and they suffer recurrent bacterial infections6,7. Mutations affecting αIIbβ3 integrin cause the bleeding disorder termed Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia3. Subjects with LAD-III show symptoms of both LAD-I and Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia. Their hematopoietically-derived cells express β1, β2 and β3 integrins, but defective inside-out signaling causes immune deficiency and bleeding problems8. The LAD-III lesion has been attributed to a C→A mutation in the gene encoding calcium and diacylglycerol guanine nucleotide exchange factor (CALDAGGEF1; official symbol RASGRP2) specifying the CALDAG-GEF1 protein9, but we show that this change is not responsible for the LAD-III disorder. Instead, we identify mutations in the KINDLIN3 (official symbol FERMT3) gene specifying the KINDLIN-3 protein as the cause of LAD-III in Maltese and Turkish subjects. Two independent mutations result in decreased KINDLIN3 messenger RNA levels and loss of protein expression. Notably, transfection of the subjects’ lymphocytes with KINDLIN3 complementary DNA but not CALDAGGEF1 cDNA reverses the LAD-III defect, restoring integrin-mediated adhesion and migration. PMID:19234463

  17. The assembly of integrin adhesion complexes requires both extracellular matrix and intracellular rho/rac GTPases

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Interaction of cells with extracellular matrix via integrin adhesion receptors plays an important role in a wide range of cellular: functions, for example cell growth, movement, and differentiation. Upon interaction with substrate, integrins cluster and associate with a variety of cytoplasmic proteins to form focal complexes and with the actin cytoskeleton. Although the intracellular signals induced by integrins are at present undefined, it is thought that they are mediated by proteins recruited to the focal complexes. It has been suggested, for example, that after recruitment to focal adhesions p125FAK can activate the ERK1/2 MAP kinase cascade. We have previously reported that members of the rho family of small GTPases can trigger the assembly of focal complexes when activated in cells. Using microinjection techniques, we have now examined the role of the extracellular matrix and of the two GTP-binding proteins, rac and rho, in the assembly of integrin complexes in both mouse and human fibroblasts. We find that the interaction of integrins with extracellular matrix alone is not sufficient to induce integrin clustering and focal complex formation. Similarly, activation of rho or rac by extracellular growth factors does not lead to focal complex formation in the absence of matrix. Focal complexes are only assembled in the presence of both matrix and functionally active members of the rho family. In agreement with this, the interaction of integrins with matrix in the absence of rho/rac activity is unable to activate the ERK1/2 kinases in Swiss 3T3 cells. In fact, ERK1/2 can be activated fully by growth factors in the absence of matrix and it seems unlikely, therefore, that the adhesion dependence of fibroblast growth is mediated through the ras/MAP kinase pathway. We conclude that extracellular matrix is not sufficient to trigger focal complex assembly and subsequent integrin-dependent signal transduction in the absence of functionally active members of the rho

  18. α6-Integrin is required for the adhesion and vasculogenic potential of hemangioma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M; Guerin, Coralie L; Boscolo, Elisa; Bieche, Ivan; Mulliken, John B; Bischoff, Joyce

    2014-03-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common tumor of infancy. Hemangioma stem cells (HemSC) are a mesenchymal subpopulation isolated from IH CD133+ cells. HemSC can differentiate into endothelial and pericyte/smooth muscle cells and form vascular networks when injected in immune-deficient mice. α6-Integrin subunit has been implicated in the tumorgenicity of glioblastoma stem cells and the homing properties of hematopoietic, endothelial, and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Therefore, we investigated the possible function(s) of α6-integrin in HemSC. We documented α6-integrin expression in IH tumor specimens and HemSC by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. We examined the effect of blocking or silencing α6-integrin on the adhesive and proliferative properties of HemSC in vitro and the vasculogenic and homing properties of HemSC in vivo. Targeting α6-integrin in cultured HemSC inhibited adhesion to laminin but had no effect on proliferation. Vessel-forming ability in Matrigel implants and hepatic homing after i.v. delivery were significantly decreased in α6-integrin siRNA-transfected HemSC. In conclusion, α6-integrin is required for HemSC adherence to laminin, vessel formation in vivo, and for homing to the liver. Thus, we uncovered an important role for α6 integrin in the vasculogenic properties of HemSC. Our results suggest that α6-integrin expression on HemSC could be a new target for antihemangioma therapy.

  19. Spatiotemporal segregation of endothelial cell integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding proteins during adhesion events

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) attachments to laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen are inhibited by soluble arginine-glycine- aspartate (RGD)-containing peptides, and YGRGDSP activity is responsive to titration of either soluble peptide or matrix protein. To assess the presence of RGD-dependent receptors, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting studies were conducted and demonstrated integrin beta 1, beta 3, and associated alpha subunits as well as a beta 1 precursor. Immunofluorescence of BAECs plated on laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen reveals different matrix-binding specificities of each of these integrin subclasses. By 1 h after plating, organization of beta 1 integrin into fibrillar streaks is influenced by laminin and fibronectin, whereas beta 3 integrin punctate organization is influenced by fibrinogen and the integrin spatial distribution changes with time in culture. In contrast, the nonintegrin laminin-binding protein LB69 only organizes after cell-substrate contact is well established several hours after plating. Migration of BAECs is also mediated by both integrin and nonintegrin matrix-binding proteins. Specifically, BAEC migration on laminin is remarkably sensitive to RGD peptide inhibition, and, in its presence, beta 1 integrin organization dissipates and reorganizes into perinuclear vesicles. However, RGD peptides do not alter LB69 linear organization during migration. Similarly, agents that block LB69--e.g., antibodies to LB69 as well as YIGSR-NH2 peptide--do not inhibit attachment of nonmotile BAECs to laminin. However, both anti-LB69 and YIGSR-NH2 inhibit late adhesive events such as spreading. Accordingly, we propose that integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding protein organizations in BAECs are both temporally and spatially segregated during attachment processes. High affinity nonintegrin interaction with matrix may create necessary stable contacts for longterm attachment, while lower affinity integrins may be important

  20. Neutrophil-platelet adhesion: relative roles of platelet P-selectin and neutrophil beta2 (DC18) integrins.

    PubMed

    Brown, K K; Henson, P M; Maclouf, J; Moyle, M; Ely, J A; Worthen, G S

    1998-01-01

    Neutrophils and platelets interact both physically and metabolically during inflammation and thrombosis, but the mechanisms responsible for their adhesion remain incompletely understood. Neutrophil-platelet adhesion was measured after specific stimulation of neutrophils, platelets, or both and quantified by flow cytometry. Specific stimulation of either the neutrophil or the platelet led to a marked increase in the percentage of neutrophils that bound platelets, although platelet stimulation led to a large increase and neutrophil stimulation to only a small increase in the number of platelets per neutrophil. Stimulation of both cells further increased the number of neutrophil-platelet adhesive events and led to large numbers of platelets binding to each neutrophil. Confirming previous observations, blocking antibodies to platelet P-selectin (CD62P) partially inhibited adhesion. However, blockade of the neutrophil beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 also inhibited the percentage of neutrophils that bound platelets. Combining P-selectin and CD11b/18 blockade further inhibited the stimulated increase in the percentage of neutrophils binding platelets and the increased number of platelets per neutrophil. Both cell adhesion molecules were active even when only a single cell type was primarily activated, supporting physiologically important transcellular activation. These data suggest that: (1) neutrophil-platelet adhesion can be initiated by specific activation of either the neutrophil or the platelet and that specific activation of either cell type leads to distinct patterns of adhesion, and (2) neutrophil-platelet adhesion uses both platelet P-selectin and the neutrophil beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 when the cells are primarily or secondarily activated.

  1. Clathrin mediates integrin endocytosis for focal adhesion disassembly in migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Ezratty, Ellen J; Bertaux, Claire; Marcantonio, Eugene E; Gundersen, Gregg G

    2009-11-30

    Focal adhesion disassembly is regulated by microtubules (MTs) through an unknown mechanism that involves dynamin. To test whether endocytosis may be involved, we interfered with the function of clathrin or its adaptors autosomal recessive hypercholesteremia (ARH) and Dab2 (Disabled-2) and found that both treatments prevented MT-induced focal adhesion disassembly. Surface labeling experiments showed that integrin was endocytosed in an extracellular matrix-, clathrin-, and ARH- and Dab2-dependent manner before entering Rab5 endosomes. Clathrin colocalized with a subset of focal adhesions in an ARH- and Dab2-dependent fashion. Direct imaging showed that clathrin rapidly accumulated on focal adhesions during MT-stimulated disassembly and departed from focal adhesions with integrin upon their disassembly. In migrating cells, depletion of clathrin or Dab2 and ARH inhibited focal adhesion disassembly and decreased the rate of migration. These results show that focal adhesion disassembly occurs through a targeted mechanism involving MTs, clathrin, and specific clathrin adaptors and that direct endocytosis of integrins from focal adhesions mediates their disassembly in migrating cells.

  2. 9-cis-retinoic acid promotes cell adhesion through integrin dependent and independent mechanisms across immune lineages.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jarrett T; Chen, Jianming; Miller, Jabin; Morrow, Rebekah L; Lingo, Joshuah D; Merrell, Kaitlin; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Bridges, Lance C

    2013-05-01

    Retinoids are essential in the proper establishment and maintenance of immunity. Although retinoids are implicated in immune related processes, their role in immune cell adhesion has not been well established. In this study, the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) on human hematopoietic cell adhesion was investigated. 9-cis-RA treatment specifically induced cell adhesion of the human immune cell lines HuT-78, NB4, RPMI 8866 and U937. Due to the prominent role of integrin receptors in mediating immune cell adhesion, we sought to evaluate if cell adhesion was integrin-dependent. By employing a variety of integrin antagonist including function-blocking antibodies and EDTA, we establish that 9-cis-RA prompts immune cell adhesion through established integrin receptors in addition to a novel integrin-independent process. The novel integrin-independent adhesion required the presence of retinoid and was attenuated by treatment with synthetic corticosteroids. Finally, we demonstrate that 9-cis-RA treatment of primary murine B-cells induces ex vivo adhesion that persists in the absence of integrin function. Our study is the first to demonstrate that 9-cis-RA influences immune cell adhesion through at least two functionally distinct mechanisms.

  3. High-Throughput Screening based Identification of Small Molecule Antagonists of Integrin CD11b/CD18 Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Maiguel, Dony; Brown, Brock T.; Suyama, Eigo; Barth, Constantinos J.; Hedrick, Michael; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Schürer, Stephan; Gupta, Vineet

    2010-01-01

    Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique. PMID:20188705

  4. Dynamics of adhesion molecule domains on neutrophil membranes: surfing the dynamic cell topography.

    PubMed

    Gaborski, Thomas R; Sealander, Michael N; Waugh, Richard E; McGrath, James L

    2013-12-01

    Lateral organization and mobility of adhesion molecules play a significant role in determining the avidity with which cells can bind to target cells or surfaces. Recently, we have shown that the lateral mobility of the principal adhesion molecules on neutrophils is lower for rolling associated adhesion molecules (RAAMs: L-selectin and PSGL-1) than for β2 integrins (LFA-1 and Mac-1). Here we report that all four adhesion molecules exhibit distinct punctate distributions that are mobile on the cell surface. Using uniform illumination image correlation microscopy, we measure the lateral mobility of these topologically distinct domains. For all four molecules, we find that diffusion coefficients calculated from domain mobility agree with measurements we made previously using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This agreement indicates that the transport of receptors on the surface of the resting neutrophil is dominated by the lateral movement of domains rather than individual molecules. The diffusion of pre-assembled integrin domains to zones of neutrophil/endothelial contact may provide a mechanism to facilitate high avidity adhesion during the earliest stages of firm arrest.

  5. Transition from rolling to firm adhesion is regulated by the conformation of the I domain of the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.

    PubMed

    Salas, Azucena; Shimaoka, Motomu; Chen, Shuqi; Carman, Christopher V; Springer, Timothy

    2002-12-27

    The integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (alpha(L)beta(2)), which is known for its ability to mediate firm adhesion and migration, can also contribute to tethering and rolling in shear flow. The alpha(L) I domain can be mutationally locked with disulfide bonds into two distinct conformations, open and closed, which have high and low affinity for the ligand intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), respectively. The wild type I domain exists primarily in the lower energy closed conformation. We have measured for the first time the effect of conformational change on adhesive behavior in shear flow. We show that wild type and locked open I domains, expressed in alpha(L)beta(2) heterodimers or as isolated domains on the cell surface, mediate rolling adhesion and firm adhesion, respectively. alpha(L)beta(2) is thus poised for the conversion of rolling to firm adhesion upon integrin activation in vivo. Isolated I domains are surprisingly more effective than alpha(L)beta(2) in interactions in shear flow, which may in part be a consequence of the presence of alpha(L)beta(2) in a bent conformation. Furthermore, the force exerted on the C-terminal alpha-helix appears to stabilize the open conformation of the wild type isolated I domain and contribute to its robustness in supporting rolling. An allosteric small molecule antagonist of alpha(L)beta(2) inhibits both rolling adhesion and firm adhesion, which has important implications for its mode of action in vivo.

  6. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  7. Mimicking bone extracellular matrix: integrin-binding peptidomimetics enhance osteoblast-like cells adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, Roberta; Rechenmacher, Florian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Manero, José M; Gil, Javier; Kessler, Horst; Mas-Moruno, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Interaction between the surface of implants and biological tissues is a key aspect of biomaterials research. Apart from fulfilling the non-toxicity and structural requirements, synthetic materials are asked to direct cell response, offering engineered cues that provide specific instructions to cells. This work explores the functionalization of titanium with integrin-binding peptidomimetics as a novel and powerful strategy to improve the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells to implant materials. Such biomimetic strategy aims at targeting integrins αvβ3 and α5β1, which are highly expressed on osteoblasts and are essential for many fundamental functions in bone tissue development. The successful grafting of the bioactive molecules on titanium is proven by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescent labeling. Early attachment and spreading of cells are statistically enhanced by both peptidomimetics compared to unmodified titanium, reaching values of cell adhesion comparable to those obtained with full-length extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, and statistically higher cell proliferation and mineralization are observed on surfaces coated with the peptidomimetics. This study shows an unprecedented biological activity for low-molecular-weight ligands on titanium, and gives striking evidence of the potential of these molecules to foster bone regeneration on implant materials.

  8. Plakophilin 2 Affects Cell Migration by Modulating Focal Adhesion Dynamics and Integrin Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Koetsier, Jennifer L.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Todorović, Viktor; Green, Kathleen J.; Godsel, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Plakophilin 2 (PKP2), a desmosome component, modulates the activity and localization of the small GTPase RhoA at sites of cell–cell contact. PKP2 regulates cortical actin rearrangement during junction formation, and its loss is accompanied by an increase in actin stress fibers. We hypothesized that PKP2 may regulate focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration. Here we show that PKP2-deficient cells bind efficiently to the extracellular matrix, but upon spreading display total cell areas ~30% smaller than control cells. Focal adhesions in PKP2-deficient cells are ~2× larger and more stable than in control cells, and vinculin displays an increased time for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Furthermore, β4 and β1 integrin protein and mRNA expression is elevated in PKP2-silenced cells. Normal focal adhesion phenotypes can be restored in PKP2-null cells by dampening the RhoA pathway or silencing β1 integrin. However, integrin expression levels are not restored by RhoA signaling inhibition. These data uncover a potential role for PKP2 upstream of β1 integrin and RhoA in integrating cell–cell and cell–substrate contact signaling in basal keratinocytes necessary for the morphogenesis, homeostasis, and reepithelialization of the stratified epidermis. PMID:23884246

  9. Retinoids induce integrin-independent lymphocyte adhesion through RAR-α nuclear receptor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jianming; Metts, Meagan E.; Nasser, Taj A.; McGoldrick, Liam J.; Bridges, Lance C.

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Transcription and translation are required for retinoid-induced lymphocyte adhesion. • RAR activation is sufficient to induced lymphocyte cell adhesion. • Vitamin D derivatives inhibit RAR-prompted lymphocyte adhesion. • Adhesion occurs through a novel binding site within ADAM disintegrin domains. • RARα is a key nuclear receptor for retinoid-dependent lymphocyte cell adhesion. - Abstract: Oxidative metabolites of vitamin A, in particular all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), have emerged as key factors in immunity by specifying the localization of immune cells to the gut. Although it is appreciated that isomers of retinoic acid activate the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors to elicit cellular changes, the molecular details of retinoic acid action remain poorly defined in immune processes. Here we employ a battery of agonists and antagonists to delineate the specific nuclear receptors utilized by retinoids to evoke lymphocyte cell adhesion to ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family members. We report that RAR agonism is sufficient to promote immune cell adhesion in both immortal and primary immune cells. Interestingly, adhesion occurs independent of integrin function, and mutant studies demonstrate that atRA-induced adhesion to ADAM members required a distinct binding interface(s) as compared to integrin recognition. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids as well as 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, a vitamin D metabolite that prompts immune cell trafficking to the skin, potently inhibited the observed adhesion. Finally, our data establish that induced adhesion was specifically attributable to the RAR-α receptor isotype. The current study provides novel molecular resolution as to which nuclear receptors transduce retinoid exposure into immune cell adhesion.

  10. PDK1 regulates focal adhesion disassembly by modulating endocytosis of αvβ3 integrin.

    PubMed

    di Blasio, Laura; Gagliardi, Paolo Armando; Puliafito, Alberto; Sessa, Roberto; Seano, Giorgio; Bussolino, Federico; Primo, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Non-amoeboid cell migration is characterised by dynamic competition among multiple protrusions to establish new adhesion sites at the cell's leading edge. However, the mechanisms that regulate the decision to disassemble or to grow nascent adhesions are not fully understood. Here we show that, in endothelial cells, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) promotes focal adhesion (FA) turnover by controlling endocytosis of integrin αvβ3 in a PI3K-dependent manner. We demonstrate that PDK1 binds and phosphorylates integrin αvβ3. Downregulation of PDK1 increases FA size and slows down their disassembly. This process requires both PDK1 kinase activity and PI3K activation but does not involve Akt. Moreover, PDK1 silencing stabilises FA in membrane protrusions decreasing migration of endothelial cells on vitronectin. These results indicate that modulation of integrin endocytosis by PDK1 hampers endothelial cell adhesion and migration on extracellular matrix, thus unveiling a novel role for this kinase.

  11. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediated endocytosis of β1-integrin influences cell adhesion and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Rabiej, Verena K; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Wagner, Timo; Goetze, Kristina; Storck, Steffen E; Eble, Johannes A; Weggen, Sascha; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2016-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) has been shown to interact with β1-integrin and regulate its surface expression. LRP1 knock-out cells exhibit altered cytoskeleton organization and decreased cell migration. Here we demonstrate coupled endocytosis of LRP1 and β1-integrin and the involvement of the intracellular NPxY2 motif of LRP1 in this process. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts harboring a knock in replacement of the NPxY2 motif of LRP1 by a multiple alanine cassette (AAxA) showed elevated surface expression of β1-integrin and decreased β1-integrin internalization rates. As a consequence, cell spreading was altered and adhesion rates were increased in our cell model. Cells formed more focal adhesion complexes, whereby in vitro cell migration rates were decreased. Similar results could be observed in a corresponding mouse model, the C57Bl6 LRP1 NPxYxxL knock in mice, therefore, the biochemistry of cellular adhesion was altered in primary cortical neurons. In vivo cell migration experiments demonstrated a disturbance of neuroblast cell migration along the rostral migratory stream. In summary, our results indicate that LRP1 interacts with β1-integrin mediating integrin internalization and thus correlates with downstream signaling of β1-integrin such as focal adhesion dynamics. Consequently, the disturbance of this interaction resulted in a dysfunction in in vivo and in vitro cell adhesion and cell migration.

  12. Human mast cell progenitors use alpha4-integrin, VCAM-1, and PSGL-1 E-selectin for adhesive interactions with human vascular endothelium under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Joshua A; Mellor, Elizabeth A; Perkins, Brandy; Lim, Yaw-Chyn; Luscinskas, Francis W

    2002-04-15

    Mast cells (MCs) are central to asthma and other allergic diseases, and for responses to infection and tissue injuries. MCs arise from committed progenitors (PrMCs) that migrate from the circulation to tissues by incompletely characterized mechanisms, and differentiate in situ in perivascular connective tissues of multiple organs. PrMCs derived in vitro from human cord blood were examined for adhesion molecule expression and their ability to adhere to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under conditions that mimic physiologic shear flow. The PrMCs expressed alpha(4)beta(1), low levels of beta7, and the beta2-integrins alphaLbeta2 and alphaMbeta2. The PrMCs also expressed PSGL-1, but not L-selectin. At low (0.5 dynes/cm(2)-1.0 dynes/cm(2)) shear stress, PrMCs attached and rolled on recombinant E-selectin and P-selectin and VCAM-1. An anti-PSGL-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) blocked essentially all adhesion to P-selectin but reduced adhesion to E-selectin by only 40%, suggesting PrMCs express other ligands for E-selectin. PrMCs adhered strongly to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-activated HUVECs, whereas adhesion to interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated HUVECs was lower. PrMC adhesion to IL-4-activated HUVECs was totally alpha4-integrin- and VCAM-1-dependent. Adhesion to TNF-alpha-activated HUVECs was blocked by 50% by mAbs against alpha4-integrin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, or PSGL-1, whereas combinations of mAbs to alpha4-integrin plus PSGL-1, or VCAM-1 plus E-selectin, blocked adhesion by greater than 70%. Thus, PrMCs derived in vitro predominantly use alpha4-integrin, VCAM-1, PSGL-1, and other ligands that bind E-selectin for adhesion to cytokine-activated HUVEC monolayers. These observations may explain the abundance of MCs at sites of mucosal inflammation, where VCAM-1 and E-selectin are important inducible receptors.

  13. Analysis of Adhesion Molecules and Basement Membrane Contributions to Synaptic Adhesion at the Drosophila Embryonic NMJ

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Andre; Schenck, Annette; Prokop, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Synapse formation and maintenance crucially underlie brain function in health and disease. Both processes are believed to depend on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Many different classes of CAMs localise to synapses, including cadherins, protocadherins, neuroligins, neurexins, integrins, and immunoglobulin adhesion proteins, and further contributions come from the extracellular matrix and its receptors. Most of these factors have been scrutinised by loss-of-function analyses in animal models. However, which adhesion factors establish the essential physical links across synaptic clefts and allow the assembly of synaptic machineries at the contact site in vivo is still unclear. To investigate these key questions, we have used the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila embryos as a genetically amenable model synapse. Our ultrastructural analyses of NMJs lacking different classes of CAMs revealed that loss of all neurexins, all classical cadherins or all glutamate receptors, as well as combinations between these or with a Laminin deficiency, failed to reveal structural phenotypes. These results are compatible with a view that these CAMs might have no structural role at this model synapse. However, we consider it far more likely that they operate in a redundant or well buffered context. We propose a model based on a multi-adaptor principle to explain this phenomenon. Furthermore, we report a new CAM-independent adhesion mechanism that involves the basement membranes (BM) covering neuromuscular terminals. Thus, motorneuronal terminals show strong partial detachment of the junction when BM-to-cell surface attachment is impaired by removing Laminin A, or when BMs lose their structural integrity upon loss of type IV collagens. We conclude that BMs are essential to tie embryonic motorneuronal terminals to the muscle surface, lending CAM-independent structural support to their adhesion. Therefore, future developmental studies of these synaptic junctions in Drosophila need

  14. Increasing α7β1-integrin promotes muscle cell proliferation, adhesion, and resistance to apoptosis without changing gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianming; Burkin, Dean J.; Kaufman, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex maintains the integrity of skeletal muscle by associating laminin in the extracellular matrix with the actin cytoskeleton. Several human muscular dystrophies arise from defects in the components of this complex. The α7β1-integrin also binds laminin and links the extracellular matrix with the cytoskeleton. Enhancement of α7-integrin levels alleviates pathology in mdx/utrn−/− mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and thus the integrin may functionally compensate for the absence of dystrophin. To test whether increasing α7-integrin levels affects transcription and cellular functions, we generated α7-integrin-inducible C2C12 cells and transgenic mice that overexpress the integrin in skeletal muscle. C2C12 myoblasts with elevated levels of integrin exhibited increased adhesion to laminin, faster proliferation when serum was limited, resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, and normal differentiation. Transgenic expression of eightfold more integrin in skeletal muscle did not result in notable toxic effects in vivo. Moreover, high levels of α7-integrin in both myoblasts and in skeletal muscle did not disrupt global gene expression profiles. Thus increasing integrin levels can compensate for defects in the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton linkage caused by compromises in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex without triggering apparent overt negative side effects. These results support the use of integrin enhancement as a therapy for muscular dystrophy. PMID:18045857

  15. The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes.

    PubMed

    Benito-Jardón, Maria; Klapproth, Sarah; Gimeno-LLuch, Irene; Petzold, Tobias; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Müller, Daniel J; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph A; Costell, Mercedes

    2017-01-16

    Fibronectin (FN), a major extracellular matrix component, enables integrin-mediated cell adhesion via binding of α5β1, αIIbβ3 and αv-class integrins to an RGD-motif. An additional linkage for α5 and αIIb is the synergy site located in close proximity to the RGD motif. We report that mice with a dysfunctional FN-synergy motif (Fn1(syn/syn)) suffer from surprisingly mild platelet adhesion and bleeding defects due to delayed thrombus formation after vessel injury. Additional loss of β3 integrins dramatically aggravates the bleedings and severely compromises smooth muscle cell coverage of the vasculature leading to embryonic lethality. Cell-based studies revealed that the synergy site is dispensable for the initial contact of α5β1 with the RGD, but essential to re-enforce the binding of α5β1/αIIbβ3 to FN. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the FN synergy site when external forces exceed a certain threshold or when αvβ3 integrin levels decrease below a critical level.

  16. DNA-based digital tension probes reveal integrin forces during early cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Ge, Chenghao; Zhu, Cheng; Salaita, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stimuli profoundly alter cell fate, yet the mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction remain obscure due to a lack of methods for molecular force imaging. Here, to address this need, we develop a new class of molecular tension probes that function as a switch to generate a 20–30-fold increase in fluorescence upon experiencing a threshold piconewton force. The probes employ immobilized DNA-hairpins with tunable force response thresholds, ligands, and fluorescence reporters. Quantitative imaging reveals that integrin tension is highly dynamic and increases with an increasing integrin density during adhesion formation. Mixtures of fluorophore-encoded probes show integrin mechanical preference for cyclized-RGD over linear-RGD peptides. Multiplexed probes with variable guanine-cytosine content within their hairpins reveal integrin preference for the more stable probes at the leading tip of growing adhesions near the cell edge. DNA-based tension probes are among the most sensitive optical force reporters to date, overcoming the force and spatial-resolution limitations of traction force microscopy. PMID:25342432

  17. The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Jardón, Maria; Klapproth, Sarah; Gimeno-LLuch, Irene; Petzold, Tobias; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Müller, Daniel J; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph A; Costell, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a major extracellular matrix component, enables integrin-mediated cell adhesion via binding of α5β1, αIIbβ3 and αv-class integrins to an RGD-motif. An additional linkage for α5 and αIIb is the synergy site located in close proximity to the RGD motif. We report that mice with a dysfunctional FN-synergy motif (Fn1syn/syn) suffer from surprisingly mild platelet adhesion and bleeding defects due to delayed thrombus formation after vessel injury. Additional loss of β3 integrins dramatically aggravates the bleedings and severely compromises smooth muscle cell coverage of the vasculature leading to embryonic lethality. Cell-based studies revealed that the synergy site is dispensable for the initial contact of α5β1 with the RGD, but essential to re-enforce the binding of α5β1/αIIbβ3 to FN. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the FN synergy site when external forces exceed a certain threshold or when αvβ3 integrin levels decrease below a critical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22264.001 PMID:28092265

  18. Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeshin; Scherer, Norbert F.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2006-08-01

    The glue proteins secreted by marine mussels bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments in which most adhesives function poorly. Studies of these functionally unique proteins have revealed the presence of the unusual amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), which is formed by posttranslational modification of tyrosine. However, the detailed binding mechanisms of dopa remain unknown, and the chemical basis for mussels' ability to adhere to both inorganic and organic surfaces has never been fully explained. Herein, we report a single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of a single dopa residue contacting a wet metal oxide surface reveal a surprisingly high strength yet fully reversible, noncovalent interaction. The magnitude of the bond dissociation energy as well as the inability to observe this interaction with tyrosine suggests that dopa is critical to adhesion and that the binding mechanism is not hydrogen bond formation. Oxidation of dopa, as occurs during curing of the secreted mussel glue, dramatically reduces the strength of the interaction to metal oxide but results in high strength irreversible covalent bond formation to an organic surface. A new picture of the interfacial adhesive role of dopa emerges from these studies, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition from organic to metallic. 3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine | atomic force microscopy | mussel adhesive protein

  19. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1)/variant. A novel immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by dysfunctional beta2 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, T W; Van Lier, R A; Hamann, D; de Boer, M; Thung, L Y; Weening, R S; Verhoeven, A J; Roos, D

    1997-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is characterized by the inability of leukocytes, in particular neutrophilic granulocytes, to emigrate from the bloodstream towards sites of inflammation. Infectious foci are nonpurulent and may eventually become necrotic because of abnormal wound healing. LAD-1 is characterized by the absence of the beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) on leukocytes. When expression is completely absent, patients often die within the first year. However, low levels of beta2 expression may result in a milder clinical picture of recurrent infection, which offers a better prognosis. In this paper, we describe the in vivo and in vitro findings on a patient with clinical features of a mild LAD-1 disorder, i.e., suffering from bacterial infections without apparent pus formation in the presence of a striking granulocytosis, showing no delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction upon skin testing, no specific antibody generation, but normal in vitro T cell proliferation responses after immunization. Expression levels of CD11/CD18 proteins were completely normal, but leukocyte activation did not result in CD11/ CD18 activation and high-avidity ligand-binding. In vitro chemotaxis and endothelial transmigration of the neutrophils as well as leukocyte aggregation responses were almost absent. On the other hand, beta1 and beta3 integrin-mediated adhesion functions were completely normal. During follow-up, a bleeding tendency related to decreased beta3 activation became clinically apparent, different from previously described cellular adhesion molecule variants. Therefore, this is the first well-documented case of a clinical combined immunodeficiency syndrome that results from nonfunctional CD11/CD18 molecules, and thus designated LAD-1/ variant. PMID:9312170

  20. Modulation of lens cell adhesion molecules by particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, M. P.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; Chou, W.; Lockett, S. J.; Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins which anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but whose functions also include signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. We are testing a hypothesis that particle radiations modulate CAM expression and this contributes to radiation-induced lens opacification. We observed dose-dependent changes in the expression of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 in exponentially-growing and confluent cells of a differentiating human lens epithelial cell model after exposure to particle beams. Human lens epithelial (HLE) cells, less than 10 passages after their initial culture from fetal tissue, were grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell-derived ECM in medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum and supplemented with 5 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Multiple cell populations at three different stages of differentiation were prepared for experiment: cells in exponential growth, and cells at 5 and 10 days post-confluence. The differentiation status of cells was characterized morphologically by digital image analysis, and biochemically by Western blotting using lens epithelial and fiber cell-specific markers. Cultures were irradiated with single doses (4, 8 or 12 Gy) of 55 MeV protons and, along with unirradiated control samples, were fixed using -20 degrees C methanol at 6 hours after exposure. Replicate experiments and similar experiments with helium ions are in progress. The intracellular localization of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies specific for each CAM. Cells known to express each CAM were also processed as positive controls. Both exponentially-growing and confluent, differentiating cells demonstrated a dramatic proton-dose-dependent modulation (upregulation for exponential cells, downregulation for confluent cells) and a change in the intracellular distribution of the beta 1-integrin, compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast

  1. Reinforcement of integrin-mediated T-Lymphocyte adhesion by TNF-induced Inside-out Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Huth, Steven; Adam, Dieter; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is a crucial step in immunity against pathogens. Whereas the outside-in signaling pathway in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) has already been studied in detail, little knowledge exists about a supposed TNF-mediated inside-out signaling pathway. In contrast to the outside-in signaling pathway, which relies on the TNF-induced upregulation of surface molecules on endothelium, inside-out signaling should also be present in an endothelium-free environment. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we show here that stimulating Jurkat cells with TNF significantly reinforces their adhesion to fibronectin in a biomimetic in vitro assay for cell-surface contact times of about 1.5 seconds, whereas for larger contact times the effect disappears. Analysis of single-molecule ruptures further demonstrates that TNF strengthens sub-cellular single rupture events at short cell-surface contact times. Hence, our results provide quantitative evidence for the significant impact of TNF-induced inside-out signaling in the T-lymphocyte initial adhesion machinery.

  2. Reinforcement of integrin-mediated T-Lymphocyte adhesion by TNF-induced Inside-out Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Huth, Steven; Adam, Dieter; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is a crucial step in immunity against pathogens. Whereas the outside-in signaling pathway in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) has already been studied in detail, little knowledge exists about a supposed TNF-mediated inside-out signaling pathway. In contrast to the outside-in signaling pathway, which relies on the TNF-induced upregulation of surface molecules on endothelium, inside-out signaling should also be present in an endothelium-free environment. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we show here that stimulating Jurkat cells with TNF significantly reinforces their adhesion to fibronectin in a biomimetic in vitro assay for cell-surface contact times of about 1.5 seconds, whereas for larger contact times the effect disappears. Analysis of single-molecule ruptures further demonstrates that TNF strengthens sub-cellular single rupture events at short cell-surface contact times. Hence, our results provide quantitative evidence for the significant impact of TNF-induced inside-out signaling in the T-lymphocyte initial adhesion machinery. PMID:27466027

  3. The stimulation of dendrite growth by Sema3A requires integrin engagement and focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Schlomann, Uwe; Schwamborn, Jens C; Müller, Myriam; Fässler, Reinhard; Püschel, Andreas W

    2009-06-15

    The rate and direction of axon and dendrite growth depend on multiple guidance signals and growth factors. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) acts as a repellent for axons and attractant for dendrites. Here, we show that the requirement for integrin engagement distinguishes the response of axons and dendrites to Sema3A in hippocampal neurons. Sema3A promotes the extension of hippocampal dendrites by a pathway that requires focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The stimulation of dendrite growth and FAK phosphorylation by Sema3A depend on integrin engagement. Unlike their function as a target of Sema3A during the collapse of axonal growth cones, integrins facilitate the stimulation of dendrite extension. Conditional inactivation of the genes encoding beta1 integrin or FAK blocks the growth-promoting effect of Sema3A but not the collapse of axonal growth cones. Our results demonstrate that different pathways mediate the stimulation of dendrite growth and the collapse of axonal growth cones by Sema3A.

  4. Integrin Activation Through the Hematopoietic Adapter Molecule ADAP Regulates Dendritic Development of Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Thiere, Marlen; Kliche, Stefanie; Müller, Bettina; Teuber, Jan; Nold, Isabell; Stork, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is of critical importance for neuronal differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that an "inside-out" activation of β1-integrin, similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells, contributes to the growth and branching of dendrites. In this study, we investigated the role of the hematopoietic adaptor protein adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) in these processes. We demonstrate the expression of ADAP in the developing and adult nervous hippocampus, and in outgrowing dendrites of primary hippocampal neurons. We further show that ADAP occurs in a complex with another adaptor protein signal-transducing kinase-associated phosphoprotein-homolog (SKAP-HOM), with the Rap1 effector protein RAPL and the Hippo kinase macrophage-stimulating 1 (MST1), resembling an ADAP/SKAP module that has been previously described in T-cells and is critically involved in "inside-out" activation of integrins. Knock down of ADAP resulted in reduced expression of activated β1-integrin on dendrites. It furthermore reduced the differentiation of developing neurons, as indicated by reduced dendrite growth and decreased expression of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Our data suggest that an ADAP-dependent integrin-activation similar to that described in hematopoietic cells contributes to the differentiation of neuronal cells.

  5. Integrin Activation Through the Hematopoietic Adapter Molecule ADAP Regulates Dendritic Development of Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Thiere, Marlen; Kliche, Stefanie; Müller, Bettina; Teuber, Jan; Nold, Isabell; Stork, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion and signaling is of critical importance for neuronal differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that an “inside-out” activation of β1-integrin, similar to that observed in hematopoietic cells, contributes to the growth and branching of dendrites. In this study, we investigated the role of the hematopoietic adaptor protein adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP) in these processes. We demonstrate the expression of ADAP in the developing and adult nervous hippocampus, and in outgrowing dendrites of primary hippocampal neurons. We further show that ADAP occurs in a complex with another adaptor protein signal-transducing kinase-associated phosphoprotein-homolog (SKAP-HOM), with the Rap1 effector protein RAPL and the Hippo kinase macrophage-stimulating 1 (MST1), resembling an ADAP/SKAP module that has been previously described in T-cells and is critically involved in “inside-out” activation of integrins. Knock down of ADAP resulted in reduced expression of activated β1-integrin on dendrites. It furthermore reduced the differentiation of developing neurons, as indicated by reduced dendrite growth and decreased expression of the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Our data suggest that an ADAP-dependent integrin-activation similar to that described in hematopoietic cells contributes to the differentiation of neuronal cells. PMID:27746719

  6. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; Shon, C. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S.; Kim, G. C.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin α2, integrin α4 and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  7. Regulation of the L-type calcium channel by alpha 5beta 1 integrin requires signaling between focal adhesion proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Davis, G E; Meininger, G A; Wilson, E; Davis, M J

    2001-08-10

    The L-type calcium channel is the major calcium influx pathway in vascular smooth muscle and is regulated by integrin ligands, suggesting an important link between extracellular matrix and vascular tone regulation in tissue injury and remodeling. We examined the role of integrin-linked tyrosine kinases and focal adhesion proteins in regulation of L-type calcium current in single vascular myocytes. Soluble tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked the increase in current produced by alpha(5) integrin antibody or fibronectin, whereas tyrosine phosphatase inhibition enhanced the effect. Cell dialysis with an antibody to focal adhesion kinase or with FRNK, the C-terminal noncatalytic domain of focal adhesion kinase, produced moderate (24 or 18%, respectively) inhibition of basal current but much greater inhibition (63 or 68%, respectively) of integrin-enhanced current. A c-Src antibody and peptide inhibitors of the Src homology-2 domain or a putative Src tyrosine phosphorylation site on the channel produced similar inhibition. Antibodies to the cytoskeletal proteins paxillin and vinculin, but not alpha-actinin, inhibited integrin-dependent current by 65-80%. Therefore, alpha(5)beta(1) integrin appears to regulate a tyrosine phosphorylation cascade involving Src and various focal adhesion proteins that control the function of the L-type calcium channel. This interaction may represent a novel mechanism for control of calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle and other cell types.

  8. The Ret receptor regulates sensory neuron dendrite growth and integrin mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Soba, Peter; Han, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Perea, Daniel; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2015-03-12

    Neurons develop highly stereotyped receptive fields by coordinated growth of their dendrites. Although cell surface cues play a major role in this process, few dendrite specific signals have been identified to date. We conducted an in vivo RNAi screen in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) neurons and identified the conserved Ret receptor, known to play a role in axon guidance, as an important regulator of dendrite development. The loss of Ret results in severe dendrite defects due to loss of extracellular matrix adhesion, thus impairing growth within a 2D plane. We provide evidence that Ret interacts with integrins to regulate dendrite adhesion via rac1. In addition, Ret is required for dendrite stability and normal F-actin distribution suggesting it has an essential role in dendrite maintenance. We propose novel functions for Ret as a regulator in dendrite patterning and adhesion distinct from its role in axon guidance.

  9. Nitric oxide/cGMP pathway signaling actively down-regulates α4β1-integrin affinity: an unexpected mechanism for inducing cell de-adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Integrin activation in response to inside-out signaling serves as the basis for rapid leukocyte arrest on endothelium, migration, and mobilization of immune cells. Integrin-dependent adhesion is controlled by the conformational state of the molecule, which is regulated by seven-transmembrane Guanine nucleotide binding Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). α4β1-integrin (CD49d/CD29, Very Late Antigen-4, VLA-4) is expressed on leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, stem cells, hematopoietic cancer cells, and others. VLA-4 conformation is rapidly up-regulated by inside-out signaling through Gαi-coupled GPCRs and down-regulated by Gαs-coupled GPCRs. However, other signaling pathways, which include nitric oxide-dependent signaling, have been implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion. The goal of the current report was to study the effect of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway on VLA-4 conformational regulation. Results Using fluorescent ligand binding to evaluate the integrin activation state on live cells in real-time, we show that several small molecules, which specifically modulate nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway, as well as a cell permeable cGMP analog, can rapidly down-modulate binding of a VLA-4 specific ligand on cells pre-activated through three Gαi-coupled receptors: wild type CXCR4, CXCR2 (IL-8RB), and a non-desensitizing mutant of formyl peptide receptor (FPR ΔST). Upon signaling, we detected rapid changes in the ligand dissociation rate. The dissociation rate after inside-out integrin de-activation was similar to the rate for resting cells. In a VLA-4/VCAM-1-specific myeloid cell adhesion system, inhibition of the VLA-4 affinity change by nitric oxide had a statistically significant effect on real-time cell aggregation. Conclusions We conclude that nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway can rapidly down-modulate the affinity state of the VLA-4 binding pocket, especially under the condition of sustained Gαi-coupled GPCR signaling

  10. Expression of estrogen receptor beta increases integrin alpha1 and integrin beta1 levels and enhances adhesion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Karolina; Ström, Anders; Lock, John G; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Helguero, Luisa A

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen effects on mammary gland development and differentiation are mediated by two receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta). Estrogen-bound ERalpha induces proliferation of mammary epithelial and cancer cells, while ERbeta is important for maintenance of the differentiated epithelium and inhibits proliferation in different cell systems. In addition, the normal breast contains higher ERbeta levels compared to the early stage breast cancers, suggesting that loss of ERbeta could be important in cancer development. Analysis of ERbeta-/- mice has consistently revealed reduced expression of cell adhesion proteins. As such, ERbeta is a candidate modulator of epithelial homeostasis and metastasis. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze estrogenic effects on adhesion of breast cancer cells expressing ERalpha and ERbeta. As ERbeta is widely found in breast cancer but not in cell lines, we used ERalpha positive T47-D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to generate cells with inducible ERbeta expression. Furthermore, the colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 were also used. Integrin alpha1 mRNA and protein levels increased following ERbeta expression. Integrin beta1-the unique partner for integrin alpha1-increased only at the protein level. ERbeta expression enhanced the formation of vinculin containing focal complexes and actin filaments, indicating a more adhesive potential. This was confirmed by adhesion assays where ERbeta increased adhesion to different extracellular matrix proteins, mostly laminin. In addition, ERbeta expression was associated to less cell migration. These results indicate that ERbeta affects integrin expression and clustering and consequently modulates adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells.

  11. β Integrin-like protein-mediated adhesion and its disturbances during cell cultivation of the mussel Mytilus trossulus.

    PubMed

    Maiorova, Mariia A; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we focus on the specific contribution of β integrin-like protein to adhesion-mediated events in molluscan larval cells in culture that could not have been investigated within the whole animal. An analysis of disturbances to cell-substratum adhesion, caused by the integrin receptor inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS)-peptide, the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-chelators and the stress influence of freezing-thawing, reveals that all these factors resulted in the partial destruction of the integrin-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction in culture and, in particular, changes in the distribution and relative abundance of β integrin-positive cells. The experiments, carried out on selected substrates, found that β integrin-positive cells demonstrate different affinities for the substrates. This finding further supports the assumption that epithelial differentiation in cultivated cells of larval Mytilus may be mediated by β integrin-like proteins via binding to laminin; direct binding to other components of the ECM could not be demonstrated. The mussel β integrin-positive cells are not involved in myogenic or neuronal differentiation on any of the substrates but part of them has tubulin-positive cilia, forming some epithelia-like structures. Our data indicate that β integrin-positive cells are able to proliferate in vitro which suggests that they could participate in renewing the digestive epithelium in larvae. The findings provide evidence that the distribution pattern of β integrin-like protein depends on the cell type and the factors influencing the adhesion.

  12. Kon-tiki enhances PS2 integrin adhesion and localizes its ligand, Thrombospondin, in the myotendinous junction.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Juan J; Espina-Zambrano, Agueda G; García-Calderón, Clara B; Estrada, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    Cell-extracellular-matrix adhesion is mediated by cell receptors, mainly integrins and transmembrane proteoglycans, which can functionally interact. How these receptors are regulated and coordinated is largely unknown. We show that the conserved transmembrane Drosophila proteoglycan Kon-tiki (Kon, also known as Perdido) interacts with the αPS2βPS integrin (αPS2 is encoded by inflated and βPS by myospheroid) to mediate muscle-tendon adhesion. kon and inflated double mutant embryos show a synergistic increase in muscle detachment. Furthermore, Kon modulates αPS2βPS signaling at the muscle attachment, since phosphorylated Fak is reduced in kon mutants. This reduction in integrin signaling can be rescued by the expression of a truncated Kon protein containing its transmembrane and extracellular domains, suggesting that these domains are sufficient to mediate this signaling. We show that these domains are sufficient to properly localize the αPS2βPS ligand, Thrombospondin, to the muscle attachment, and to partially rescue Kon-dependent muscle-tendon adhesion. We propose that Kon can engage in a protein complex with αPS2βPS and enhance integrin-mediated signaling and adhesion by recruiting its ligand, which would increase integrin-binding affinity to the extracellular matrix, resulting in the consolidation of the myotendinous junction.

  13. Isolation of Signaling Molecules Involved in Angiogenic Pathways Mediated Alpha v Integrins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    Schon, S., Lewis, J.M., Schwartz, M.A. and Cheresh, D.A. 1997. Insulin- like growth factor receptor cooperates with integrin (xvP5 to promote tumor cell... like . TGF-0 Interactor CAA86030 STGG( Sortilin Adipocyte differentiation-Induced receptor CAA66904 2 GPSLH Protocadherin gamma C3 Cell adhesion...Ig- like lectin AAK00757 WLVG+ IL-5 receptor Soluble interleukin 5 receptor CAA44081 GGIFR Plectin 1 Endothelial focal junction-localized protein

  14. Uptake of Marasmius oreades agglutinin disrupts integrin-dependent cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Juillot, Samuel; Cott, Catherine; Madl, Josef; Claudinon, Julie; van der Velden, Niels Sebastiaan Johannes; Künzler, Markus; Thuenauer, Roland; Römer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Fruiting body lectins have been proposed to act as effector proteins in the defense of fungi against parasites and predators. The Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) is a lectin from the fairy ring mushroom with specificity for Galα1-3Gal containing carbohydrates. This lectin is composed of an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding domain and a C-terminal dimerization domain. The dimerization domain of MOA shows in addition calcium-dependent cysteine protease activity, similar to the calpain family. Methods Cell detachment assay, cell viability assay, immunofluorescence, live cell imaging and Western blot using MDCKII cell line. Results In this study, we demonstrate in MDCKII cells that after internalization, MOA protease activity induces profound physiological cellular responses, like cytoskeleton rearrangement, cell detachment and cell death. These changes are preceded by a decrease in FAK phosphorylation and an internalization and degradation of β1-integrin, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Once internalized, MOA accumulates in late endosomal compartments. Conclusion Our results suggest a possible toxic mechanism of MOA, which consists of disturbing the cell adhesion and the cell viability. General significance After being ingested by a predator, MOA might exert a protective role by diminishing host cell integrity. PMID:26546712

  15. Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-10-25

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids. The pathology associated with FIP (multifocal granulomatous vasculitis) is considered to be elicited by exaggerated activation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes. As changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes precede their margination and emigration, we reasoned that the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules may be altered in FIP. In present study, the expression of principal adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte transmigration (CD15s, CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD49d, and CD54) on peripheral blood leukocytes from cats with naturally occurring FIP (n=15) and controls (n=12) was quantified by flow cytometry using a formaldehyde-based rapid leukocyte preparation technique. T- and B-lymphocytes from FIP patients exhibit higher expression of both subunits (CD11a and CD18) composing the β2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. In addition, the expression of the α4 subunit (CD49d) of the β1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 was elevated on B-lymphocytes from FIP patients. The expression of CD11b and CD18, that combine to form the β2 integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), was elevated on monocytes, whereas the density of CD49d was reduced on this population in FIP. Granulocytes of FIP cats displayed an increased expression of the α chain of Mac-1 (CD11b). These observations suggest that leukocytes from FIP patients show signs of systemic activation causing them to extravasate into surrounding tissues and ultimately contribute to pyogranuloma formation seen in FIP.

  16. Differential expression of cell adhesion molecules in an ionizing radiation-induced breast cancer model system.

    PubMed

    Calaf, Gloria M; Roy, Debasish; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Balajee, Adayabalam S

    2013-07-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is mediated by members of the cadherin-catenin system and among them E-cadherin and β-catenin are important adhesion molecules for epithelial cell function and preservation of tissue integrity. To investigate the importance of cell adhesion molecules in breast carcinogenesis, we developed an in vitro breast cancer model system wherein immortalized human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F, was malignantly transformed by exposure to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) α particle radiation (150 keV/µm) and subsequent growth in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol. This model consisted of human breast epithelial cells in different stages of transformation: i) parental cell line MCF-10F; ii) MCF-l0F continuously grown with estradiol at 10(-8) (Estrogen); iii) a non-malignant cell line (Alpha3); and iv) a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (Alpha5) and the Tumor2 cell line derived from the nude mouse xenograft of the Alpha5 cell line. Expression levels of important cell adhesion molecules such as α-catenin, β-catenin, γ-catenin, E-cadherin and integrin were found to be higher at the protein level in the Alpha5 and Tumor2 cell lines relative to these levels in the non-tumorigenic MCF-10F, Estrogen and Alpha3 cell lines. In corroboration, cDNA expression analysis revealed elevated levels of genes involved in the cell adhesion function [E-cadherin, integrin β6 and desmocollin3 (DSc3)] in the Alpha5 and Tumor2 cell lines relative to the levels in the MCF-10F, Estrogen and Alpha3 cell lines. Collectively, our results suggest that cell adhesion molecules are expressed at higher levels in malignantly transformed breast epithelial cells relative to levels in non-malignant cells. However, reduced levels of adhesion molecules observed in the mouse xenograft-derived Tumor 2 cell line compared to the pre-tumorigenic Alpha5 cell line suggests that the altered expression levels of adhesion molecules depend on the tumor tissue

  17. Amygdalin blocks the in vitro adhesion and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells by an integrin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Juengel, Eva; Afschar, Masud; Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Tsaur, Igor; Mani, Jens; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-03-01

    Information about the natural compound amygdalin, which is employed as an antitumor agent, is sparse and thus its efficacy remains controversial. In this study, to determine whether amygdalin exerts antitumor effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, its impact on RCC metastatic activity was investigated. The RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, were exposed to amygdalin from apricot kernels, and adhesion to human vascular endothelium, immobilized collagen or fibronectin was investigated. The influence of amygdalin on chemotactic and invasive activity was also determined, as was the influence of amygdalin on surface and total cellular α and β integrin expression, which are involved in metastasis. We noted that amygdalin caused significant reductions in chemotactic activity, invasion and adhesion to endothelium, collagen and fibronectin. Using FACScan analysis, we noted that amygdalin also induced reductions, particularly in integrins α5 and α6, in all three cell lines. Functional blocking of α5 resulted in significantly diminished adhesion of KTC-26 and A498 to collagen and also in decreased chemotactic behavior in all three cell lines. Blocking α6 integrin significantly reduced chemotactic activity in all three cell lines. Thus, we suggest that exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibits metastatic spread and is associated with downregulation of α5 and α6 integrins. Therefore, we posit that amygdalin exerts antitumor activity in vitro, and this may be linked to integrin regulation.

  18. Mutations in the Drosophila alphaPS2 integrin subunit uncover new features of adhesion site assembly.

    PubMed

    Devenport, Danelle; Bunch, Thomas A; Bloor, James W; Brower, Danny L; Brown, Nicholas H

    2007-08-15

    The Drosophila alphaPS2betaPS integrin is required for diverse development events, including muscle attachment. We characterized six unusual mutations in the alphaPS2 gene that cause a subset of the null phenotype. One mutation changes a residue in alphaPS2 that is equivalent to the residue in alphaV that contacts the arginine of RGD. This change severely reduced alphaPS2betaPS affinity for soluble ligand, abolished the ability of the integrin to recruit laminin to muscle attachment sites in the embryo and caused detachment of integrins and talin from the ECM. Three mutations that alter different parts of the alphaPS2 beta-propeller, plus a fourth that eliminated a late phase of alphaPS2 expression, all led to a strong decrease in alphaPS2betaPS at muscle ends, but, surprisingly, normal levels of talin were recruited. Thus, although talin recruitment requires alphaPS2betaPS, talin levels are not simply specified by the amount of integrin at the adhesive junction. These mutations caused detachment of talin and actin from integrins, suggesting that the integrin-talin link is weaker than the ECM-integrin link.

  19. Dimerization of Cell-Adhesion Molecules Can Increase Their Binding Strength.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenmao; Qin, Meng; Li, Ying; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-14

    Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) often exist as homodimers under physiological conditions. However, owing to steric hindrance, simultaneous binding of two ligands to the homodimers at the same location can hardly be satisfied, and the molecular mechanism underlying this natural design is still unknown. Here, we present a theoretical model to understand the rupture behavior of cell-adhesion bonds formed by multiple binding ligands with a single receptor. We found that the dissociation forces for the cell-adhesion bond could be greatly enhanced in comparison with the monomer case through a ligand rebinding and exchange mechanism. We also confirmed this prediction by measuring dimeric cRGD (cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp) unbinding from integrin (αvβ3) using atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy. Our finding addresses the mechanism of increasing the binding strength of cell-adhesion bonds through dimerization at the single-molecule level, representing a key step toward the understanding of complicated cell-adhesion behaviors. Moreover, our results also highlight a wealth of opportunities to design mechanically stronger bioconjunctions for drug delivery, biolabeling, and surface modification.

  20. Integrin-dependent cell adhesion to neutrophil extracellular traps through engagement of fibronectin in neutrophil-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Marcello; Iommelli, Francesca; De Rosa, Viviana; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Miceli, Roberta; Camerlingo, Rosa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), originally recognized as a host defense mechanism, were reported to promote thrombosis and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we tested the role of integrins α5β1 and ανβ3 in the adhesion of cancer cells to NETs. Neutrophil-like cells stimulated with calcium ionophore (A23187) were used as a stable source of cell-free NETs-enriched suspensions. Using NETs as an adhesion substrate, two human K562 cell lines, differentially expressing α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins, were subjected to adhesion assays in the presence or absence of DNAse 1, blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3, alone or in combination with DNAse 1, and Proteinase K. As expected DNAse 1 treatment strongly inhibited adhesion of both cell lines to NETs. An equivalent significant reduction of cell adhesion to NETs was obtained after treatment of cells with blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3 indicating that both integrins were able to mediate cell adhesion to NETs. Furthermore, the combination of DNAse 1 and anti-integrin antibody treatment almost completely blocked cell adhesion. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments showed a dose-dependent increase of fibronectin levels in samples from stimulated neutrophil-like cells and a direct or indirect interaction of fibronectin with histone H3. Finally, co-immunolocalization studies with confocal microscopy showed that fibronectin and citrullinated histone H3 co-localize inside the web-structure of NETs. In conclusion, our study showed that α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins mediate cell adhesion to NETs by binding to their common substrate fibronectin. Therefore, in addition to mechanical trapping and aspecific adsorption of different cell types driven by DNA/histone complexes, NETs may provide specific binding sites for integrin-mediated cell adhesion of neutrophils, platelets, endothelial and cancer cells thus promoting intimate interactions among these cells. PMID:28166238

  1. Integrin-dependent cell adhesion to neutrophil extracellular traps through engagement of fibronectin in neutrophil-like cells.

    PubMed

    Monti, Marcello; Iommelli, Francesca; De Rosa, Viviana; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Miceli, Roberta; Camerlingo, Rosa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), originally recognized as a host defense mechanism, were reported to promote thrombosis and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we tested the role of integrins α5β1 and ανβ3 in the adhesion of cancer cells to NETs. Neutrophil-like cells stimulated with calcium ionophore (A23187) were used as a stable source of cell-free NETs-enriched suspensions. Using NETs as an adhesion substrate, two human K562 cell lines, differentially expressing α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins, were subjected to adhesion assays in the presence or absence of DNAse 1, blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3, alone or in combination with DNAse 1, and Proteinase K. As expected DNAse 1 treatment strongly inhibited adhesion of both cell lines to NETs. An equivalent significant reduction of cell adhesion to NETs was obtained after treatment of cells with blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3 indicating that both integrins were able to mediate cell adhesion to NETs. Furthermore, the combination of DNAse 1 and anti-integrin antibody treatment almost completely blocked cell adhesion. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments showed a dose-dependent increase of fibronectin levels in samples from stimulated neutrophil-like cells and a direct or indirect interaction of fibronectin with histone H3. Finally, co-immunolocalization studies with confocal microscopy showed that fibronectin and citrullinated histone H3 co-localize inside the web-structure of NETs. In conclusion, our study showed that α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins mediate cell adhesion to NETs by binding to their common substrate fibronectin. Therefore, in addition to mechanical trapping and aspecific adsorption of different cell types driven by DNA/histone complexes, NETs may provide specific binding sites for integrin-mediated cell adhesion of neutrophils, platelets, endothelial and cancer cells thus promoting intimate interactions among these cells.

  2. Apigenin Attenuates Melanoma Cell Migration by Inducing Anoikis through Integrin and Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Ji Hong; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-11-27

    Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and is therefore particularly relevant for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for cancers. In this study, time- and dose-dependent cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed to determine the effects of apigenin on A2058 and A375 melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were pretreated with different concentrations of apigenin and analyzed for morphological changes, anoikis induction, cell migration, and levels of proteins associated with apoptosis. Apigenin reduced integrin protein levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), which induce anoikis in human cutaneous melanoma cells. Apigenin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell migration, unlike untreated controls. Furthermore, apigenin treatment increased apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the metastasis of melanoma cells. Our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which apigenin prevents melanoma metastasis by sensitizing anoikis induced by the loss of integrin proteins in the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings elucidate the related mechanisms and suggest the potential of apigenin in developing clinical treatment strategies against malignant melanoma.

  3. The Ret receptor regulates sensory neuron dendrite growth and integrin mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Soba, Peter; Han, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Perea, Daniel; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2015-01-01

    Neurons develop highly stereotyped receptive fields by coordinated growth of their dendrites. Although cell surface cues play a major role in this process, few dendrite specific signals have been identified to date. We conducted an in vivo RNAi screen in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) neurons and identified the conserved Ret receptor, known to play a role in axon guidance, as an important regulator of dendrite development. The loss of Ret results in severe dendrite defects due to loss of extracellular matrix adhesion, thus impairing growth within a 2D plane. We provide evidence that Ret interacts with integrins to regulate dendrite adhesion via rac1. In addition, Ret is required for dendrite stability and normal F-actin distribution suggesting it has an essential role in dendrite maintenance. We propose novel functions for Ret as a regulator in dendrite patterning and adhesion distinct from its role in axon guidance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05491.001 PMID:25764303

  4. Therapeutic antagonists and conformational regulation of integrin function.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-01

    Integrins are a structurally elaborate family of adhesion molecules that transmit signals bi-directionally across the plasma membrane by undergoing large-scale structural rearrangements. By regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, integrins participate in a wide range of biological processes, including development, tissue repair, angiogenesis, inflammation and haemostasis. From a therapeutic standpoint, integrins are probably the most important class of cell-adhesion receptors. Recent progress in the development of integrin antagonists has resulted in their clinical application and has shed new light on integrin biology. On the basis of their mechanism of action, small-molecule integrin antagonists fall into three different classes. Each of these classes affect the equilibria that relate integrin conformational states, but in different ways.

  5. A novel region of the alpha4 integrin subunit with a modulatory role in VLA-4-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Serrador, J; Nieto, M; Luque, A; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Teixidó, J

    1997-11-01

    The integrin VLA-4 (alpha4 beta1) is a receptor for fibronectin and vascular cell-adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Four functionally different epitopes, designated A, B1, B2 and C, have previously been defined on the alpha4 subunit. Using K562 alpha4 mutant transfectants we found that alpha4 amino acids Tyr151, Gln152, Asp153, Tyr154 and Val155 are important for the structure of the epitope B2. Mutations at alpha4 Gln152 substantially impaired the transfectant adhesion to a CS-1-containing fragment of fibronectin (FN-H89), whereas this adhesion was not affected on the other alpha4 mutant transfectants. None of the alpha4 mutations significantly altered the adhesion of the different alpha4 transfectants to VCAM-1. In addition, we have identified residues Gln152, Asp153 and Tyr154 as part of the alpha4 epitope B2 involved in homotypic cell aggregation. The decrease in adhesion to FN-H89 shown by Gln152 alpha4 mutant transfectants was the result of an inefficient binding of FN-H89 by VLA-4 mutated at this residue. Also, mutant VLA-4 displayed an altered reactivity with HUTS-21, an anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody that reacts with functionally active VLA integrins. Adhesion to FN-H89 was not restored unless stimuli that increase the ligand-binding affinity of VLA heterodimers were added, suggesting that cell adhesion was affected in the initial phases. These results indicate that alpha4 Gln152 modulates cell adhesion to FN-H89 by playing important roles in the maintenance and/or the acquisition of an active state of VLA-4, an integrin that is normally expressed on the cell surface in a range of multiple activation states. The location of the alpha4 Gln152 residue on a loop of the upper surface of the proposed beta-propeller structure suggests a close association with potential ligand-binding sites.

  6. A novel region of the alpha4 integrin subunit with a modulatory role in VLA-4-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M; Serrador, J; Nieto, M; Luque, A; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Teixidó, J

    1997-01-01

    The integrin VLA-4 (alpha4 beta1) is a receptor for fibronectin and vascular cell-adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Four functionally different epitopes, designated A, B1, B2 and C, have previously been defined on the alpha4 subunit. Using K562 alpha4 mutant transfectants we found that alpha4 amino acids Tyr151, Gln152, Asp153, Tyr154 and Val155 are important for the structure of the epitope B2. Mutations at alpha4 Gln152 substantially impaired the transfectant adhesion to a CS-1-containing fragment of fibronectin (FN-H89), whereas this adhesion was not affected on the other alpha4 mutant transfectants. None of the alpha4 mutations significantly altered the adhesion of the different alpha4 transfectants to VCAM-1. In addition, we have identified residues Gln152, Asp153 and Tyr154 as part of the alpha4 epitope B2 involved in homotypic cell aggregation. The decrease in adhesion to FN-H89 shown by Gln152 alpha4 mutant transfectants was the result of an inefficient binding of FN-H89 by VLA-4 mutated at this residue. Also, mutant VLA-4 displayed an altered reactivity with HUTS-21, an anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody that reacts with functionally active VLA integrins. Adhesion to FN-H89 was not restored unless stimuli that increase the ligand-binding affinity of VLA heterodimers were added, suggesting that cell adhesion was affected in the initial phases. These results indicate that alpha4 Gln152 modulates cell adhesion to FN-H89 by playing important roles in the maintenance and/or the acquisition of an active state of VLA-4, an integrin that is normally expressed on the cell surface in a range of multiple activation states. The location of the alpha4 Gln152 residue on a loop of the upper surface of the proposed beta-propeller structure suggests a close association with potential ligand-binding sites. PMID:9581549

  7. Ambroxol inhibits neutrophil respiratory burst activated by alpha chain integrin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peroni, D G; Moser, S; Gallo, G; Pigozzi, R; Tenero, L; Zanoni, L; Boner, A L; Piacentini, G L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible anti-oxidant effect(s) of Ambroxol on neutrophils activated by ligand-binding of the drug with membrane-associated adhesion integrin CD11a and to estimate dose-response changes in oxygen free radical production. The amount of free radical production by anti-CD11a- and anti-CD4-coated neutrophils stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and challenged with increasing concentration of Ambroxol, was evaluated within a time frame of 90 minutes. A significant dose-dependent effect response of Ambroxol on O2‾ production by cells coated with anti-CD11a antibody was observed. This preliminary study opens a new perspective on the therapeutic role of Ambroxol as an antioxidant drug and for its potential use in controlling oxidative stress, particularly in leukocyte-dependent inflammation.

  8. Effects of Himatanthus lancifolius on human leukocyte chemotaxis and their adhesion to integrins.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Jeanine Marie; de Souza, Wesley Maurício; Lopes, Juliano Ferreira; Florão, Angela; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbiré; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the uleine-rich fraction extracted from the barks of Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae). To achieve this, we focused on its in vitro effects on some steps of the inflammatory response using peripheral human leukocytes. The results presented herein show that the uleine-rich fraction significantly inhibits the migration of casein-induced granulocytes and their adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin, along with mononuclear cells, by down-regulating the expression of alpha 4beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins. The data suggest that H. LANCIFOLIUS has the potential of interferring with leukocyte trafficking through its uleine-rich fraction, emphasizing its usefulness in inflammatory conditions. DEXA:dexamethasone disodium phosphate FN:fibronectin PMN:polymorphonuclear URF:uleine-rich fraction VN:vitronectin.

  9. Bacterial genotoxins promote inside-out integrin β1 activation, formation of focal adhesion complexes and cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Levi, Laura; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Patarroyo, Manuel; Frisan, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are membrane bound receptors that regulate several cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, migration, survival and proliferation, and may contribute to tumor initiation/progression in cells exposed to genotoxic stress. The extent of integrin activation and its role in cell survival upon intoxication with bacterial genotoxins are still poorly characterized. These toxins induce DNA strand breaks in the target cells and activate the DNA damage response (DDR), coordinated by the Ataxia Telangectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase. In the present study, we demonstrate that induction of DNA damage by two bacterial genotoxins promotes activation of integrin β1, leading to enhanced assembly of focal adhesions and cell spreading on fibronectin, but not on vitronectin. This phenotype is mediated by an ATM-dependent inside-out integrin signaling, and requires the actin cytoskeleton remodeler NET1. The toxin-mediated cell spreading and anchorage-independent survival further relies on ALIX and TSG101, two components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), known to regulate integrin intracellular trafficking. These data reveal a novel aspect of the cellular response to bacterial genotoxins, and provide new tools to understand the carcinogenic potential of these effectors in the context of chronic intoxication and infection.

  10. Regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and integrin cell substratum adhesion receptors on epithelium during cutaneous human wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, I.; Murphy, G. F.; Yan, H. C.; Herlyn, M.; Albelda, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Although changes in extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing have been well documented, little is known about the regulation of corresponding extracellular matrix adhesion receptors (integrins). To study this process in a human in vivo model, full thickness human skin grafts were transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficient mice and deep excisional wounds involving both the epidermal and dermal layers were then made. The changes in the expression of cell matrix proteins and epithelial integrins over time were analyzed with specific antibodies using immunohistochemistry. Wounding was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix proteins, namely, loss of laminin and type IV collagen in the region of the wound and expression of tenascin and fibronectin. Changes were also noted in the integrins on the migrating keratinocytes. There was marked up-regulation of the alpha v subunit and de novo expression of the fibronectin receptor (alpha 5 beta 1) during the stage of active migration (days 1 to 3 after wounding). In the later stages of wound healing, after epithelial integrity had been established, redistribution of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 4 collagen/laminin-binding integrin subunits to suprabasal epidermal layers was noted. Thus, during cutaneous wound healing, keratinocytes up-regulate fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding integrins and redistribute collagen/laminin-binding integrins. This study demonstrates that the human skin/severe combined immunodeficient chimera provides a useful model to study events during human wound repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7694470

  11. Dual interaction of JAM-C with JAM-B and alpha(M)beta2 integrin: function in junctional complexes and leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lamagna, Chrystelle; Meda, Paolo; Mandicourt, Guillaume; Brown, James; Gilbert, Robert J C; Jones, E Yvonne; Kiefer, Friedemann; Ruga, Pilar; Imhof, Beat A; Aurrand-Lions, Michel

    2005-10-01

    The junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) have been recently described as interendothelial junctional molecules and as integrin ligands. Here we show that JAM-B and JAM-C undergo heterophilic interaction in cell-cell contacts and that JAM-C is recruited and stabilized in junctional complexes by JAM-B. In addition, soluble JAM-B dissociates soluble JAM-C homodimers to form JAM-B/JAM-C heterodimers. This suggests that the affinity of JAM-C monomers to form dimers is higher for JAM-B than for JAM-C. Using antibodies against JAM-C, the formation of JAM-B/JAM-C heterodimers can be abolished. This liberates JAM-C from its vascular binding partner JAM-B and makes it available on the apical side of vessels for interaction with its leukocyte counter-receptor alpha(M)beta2 integrin. We demonstrate that the modulation of JAM-C localization in junctional complexes is a new regulatory mechanism for alpha(M)beta2-dependent adhesion of leukocytes.

  12. B-LINK: A hemicentin, plakin and integrin-dependent adhesion system that links tissues by connecting adjacent basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Meghan A.; Keeley, Daniel P.; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; McClatchey, Shelly T. H.; Chi, Qiuyi; Hall, David H.; Sherwood, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Basement membrane (BM), a sheet-like form of extracellular matrix, surrounds most tissues. During organogenesis specific adhesions between adjoining tissues frequently occur, however their molecular basis is unclear. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we identify an adhesion system that connects the uterine and gonadal tissues through their juxtaposed BMs at the site of anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans. We find that the extracellular matrix component hemicentin (HIM-4), found between BMs, forms punctate accumulations under the AC and controls BM linkage to promote rapid invasion. Through targeted screening we identify the integrin-binding cytolinker plakin (VAB-10A) and integrin (INA-1/PAT-3) as key BM-BM linkage regulators: VAB-10A localizes to the AC-BM interface and tethers hemicentin to the AC while integrin promotes hemicentin punctae formation. Together, plakin, integrin and hemicentin are founding components of a cell-directed adhesion system, which we name a B-LINK (Basement membrane-LINKage), that connects adjacent tissues through adjoining BMs. PMID:25443298

  13. Changes in single-molecule integrin dynamics linked to local cellular behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jaqaman, Khuloud; Galbraith, James A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Galbraith, Catherine G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in light microscopy permit visualization of the behavior of individual molecules within dense macromolecular ensembles in live cells. It is now conceptually possible to relate the dynamic organization of molecular machinery to cellular function. However, inherent heterogeneities, as well as disparities between spatial and temporal scales, pose substantial challenges in deriving such a relationship. New approaches are required to link discrete single-molecule behavior with continuous cellular-level processes. Here we combined intercalated molecular and cellular imaging with a computational framework to detect reproducible transient changes in the behavior of individual molecules that are linked to cellular behaviors. Applying our approach to integrin transmembrane receptors revealed a spatial density gradient underlying characteristic molecular density increases and mobility decreases, indicating the subsequent onset of local protrusive activity. Integrin mutants further revealed that these density and mobility transients are separable and depend on different binding domains within the integrin cytoplasmic tail. Our approach provides a generalizable paradigm for dissecting dynamic spatiotemporal molecular behaviors linked to local cellular events. PMID:27009207

  14. Magnetically Tuning Tether Mobility of Integrin Ligand Regulates Adhesion, Spreading, and Differentiation of Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dexter S H; Li, Jinming; Yan, Xiaohui; Wang, Ben; Li, Rui; Zhang, Li; Bian, Liming

    2017-03-08

    Cells sense and respond to the surrounding microenvironment through binding of membranous integrin to ligands such as the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Previous studies show that the RGD tether properties on substrate influence cell adhesion and spreading, but few studies have reported strategies to control the tether mobility of RGD on substrate via a physical and noncontact approach. Herein, we demonstrate a novel strategy to tune the tether mobility of RGD on substrate via magnetic force. We conjugate a monolayer of RGD-bearing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on a glass substrate via the flexible and coiled poly(ethylene glycol) linker of large molecular weight (PEG, average MW: 2000), and this increases the RGD tether mobility, which can be significantly reduced by applying magnetic attraction on MNPs. Our data show that high RGD tether mobility delays the early adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), leading to compromised osteogenic differentiation at later stage. In contrast, hMSCs cultured on substrate with restricted RGD tether mobility, achieved either via a shorter PEG linker (MW: 200) or magnetic force, show significantly better adhesion, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. The control utilizing RGD-bearing nonmagnetic nanoparticles shows no such enhancing effect of magnetic field on cellular events, further supporting our conjecture of magnetic tuning of RGD tether mobility. We hypothesize that high tether mobility of RGD entails additional time and effort by the cells to fully develop traction force and mechanical feedback, thereby delaying the maturation of FAs and activation of subsequent mechanotransduction signaling. Our staining results of vinculin, a critical component of FAs, and Yes-associated protein (YAP), an important mechanosensitive transcriptional factor, support our hypothesis. We believe that our work not only sheds light on the impact of dynamic presentation of cell adhesive ligands on cellular behaviors

  15. Galphas-coupled receptor signaling actively down-regulates α4β1-integrin affinity: A possible mechanism for cell de-adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chigaev, Alexandre; Waller, Anna; Amit, Or; Sklar, Larry A

    2008-01-01

    Background Activation of integrins in response to inside-out signaling serves as a basis for leukocyte arrest on endothelium, and migration of immune cells. Integrin-dependent adhesion is controlled by the conformational state of the molecule (i.e. change in the affinity for the ligand and molecular unbending (extension)), which is regulated by seven-transmembrane Guanine nucleotide binding Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). α4β1-integrin (CD49d/CD29, Very Late Antigen-4, VLA-4) is expressed on leukocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, hematopoietic cancer cells, and others. Affinity and extension of VLA-4 are both rapidly up-regulated by inside-out signaling through several Gαi-coupled GPCRs. The goal of the current report was to study the effect of Gαs-coupled GPCRs upon integrin activation. Results Using real-time fluorescent ligand binding to assess affinity and a FRET based assay to probe α4β1-integrin unbending, we show that two Gαs-coupled GPCRs (H2-histamine receptor and β2-adrenergic receptor) as well as several cAMP agonists can rapidly down modulate the affinity of VLA-4 activated through two Gαi-coupled receptors (CXCR4 and FPR) in U937 cells and primary human peripheral blood monocytes. This down-modulation can be blocked by receptor-specific antagonists. The Gαs-induced responses were not associated with changes in the expression level of the Gαi-coupled receptors. In contrast, the molecular unbending of VLA-4 was not significantly affected by Gαs-coupled GPCR signaling. In a VLA-4/VCAM-1-specific myeloid cell adhesion system, inhibition of the VLA-4 affinity change by Gαs-coupled GPCR had a statistically significant effect upon cell aggregation. Conclusion We conclude that Gαs-coupled GPCRs can rapidly down modulate the affinity state of VLA-4 binding pocket through a cAMP dependent pathway. This plays an essential role in the regulation of cell adhesion. We discuss several possible implications of this described phenomenon. PMID:18534032

  16. Mutant p53 promotes ovarian cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells via integrin β4 and Akt signals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Gyu; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Jin Kim, Tae; Ho Lee, Jae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-07-30

    Missense mutations in the TP53 gene resulting in the accumulation of mutant proteins are extremely common in advanced ovarian cancer, which is characterised by peritoneal metastasis. Attachment of cancer cells to the peritoneal mesothelium is regarded as an initial, key step for the metastatic spread of ovarian cancer. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of a p53 mutant in the mesothelial adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. We found that OVCAR-3 cells with the R248 TP53 mutation (p53(R248)) were more adhesive to mesothelial Met5A cells than were A2780 cells expressing wild-type p53. In addition, ectopic expression of p53(R248) in p53-null SKOV-3 cells significantly increased adhesion to Met5A cells. Knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised p53(R248)-induced cell adhesion to Met5A cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several adhesion-related genes, including integrin β4, were markedly up-regulated, and certain signalling pathways, including PI3K/Akt, were activated in p53(R248) transfectants of SKOV-3 cells. Inhibition of integrin β4 and Akt signalling using blocking antibody and the inhibitor LY294002, respectively, significantly attenuated p53(R248)-mediated ovarian cancer-mesothelial adhesion. These data suggest that the p53(R248) mutant endows ovarian cancer cells with increased adhesiveness and that integrin β4 and Akt signalling are associated with the mutation-enhanced ovarian cancer-mesothelial cell adhesion.

  17. Circulating adhesion molecules in obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pak, Victoria M; Grandner, Michael A; Pack, Allan I

    2014-02-01

    Over 20 years of evidence indicates a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Although inflammatory processes have been heavily implicated as an important link between the two, the mechanism for this has not been conclusively established. Atherosclerosis may be one of the mechanisms linking OSA to cardiovascular morbidity. This review addresses the role of circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA, and how these may be part of the link between cardiovascular disease and OSA. There is evidence for the role of adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease risk. Some studies, albeit with small sample sizes, also show higher levels of adhesion molecules in patients with OSA compared to controls. There are also studies that show that levels of adhesion molecules diminish with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Limitations of these studies include small sample sizes, cross-sectional sampling, and inconsistent control for confounding variables known to influence adhesion molecule levels. There are potential novel therapies to reduce circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA to diminish cardiovascular disease. Understanding the role of cell adhesion molecules generated in OSA will help elucidate one mechanistic link to cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-4 and CD36 are implicated in the abnormal adhesiveness of sickle cell SAD mouse erythrocytes to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Trang-Tan, Marie-Marcelle; Vilela-Lamego, Camilo; Picot, Julien; Wautier, Marie-Paule; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal adhesiveness of red blood cells to endothelium has been implicated in vaso-occlusive crisis of sickle cell disease. The present study examined whether the SAD mouse model exhibits the same abnormalities of red blood cell adhesion as those found in human sickle cell disease. Design and Methods The repertoire of adhesive molecules on murine erythrocytes and bEnd.3 microvascular endothelial cells was determined by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies or by western blotting. Adhesion was investigated in dynamic conditions and measured at different shear stresses. Results CD36, CD47 and intercellular adhesion molecular-4, but not Lutheran blood group antigen/basal cell adhesion molecule, are present on mouse mature erythrocytes. α4β1 are not expressed on SAD and wild type reticulocytes. Endothelial bEnd.3 cells express αVβ3, α4β1, CD47, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and Lutheran blood group antigen/basal cell adhesion molecule, but not CD36. Adhesion of SAD red cells is: (i) 2- to 3-fold higher than that of wild type red cells; (ii) further increased on platelet activating factor-activated endothelium; (iii) not stimulated by epinephrine; (iv) inhibited after treating the endothelium with a peptide reproducing one of the binding sequences of mouse intercellular adhesion molecular-4, or with mon-oclonal antibody against murine αv integrin; and (v) inhibited after pretreatment of red blood cells with anti-mouse CD36 monoclonal antibodies. The combination of treatments with intercellular adhesion molecular-4 peptide and anti-CD36 monoclonal antibodies eliminates excess adhesion of SAD red cells. The phosphorylation state of intercellular adhesion molecular-4 and CD36 is probably not involved in the over-adhesiveness of SAD erythrocytes. Conclusions Intercellular adhesion molecular-4/αvβ3 and CD36/thrombospondin interactions might contribute to the abnormally high adhesiveness of SAD red cells. The SAD mouse is a valuable animal model

  19. Integrin-based therapeutics: biological basis, clinical use and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Ley, Klaus; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Sandborn, William J; Shattil, Sanford

    2016-03-01

    Integrins are activatable molecules that are involved in adhesion and signalling. Of the 24 known human integrins, 3 are currently targeted therapeutically by monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules: drugs targeting the platelet αIIbβ3 integrin are used to prevent thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions, and compounds targeting the lymphocyte α4β1 and α4β7 integrins have indications in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. New antibodies and small molecules targeting β7 integrins (α4β7 and αEβ7 integrins) and their ligands are in clinical development for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Integrin-based therapeutics have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients, leading to continued medical interest in the further development of novel integrin inhibitors. Of note, almost all integrin antagonists in use or in late-stage clinical trials target either the ligand-binding site or the ligand itself.

  20. [Role of "leukocyte adhesion molecules" in early periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Vierucci, S

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on functional characteristics of leukocyte adhesion molecules, on their localization and specific ligands. In fact, leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelium is an essential step in promoting adequate immune response to bacterial infections. Since periodontal health is highly dependent on neutrophil function against the microbial dental plaque, defects in chemotaxis and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium often result in severe, early onset periodontitis. Furthermore, oral lesions may be the only clinical manifestation of neutrophil impairment.

  1. Cell adhesion molecules: detection with univalent second antibody

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against certain cell surface molecules of Dictyostelium discoideum blocks cell-cell adhesion when the in vitro assay is performed in the presence of univalent goat anti-rabbit antibody. Under appropriate experimental conditions, the univalent second antibody blocks agglutination induced by the rabbit antibody without significantly interfering with its effect on cell-cell adhesion. This method promises to be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies raised against potential cell adhesion molecules because: (a) it allows for the screening of large numbers of antibody samples without preparation of univalent fragments; and (b) it requires much less antibody because of the greater affinity of divalent antibodies for antigens. PMID:6970200

  2. Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors essential for multicellular life. They connect cells to the extracellular environment and transduce chemical and mechanical signals to and from the cell. Intracellular proteins that bind the integrin cytoplasmic tail regulate integrin engagement of extracellular ligands as well as integrin localization and trafficking. Cytoplasmic integrin-binding proteins also function downstream of integrins, mediating links to the cytoskeleton and to signaling cascades that impact cell motility, growth, and survival. Here, we review key integrin-interacting proteins and their roles in regulating integrin activity, localization, and signaling. PMID:24467163

  3. Therapeutic effects of tyroservatide on metastasis of lung cancer and its mechanism affecting integrin-focal adhesion kinase signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Lan; Fu, Zheng; Zhao, Meng; Song, Xiao-meng; Jia, Jing; Wang, Song; Li, Jin-ping; Zhu, Zhi-feng; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Tyroservatide (YSV) can inhibit the growth and metastasis of mouse lung cancer significantly. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of tripeptide YSV on metastasis of human lung cancer cells and explored its possible mechanism that affects integrin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signal transduction in tumor cells. YSV significantly inhibited the adhesion and the invasion of highly metastatic human lung cancer cell lines 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299. In addition, YSV significantly inhibited phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 and FAK Tyr576/577 in the 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells in vitro. And the mRNA level and protein expression of FAK in these human lung cancer cells decreased at the same time. YSV also significantly inhibited mRNA and protein levels of integrin β1 and integrin β3 in the 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells. Our research showed that YSV inhibited adhesion and invasion of human lung cancer cells and exhibited therapeutic effects on metastasis of lung cancer.

  4. Structure of the F-spondin domain of mindin, an integrin ligand and pattern recognition molecule.

    PubMed

    Li, Yili; Cao, Chunzhang; Jia, Wei; Yu, Lily; Mo, Min; Wang, Qian; Huang, Yuping; Lim, Jae-Min; Ishihara, Mayumi; Wells, Lance; Azadi, Parastoo; Robinson, Howard; He, You-Wen; Zhang, Li; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2009-02-04

    Mindin (spondin-2) is an extracellular matrix protein of unknown structure that is required for efficient T-cell priming by dendritic cells. Additionally, mindin functions as a pattern recognition molecule for initiating innate immune responses. These dual functions are mediated by interactions with integrins and microbial pathogens, respectively. Mindin comprises an N-terminal F-spondin (FS) domain and C-terminal thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR). We determined the structure of the FS domain at 1.8-A resolution. The structure revealed an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-sandwich motif resembling that of membrane-targeting C2 domains, including a bound calcium ion. We demonstrated that the FS domain mediates integrin binding and identified the binding site by mutagenesis. The mindin FS domain therefore represents a new integrin ligand. We further showed that mindin recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through its TSR domain, and obtained evidence that C-mannosylation of the TSR influences LPS binding. Through these dual interactions, the FS and TSR domains of mindin promote activation of both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  5. Adhesion Molecule-Modified Biomaterials for Neural Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shreyas S.; Winter, Jessica O.

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored. PMID:19668707

  6. Glioblastoma expression of vitronectin and the alpha v beta 3 integrin. Adhesion mechanism for transformed glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gladson, C L; Cheresh, D A

    1991-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant astroglial-derived tumor, grows as an adherent mass and locally invades normal brain. An examination of adult cerebral glioblastoma biopsy material for the expression of adhesive proteins that might potentiate adhesion and invasion demonstrated tumor cell-associated vitronectin (5/5). In contrast, vitronectin was not detected associated with glial cells in low grade astroglial tumors (0/4), reactive astrogliosis (0/4), or in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter (0/5). Also, a wide variety of other adhesive ligands were absent from the glioblastoma tumor parenchyma. The alpha v beta 3 integrin was the only vitronectin receptor identified in glioblastoma tumors in situ, and was also not expressed on low grade astroglial-derived tumors, reactive astrogliosis, or on glia or neurons in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter. In a cell attachment assay, cultured glioblastoma cells attached to the parenchyma of glioblastoma tumor cryostat sections at the sites of vitronectin expression, but failed to attach to normal brain. This adhesion was inhibited by antibodies directed against vitronectin, the alpha v beta 3 integrin, and with an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. These data provide evidence for a cell adhesion mechanism in glioblastoma tumors that might potentiate glioblastoma cell invasion of normal brain. Images PMID:1721625

  7. Integrin activation and structural rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Junichi; Springer, Timothy A

    2002-08-01

    Among adhesion receptor families, integrins are particularly important in biological processes that require rapid modulation of adhesion and de-adhesion. Activation on a timescale of < 1 s of beta2 integrins on leukocytes and beta3 integrins on platelets enables deposition of these cells at sites of inflammation or vessel wall injury. Recent crystal, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electron microscope (EM) structures of integrins and their domains lead to a unifying mechanism of activation for both integrins that contain and those that lack an inserted (I) domain. The I domain adopts two alternative conformations, termed open and closed. In striking similarity to signaling G-proteins, rearrangement of a Mg2+-binding site is linked to large conformational movements in distant backbone regions. Mutations that stabilize a particular conformation show that the open conformation has high affinity for ligand, whereas the closed conformation has low affinity. Movement of the C-terminal alpha-helix 10 A down the side of the domain in the open conformation is sufficient to increase affinity at the distal ligand-binding site 9,000-fold. This C-terminal "bell-rope" provides a mechanism for linkage to conformational movements in other domains. Recent structures and functional studies reveal interactions between beta-propeller, I, and I-like domains in the integrin headpiece, and a critical role for integrin epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains in the stalk region. The headpiece of the integrin faces down towards the membrane in the inactive conformation, and extends upward in a "switchblade"-like opening upon activation. These long-range structural rearrangements of the entire integrin molecule involving interdomain contacts appear closely linked to conformational changes within the I and I-like domains, which result in increased affinity and competence for ligand binding.

  8. Immunohistochemistry of adhesion molecules, metalloproteinases and NO-synthases in extravillous trophoblast of tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dubernard, G; Galtier-Fougairolles, M; Cortez, A; Uzan, S; Challier, J C

    2005-12-12

    Trophoblast invasion in uterine pregnancy is fine-tuned for the remodelling of the uterine wall and its vascularization. Tubal pregnancy, which occurs in a limited number of patients, involves a dramatic trophoblast invasion in a context of a poor decidualization. By studying the histology of the extravillous trophoblast (EVC) in the anchoring villi, the Ki67 labelling, the location of several adhesion markers (cytokeratin-7, alpha1, alpha6, alphaV, beta1, beta4 integrin subunits and E-cadherin, V/E-cadherin), metalloproteinases (MMP-2, 9 and11), NOS2 and 3, we aimed to detect the specificity of tubal compared to intrauterine pregnancies. No difference could be observed between meso or anti-salpingial trophoblast proliferation or invasion using Ki67. Cytokeratin-7 allowed detection of spindle-shape EVCs and we identified some decidualized stromal cells. Integrins alpha1, beta1 and alphaV, and V/E-cadherin were expressed mainly in the distal EVC correspondingly to intrauterine pregnancy, with a poor expression of alpha1. Integrins alpha6 and beta4, E-cadherin were detected in the distal EVC in contrast to uterine pregnancy. MMP-2, 9, 11 were also shown in distal EVC. NOS2 and 3 labelled the perivascular EVC and NOS3 the endothelial cells of the tubal vessels. These changed distributions of adhesion molecules and MMP together with that of the basic and inducible NOS expressions could be related to mechanical effects in superficial implantation or to a failure of decidualization in tubal pregnancies.

  9. Anti-integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Eiji; Nakahashi, Susumu; Okamoto, Takayuki; Imai, Hiroshi; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are the foremost family of cell adhesion molecules that regulate immune cell trafficking in health and diseases. Integrin alpha4 mediates organ-specific migration of immune cells to the inflamed brain, thereby playing the critical role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Anti-alpha4 integrin therapy aiming to block infiltration of autoreactive lymphocytes to the inflamed brain has been validated in several clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This paper provides readers with an overview of the molecular and structural bases of integrin activation as well as rationale for using anti-alpha4 integrin therapy for multiple sclerosis and then chronicles the rise and fall of this treatment strategy using natalizumab, a humanized anti-alpha4 integrin.

  10. Tetraspanin 8 is a novel regulator of ILK-driven β1 integrin adhesion and signaling in invasive melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    El Kharbili, Manale; Robert, Clément; Witkowski, Tiffany; Danty-Berger, Emmanuelle; Barbollat-Boutrand, Laetitia; Masse, Ingrid; Gadot, Nicolas; de la Fouchardière, Arnaud; McDonald, Paul C; Dedhar, Shoukat; Le Naour, François; Degoul, Françoise; Berthier-Vergnes, Odile

    2017-02-04

    Melanoma is well known for its propensity for lethal metastasis and resistance to most current therapies. Tumor progression and drug resistance depend to a large extent on the interplay between tumor cells and the surrounding matrix. We previously identified Tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) as a critical mediator of melanoma invasion, whose expression is absent in healthy skin. The present study investigated whether Tspan8 may influence cell-matrix anchorage and regulate downstream molecular pathways leading to an aggressive behavior. Using silencing and ectopic expression strategies, we showed that Tspan8-mediated invasion of melanoma cells resulted from defects in cell-matrix anchorage by interacting with β1 integrins and by interfering with their clustering, without affecting their surface or global expression levels. These effects were associated with impaired phosphorylation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and its downstream target Akt-S473, but not FAK. Specific blockade of Akt or ILK activity strongly affected cell-matrix adhesion. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative form of ILK reduced β1 integrin clustering and cell-matrix adhesion. Finally, we observed a tumor-promoting effect of Tspan8 in vivo and a mutually exclusive expression pattern between Tspan8 and phosphorylated ILK in melanoma xenografts and human melanocytic lesions. Altogether, the in vitro, in vivo and in situ data highlight a novel regulatory role for Tspan8 in melanoma progression by modulating cell-matrix interactions through β1 integrin-ILK axis and establish Tspan8 as a negative regulator of ILK activity. These findings emphasize the importance of targeting Tspan8 as a means of switching from low- to firm-adhesive states, mandatory to prevent tumor dissemination.

  11. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ubiquitination—Functions and Significance

    PubMed Central

    Homrich, Mirka; Gotthard, Ingo; Wobst, Hilke; Diestel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily represent the biggest group of cell adhesion molecules. They have been analyzed since approximately 40 years ago and most of them have been shown to play a role in tumor progression and in the nervous system. All members of the Ig superfamily are intensively posttranslationally modified. However, many aspects of their cellular functions are not yet known. Since a few years ago it is known that some of the Ig superfamily members are modified by ubiquitin. Ubiquitination has classically been described as a proteasomal degradation signal but during the last years it became obvious that it can regulate many other processes including internalization of cell surface molecules and lysosomal sorting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the ubiquitination of cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily and to discuss its potential physiological roles in tumorigenesis and in the nervous system. PMID:26703751

  12. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric P; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Lee, Warren L; Downey, Gregory P

    2016-03-15

    This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling. The role of specific CAMs in the process of platelet aggregation and hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration will be reviewed as examples of the complex and cooperative interplay between CAMs during physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx and the glycobiology of this complex system related to inflammatory states such as sepsis will be reviewed. We will then focus on the role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of specific disease processes involving the lungs and cardiovascular system. The potential of targeting adhesion molecules in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases will be highlighted in the relevant sections throughout the manuscript.

  13. Distinct determinants on collagen support alpha 2 beta 1 integrin-mediated platelet adhesion and platelet activation.

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, S A; Walsh, J J; Staatz, W D; Baranski, K J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the sequence of amino acids asp-gly-glu-ala represents an essential determinant of the site within the alpha 1(I)-CB3 fragment of collagen recognized by the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell surface collagen receptor (Staatz et al., 1991). Studies employing chemical modifications of collagen amino acid side chains confirm both the essential nature of the acidic side chains of aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues and the nonessentiality of lysine epsilon-amino groups in supporting adhesion mediated by the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin. The approach also indicates the presence of a distinct determinant on collagen separate from the alpha 2 beta 1 recognition site that contains essential lysine side chains and that is necessary for subsequent interactions with the platelet surface that give rise to collagen-induced platelet activation and secretion. The two-step, two-site model for cellular signaling involving both an integrin and a signal-transducing coreceptor suggested by these data may be common to other integrin-mediated processes. PMID:1809397

  14. Focal Adhesion Kinase Regulates Fibroblast Migration via Integrin beta-1 and Plays a Central Role in Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Ke; Cheng, Yiju; Liang Cheng, Ming; Yu, Lei; Mu, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Baofang; Yao, Yumei; Guo, Hui; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-14

    Lung fibrosis is a major medical problem for the aging population worldwide. Fibroblast migration plays an important role in fibrosis. Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) senses the extracellular stimuli and initiates signaling cascades that promote cell migration. This study first examined the dose and time responses of FAK activation in human lung fibroblasts treated with platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB). The data indicate that FAK is directly recruited by integrin β1 and the subsequent FAK activation is required for fibroblast migration on fibronectin. In addition, the study has identified that α5β1 and α4β1 are the major integrins for FAK-mediated fibroblast migration on fibronect. In contrast, integrins αvβ3, αvβ6, and αvβ8 play a minor but distinct role in fibroblast migration on fibronectin. FAK inhibitor significantly reduces PDGF-BB stimulated fibroblast migration. Importantly, FAK inhibitor protects bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. FAK inhibitor blocks FAK activation and significantly reduces signaling cascade of fibroblast migration in bleomycin-challenged mice. Furthermore, FAK inhibitor decreases lung fibrotic score, collagen accumulation, fibronectin production, and myofibroblast differentiation in in bleomycin-challenged mice. These data demonstrate that FAK mediates fibroblast migration mainly via integrin β1. Furthermore, the findings suggest that targeting FAK signaling is an effective therapeutic strategy against fibrosis.

  15. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A modulates integrin β1-mediated epithelial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Bulanova, Daria R; Akimov, Yevhen A; Rokka, Anne; Laajala, Teemu D; Aittokallio, Tero; Kouvonen, Petri; Pellinen, Teijo; Kuznetsov, Sergey G

    2016-10-07

    G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR), Class C, Group 5, Member A (GPRC5A) has been implicated in several malignancies. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Using a panel of human cell lines, we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout and RNAi-mediated depletion of GPRC5A impairs cell adhesion to integrin substrates: collagens I and IV, fibronectin, as well as to extracellular matrix proteins derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma (Matrigel). Consistent with the phenotype, knock-out of GPRC5A correlated with a reduced integrin β1 (ITGB1) protein expression, impaired phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and lower activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between GPRC5A and a receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, an upstream regulator of FAK, although its contribution to the observed adhesion phenotype is unclear. Our findings reveal an unprecedented role for GPRC5A in regulation of the ITGB1-mediated cell adhesion and it's downstream signaling, thus indicating a potential novel role for GPRC5A in human epithelial cancers.

  16. Therapy with hydroxyurea is associated with reduced adhesion molecule gene and protein expression in sickle red cells with a concomitant reduction in adhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Gambero, Sheley; Canalli, Andreia A; Traina, Fabiola; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Saad, Sara T O; Costa, Fernando F; Conran, Nicola

    2007-02-01

    Propagation of the vaso-occlusive process in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a complex process involving the adhesion of steady-state SCA patients red cells and reticulocytes to the vascular endothelium. The effect of hydroxyurea therapy (HUT) on the adhesive properties of sickle cells and the expression of adhesion molecule genes by erythroid cells of SCA individuals is not yet fully understood. The expressions of the CD36 gene and the VLA-4-integrin subunit genes, CD49d (alpha-subunit) and CD29 (beta-subunit), were compared in the reticulocytes of steady-state SCA patients and patients on HUT using real-time PCR. Basal adhesion of red cells from these subjects was also compared using static adhesion assays, as was surface protein expression, using flow cytometry. Basal sickle red cell adhesion to fibronectin was significantly greater than that of normal cells (P < 0.01); in contrast, HUT was associated with significantly lower levels (P < 0.01) of red cell adhesion that were similar to those of control cells; this decrease could not be justified solely by altered reticulocyte numbers in this population. Accordingly, flow cytometry demonstrated that reticulocytes from patients on HUT had significantly lower CD36 and CD49d surface expressions (P < 0.01) and, importantly, significantly lower expressions of the CD36, CD49d and CD29 genes (P < 0.05) than reticulocytes of SCA patients not on HUT. Taken together, data support the hypothesis that HUT reduces the adhesive properties of sickle cells and that this decrease appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in the gene and, consequently, surface protein expression of adhesion molecules such as VLA-4 and CD36.

  17. Leukocyte integrins: Role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signalling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1- integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25448040

  18. PRL-3/PTP4A3 phosphatase regulates integrin β1 in adhesion structures during migration of human ocular melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Foy, Malika; Anézo, Océane; Saule, Simon; Planque, Nathalie

    2017-03-08

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis of 63 ocular melanomas of the uvea, we found that expression of the PRL-3/PTP4A3 gene, encoding a phosphatase that is anchored to the plasma membrane, was associated with the risk of metastasis, and a poor prognosis. We also showed that PRL-3 overexpression in OCM-1 ocular melanoma cells significantly increased cell migration in vitro and invasiveness in vivo, suggesting a direct role for PRL-3 in the metastatic spreading of uveal melanoma. Here, we aimed to identify PRL-3 substrates at the plasma membrane involved in adhesion to the extracellular matrix. We focused on integrin β1, which is the most highly expressed integrin in our cohort of uveal melanomas. We show that preventing PRL-3 anchorage to the plasma membrane i) abolishes PRL-3-induced migration in OCM-1 cells, ii) specifically enhances the spreading of OCM-1 cells overexpressing PRL-3, and iii) favors the maturation of large focal adhesions (FAs) containing integrin β1 on collagen I. Knockdown experiments confirmed integrin β1 involvement in PRL3-induced migration. We identified interactions between PRL-3 and integrin β1, as well as with FAK P-Y397, an auto-activated form of Focal Adhesion Kinase found in FAs. We also show that integrin β1 may be dephosphorylated by PRL-3 in its intracytoplasmic S/T region, an important motif for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Finally, we observed that PRL-3 regulated the clustering of integrin β1 in FAs on collagen I but not on fibronectin. This work identifies PRL-3 as a new regulator of cell adhesion structures to the extracellular matrix, and further supports PRL-3 as a key actor of metastasis in uveal melanoma, of which molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood.

  19. Effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on expression of adhesion molecules by human endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pu, F R; Williams, R L; Markkula, T K; Hunt, J A

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of human endothelial cells in response to the systematic variation in materials properties by the ammonia plasma modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). These adhesion molecules act as mediators of cell adhesion, play a role in the modulation of cell adhesion on biomaterials and therefore condition the response of tissues to implants. First and second passage human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on plasma treated and untreated PET and PTFE. HUVECs grown on polystyrene tissue culture coverslips and HUVECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were used as controls. After 1 day and 7 days, the expression of adhesion molecules platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Integrin alphavbeta3, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, P-selectin and L-selectin were evaluated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There was a slight increase in positive cell numbers expressing the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on plasma treated PET and PTFE. A significant increase in E-selectin positive cells on untreated PTFE was demonstrated after 7 days. Stimulation with TNF-alpha demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of ICAM-1. VCAM-1 and E-selectin positive cells. Almost all cells expressed PECAM-1 and integrin alphavbeta3, on both materials and controls but did not express P- and L-selectin on any surface. When second passage cells were used, the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased on all surfaces but not with TNF-alpha. These significant differences were not observed in other adhesion molecules. These results were supported by immunohistochemical studies. The effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on cell adhesion and proliferation was also studied. There was a 1.3-fold

  20. Adhesion molecules in breast carcinoma: a challenge to the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Claudia; Reis, Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves; Delgado, Pamela de Oliveira; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia B C; Feder, David; Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The role of adhesion molecules is very important both in the activation of carcinogenesis and in the differentiation of subtypes of breast carcinoma, aiding in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic choice in these tumors. Therefore, understanding the functions and interrelationships among these molecules is crucial to the pathologist, who often uses these factors as a resource to differentiate tumors and further classify them according to a molecular point of view. Our goal is to describe the applicability and the difficulties encountered by the pathologist in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma, discussing the most commonly used markers of adhesion in routine analyses.

  1. Targeted Gene Deletion Demonstrates that Cell Adhesion MoleculeICAM-4 is Critical for Erythroblastic Island Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Lo, Annie; Short, Sarah A.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Spring, Frances; Parsons, Stephen F.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-02-15

    Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), animmunoglobulin superfamily member, participates in island formation. Earlier, we identified alpha V integrins as ICAM-4 counter receptors. Since macrophages express alpha V, ICAM-4 potentially mediates island attachments. To test this, we generated ICAM-4 knockout mice and developed quantitative, live cell techniques for harvesting intact islands and for reforming islands in vitro. We observed a 47 percent decrease in islands reconstituted from ICAM-4 null marrow compared to wild type. We also found a striking decrease in islands formed in vivo in knockout mice. Further, peptides that block ICAM-4 alpha V adhesion produced a 53-57 percent decrease in reconstituted islands, strongly suggesting that ICAM-4 binding to macrophage alpha V functions in island integrity. Importantly, we documented that alpha V integrin is expressed in macrophages isolated from erythro blastic islands. Collectively, these data provide convincing evidence that ICAM-4 is critical in erythroblastic island formation via ICAM-4/alpha V adhesion and also demonstrate that the novel experimental strategies we developed will be valuable in exploring molecular mechanisms of erythroblastic island formation and their functional role in regulating erythropoiesis.

  2. Drosophila vinculin is more harmful when hyperactive than absent, and can circumvent integrin to form adhesion complexes

    PubMed Central

    Maartens, Aidan P.; Wellmann, Jutta; Wictome, Emma; Klapholz, Benjamin; Green, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vinculin is a highly conserved protein involved in cell adhesion and mechanotransduction, and both gain and loss of its activity causes defective cell behaviour. Here, we examine how altering vinculin activity perturbs integrin function within the context of Drosophila development. Whereas loss of vinculin produced relatively minor phenotypes, gain of vinculin activity, through a loss of head–tail autoinhibition, caused lethality. The minimal domain capable of inducing lethality is the talin-binding D1 domain, and this appears to require talin-binding activity, as lethality was suppressed by competition with single vinculin-binding sites from talin. Activated Drosophila vinculin triggered the formation of cytoplasmic adhesion complexes through the rod of talin, but independently of integrin. These complexes contain a subset of adhesion proteins but no longer link the membrane to actin. The negative effects of hyperactive vinculin were segregated into morphogenetic defects caused by its whole head domain and lethality caused by its D1 domain. These findings demonstrate the crucial importance of the tight control of the activity of vinculin. PMID:27737911

  3. Nerve growth factor translates stress response and subsequent murine abortion via adhesion molecule-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Tometten, Mareike; Blois, Sandra; Kuhlmei, Arne; Stretz, Anna; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C

    2006-04-01

    Spontaneous abortion is a frequent threat affecting 10%-25% of human pregnancies. Psychosocial stress has been suggested to be attributable for pregnancy losses by challenging the equilibrium of systems mandatory for pregnancy maintenance, including the nervous, endocrine, and immune system. Strong evidence indicates that stress-triggered abortion is mediated by adhesion molecules, i.e., intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and leukocyte function associated molecule 1, now being referred to as integrin alpha L (ITGAL), which facilitate recruitment of inflammatory cells to the feto-maternal interface. The neurotrophin beta-nerve growth factor (NGFB), which has been shown to be upregulated in response to stress in multiple experimental settings including in the uterine lining (decidua) during pregnancy, increases ICAM1 expression on endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether and how NGFB neutralization has a preventive effect on stress-triggered abortion in the murine CBA/J x DBA/2J model. We provide experimental evidence that stress exposure upregulates the frequency of abortion and the expression of uterine NGFB. Further, adhesion molecules ICAM1 and selectin platelet (SELP, formerly P-Selectin) and their ligands ITGAL and SELP ligand (SELPL, formerly P selectin glycoprotein ligand 1) respectively increase in murine deciduas in response to stress. Subsequently, decidual cytokines are biased toward a proinflammatory and abortogenic cytokine profile. Additionally, a decrease of pregnancy protective CD8alpha(+) decidual cells is present. Strikingly, all such uterine stress responses are abrogated by NGFB neutralization. Hence, NGFB acts as a proximal mediator in the hierarchical network of immune rejection by mediating an abortogenic environment comprised of classical signs of neurogenic inflammation.

  4. Vav1 and Rac Control Chemokine-promoted T Lymphocyte Adhesion Mediated by the Integrin α4β1D⃞

    PubMed Central

    García-Bernal, David; Wright, Natalia; Sotillo-Mallo, Elena; Nombela-Arrieta, César; Stein, Jens V.; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 promotes T lymphocyte adhesion mediated by the integrin α4β1. CXCL12 activates the GTPase Rac, as well as Vav1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for Rac, concomitant with up-regulation of α4β1-dependent adhesion. Inhibition of CXCL12-promoted Rac and Vav1 activation by transfection of dominant negative Rac or Vav1 forms, or by transfection of their siRNA, remarkably impaired the increase in T lymphocyte attachment to α4β1 ligands in response to this chemokine. Importantly, inhibition of Vav1 expression by RNA interference resulted in a blockade of Rac activation in response to CXCL12. Adhesions in flow chambers and soluble binding assays using these transfectants indicated that initial ligand binding and adhesion strengthening mediated by α4β1 were dependent on Vav1 and Rac activation by CXCL12. Finally, CXCL12-promoted T-cell transendothelial migration involving α4β1-mediated adhesion was notably inhibited by expression of dominant negative Vav1 and Rac. These results indicate that activation of Vav1-Rac signaling pathway by CXCL12 represents an important inside-out event controlling efficient up-regulation of α4β1-dependent T lymphocyte adhesion. PMID:15872091

  5. Chemokines fail to up-regulate beta 1 integrin-dependent adhesion in human Th2 T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Clissi, B; D'Ambrosio, D; Geginat, J; Colantonio, L; Morrot, A; Freshney, N W; Downward, J; Sinigaglia, F; Pardi, R

    2000-03-15

    Th1 and Th2 cells are functionally distinct subsets of CD4+ T lymphocytes whose tissue-specific homing to sites of inflammation is regulated in part by the differential expression of P- and E-selectin ligands and selected chemokine receptors. Here we investigated the expression and function of beta 1 integrins in Th1 and Th2 cells polarized in vitro. Th1 lymphocytes adhere transiently to the extracellular matrix ligands laminin 1 and fibronectin in response to chemokines such as RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1, and this process is paralleled by the activation of the Rac1 GTPase and by a rapid burst of actin polymerization. Selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase prevent efficiently all of the above processes, whereas the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide prevents chemokine-induced adhesion without affecting Rac1 activation and actin polymerization. Notably, chemokine-induced adhesion to beta 1 integrin ligands is markedly reduced in Th2 cells. Such a defect cannot be explained by a reduced sensitivity to chemokine stimulation in this T cell subset, nor by a defective activation of the signaling cascade involving phosphoinositide-3 kinase, Rac1, and actin turnover, as all these processes are activated at comparable levels by chemokines in the two subsets. We propose that reduced beta 1 integrin-mediated adhesion in Th2 cells may restrain their ability to invade and/or reside in sites of chronic inflammation, which are characterized by thickening of basement membranes and extensive fibrosis, requiring efficient interaction with organized extracellular matrices.

  6. Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Rolling in Bone Marrow Microvessels: Parallel Contributions by Endothelial Selectins and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Irina B.; Gutierrez-Ramos, Jose-Carlos; Frenette, Paul S.; Hynes, Richard O.; Wagner, Denisa D.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used intravital microscopy to study physiologically perfused microvessels in murine bone marrow (BM). BM sinusoids and venules, but not adjacent bone vessels, supported rolling interactions of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Rolling did not involve L-selectin, but was partially reduced in wild-type mice treated with antibodies to P- or E-selectin and in mice that were deficient in these two selectins. Selectin-independent rolling was mediated by α4 integrins, which interacted with endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Parallel contribution of the endothelial selectins and VCAM-1 is not known to direct blood cell trafficking to other noninflamed tissues. This combination of constitutively expressed adhesion molecules may thus constitute a BM-specific recruitment pathway for progenitor cells analogous to the vascular addressins that direct selective lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs. PMID:9687524

  7. Interleukin-6 enhances whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferons inhibit integrin expression and adhesion of human mast cells to extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Dagmar; Grützkau, Andreas; Henz, Beate M; Küchler, Jens; Krüger-Krasagakis, Sabine

    2003-05-01

    Integrins are expressed on mast cells and constitute an essential prerequisite for the accumulation of the cells at sites of inflammation. In order to clarify a potential contribution of inflammatory cytokines to this process, we have studied the modulation of integrin expression and adhesion of immature human mast cells (HMC-1) to extracellular matrix proteins by interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma. Corticosteroids were used for comparison. On fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, preincubation of cells for 48 h with different concentrations of interleukin-6 induced a significant, up to 40%, increase of alpha v alpha 5, CD49b (alpha 2), CD49e (alpha 5), CD49f (alpha 6), and CD51 (alpha v). In contrast, different concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma, and dexamethasone (10-8-10-10 M) inhibited expression of adhesion receptors by up to 60%, reaching significance for some but not all integrins. On semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, interleukin-6, the other cytokines, and corticosteroids significantly modulated expression of alpha1, alpha v and alpha 5 integrin chains at mRNA level. Functional significance of these findings was proven in adhesion assays using fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin, with interleukin-6 causing significant enhancement of adhesion in all cases, tumor necrosis factor alpha and dexamethasone inducing significant reduction of adhesion to fibronectin and laminin, and interferon-gamma significantly inhibiting adhesion to fibronectin only. Specificity of interleukin-6-induced changes was demonstrated using antibodies against alpha1 and alpha 5 integrins in unstimulated and interleukin-6-prestimulated cells. These data show that interleukin-6 stimulates mast cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and thus allows for the accumulation of the cells at tissue sites by enhancing integrin expression, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha

  8. Combined integrin phosphoproteomic analyses and small interfering RNA--based functional screening identify key regulators for cancer cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanling; Lu, Bingwen; Yang, Qingkai; Fearns, Colleen; Yates, John R; Lee, Jiing-Dwan

    2009-04-15

    Integrins interact with extracellular matrix (ECM) and deliver intracellular signaling for cell proliferation, survival, and motility. During tumor metastasis, integrin-mediated cell adhesion to and migration on the ECM proteins are required for cancer cell survival and adaptation to the new microenvironment. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-mass spectrometry, we profiled the phosphoproteomic changes induced by the interactions of cell integrins with type I collagen, the most common ECM substratum. Integrin-ECM interactions modulate phosphorylation of 517 serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues in 513 peptides, corresponding to 357 proteins. Among these proteins, 33 key signaling mediators with kinase or phosphatase activity were subjected to small interfering RNA-based functional screening. Three integrin-regulated kinases, DBF4, PAK2, and GRK6, were identified for their critical role in cell adhesion and migration possibly through their regulation of actin cytoskeleton arrangement. Altogether, we not only depict an integrin-modulated phosphorylation network during cell-ECM protein interactions but also reveal novel regulators for cell adhesion and migration.

  9. The involvement of an integrin-like protein and protein kinase C in amoebic adhesion to fibronectin and amoebic cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Lee; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Myeong Heon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Im, Kyung-Il; Park, Soon-Jung

    2004-09-01

    Adherence of a pathogen to the host cell is one of the critical steps in microbial infections. Naegleria fowleri, a causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans, is expected to interact with extracellular components of the host, such as fibronectin, in a receptor-mediated mode. In this study, we investigated the interaction between N. fowleri and fibronectin to understand its cytopathology. In binding assays using immobilized fibronectin, the number of amoebae bound to fibronectin was increased compared to the controls, and was dependent on the amount of coated fibronectin present. A fibronectin binding protein of 60 kDa was found in extracts of N. fowleri. Western blot and immunolocalization assays using integrin alpha(5)/FnR antibodies showed that a 60 kDa protein reacted with the antibodies in extracts of N. fowleri, which was localized on the surface of N. fowleri. Preincubation of N. fowleri with the integrin antibodies significantly inhibited amoebic binding to fibronectin and cytotoxicity to the CHO cells. Additionally, protein kinase C activity was detected in the extract of N. fowleri. When N. fowleri was pretreated with protein kinase C activator or inhibitor, the abilities of amoebic adhesion to fibronectin and cytotoxicity to the host cells were markedly affected compared to untreated amoebae. These results suggest that an amoebic integrin-like receptor and protein kinase C play important roles in amoebic cellular processes in response to fibronectin.

  10. Eimeria bovis modulates adhesion molecule gene transcription in and PMN adhesion to infected bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Zahner, Horst; Taubert, Anja

    2006-04-01

    Eimeria bovis is an important coccidian parasite of cattle causing severe diarrhea in young animals. Its first schizogony takes place in endothelial cells of the ileum resulting in the formation of macroschizonts 14-18 days p.i. This longlasting development suggests a particular immune evasion strategy of the parasite. Here, we analyse early innate immune reactions to E. bovis by determining the adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to infected endothelial cell layers under flow conditions and the transcription of adhesion molecule genes in infected host cells. Bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) were infected with E. bovis sporozoites. Sporozoites invaded BUVEC within 1h and the first mature macroschizonts occurred 14 days p.i. PMN adhesion was enhanced in E. bovis-infected BUVEC layers as early as 8h p.i.; maximum adhesion occurred 48 h p.i. Increased adhesion rates persisted until the end of the observation period at 14 days p.i. PMN adhered to both infected and uninfected cells within monolayers, suggesting paracrine cell activation. E. bovis infection upregulated the transcription of genes encoding for P-selectin, E-selectin, vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Most marked effects concerned E-selectin followed by P-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Increased transcript levels were found beginning 30 min p.i. and maximum values occurred 1-2h p.i. (P-selectin) and 2-4h p.i. (E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1). By 12-24h p.i. levels had decreased to those of uninfected controls. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced PMN adhesion was significantly reduced in infected vs. uninfected BUVEC. Eimeria bovis also had suppressive effects on TNFalpha-mediated upregulation of adhesion molecule gene transcription. The data presented here suggest that infection of BUVEC with E. bovis on one hand induces proinflammatory reactions resulting in enhanced PMN adhesion mediated by upregulated adhesion

  11. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  12. Investigating Single Molecule Adhesion by Atomic Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Frank W. S.; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment. PMID:25867282

  13. Hydroxycarbamide decreases sickle reticulocyte adhesion to resting endothelium by inhibiting endothelial lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) through phosphodiesterase 4A activation.

    PubMed

    Chaar, Vicky; Laurance, Sandrine; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Cochet, Sylvie; De Grandis, Maria; Colin, Yves; Elion, Jacques; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2014-04-18

    Vaso-occlusive crises are the main acute complication in sickle cell disease. They are initiated by abnormal adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium of the microcirculation. Several interactions involving an intricate network of adhesion molecules have been described between sickle red blood cells and the endothelial vascular wall. We have shown previously that young sickle reticulocytes adhere to resting endothelial cells through the interaction of α4β1 integrin with endothelial Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM). In the present work, we investigated the functional impact of endothelial exposure to hydroxycarbamide (HC) on this interaction using transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells and primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Adhesion of sickle reticulocytes to HC-treated endothelial cells was decreased despite the HC-derived increase of Lu/BCAM expression. This was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Lu/BCAM and up-regulation of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4A expression. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for HC in endothelial cells where it could modulate the function of membrane proteins through the regulation of phosphodiesterase expression and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways.

  14. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks.

  15. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks. PMID:27984584

  16. Endorepellin causes endothelial cell disassembly of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions through alpha2beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Bix, Gregory; Fu, Jian; Gonzalez, Eva M; Macro, Laura; Barker, Amy; Campbell, Shelly; Zutter, Mary M; Santoro, Samuel A; Kim, Jiyeun K; Höök, Magnus; Reed, Charles C; Iozzo, Renato V

    2004-07-05

    Endorepellin, the COOH-terminal domain of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, inhibits several aspects of angiogenesis. We provide evidence for a novel biological axis that links a soluble fragment of perlecan protein core to the major cell surface receptor for collagen I, alpha2beta1 integrin, and provide an initial investigation of the intracellular signaling events that lead to endorepellin antiangiogenic activity. The interaction between endorepellin and alpha2beta1 integrin triggers a unique signaling pathway that causes an increase in the second messenger cAMP; activation of two proximal kinases, protein kinase A and focal adhesion kinase; transient activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27, followed by a rapid down-regulation of the latter two proteins; and ultimately disassembly of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions. The end result is a profound block of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Because perlecan is present in both endothelial and smooth muscle cell basement membranes, proteolytic activity during the initial stages of angiogenesis could liberate antiangiogenic fragments from blood vessels' walls, including endorepellin.

  17. Interleukin-8 Regulates Endothelial Permeability by Down-regulation of Tight Junction but not Dependent on Integrins Induced Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongchi; Huang, Xianliang; Ma, Yunlong; Gao, Min; Wang, Ou; Gao, Ting; Shen, Yang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a common inflammatory factor, which involves in various non-specific pathological processes of inflammation. It has been found that increased endothelial permeability accompanied with high expression of IL-8 at site of injured endothelium and atherosclerotic plaque at early stages, suggesting that IL-8 participated in regulating endothelial permeability in the developing processes of vascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regulation effects of IL-8 on the vascular endothelial permeability, and the mRNA and protein expression of tight junction components (i.e., ZO-1, Claudin-5 and Occludin). Endothelial cells were stimulated by IL-8 with the dose of 50, 100 and 200 ng/mL, and duration of 2, 4, 6, 8h, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression level of tight junction components with IL-8 under different concentration and duration was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Meanwhile, the integrins induced focal adhesions event with IL-8 stimulation was also investigated. The results showed that IL-8 regulated the permeability of endothelium by down-regulation of tight junction in a dose- and time-dependence manner, but was not by integrins induced focal adhesions. This finding reveals the molecular mechanism in the increase of endothelial cell permeability induced by IL-8, which is expected to provide a new idea as a therapeutic target in vascular diseases. PMID:24155670

  18. Rap1 and integrin inside-out signaling.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Koko; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    In leukocytes, integrins play important roles in adhesive interactions with endothelium, antigen-presenting cells, and effector functions such as cytotoxicity. This chapter describes methods to study Ras proximity 1 (Rap1), a signaling molecule that has been increasingly recognized as an important regulator of integrin-mediated cell adhesion in the immune system as well as hemostasis. Rap1 is activated by a wide variety of external stimuli including chemokines and antigens. Signaling via Rap1 transmits an inside-out signal to the integrins, thereby increasing adhesiveness to ligands such as immunoglobulin superfamily proteins as well as extracellular matrix proteins and plasma proteins. This process induces leukocyte cell adhesion to the endothelium and antigen-presenting cells. In addition to integrin regulation, activated Rap1 induces cell polarity of lymphocytes, which is coordinated with LFA-1 redistribution to the leading edge.

  19. Cell Migration in the Immune System: the Evolving Inter-Related Roles of Adhesion Molecules and Proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Graesser, Donnasue

    2000-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation into perivascular tissue during inflammation and lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs involve transient adhesion to the vessel endothelium, followed by transmigration through the endothelial cell (EC) layer and establishment of residency at the tissue site for a period of time. In these processes, leukocytes undergo multiple attachments to, and detachments from, the vessel-lining endothelial cells, prior to transendothelial cell migration. Transmigrating leukocytes must traverse a subendothelial basement membrane en route to perivascular tissues and utilize enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases to make selective clips in the extracellular matrix components of the basement membrane. This review will focus on the evidence for a link between adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, the induction of matrix metalloproteinases mediated by engagement of adhesion receptors on leukocytes, and the ability to utilize these matrix metalloproteinases to facilitate leukocyte invasion of tissues. Leukocytes with invasive phenotypes express high levels of MMPs, and expression of MMPs enhances the migratory and invasive properties of these cells. Furthermore, MMPs may be used by lymphocytes to proteolytically cleave molecules such as adhesion receptors and membrane bound cytokines, increasing their efficiency in the immune response. Engagement of leukocyte adhesion receptors may modulate adhesive (modulation of integrin affinities and expression), synthetic (proteinase induction and activation), and surface organization (clustering of proteolyric complexes) behaviors of invasive leukocytes. Elucidation of these pathways will lead to better understanding of controlling mechanisms in order to develop rational therapeutic approaches in the areas of inflammation and autoimmunity. PMID:11097205

  20. Therapeutic targeting and rapid mobilization of endosteal HSC using a small molecule integrin antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen; Grassinger, Jochen; Williams, Brenda; Heazlewood, Chad K.; Churches, Quentin I.; James, Simon A.; Li, Songhui; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Nilsson, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    The inherent disadvantages of using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization have driven efforts to identify alternate strategies based on single doses of small molecules. Here, we show targeting α9β1/α4β1 integrins with a single dose of a small molecule antagonist (BOP (N-(benzenesulfonyl)-L-prolyl-L-O-(1-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)tyrosine)) rapidly mobilizes long-term multi-lineage reconstituting HSC. Synergistic engraftment augmentation is observed when BOP is co-administered with AMD3100. Impressively, HSC in equal volumes of peripheral blood (PB) mobilized with this combination effectively out-competes PB mobilized with G-CSF. The enhanced mobilization observed using BOP and AMD3100 is recapitulated in a humanized NODSCIDIL2Rγ−/− model, demonstrated by a significant increase in PB CD34+ cells. Using a related fluorescent analogue of BOP (R-BC154), we show that this class of antagonists preferentially bind human and mouse HSC and progenitors via endogenously primed/activated α9β1/α4β1 within the endosteal niche. These results support using dual α9β1/α4β1 inhibitors as effective, rapid and transient mobilization agents with promising clinical applications. PMID:26975966

  1. The L1 adhesion molecule is a cellular ligand for VLA-5

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The L1 adhesion molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily shared by neural and immune cells. In the nervous system L1 can mediate cell binding by a homophilic mechanism. To analyze its function on leukocytes we studied whether L1 could interact with integrins. Here we demonstrate that VLA-5, an RGD-specific fibronectin receptor on a wide variety of cell types, can bind to murine L1. Mouse ESb-MP cells expressing VLA-5 and L1 could be induced to aggregate in the presence of specific mAbs to CD24 (heat-stable antigen), a highly and heterogeneously glycosylated glycophosphatidylinositol-linked differentiation antigen of hematopoietic and neural cells. The aggregation was blocked by both mAbs to L1 and VLA-5, respectively. Aggregation was blocked also by a synthetic RGD-containing peptide derived from the Ig-domain VI of the L1 protein. ESb-MP subclones with low L1 expression could not aggregate. In heterotypic binding assays mouse bone marrow cells could adhere in an L1-dependent fashion to platelets that expressed VLA-5. Also purified L1 coated to polystyrene beads could bind to platelets. The binding of L1-beads was again inhibited by mAbs to L1 and VLA-5, by soluble L1 and the L1-RGD peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Thymocytes or human Nalm-6 tumor cells expressing VLA-5 could adhere to affinity-purified L1 and to the L1- derived RGD-containing peptide coated to glass slides. The adhesion was strongly enhanced in the presence of Mn(2+)-ions and blocked by mAbs to VLA-5. We also demonstrate a direct L1-VLA-5 protein interaction. Our results suggest a novel binding pathway, in which the VLA-5 integrin binds to L1 on adjacent cells. Given its rapid downregulation on lymphocytes after induction of cell proliferation, L1 may be important in integrin-mediated and activation-regulated cell-cell interactions. PMID:8557754

  2. Single-molecule force spectroscopy of the Aplysia cell adhesion molecule reveals two homophilic bonds.

    PubMed

    Martines, E; Zhong, J; Muzard, J; Lee, A C; Akhremitchev, B B; Suter, D M; Lee, G U

    2012-08-22

    Aplysia californica neurons comprise a powerful model system for quantitative analysis of cellular and biophysical properties that are essential for neuronal development and function. The Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, is present in the growth cone plasma membrane and involved in neurite growth, synapse formation, and synaptic plasticity. apCAM has been considered to be the Aplysia homolog of the vertebrate neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM); however, whether apCAM exhibits similar binding properties and neuronal functions has not been fully established because of the lack of detailed binding data for the extracellular portion of apCAM. In this work, we used the atomic force microscope to perform single-molecule force spectroscopy of the extracellular region of apCAM and show for the first time (to our knowledge) that apCAM, like NCAM, is indeed a homophilic cell adhesion molecule. Furthermore, like NCAM, apCAM exhibits two distinct bonds in the trans configuration, although the kinetic and structural parameters of the apCAM bonds are quite different from those of NCAM. In summary, these single-molecule analyses further indicate that apCAM and NCAM are species homologs likely performing similar functions.

  3. B cell receptor-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and focal adhesion kinase involves integrins and the Rap GTPases and is required for B cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Tse, Kathy W K; Dang-Lawson, May; Lee, Rosaline L; Vong, Doris; Bulic, Anica; Buckbinder, Leonard; Gold, Michael R

    2009-08-21

    Signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR) promotes integrin-mediated adhesion and cytoskeletal reorganization. This results in B cell spreading, which enhances the ability of B cells to bind antigens and become activated. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are related cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell migration. In this report we show that BCR signaling and integrin signaling collaborate to induce the phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK on key tyrosine residues, a modification that increases the kinase activity of Pyk2 and FAK. Activation of the Rap GTPases is critical for BCR-induced integrin activation as well as for BCR- and integrin-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We now show that Rap activation is essential for BCR-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and for integrin-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Moreover Rap-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK required an intact actin cytoskeleton as well as actin dynamics, suggesting that Rap regulates Pyk2 and FAK via its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Importantly B cell spreading induced by BCR/integrin co-stimulation or by integrin engagement was inhibited by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Pyk2 or FAK expression and by treatment with PF-431396, a chemical inhibitor that blocks the kinase activities of both Pyk2 and FAK. Thus Pyk2 and FAK are downstream targets of the Rap GTPases that play a key role in regulating B cell morphology.

  4. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) supports adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells through interaction with RGD-binding integrins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueqing; Hu Xiaobo; Tian Ruiyang; Wei Wangui; Hu Wei; Chen Xia; Han Wei; Chen Huayou; Gong Yi . E-mail: ygong@sibs.ac.cn

    2006-08-18

    Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is a newly identified member of angiopoietin-related proteins (ARPs)/angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls). AGF has been considered as a novel growth factor in accelerating cutaneous wound healing, as it is capable of stimulating keratinocytes proliferation as well as angiogenesis. But in our paper, we demonstrate that AGF stimulates keratinocytes proliferation only at high protein concentration, however, it can potently promote adhesion, spreading, and migration of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, we confirm that the adhesion and migration cellular events are mediated by RGD-binding integrins, most possibly the {alpha}{sub v}-containing integrins, by in vitro inhibition assays using synthetic competitive peptides. Our results strongly suggest that AGF is an integrin ligand as well as a mitogenic growth factor and theoretically participates in cutaneous wound healing in a more complex mechanism.

  5. Role of beta 1 and beta 2 integrins in the adhesion of human CD34hi stem cells to bone marrow stroma.

    PubMed Central

    Teixidó, J; Hemler, M E; Greenberger, J S; Anklesaria, P

    1992-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell interaction with elements of the underlying stroma is essential for sustained normal hematopoiesis. Here we have determined that adhesion receptors in the integrin family play a role in promoting adhesion of human hematopoietic stem cells to cultured human marrow stromal cells. Enriched CD34hi progenitor cells expressed VLA-4, VLA-5, and at least one or more beta 2 integrins. Homogeneous marrow stromal cell monolayers capable of supporting proliferation of cocultivated CD34hi cells expressed VCAM-1 and fibronectin (ligands for VLA-4 and VLA-5) as well as ICAM-1 (ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1). Adhesion-blocking experiments indicated that VLA-4/VCAM-1, VLA-5/fibronectin, and beta 2-integrin/ICAM-1 pathways all are important for CD34hi cell attachment to stromal cells. Consistent with this suggestion, IL-1 stimulation of stromal cells caused both increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and increased attachment by CD34hi bone marrow cells. In addition, CD34hi cells utilized VLA-4 to adhere to purified VCAM-1 and employed VLA-5 (and to a lesser extent VLA-4) to adhere to purified fibronectin. Together these results suggest that CD34hi stem cells may utilize multiple integrin-mediated adhesion pathways to localize within specialized microenvironmental niches created by marrow stromal cells. Images PMID:1379610

  6. TAT-Hsp27 promotes adhesion and migration of murine dental papilla-derived MDPC-23 cells through beta1 integrin-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Lim, Young-Sin; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Kim, Soo-A; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2010-09-01

    Odontoblasts are involved in tooth repair and regeneration as well as dentin formation. The aim of this study was to examine whether delivery of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) into cells using a TAT fusion protein system (TAT-Hsp27) enhances adhesion and migration of murine dental papilla-derived MDPC-23 cells. Hsp27 was delivered into cells by the TAT-fusion protein system. To examine whether TAT-Hsp27 affects the viability of MDPC-23 cells, MTT assay was performed. The effect of TAT-Hsp27 on adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells was determined using type I collagen-coated plates and a commercial kit, respectively. In addition, a precise molecular mechanism was examined by Western blot analysis and focal adhesion activity. TAT-fusion protein system delivered Hsp27 into cells successfully. Transduction of TAT-Hsp27 induced adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, transduction of TAT-Hsp27 increased the protein expression of beta1 integrin and focal adhesion formation, and induced phosphorylation of FAK and ERK. TAT-Hsp27-induced migration of MDPC-23 cells was restored by treatment of anti-beta1 integrin antibody. These findings suggest that TAT-Hsp27 promotes adhesion and migration of MDPC-23 cells via beta1 integrin-mediated signaling and is a promising candidate for therapeutic application of dental pulp regeneration.

  7. Kinin B1 receptor regulates interactions between neutrophils and endothelial cells by modulating the levels of Mac-1, LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos D; Matus, Carola E; Pavicic, Francisca; Sarmiento, Jose; Hidalgo, Maria A; Burgos, Rafael A; Gonzalez, Carlos B; Bhoola, Kanti D; Ehrenfeld, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    Kinins are pro-inflammatory peptides that mimic the cardinal features of inflammation. We examined the concept that expression levels of endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and neutrophil integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1 are modulated by the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) agonist, Lys-des[Arg(9)]bradykinin (LDBK). Stimulation of endothelial cells with LDBK increased the levels of ICAM-1 mRNA transcripts/protein, and also of E-selectin and platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1. ICAM-1 levels increased in a magnitude comparable with that produced by TNF-α. This stimulatory effect was reduced when endothelial cells, which had been previously transfected with a B1R small interfering RNA, were stimulated with LDBK, under comparable conditions. Similarly, LDBK produced a significant increase in protein levels of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins in human neutrophils, an effect that was reversed by pretreatment of cells with 10 µg/ml cycloheximide or a B1R antagonist. Functional experiments performed with post-confluent monolayers of endothelial cells stimulated with LDBK and neutrophils primed with TNF-α, and vice versa, resulted in enhanced adhesiveness between both cells. Neutralizing Abs to ICAM-1 and Mac-1 reduced the adhesion between them. Our results indicate that kinin B1R is a novel modulator that promotes adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, critically enhancing the movement of neutrophils from the circulation to sites of inflammation.

  8. Sialylation and glycosylation modulate cell adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix in human malignant lymphoma: Dependency on integrin and the Rho GTPase family.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    To determine the biological roles of cell surface glycosylation, we modified the surface glycosylation of human malignant lymphoma cell lines using glycosylation inhibitors. The O-glycosylation inhibitor, benzyl-α-GalNAc (BZ) enhanced the fibronectin adhesion of HBL-8 cells, a human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, and of H-ALCL cells, a human anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line, both of which were established in our laboratory. The N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (TM) inhibited the surface expression of Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinating (L-PHA) lectin- and Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) lectin-reactive oligosaccharides in the HBL-8 cell line. Assay of the adhesion of HBL-8 cells to fibronectin showed that fibronectin adhesion is mediated by the integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 and that not only BZ but also TM treatment enhanced HBL-8 cell adhesion to fibronectin. Furthermore, although BZ treatment also enhanced H-ALCL cell adhesion to fibronectin, this effect was not mediated by VLA-5 or the RGD sequence of fibronectin. We also showed that H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-3 was enhanced by pre-treatment with neuraminidase, which cleaves cell surface sialic acid. Additionally, H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-3 was inhibited by pre‑treatment with the RGD peptide suggesting that cell adhesion to galectin-3 is mediated by integrin (VLA-5). Furthermore, H-ALCL cell invasion of galectin-1 and galectin-3 was inhibited by pre-treatment with the RGD peptide. Therefore, cell adhesion to and invasion of galectin-1 and galectin-3 are integrin-dependent. In addition to these findings, cell adhesion to galectin-3 was markedly inhibited by treatment with β-lactose compared to treatment with sucrose. Therefore, interactions between integrins and galectin-3 may be mediated through β-galactose that is linked to glycans of integrins. AZA1, an inhibitor of Ras homolog oncoprotein (Rho) GTPase family proteins, RAS-related C3 botulinus toxin substrate 1 (Rac 1) and

  9. Are integrin alpha(2)beta(1), glycoprotein Ib and vWf levels correlated with their contributions to platelet adhesion on collagen under high-shear flow?

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephanie M; Sonoda, Mamiko; Tsuji, Kayoko; Jimi, Atsuo; Nomura, Shosaku; Kanaji, Taisuke; Moroi, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Platelets in flowing blood at high-shear stress are recruited to exposed subendothelial collagen of injured vessels by GPIb-von Willebrand factor (vWf) and integrin alpha(2)beta(1) (alpha(2)beta(1))-collagen interactions. Platelet adhesion to type I collagen depends mainly on the alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen interaction and that to type III collagen depends on the GPIb-vWf interaction due to vWf's weak affinity for type I collagen. Contributions of these two interactions would differ depending on expressions of alpha(2)beta(1), vWf, or GPIb. We quantitated platelet adhesion to low- and high-density collagen under high-shear flow conditions in the presence of anti-alpha(2)beta(1) (Gi9) and anti-GPIb (NNKY5-5) antibodies to determine if their inhibitory effects were correlated with the amounts of alpha(2)beta(1), GPIb and vWf. Gi9 inhibition of adhesion to type I collagen was decreased in platelets with more integrin alpha(2)beta(1). Gi9 and NNKY5-5 are more inhibitory against adhesion to low-density type III and I, respectively. Higher alpha(2)beta(1) expression decreases adhesion to low-density type III and increases Gi9 inhibition of adhesion to high-density type III, suggesting crosstalk between the alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen and GPIb-vWf interactions in adhesion to type III. Integrin alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen and GPIb-vWf interactions both contribute to platelet adhesion to collagen under high-shear flow. In adhesion under high-shear stress, the two interactions would compensate for each other, when there is a deficiency in one or the other. The alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen interaction was also suggested to have an inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion to type III collagen, through a yet undefined mechanism.

  10. Extended interaction of β1 integrin subunit-deficient cells (GD25) with surfaces modified with fibronectin-derived peptides: culture optimization, adhesion and cytokine panel studies

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, Heather; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2008-01-01

    The modification of biomaterials with extracellular matrix-mimicking factors to influence the cellular response through mainly integrin-mediated signaling is a common technique. The inherent limitations of antibody-inhibition studies necessitate the use of complementary methods to block integrin function to confirm cell–surface interaction. In this study, we employed a β1 integrin-deficient cell line, GD25, to investigate the role of β1 subunit in cell adhesion and subsequent cytokine (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor -1, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted, tumor necrosis factor-α) release kinetics in the presence of tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (sIPN) modified with fibronectin (FN)-mimic peptides (RGD, PHSRN). Culture conditions (i.e. seeding density, medium, serum supplementation) were optimized for long-term observation. Differences in cell adhesion, cell viability and cytokine release behavior were dependent on the presence of the β1 integrin subunit, FN, sIPN cast method and peptide identity. By comparing two complementary techniques for assaying integrin function, we observed both similarities (i.e. decreased adhesion to FN-absorbed TCPS and increased IL-1β release at 96 h) and differences (i.e. no difference in adhesion or IL-1β release in the presence of sIPN surfaces) when the function of the β1 subunit was blocked in cell adhesion and signaling in the presence of biomaterials. PMID:18514047

  11. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of possible 18 α-chains and one of possible 8 β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalised by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalisation by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with AP2 C-µ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions. PMID:26779610

  12. Biomimetic design of platelet adhesion inhibitors to block integrin α2β1-collagen interactions: I. Construction of an affinity binding model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Sun, Yan

    2014-04-29

    Platelet adhesion on a collagen surface through integrin α2β1 has been proven to be significant for the formation of arterial thrombus. However, the molecular determinants mediating the integrin-collagen complex remain unclear. In the present study, the dynamics of integrin-collagen binding and molecular interactions were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) analysis. Hydrophobic interaction is identified as the major driving force for the formation of the integrin-collagen complex. On the basis of the MD simulation and MM-PBSA results, an affinity binding model (ABM) of integrin for collagen is constructed; it is composed of five residues, including Y157, N154, S155, R288, and L220. The ABM has been proven to capture the major binding motif contributing 84.8% of the total binding free energy. On the basis of the ABM, we expect to establish a biomimetic design strategy of platelet adhesion inhibitors, which would be beneficial for the development of potent peptide-based drugs for thrombotic diseases.

  13. The PPFLMLLKGSTR motif in globular domain 3 of the human laminin-5 {alpha}3 chain is crucial for integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding and cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Won Ho; Min, Byung-Moo . E-mail: bmmin@snu.ac.kr

    2005-03-10

    Laminin-5 regulates various cellular functions, including cell adhesion, spreading, and motility. Here, we expressed the five human laminin {alpha}3 chain globular (LG) domains as monomeric, soluble fusion proteins, and examined their biological functions and signaling. Recombinant LG3 (rLG3) protein, unlike rLG1, rLG2, rLG4, and rLG5, played roles in cell adhesion, spreading, and integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding. More significantly, we identified a novel motif (PPFLMLLKGSTR) in the LG3 domain that is crucial for these responses. Studies with the synthetic peptides delineated the PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide within LG3 domain as a major site for both integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding and cell adhesion. Substitution mutation experiments suggest that the Arg residue is important for these activities. rLG3 protein- and PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide-induced keratinocyte adhesion triggered cell signaling through FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine-397 and -577. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide within the LG3 domain is a novel motif that is capable of supporting integrin {alpha}3{beta}1-dependent cell adhesion and spreading.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi upregulates expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and promotes transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sellati, T J; Burns, M J; Ficazzola, M A; Furie, M B

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation of leukocytic infiltrates in perivascular tissues is a key step in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. During an inflammatory response, endothelial cell adhesion molecules mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to the blood vessel wall and their subsequent extravasation into perivascular tissues. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi activated endothelium in a dose- and time-dependent fashion as measured by upregulation of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). As few as one spirochete per endothelial cell stimulated increased expression of these molecules. Expression of E-selectin peaked after spirochetes and HUVEC were coincubated for 4 h and returned to near-basal levels by 24 h. In contrast, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 peaked at 12 h and remained elevated at 24 h. HUVEC monolayers cultured on acellular amniotic tissue were used to investigate the consequences of endothelial cell activation by spirochetes. After incubation of HUVEC-amnion cultures with B. burgdorferi, subsequently added neutrophils migrated across the endothelial monolayers. This process was mediated by E-selectin and by CD11/CD18 leukocytic integrins. The extent of migration depended on both the number of spirochetes used to stimulate the HUVEC and the length of the coincubation period. These results raise the possibility that B. burgdorferi induces a host inflammatory response and accompanying perivascular damage through activation of vascular endothelium. PMID:7591083

  15. Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Asthma Model Occurs Independently of Secretion of β1 Integrins in Airway Wall and Focal Adhesions Proteins Down Regulation.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Santos, Mayra; Carbajal, Verónica; Tellez-Jiménez, Olivia; Martínez-Cordero, Erasmo; Ruiz, Victor; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Lascurain, Ricardo; Santibañez-Salgado, Alfredo; Bazan-Perkins, Blanca

    2016-10-01

    The extracellular domains of some membrane proteins can be shed from the cell. A similar phenomenon occurs with β1 integrins (α1β1 and α2β1) in guinea pig. The putative role of β1 integrin subunit alterations due to shedding in airway smooth muscle (ASM) in an allergic asthma model was evaluated. Guinea pigs were sensitized and challenged with antigen. Antigenic challenges induced bronchoobstruction and hyperresponsiveness at the third antigenic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectronmicroscopy studies showed that the cytosolic and extracellular domains of the β1 integrin subunit shared the same distribution in airway structures in both groups. Various polypeptides with similar molecular weights were detected with both the cytosolic and extracellular β1 integrin subunit antibodies in isolated airway myocytes and the connective tissue that surrounds the ASM bundle. Flow cytometry and Western blot studies showed that the expression of cytosolic and extracellular β1 integrin subunit domains in ASM was similar between groups. An increment of ITGB1 mRNA in ASM was observed in the asthma model group. RACE-PCR of ITGB1 in ASM did not show splicing variants. The expression levels of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and paxillin diminished in the asthma model, but not talin. The levels of phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) at Thr(696) increased in asthma model. Our work suggests that β1 integrin is secreted in guinea pig airway wall. This secretion is not altered in asthma model; nevertheless, β1 integrin cytodomain assembly proteins in focal cell adhesions in which ILK and paxillin are involved are altered in asthma model. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2385-2396, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Neutrophils expression of adhesion molecules in diabetic nephropaty patients].

    PubMed

    Shcherban', T D

    2013-01-01

    CD11b and CD54 expression on neutrophils in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), arterial hypertension patients and healthy donors were examined. Development of DN associates with an increase of the number of CD11b and CD54 positive cells and violation of cellular co-operation. In the conditions of diabetic microenvironment expression of adhesion molecules rises substantially, what may characterized the mechanism of connection between hyperglycemia and vascular and tissues injury at DN. Authentication of morphological and biochemical markers of intercellular co-operation must in a prospect assist the deeper understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of DN.

  17. Coordinate role for cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and alpha 4 beta 1 integrin in mediating melanoma cell adhesion to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cellular recognition and adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) has a complex molecular basis, involving both integrins and cell surface proteoglycans (PG). The current studies have used specific inhibitors of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) synthesis along with anti- alpha 4 integrin subunit monoclonal antibodies to demonstrate that human melanoma cell adhesion to an A-chain derived, 33-kD carboxyl- terminal heparin binding fragment of human plasma fibronectin (FN) involves both cell surface CSPG and alpha 4 beta 1 integrin. A direct role for cell surface CSPG in mediating melanoma cell adhesion to this FN fragment was demonstrated by the identification of a cationic synthetic peptide, termed FN-C/H-III, within the fragment. FN-C/H-III is located close to the amino terminal end of the fragment, representing residues #1721-1736 of intact FN. FN-C/H-III binds CSPG directly, can inhibit CSPG binding to the fragment, and promotes melanoma cell adhesion by a CSPG-dependent, alpha 4 beta 1 integrin- independent mechanism. A scrambled version of FN-C/H-III does not inhibit CSPG binding or cell adhesion to the fragment or to FN-C/H-III, indicating that the primary sequence of FN-C/H-III is important for its biological properties. Previous studies have identified three other synthetic peptides from within this 33-kD FN fragment that promote cell adhesion by an arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) independent mechanism. Two of these synthetic peptides (FN-C/H-I and FN-C/H-II) bind heparin and promote cell adhesion, implicating cell surface PG in mediating cellular recognition of these two peptides. Additionally, a third synthetic peptide, CS1, is located in close proximity to FN-C/H-I and FN-C/H-II and it promotes cell adhesion by an alpha 4 beta 1 integrin-dependent mechanism. In contrast to FN-C/H-III, cellular recognition of these three peptides involved contributions from both CSPG and alpha 4 integrin subunits. Of particular importance are observations

  18. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C Mediates Leukocyte Adhesion to Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovium

    PubMed Central

    Rabquer, Bradley J.; Pakozdi, Angela; Michel, James E.; Gujar, Bansari S.; Haines, G. Kenneth; Imhof, Beat A.; Koch, Alisa E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Leukocyte infiltration into the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium is a multistep process in which leukocytes leave the bloodstream and invade the synovial tissue (ST). Leukocyte transendothelial migration and adhesion to RA ST requires adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells and RA ST fibroblasts. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) in mediating leukocyte recruitment and retention in the RA joint. Methods Immunohistologic analysis was performed on RA, osteoarthritis (OA), and normal ST samples to quantify JAM-C expression. Fibroblast JAM-C expression was also analyzed using Western blotting, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence. To determine the role of JAM-C in leukocyte retention in the RA synovium, in vitro and in situ adhesion assays and RA ST fibroblast transmigration assays were performed. Results JAM-C was highly expressed by RA ST lining cells, and its expression was increased in OA ST and RA ST endothelial cells compared with normal ST endothelial cells. JAM-C was also expressed on the surface of OA ST and RA ST fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that myeloid U937 cell adhesion to both OA ST and RA ST fibroblasts and to RA ST was dependent on JAM-C. U937 cell migration through an RA ST fibroblast monolayer was enhanced in the presence of neutralizing antibodies against JAM-C. Conclusion Our results highlight the novel role of JAM-C in recruiting and retaining leukocytes in the RA synovium and suggest that targeting JAM-C may be important in combating inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:18821692

  19. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) binds to integrin alpha v beta 6 on porcine trophectoderm cells and integrin alpha v beta 3 on uterine luminal epithelial cells, and promotes trophectoderm cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Erikson, David W; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Johnson, Greg A

    2009-11-01

    Conceptus implantation involves pregnancy-specific alterations in extracellular matrix at the conceptus-maternal interface. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) is induced just before implantation and is present at the conceptus-maternal interface in mammals. In the present study, we investigated mechanisms by which SPP1 facilitates porcine conceptus and uterine luminal epithelial cell attachment. Native bovine milk and wild-type rat recombinant SPP1 stimulated trophectoderm cell migration. Bovine milk SPP1, ovine uterine SPP1, and recombinant wild-type, but not mutated, rat SPP1 promoted dose- and cation-dependent attachment of porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells, which was markedly reduced in the presence of a linear Arg-Gly-Asp integrin-blocking peptide. Affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed direct binding of alpha v beta 6 trophectoderm and alpha v beta 3 uterine epithelial cell integrins to SPP1. Immunofluorescence microscopy using SPP1-coated microspheres revealed colocalization of the alpha v integrin subunit and talin at focal adhesions as well as at the apical domain of trophectoderm cells. Similarly, immunofluorescence staining of implantation sites in frozen gravid uterine cross sections localized SPP1 and alpha v integrin to the apical surfaces of trophectoderm and luminal epithelium and beta 3 integrin to the apical surface of luminal epithelium. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate functionally that SPP1 directly binds specific integrins to promote trophectoderm cell migration and attachment to luminal epithelium that may be critical to conceptus elongation and implantation.

  20. Cleavage and Cell Adhesion Properties of Human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (HEPCAM)*

    PubMed Central

    Tsaktanis, Thanos; Kremling, Heidi; Pavšič, Miha; von Stackelberg, Ricarda; Mack, Brigitte; Fukumori, Akio; Steiner, Harald; Vielmuth, Franziska; Spindler, Volker; Huang, Zhe; Jakubowski, Jasmine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Luxenburger, Elke; Lauber, Kirsten; Lenarčič, Brigita; Gires, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed in carcinomas, which promotes proliferation after regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Here, we describe extracellular shedding of HEPCAM at two α-sites through a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) and at one β-site through BACE1. Transmembrane cleavage by γ-secretase occurs at three γ-sites to generate extracellular Aβ-like fragments and at two ϵ-sites to release human EPCAM intracellular domain HEPICD, which is efficiently degraded by the proteasome. Mapping of cleavage sites onto three-dimensional structures of HEPEX cis-dimer predicted conditional availability of α- and β-sites. Endocytosis of HEPCAM warrants acidification in cytoplasmic vesicles to dissociate protein cis-dimers required for cleavage by BACE1 at low pH values. Intramembrane cleavage sites are accessible and not part of the structurally important transmembrane helix dimer crossing region. Surprisingly, neither chemical inhibition of cleavage nor cellular knock-out of HEPCAM using CRISPR-Cas9 technology impacted the adhesion of carcinoma cell lines. Hence, a direct function of HEPCAM as an adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells is not supported and appears to be questionable. PMID:26292218

  1. Androgen receptor enhances cell adhesion and decreases cell migration via modulating β1-integrin-AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Lung; Jeng, Long-Bin; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Liao, Pei-Yin; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-08-28

    The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to promote the initiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the early stage of the disease process and to suppress HCC cell invasion during the later stages of the disease. The mechanisms governing these dual yet opposite roles have yet to be elucidated. Using carcinogen-induced HCC in vivo mouse models and the in vitro human HCC cell line SKhep1, we found that knockout of AR in primary HCC cells led to a decrease in HCC cell focal adhesion capacity compared to cells from wildtype mice. Similar results were obtained after adding functional AR into human HCC SKhep1 cells. Further analysis revealed that the role AR plays in adhesion of HCC cells is governed, at least in part, by its ability to up-regulate β1-integrin and activate the PI3K/AKT pathway. We also found that AR-β1-integrin-mediated cell adhesion suppresses cell migration. Those findings indicate that the AR-β1-integrin-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway might play a role in the bimodal function of AR on cell adhesion and migration at the cellular level.

  2. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  3. Fibronectin type III5 repeat contains a novel cell adhesion sequence, KLDAPT, which binds activated alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins.

    PubMed

    Moyano, J V; Carnemolla, B; Domínguez-Jiménez, C; García-Gila, M; Albar, J P; Sánchez-Aparicio, P; Leprini, A; Querzé, G; Zardi, L; Garcia-Pardo, A

    1997-10-03

    The region of fibronectin encompassing type III repeats 4-6 contains a low affinity heparin binding domain, but its physiological significance is not clear. We have studied whether this domain is able to interact with cells as already shown for other heparin binding domains of fibronectin. A computer search based on homologies with known active sites in fibronectin revealed the sequence KLDAPT located in FN-III5. A synthetic peptide containing this sequence induced lymphoid cell adhesion upon treatment with the activating anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) TS2/16 or with Mn2+, indicating that KLDAPT was binding to an integrin. A recombinant fragment containing repeat III5 (FN-III5) also mediated adhesion of TS2/16/Mn2+-treated cells while the FN-III6 fragment did not. Soluble KLDAPT peptide inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 as well as to a 38-kDa fibronectin fragment and VCAM-1, two previously known ligands for alpha4beta1 integrin. KLDAPT also competed with the binding of soluble alkaline phosphatase-coupled VCAM-Ig to Mn2+-treated alpha4beta1. Furthermore, mAbs anti-alpha4 and anti-alpha4beta7, but not mAbs to other integrins, inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 and KLDAPT. These results therefore establish a cell adhesive function for the FN-III5 repeat and show that KLDAPT is a novel fibronectin ligand for activated alpha4 integrins.

  4. Structure and dynamics of the fibronectin-III domains of Aplysia californica cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Catherine M; Muzard, Julien; Brooks, Bernard R; Lee, Gil U; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-04-21

    Due to their homophilic and heterophilic binding properties, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrin, cadherin and the immunoglobulin superfamily CAMs are of primary importance in cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, signalling pathways and other crucial biological processes. We study the molecular structures and conformational dynamics of the two fibronectin type III (Fn-III) extracellular domains of the Aplysia californica CAM (apCAM) protein, by constructing and probing an atomically-detailed structural model based on apCAM's homology with other CAMs. The stability and dynamic properties of the Fn-III domains, individually and in tandem, are probed and analysed using all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and normal mode analysis of their corresponding elastic network models. The refined structural model of the Fn-III tandem of apCAM reveals a specific pattern of amino acid interactions that controls the stability of the β-sheet rich structure and could affect apCAM's response to physical or chemical changes of its environment. It also exposes the important role of several specific charged residues in modulating the structural properties of the linker segment connecting the two Fn-III domains, as well as of the inter-domain interface.

  5. ATP release due to Thy-1–integrin binding induces P2X7-mediated calcium entry required for focal adhesion formation

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez, Mauricio; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Valdivia, Alejandra; Alvarez, Alvaro; Kong, Milene; Muñoz, Nicolás; Eisner, Verónica; Jaimovich, Enrique; Schneider, Pascal; Quest, Andrew F. G.; Leyton, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    Thy-1, an abundant mammalian glycoprotein, interacts with αvβ3 integrin and syndecan-4 in astrocytes and thus triggers signaling events that involve RhoA and its effector p160ROCK, thereby increasing astrocyte adhesion to the extracellular matrix. The signaling cascade includes calcium-dependent activation of protein kinase Cα upstream of Rho; however, what causes the intracellular calcium transients required to promote adhesion remains unclear. Purinergic P2X7 receptors are important for astrocyte function and form large non-selective cation pores upon binding to their ligand, ATP. Thus, we evaluated whether the intracellular calcium required for Thy-1-induced cell adhesion stems from influx mediated by ATP-activated P2X7 receptors. Results show that adhesion induced by the fusion protein Thy-1-Fc was preceded by both ATP release and sustained intracellular calcium elevation. Elimination of extracellular ATP with Apyrase, chelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA, or inhibition of P2X7 with oxidized ATP, all individually blocked intracellular calcium increase and Thy-1-stimulated adhesion. Moreover, Thy-1 mutated in the integrin-binding site did not trigger ATP release, and silencing of P2X7 with specific siRNA blocked Thy-1-induced adhesion. This study is the first to demonstrate a functional link between αvβ3 integrin and P2X7 receptors, and to reveal an important, hitherto unanticipated, role for P2X7 in calcium-dependent signaling required for Thy-1-stimulated astrocyte adhesion. PMID:21502139

  6. The primary structure of the alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4: homology to other integrins and a possible cell-cell adhesion function.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Y; Elices, M J; Crouse, C; Hemler, M E

    1989-01-01

    VLA-4 is a cell surface heterodimer in the integrin superfamily of adhesion receptors. Anti-VLA-4 antibodies inhibited cytolytic T cell activity, with inhibitory activity directed against the effector T cells rather than their targets. Thus, whereas other VLA receptors appear to mediate cell--matrix interactions, VLA-4 may have a cell--cell adhesion function. To facilitate comparative studies of VLA-4 and other integrins, cDNA clones for the human alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 were selected and then sequenced. The 3805 bp sequence encoded for 999 amino acids, with an N-terminus identical to that previously obtained from direct sequencing of purified alpha 4 protein. The alpha 4 amino acid sequence was 17-24% similar to other integrin alpha chains with known sequences. Parts of the alpha 4 sequence most conserved in other alpha chains include (i) the positions of 19/24 cysteine residues, (ii) three potential divalent cation binding sites of the general structure DXDXDGXXD and (iii) the transmembrane region. However, alpha 4 stands apart from all other known integrin alpha subunit sequences because (i) alpha 4 has neither an inserted I-domain, nor a disulfide-linked C-terminal fragment, (ii) its sequence is the most unique and (iii) only alpha 4 has a potential protease cleavage site, near the middle of the coding region, which appears responsible for the characteristic 80,000 and 70,000 Mr fragments of alpha 4. Images PMID:2788572

  7. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  8. A small molecule induces integrin β4 nuclear translocation and apoptosis selectively in cancer cells with high expression of integrin β4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuYan; Ge, Di; Chen, LiNa; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing; Zhao, BaoXiang

    2016-01-01

    Increased integrin β4 (ITGB4) level is accompanied by malignant progression of multiple carcinomas. However, selective therapeutic strategies against cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 have not been reported. Here, for the first time, we report that a chiral small molecule, SEC, selectively promotes apoptosis in cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 by inducing ITGB4 nuclear translocation. Nuclear ITGB4 can bind to the ATF3 promoter region and activate the expression of ATF3, then upregulate the downstream pro-apoptosis genes. Furthermore, SEC promoted the binding of annexin A7 (ANXA7) to ITGB4 and increased ANXA7 GTPase activity. Activated ANXA7 promoted ITGB4 nuclear translocation by triggering ITGB4 phosphorylation at Y1494. SEC also inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in the avian embryo model. We identified a small molecule, SEC, with selective pro-apoptosis effects on cancer cells with high expression of ITGB4, both in vitro and in vivo, by triggering the binding of ITGB4 and ANXA7, ITGB4 nuclear trafficking, and pro-apoptosis gene expression. PMID:26918348

  9. [Integrins and cell cycle control by the environment].

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Bernard, G

    2000-04-01

    Integrins insure cell adhesion to extra-cellular matrix components; they are thus involved in tissue architecture. They also can insure intercellular adhesions by binding to surface molecules from the immunoglobulin superfamily. Integrins binding to their ligands induce cytoskeleton reorganisation and, consequently, they gather into focal adhesion contacts. This greatly strenghthens mechanical forces. Nevertheless, integrins can also participate in cell locomotion and, moreover, tranduce within cells signals that can extensively influence cell metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Doing so, they can interact with signals from other cellular receptors, such as soluble growth factors. They are therefore key molecules to integrate intrinsic and extrinsic events of the cellular behavior. They profoundly influence oncogenesis and the metastatic process.

  10. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  11. Novel secreted isoform of adhesion molecule ICAM-4: Potential regulator of membrane-associated ICAM-4 interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Spring, Frances A.; Parons, Stephen F.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2003-02-18

    ICAM-4, a newly characterized adhesion molecule, is expressed early in human erythropoiesis and functions as a ligand for binding a4b1 and aV integrin-expressing cells. Within the bone marrow, erythroblasts surround central macrophages forming erythroblastic islands. Evidence suggests that these islands are highly specialized subcompartments where cell adhesion events, in concert with cytokines, play critical roles in regulating erythropoiesis and apoptosis. Since erythroblasts express a4b1 and ICAM-4 and macrophages exhibit aV, ICAM-4 is an attractive candidate for mediating cellular interactions within erythroblastic islands. To determine whether ICAM-4 binding properties are conserved across species, we first cloned and sequenced the murine homologue. The translated amino acid sequence showed 68 percent overall identity with human ICAM-4. Using recombinant murine ICAM-4 extracellular domains, we discovered that hematopoietic a4b1-expressing HEL cells and non-hematopoietic aV-expressing FLY cells adhered to mouse ICAM-4. Cell adhesion studies showed that FLY and HEL cells bound to mouse and human proteins with similar avidity. These data strongly suggest conservation of integrin-binding properties across species. Importantly, we characterized a novel second splice cDNA that would be predicted to encode an ICAM-4 isoform, lacking the membrane-spanning domain. Erythroblasts express both isoforms of ICAM-4. COS-7 cells transfected with GFP constructs of prototypic or novel ICAM-4 cDNA showed different cellular localization patterns. Moreover, analysis of tissue culture medium revealed that the novel ICAM-4 cDNA encodes a secreted protein. We postulate that secretion of this newly described isoform, ICAM-4S, may modulate binding of membrane-associated ICAM-4 and could thus play a critical regulatory role in erythroblast molecular attachments.

  12. Role of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in pathogenesis of staphylococcal arthritis and in host defense against staphylococcal bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Verdrengh, M; Springer, T A; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C; Tarkowski, A

    1996-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with two integrins, LFA-1 and Mac-1. These interactions are critical for leukocyte extravasation into inflamed tissue. To assess the role of ICAM-1 expression in the pathogenesis of bacterial infection, homozygously mutant mice lacking the ICAM-1 gene were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus. Within 6 days after inoculation 50% of the animals in the ICAM-1(-/-) group, but none of the controls, had died. Despite the high level of mortality, ICAM-1(-/-) mice developed less frequent and less severe arthritis than their wild-type littermates. In agreement, normal mice inoculated with staphylococci and administered anti-ICAM-1 antibodies exhibited a higher frequency of mortality but less severe arthritis than the controls. Our results indicate that ICAM-1 on the one hand provides protection against systemic disease but on the other hand aggravates the local disease manifestation. PMID:8698512

  13. Exenatide Alters Gene Expression of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule (ICAM), and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM) in the Hippocampus of Type 2 Diabetic Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gumuslu, Esen; Cine, Naci; Gökbayrak, Merve Ertan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Ulak, Guner

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor, ameliorates the symptoms of diabetes through stimulation of insulin secretion. Exenatide is a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor. Cell adhesion molecules are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and are involved in synaptic rearrangements in the mature brain. Material/Methods The present study demonstrated the effects of exenatide treatment (0.1 μg/kg, subcutaneously, twice daily for 2 weeks) on the gene expression levels of cell adhesion molecules, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in the brain tissue of diabetic BALB/c male mice by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA) injection to male mice. Results The results of this study revealed that hippocampal gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were found to be up-regulated in STZ-NA-induced diabetic mice compared to those of controls. A significant decrease in the gene expression levels of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were determined after 2 weeks of exenatide administration. Conclusions Cell adhesion molecules may be involved in the molecular mechanism of diabetes. Exenatide has a strong beneficial action in managing diabetes induced by STZ/NA by altering gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM. PMID:27465247

  14. ZDHHC3 Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulates Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Patricia Marie-Jeanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Cesca, Fabrizia; Gorinski, Natalya; Galil, Dalia Abdel; Cherkas, Volodimir; Ronkina, Natalia; Lafera, Juri; Gaestel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. It is broadly expressed in the nervous system and regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Previous in vitro studies revealed that palmitoylation of NCAM is required for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-stimulated neurite outgrowth and identified the zinc finger DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys)-containing proteins ZDHHC3 and ZDHHC7 as specific NCAM-palmitoylating enzymes. Here, we verified that FGF2 controlled NCAM palmitoylation in vivo and investigated molecular mechanisms regulating NCAM palmitoylation by ZDHHC3. Experiments with overexpression and pharmacological inhibition of FGF receptor (FGFR) and Src revealed that these kinases control tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 and that ZDHHC3 is phosphorylated by endogenously expressed FGFR and Src proteins. By site-directed mutagenesis, we found that Tyr18 is an FGFR1-specific ZDHHC3 phosphorylation site, while Tyr295 and Tyr297 are specifically phosphorylated by Src kinase in cell-based and cell-free assays. Abrogation of tyrosine phosphorylation increased ZDHHC3 autopalmitoylation, enhanced interaction with NCAM, and upregulated NCAM palmitoylation. Expression of ZDHHC3 with tyrosine mutated in cultured hippocampal neurons promoted neurite outgrowth. Our findings for the first time highlight that FGFR- and Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 modulates ZDHHC3 enzymatic activity and plays a role in neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:27247265

  15. Pharmacology of Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kiryushko, Darya; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system under normal conditions. They also are involved in numerous pathological processes such as inflammation, degenerative disorders, and cancer, making them attractive targets for drug development. The majority of CAMs are signal transducing receptors. CAM-induced intracellular signalling is triggered via homophilic (CAM-CAM) and heterophilic (CAM - other counter-receptors) interactions, which both can be targeted pharmacologically. We here describe the progress in the CAM pharmacology focusing on cadherins and CAMs of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, such as NCAM and L1. Structural basis of CAM-mediated cell adhesion and CAM-induced signalling are outlined. Different pharmacological approaches to study functions of CAMs are presented including the use of specific antibodies, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides. We also discuss how unravelling of the 3D structure of CAMs provides novel pharmacological tools for dissection of CAM-induced signalling pathways and offers therapeutic opportunities for a range of neurological disorders. PMID:19305742

  16. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Villa-Verde, D M; Calado, T C; Ocampo, J S; Silva-Monteiro, E; Savino, W

    1999-05-01

    Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble beta-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  17. Junction adhesion molecule is a receptor for reovirus.

    PubMed

    Barton, E S; Forrest, J C; Connolly, J L; Chappell, J D; Liu, Y; Schnell, F J; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A; Dermody, T S

    2001-02-09

    Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein sigma1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning to identify junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an integral tight junction protein, as a reovirus receptor. JAM binds directly to sigma1 and permits reovirus infection of nonpermissive cells. Ligation of JAM is required for reovirus-induced activation of NF-kappaB and apoptosis. Thus, reovirus interaction with cell-surface receptors is a critical determinant of both cell-type specific tropism and virus-induced intracellular signaling events that culminate in cell death.

  18. Structure-based virtual screening of small-molecule antagonists of platelet integrin αIIbβ3 that do not prime the receptor to bind ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Ana; Li, Jihong; Naini, Sarasija; Coller, Barry S.; Filizola, Marta

    2012-09-01

    Integrin αIIbβ3 has emerged as an important therapeutic target for thrombotic vascular diseases owing to its pivotal role in mediating platelet aggregation through interaction with adhesive ligands. In the search for effective anti-thrombotic agents that can be administered orally without inducing the high-affinity ligand binding state, we recently discovered via high-throughput screening of 33,264 compounds a novel, αIIbβ3-selective inhibitor (RUC-1) of adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) -induced platelet aggregation that exhibits a different chemical scaffold and mode of binding with respect to classical Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-mimicking αIIbβ3 antagonists. Most importantly, RUC-1 and its higher-affinity derivative, RUC-2, do not induce major conformational changes in the protein β3 subunit or prime the receptor to bind ligand. To identify additional αIIbβ3-selective chemotypes that inhibit platelet aggregation through similar mechanisms, we screened in silico over 2.5 million commercially available, `lead-like' small molecules based on complementarity to the predicted binding mode of RUC-2 into the RUC-1-αIIbβ3 crystal structure. This first reported structure-based virtual screening application to the αIIbβ3 integrin led to the identification of 2 αIIbβ3-selective antagonists out of 4 tested, which compares favorably with the 0.003 % "hit rate" of our previous high-throughput chemical screening study. The newly identified compounds, like RUC-1 and RUC-2, showed specificity for αIIbβ3 compared to αVβ3 and did not prime the receptor to bind ligand. They thus may hold promise as αIIbβ3 antagonist therapeutic scaffolds.

  19. 17β-Estradiol Protects Rat Annulus Fibrosus Cells Against Apoptosis via α1 Integrin-Mediated Adhesion to Type I Collagen: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Ming; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Huang, Ai-Bing; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background 17β-Estradiol (E2) has been reported to protect annulus fibrosus (AF) cells in vitro against interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. However, its time-response effect remains unexplored. In addition, integrin α2/collagen II interaction has been reported to influence the apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that integrin α1/collagen II might play a role in exerting the anti-apoptosis effect by E2. The aim of the current study was to further investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of E2 and determine the role of integrin α1/collagen II interaction. Material/Methods Rat AF cells were primary cultured and used for the following experiments. AF cells were identified by immunocytochemistry of type I collagen. Cell apoptosis was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. The activity of active caspase-3 was determined by use of a caspase-3 detection kit. AF cell adhesion to type I collagen was determined by cell adhesion assay. Protein level of integrin subunit α1 was quantified by Western blot and mRNA expression was determined by real-time qPCR. Results The immunocytochemistry of type I collagen revealed that cell purity was eligible for the following experiments with 98% of purity. FACS analysis indicated time-dependent anti-apoptosis effect of E2 at time points of 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, which was confirmed by Caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, cell adhesion assay showed that E2 significantly increased cell binding to 95% of control, and qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that E2 effectively upregulated integrin α1. However, estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780 prohibited the effect of E2. Conclusions This study shows that E2 protects against apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, and α1 integrin-mediated adhesion to collagen II is essential for estrogen-dependent anti-apoptosis in rat annulus fibrosus cells in vitro. PMID:27108411

  20. Plant toxin β-ODAP activates integrin β1 and focal adhesion: A critical pathway to cause neurolathyrism

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Rui-Yue; Xing, Geng-Yan; Zhou, Guang-Ming; Li, Feng-Min; Hu, Wen-Tao; Lambein, Fernand; Xiong, Jun-Lan; Zhang, Sheng-Xiang; Kong, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Hao; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is a unique neurodegeneration disease caused by β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β- diaminopropionic (β-ODAP) present in grass pea seed (Lathyrus stativus L.) and its pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. This issue has become a critical restriction to take full advantage of drought-tolerant grass pea as an elite germplasm resource under climate change. We found that, in a human glioma cell line, β-ODAP treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to outside release and overfall of Ca2+ from mitochondria to cellular matrix. Increased Ca2+ in cellular matrix activated the pathway of ECM, and brought about the overexpression of β1 integrin on cytomembrane surface and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The formation of high concentration of FA units on the cell microfilaments further induced overexpression of paxillin, and then inhibited cytoskeleton polymerization. This phenomenon turned to cause serious cell microfilaments distortion and ultimately cytoskeleton collapse. We also conducted qRT-PCR verification on RNA-sequence data using 8 randomly chosen genes of pathway enrichment, and confirmed that the data was statistically reliable. For the first time, we proposed a relatively complete signal pathway to neurolathyrism. This work would help open a new window to cure neurolathyrism, and fully utilize grass pea germplasm resource under climate change. PMID:28094806

  1. An extracellular adhesion molecule complex patterns dendritic branching and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xintong; Liu, Oliver W.; Howell, Audrey S.; Shen, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Robust dendrite morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of reproducible neural circuits. However, little is known about the extracellular cues that pattern complex dendrite morphologies. In the model nematode C. elegans, the sensory neuron PVD establishes stereotypical, highly-branched dendrite morphology. Here, we report the identification of a tripartite ligand-receptor complex of membrane adhesion molecules that is both necessary and sufficient to instruct spatially restricted growth and branching of PVD dendrites. The ligand complex SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1 function at defined locations in the surrounding hypodermal tissue, while DMA-1 acts as the cognate receptor on PVD. Mutations in this complex lead to dramatic defects in the formation, stabilization, and organization of the dendritic arbor. Ectopic expression of SAX-7 and MNR-1 generates a predictable, unnaturally patterned dendritic tree in a DMA-1 dependent manner. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that all three molecules are needed for interaction. PMID:24120131

  2. A novel monoclonal antibody to human laminin α5 chain strongly inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration on laminins 511 and 521.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Omrani, Shahin; Ishikawa, Taichi; Javed, Fawad; Oikawa, Yuko; Virtanen, Ismo; Juronen, Erkki; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, a large family of αβγ heterotrimeric proteins mainly found in basement membranes, are strong promoters of adhesion and migration of multiple cell types, such as tumor and immune cells, via several integrin receptors. Among laminin α (LMα) chains, α5 displays the widest tissue distribution in adult life and is synthesized by most cell types. Here, we have generated and characterized five novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the human LMα5 chain to further study the biological relevance of α5 laminins, such as laminins 511 (α5β1γ1) and 521 (α5β2γ1). As detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, each antibody displayed unique properties when compared to mAb 4C7, the prototype LMα5 antibody. Of greatest interest, mAb 8G9, but not any other antibody, strongly inhibited α3β1/α6β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of glioma, melanoma, and carcinoma cells on laminin-511 and, together with mAb 4C7, on laminin-521. Accordingly, mAb 8G9 abolished the interaction of soluble α3β1 integrin with immobilized laminins 511 and 521. Binding of mAb 8G9 to laminin-511 was unaffected by the other mAbs to the LMα5 chain but largely hindered by mAb 4E10 to a LMβ1 chain epitope near the globular domain of laminin-511. Thus, mAb 8G9 defines a novel epitope localized at or near the integrin-binding globular domain of the LMα5 chain, which is essential for cell adhesion and migration, and identifies a potential therapeutic target in malignant and inflammatory diseases.

  3. The metastasis suppressor CD82/KAI1 inhibits fibronectin adhesion-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells by repressing the associated integrin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Sung; Jin, Young-June; Jeoung, Dooil; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Hansoo

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane protein CD82/KAI1 suppresses the metastatic potential of various cancer cell types. Moreover, decrease or loss of CD82 expression is closely associated with malignancy and poor prognosis in many human cancers including prostate cancer. Despite intense scrutiny, the mechanisms underlying the metastasis-suppressing role of CD82 are still not fully understood. Here, we found that a fibronectin matrix induced mesenchymal phenotypes in human prostate cancer cells with no or low CD82 expression levels. However, high CD82 expression rendered prostate cancer cells to have intensified epithelial characteristics upon fibronectin engagement, along with decreased cell motility and invasiveness. The CD82 function of inhibiting fibronectin-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was dependent not only on CD82 interactions with fibronectin-binding α3β1/α5β1 integrins but also on the integrin-mediated intracellular signaling events. Notably, CD82 attenuated the FAK-Src and ILK pathways downstream of the fibronectin-receptor integrins. Immunofluorescence staining of human prostate cancer tissue specimens illustrated a negative association of CD82 with EMT-related gene expression as well as prostate malignancy. Altogether, these results suggest that CD82 suppresses EMT in prostate cancer cells adhered to the fibronectin matrix by repressing adhesion signaling through lateral interactions with the associated α3β1 and α5β1 integrins, leading to reduced cell migration and invasive capacities. PMID:27926483

  4. Human peripheral blood eosinophils express a functional c-kit receptor for stem cell factor that stimulates very late antigen 4 (VLA-4)-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Austen, K F; Friend, D S; Heidtman, M; Boyce, J A

    1997-07-21

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell-derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0- 3. 6-fold, average 2.8 +/- 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 microg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 +/- 1.4-, 5.3 +/- 3.3-, and 5.4 +/- 0. 2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 +/- 9. 2-, 3.8 +/- 2.5-, and 1.7 +/- 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the alpha4 and beta1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4-mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions.

  5. Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Express a Functional c-kit Receptor for Stem Cell Factor that Stimulates Very Late Antigen 4 (VLA-4)–mediated Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qian; Austen, K. Frank; Friend, Daniel S.; Heidtman, Matthew; Boyce, Joshua A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell–derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0– 3.6-fold, average 2.8 ± 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 μg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 ± 1.4-, 5.3 ± 3.3-, and 5.4 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 ± 9.2-, 3.8 ± 2.5-, and 1.7 ± 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the α4 and β1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4–mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions. PMID:9221761

  6. Integrins and Integrin-Associated Proteins in the Cardiac Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are expressed in all cells, including those in the heart. They participate in multiple critical cellular processes including adhesion, extracellular matrix organization, signaling, survival, and proliferation. Particularly relevant for a contracting muscle cell, integrins are mechanotransducers, translating mechanical to biochemical information. While it is likely that cardiovascular clinicians and scientists have highest recognition of integrins in the cardiovascular system from drugs used to inhibit platelet aggregation, the focus of this article will be on the role of integrins specifically in the cardiac myocyte. Following a general introduction to integrin biology, the manuscript will discuss important work on integrin signaling, mechanotransduction, and lessons learned about integrin function from a range of model organisms. Then we will detail work on integrin-related proteins in the myocyte, how integrins may interact with ion channels and mediate viral uptake into cells, and also play a role in stem cell biology. Finally, we will discuss directions for future study. PMID:24481847

  7. Tocotrienol is the most effective vitamin E for reducing endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and adhesion to monocytes.

    PubMed

    Theriault, Andre; Chao, Jun-Tzo; Gapor, Abdul; Chao, Jun Tzo; Gapor, Abeli

    2002-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol and its esterified derivatives have been shown to be effective in reducing monocytic-endothelial cell adhesion. However, the effect of alpha-tocotrienol (alpha-T3) has not been characterized. In the present study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as the model system, we examined the relative inhibitory effects of alpha-T3 and other vitamin E derivatives on cell surface adhesion molecule expression under TNF-alpha stimulation. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that alpha-T3 markedly inhibited the surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in TNF-alpha activated HUVEC in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The optimal inhibition was observed at 25 micromol/l alpha-T3 within 24 h (77+/-5%) without cytotoxicity. In addition, the surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin were also reduced by 40+/-7 and 42+/-5%, respectively. In order to further evaluate the effects of alpha-T3 on the vascular endothelium, we investigated the ability of monocytes to adhere to endothelial cells. Interestingly, a 63+/-3% decrease in monocytic cell adherence was observed. Compared to alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl succinate, alpha-T3 displayed a more profound inhibitory effect on adhesion molecule expression and monocytic cell adherence. This inhibitory action by alpha-T3 on TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion was shown to be NF-kappaB dependent and was interestingly reversed with co-incubation with farnesol and geranylgeraniol, suggesting a role for prenylated proteins in the regulation of adhesion molecule expression. In summary, the above results suggest that alpha-T3 is a potent and effective agent in the reduction of cellular adhesion molecule expression and monocytic cell adherence.

  8. Adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to intact endothelium under stagnation point flow in vitro is mediated by the integrin alphaIIbeta3.

    PubMed

    Reininger, A J; Korndörfer, M A; Wurzinger, L J

    1998-05-01

    As we demonstrated earlier, platelets adhere to intact endothelium provided they are activated and convectively transported against the endothelial surface. To identify the platelet receptors involved we superfused cultured endothelium with activated platelet rich plasma (PRP) by means of the Stagnation Point Flow Adhesio- Aggregometer while blocking various platelet receptors. Inhibition was performed with the tetrapeptide RGDS, the non-peptide Ro-43-8857, or a monoclonal antibody directed against integrin alphaIIbeta3. Platelet deposition was video-recorded and quantified by image analysis. Infusion of RGDS or Ro-43-8857 into ADP-stimulated PRP completely prevented adhesion as well as subsequent aggregation. Interrupting the inhibitor infusion while ADP stimulation persisted, prompted adhesion and aggregation, demonstrating the reversibility of the inhibition. Platelet adhesion was irreversibly blocked by preincubation of the PRP with the moab against alphaIIbeta3. Its specific binding was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Our results suggest that platelet adhesion to intact endothelium is mediated via platelet integrin alphaIIbeta3.

  9. β1 integrin adhesion enhances IL-6 mediated STAT3 signaling in Myeloma cells: Implications for Microenvironment Influence on Tumor Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Shain, Kenneth H.; Yarde, Danielle N.; Meads, Mark B.; Huang, Mei; Jove, Richard; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Dalton, William S.

    2009-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironmental components interleukin (IL)-6 and fibronectin (FN) individually influence the proliferation and survival of Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells; however, in vivo these effectors most likely work together. We examined signaling events, cell cycle progression, and levels of drug response in MM cells either adhered to FN via β1 integrins, stimulated with IL-6, or treated with the two combined. While G1/S cell cycle arrest associated with FN adhesion was overcome when IL-6 as added, the cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) was maintained in the presence of IL-6. Concomitant exposure of MM cells to IL-6 and FN adhesion revealed a dramatic increase in STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and DNA-binding, as compared to either IL-6 or FN adhesion alone in four MM cell lines. Importantly, this increase in STAT3 activation correlated with a novel association between STAT3 and gp130 in cells adhered to FN prior to stimulation with IL-6, relative to non-adherent cells. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which collaborative signaling by β1 integrin and gp130 confers an increased survival advantage to MM cells. PMID:19155309

  10. Activin B induces human endometrial cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion by up-regulating integrin β3 via SMAD2/3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Siyuan; Klausen, Christian; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Hua; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-10-13

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common female cancer and the most common gynecological malignancy. Although it comprises only ~10% of all endometrial cancers, the serous histological subtype accounts for ~40% of deaths due to its aggressive behavior and propensity to metastasize. Histopathological studies suggest that elevated expression of activin/inhibin βB subunit is associated with reduced survival in non-endometrioid endometrial cancers (type II, mostly serous). However, little is known about the specific roles and mechanisms of activin B (βB dimer) in serous endometrial cancer growth and progression. In the present study, we examined the biological functions of activin B in type II endometrial cancer cell lines, HEC-1B and KLE. Our results demonstrate that treatment with activin B increases cell migration, invasion and adhesion to vitronectin, but does not affect cell viability. Moreover, we show that activin B treatment increases integrin β3 mRNA and protein levels via SMAD2/3-SMAD4 signaling. Importantly, siRNA knockdown studies revealed that integrin β3 is required for basal and activin B-induced cell migration, invasion and adhesion. Our results suggest that activin B-SMAD2/3-integrin β3 signaling could contribute to poor patient survival by promoting the invasion and/or metastasis of type II endometrial cancers.

  11. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125- kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration. PMID:7523423

  12. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Albini, A; Melchiorri, A; Koteliansky, V E; Geuna, M; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1994-10-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration.

  13. Small molecule integrin antagonists that bind to the beta2 subunit I-like domain and activate signals in one direction and block them in the other.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, Motomu; Salas, Azucena; Yang, Wei; Weitz-Schmidt, Gabriele; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-09-01

    Leukocyte integrins contain an inserted (I) domain in their alpha subunits and an I-like domain in their beta(2) subunit, which directly bind ligand and regulate ligand binding, respectively. We describe a novel mechanistic class of integrin inhibitors that bind to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of the beta(2) I-like domain and prevent its interaction with and activation of the alpha(L) I domain. The inhibitors do not bind to the alpha(L) I domain but stabilize alpha/beta subunit association and can show selectivity for alpha(L)beta(2) compared to alpha(M)beta(2). The inhibitors reveal a crucial intersection for relaying conformational signals within integrin extracellular domains. While blocking signals in one direction to the I domain, the antagonists induce the active conformation of the I-like domain and stalk domains, and thus transmit conformational signals in the other direction toward the transmembrane domains.

  14. The roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in cell adhesion during theca cell layer formation and the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on THY1 and integrin beta3 localization in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Itami, Saori; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Atsushi; Yasuda, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    The mechanism of theca cell layer formation in mammalian ovaries has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in theca cell layer formation during mouse folliculogenesis. The localization pattern of THY1 and integrin beta3 in adult mouse ovary was investigated immunohistochemically. The strongest THY1 signal was observed in theca cell layers from secondary to preantral follicles, at which time theca cells have begun to participate in follicle formation. Integrin beta3 also localized to the theca cell layer of secondary to preantral follicles and showed a localization pattern similar to that of THY1. Moreover, the role of THY1 in theca cell layer formation was examined using a follicle culture system. When anti-THY1 antibody was added to this culture, no theca cell layers were formed, and the granulosa cells were distanced from each other. Because a THY1 signal was not observed in ovaries at stages earlier than prepuberty, THY1 localization also appeared to be affected by mouse development. This possibility was examined by determining the effect of administering follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and 17beta-estradiol to 7-day-old mice on THY1 localization in the ovary 3 days later. Only follicle-stimulating hormone induced a THY1 signal in 10-day-old mouse ovaries. No THY1 signal was observed in untreated 10-day-old ovaries. In conclusion, THY1 might play a role in cell adhesion via binding to integrin beta3 in mouse ovaries. The present results suggest that THY1 localization may be affected by follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse ovaries.

  15. Calsyntenins Function as Synaptogenic Adhesion Molecules in Concert with Neurexins

    PubMed Central

    Um, Ji Won; Pramanik, Gopal; Ko, Ji Seung; Song, Min-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Park, Kang-Sik; Südhof, Thomas C.; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Ko, Jaewon

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple synaptic adhesion molecules govern synapse formation. Here, we propose calsyntenin-3/alcadein-β as a synapse organizer that specifically induces presynaptic differentiation in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Calsyntenin-3 (CST-3) was highly expressed during various postnatal periods of mouse brain development. The simultaneous knockdown of all three CSTs, but not CST-3 alone, decreased inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse densities in cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, the knockdown of CSTs specifically reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, the loss of CSTs induced a concomitant decrease in neuron soma size in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, α-neurexins (α-Nrxs) were affinity-purified as components of a CST-3 complex involved in CST-3-mediated presynaptic differentiation. However, CST-3 did not directly bind to Nrxs. Viewed together, these data suggest that the three CSTs redundantly regulate inhibitory synapse formation, inhibitory synapse function, and neuron development in concert with Nrxs. PMID:24613359

  16. Angiogenesis in Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gaoyuan; Fehrenbach, Melane L.; Williams, James T.; Finklestein, Jeffrey M.; Zhu, Jing-Xu; DeLisser, Horace M.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been previously implicated in endothelial cell migration; additionally, anti-PECAM-1 antibodies have been shown to inhibit in vivo angiogenesis. Studies were therefore performed with PECAM-1-null mice to further define the involvement of PECAM-1 in blood vessel formation. Vascularization of subcutaneous Matrigel implants as well as tumor angiogenesis were both inhibited in PECAM-1-null mice. Reciprocal bone marrow transplants that involved both wild-type and PECAM-1-deficient mice revealed that the impaired angiogenic response resulted from a loss of endothelial, but not leukocyte, PECAM-1. In vitro wound migration and single-cell motility by PECAM-1-null endothelial cells were also compromised. In addition, filopodia formation, a feature of motile cells, was inhibited in PECAM-1-null endothelial cells as well as in human endothelial cells treated with either anti-PECAM-1 antibody or PECAM-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of PECAM-1 promoted filopodia formation and increased the protein expression levels of Cdc42, a Rho GTPase that is known to promote the formation of filopodia. In the developing retinal vasculature, numerous, long filamentous filopodia, emanating from endothelial cells at the tips of angiogenic sprouts, were observed in wild-type animals, but to a lesser extent in the PECAM-1-null mice. Together, these data further establish the involvement of endothelial PECAM-1 in angiogenesis and suggest that, in vivo, PECAM-1 may stimulate endothelial cell motility by promoting the formation of filopodia. PMID:19574426

  17. R-Ras Regulates Murine T Cell Migration and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaocai; Yan, Mingfei; Guo, Yihe; Singh, Gobind; Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Wang, Demin; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Chan, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The trafficking of T-lymphocytes to peripheral draining lymph nodes is crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. The role of chemokines in the activation of integrins via Ras-related small GTPases has been well established. R-Ras is a member of the Ras-subfamily of small guanosine-5’-triphosphate-binding proteins and its role in T cell trafficking has been investigated in R-Ras null mice (Rras−/−). An examination of the lymphoid organs of Rras−/− mice revealed a 40% reduction in the cellularity of the peripheral lymph nodes. Morphologically, the high endothelial venules of Rras−/− mice were more disorganized and less mature than those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from Rras−/− mice had approximately 42% lower surface expression of L-selectin/CD62L. These aberrant peripheral lymph node phenotypes were associated with proliferative and trafficking defects in Rras−/− T cells. Furthermore, R-Ras could be activated by the chemokine, CCL21. Indeed, Rras−/− T cells had approximately 14.5% attenuation in binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 upon CCL21 stimulation. Finally, in a graft-versus host disease model, recipient mice that were transfused with Rras−/− T cells showed a significant reduction in disease severity when compared with mice transplanted with wild-type T cells. These findings implicate a role for R-Ras in T cell trafficking in the high endothelial venules during an effective immune response. PMID:26710069

  18. Leukocytosis and resistance to septic shock in intercellular adhesion molecule 1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is one of three immunoglobulin superfamily members that bind to the integrins lymphocyte function associated 1 (LFA-1) and Mac-1 on leukocytes. We have generated mice that are genetically and functionally deficient in ICAM-1. These mice have elevated numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as diminished allogeneic T cell responses and delayed type hypersensitivity. Mutant mice are resistant to lethal effects of high doses of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and this correlates with a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration in the liver. Production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 1 is normal in ICAM-1-deficient mice, and thus protection appears to be related to a diminution in critical leukocyte-endothelial interactions. After sensitization with D- galactosamine (D-Gal), ICAM-1-deficient mice are resistant to the lethal effect of low doses of exotoxin (Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B [SEB]), which has been shown to mediate its toxic effects via the activation of specific T cells. In this model, ICAM-1-mediated protection against SEB lethality correlates with a decrease in the systemic release of inflammatory cytokines, as well as with prevention of extensive hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. ICAM-1-deficient mice sensitized with D-Gal, however, are not protected from lethality when challenged with low doses of endotoxin (LPS). These studies show that the different contribution of ICAM-1 in the activation of either T cells or macrophages is decisive for the fatal outcome of the shock in these two models. This work suggests that anti-ICAM-1 therapy may be beneficial in both gram-positive and -negative septic shock, either by reducing T cell activation or by diminishing neutrophil infiltration. PMID:7911822

  19. Altered vascular endothelium integrin expression in psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, D.; Allen, M.; Sousa, A.; Poston, R.; Barker, J.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that microvascular changes observed in psoriasis are a result of vascular proliferation. A critical step in the sequence of events leading to neovascularization involves interactions between endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins mediated in part by the integrin family of adhesion molecules. A number of endothelial integrins have been shown to participate in neovascularization, including members of the beta 1, beta 3, and beta 4 subfamilies. To investigate the role of these integrins in psoriasis, specimens of lesional and nonlesional skin were taken from 10 patients with active, untreated plaque disease. Vascular endothelium was labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, beta 1, av beta 3, and beta 4 integrins. The use of image analysis permitted quantification of immunoperoxidase staining and comparison of endothelial labeling in lesional and nonlesional skin. There was a significant increase in endothelial staining of av beta 3 integrin in lesional compared with nonlesional skin, both in superficial and deep vasculature. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in endothelial beta 4 staining in lesional compared with nonlesional superficial dermal vessels, alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, and beta 1 staining showed no significant difference between the two groups. These results demonstrate an important role of av beta 3 and beta 4 integrins in the microvascular changes of psoriatic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7495291

  20. Neutrophil elastase cleavage of the gC1q domain impairs the EMILIN1-α4β1 integrin interaction, cell adhesion and anti-proliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Maiorani, Orlando; Pivetta, Eliana; Capuano, Alessandra; Modica, Teresa Maria Elisa; Wassermann, Bruna; Bucciotti, Francesco; Colombatti, Alfonso; Doliana, Roberto; Spessotto, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix glycoprotein EMILIN1 exerts a wide range of functions mainly associated with its gC1q domain. Besides providing functional significance for adhesion and migration, the direct interaction between α4β1 integrin and EMILIN1-gC1q regulates cell proliferation, transducing net anti-proliferative effects. We have previously demonstrated that EMILIN1 degradation by neutrophil elastase (NE) is a specific mechanism leading to the loss of functions disabling its regulatory properties. In this study we further analysed the proteolytic activity of NE, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP on EMILIN1 and found that MMP-3 and MT1-MMP partially cleaved EMILIN1 but without affecting the functional properties associated with the gC1q domain, whereas NE was able to fully impair the interaction of gC1q with the α4β1 integrin by cleaving this domain outside of the E933 integrin binding site. By a site direct mutagenesis approach we mapped the bond between S913 and R914 residues and selected the NE-resistant R914W mutant still able to interact with the α4β1 integrin after NE treatment. Functional studies showed that NE impaired the EMILIN1-α4β1 integrin interaction by cleaving the gC1q domain in a region crucial for its proper structural conformation, paving the way to better understand NE effects on EMILIN1-cell interaction in pathological context. PMID:28074935

  1. Canstatin inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis through activation of integrin/focal adhesion kinase/Akt signaling pathway in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    A hypoxic stress which causes apoptosis of cardiomyocytes is the main problem in the ischemic heart disease. Canstatin, a non-collagenous fragment of type IV collagen α2 chain, is an endogenous anti-angiogenic factor. We have previously reported that canstatin has a cytoprotective effect on cardiomyoblasts. In the present study, we examined the effects of canstatin on hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Cell counting assay was performed to determine a cell viability. Western blotting was performed to detect expression of cleaved casepase-3 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt. Immunocytochemical staining was performed to observe a distribution of αv integrin. Hypoxia (1% O2, 48 h) significantly decreased cell viability and increased cleaved caspase-3 expression. Canstatin (10–250 ng/ml) significantly inhibited these changes in a concentration-dependent manner. Cilengitide (1 μM), an αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin inhibitor, significantly prevented the protective effects of canstatin on cell viability. Canstatin significantly increased phosphorylation of FAK and Akt under hypoxic condition, which were inhibited by cilengitide. LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway, suppressed the canstatin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reversed the protective effects of canstatin. It was observed that hypoxia caused a localization of αv integrin to focal adhesion. In summary, we for the first time clarified that canstatin inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis via FAK and Akt pathways through activating integrins in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. PMID:28235037

  2. Neutrophil recruitment limited by high-affinity bent β2 integrin binding ligand in cis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhichao; McArdle, Sara; Marki, Alex; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Gutierrez, Edgar; Engelhardt, Britta; Deutsch, Urban; Ginsberg, Mark; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for innate immunity and inflammation and many neutrophil functions are β2 integrin-dependent. Integrins can extend (E+) and acquire a high-affinity conformation with an ‘open' headpiece (H+). The canonical switchblade model of integrin activation proposes that the E+ conformation precedes H+, and the two are believed to be structurally linked. Here we show, using high-resolution quantitative dynamic footprinting (qDF) microscopy combined with a homogenous conformation-reporter binding assay in a microfluidic device, that a substantial fraction of β2 integrins on human neutrophils acquire an unexpected E−H+ conformation. E−H+ β2 integrins bind intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) in cis, which inhibits leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. This endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism inhibits neutrophil aggregation, accumulation and inflammation. PMID:27578049

  3. Integrin-dependent Control of Translation: Engagement of Integrin αIIbβ3 Regulates Synthesis of Proteins in Activated Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Pabla, Ravinder; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Dixon, Dan A.; Bray, Paul F.; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Prescott, Stephen M.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are widely expressed plasma membrane adhesion molecules that tether cells to matrix proteins and to one another in cell–cell interactions. Integrins also transmit outside-in signals that regulate functional responses of cells, and are known to influence gene expression by regulating transcription. In previous studies we found that platelets, which are naturally occurring anucleate cytoplasts, translate preformed mRNA transcripts when they are activated by outside-in signals. Using strategies that interrupt engagement of integrin αIIbβ3 by fibrinogen and platelets deficient in this integrin, we found that αIIbβ3 regulates the synthesis of B cell lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) when platelet aggregation is induced by thrombin. We also found that synthesis of Bcl-3, which occurs via a specialized translation control pathway regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is induced when platelets adhere to immobilized fibrinogen in the absence of thrombin and when integrin αIIbβ3 is engaged by a conformation-altering antibody against integrin αIIbβ3. Thus, outside-in signals delivered by integrin αIIbβ3 are required for translation of Bcl-3 in thrombin-stimulated aggregated platelets and are sufficient to induce translation of this marker protein in the absence of thrombin. Engagement of integrin α2β1 by collagen also triggered synthesis of Bcl-3. Thus, control of translation may be a general mechanism by which surface adhesion molecules regulate gene expression. PMID:9885253

  4. β1 Integrins as Therapeutic Targets to Disrupt Hallmarks of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Blandin, Anne-Florence; Renner, Guillaume; Lehmann, Maxime; Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Martin, Sophie; Dontenwill, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Integrins belong to a large family of αβ heterodimeric transmembrane proteins first recognized as adhesion molecules that bind to dedicated elements of the extracellular matrix and also to other surrounding cells. As important sensors of the cell microenvironment, they regulate numerous signaling pathways in response to structural variations of the extracellular matrix. Biochemical and biomechanical cues provided by this matrix and transmitted to cells via integrins are critically modified in tumoral settings. Integrins repertoire are subjected to expression level modifications, in tumor cells, and in surrounding cancer-associated cells, implicated in tumor initiation and progression as well. As critical players in numerous cancer hallmarks, defined by Hanahan and Weinberg (2011), integrins represent pertinent therapeutic targets. We will briefly summarize here our current knowledge about integrin implications in those different hallmarks focusing primarily on β1 integrins.

  5. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, and Cluster of Differentiation 146 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    PubMed Central

    Saribal, Devrim; Yenmis, Guven; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multisystemic, chronic disease accompanied by microvascular complications involving various complicated mechanisms. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and cluster of differentiation-146 (CD146) are mainly expressed by endothelial cells, and facilitate the adhesion and transmigration of immune cells, leading to inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with microvascular complications of T2DM. Methods Serum and whole blood samples were collected from 58 T2DM patients with microvascular complications and 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while flow cytometry was used to determine CD146 levels. Results Serum sICAM-1 levels were lower in T2DM patients with microvascular complications than in healthy controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 and CD146 levels between the study and the control group. Although patients were subdivided into groups according to the type of microvascular complications that they experienced, cell adhesion molecule levels were not correlated with the complication type. Conclusion In the study group, most of the patients were on insulin therapy (76%), and 95% of them were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor agents. Insulin and ACE-inhibitors have been shown to decrease soluble adhesion molecule levels via various mechanisms, so we suggest that the decreased or unchanged levels of soluble forms of cellular adhesion molecules in our study group may have resulted from insulin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, as well as tissue-localized inflammation in patients with T2DM. PMID:28345319

  6. The role of photobiomodulation on gene expression of cell adhesion molecules in diabetic wounded fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ayuk, Sandra M; Abrahamse, Heidi; Houreld, Nicolette N

    2016-08-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are cell surface glycoproteins that facilitate cell-cell contacts and adhesion with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cellular adhesion is affected by various disease conditions, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and inflammation. Photobiomodulation (PBM) stimulates biological processes and expression of these cellular molecules. The aim of this experimental work was to demonstrate the role of PBM at 830nm on CAMs in diabetic wounded fibroblast cells. Isolated human skin fibroblast cells were used. Normal (N-) and diabetic wounded (DW-) cells were irradiated with a continuous wave diode laser at 830nm with an energy density of 5J/cm(2). Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the relative gene expression of 39 CAMs 48h post-irradiation. Normalized expression levels from irradiated cells were calculated relative to non-irradiated control cells according to the 2^(-ΔΔCt) method. Thirty-one genes were significantly regulated in N-cells (28 were genes up-regulated and three genes down-regulated), and 22 genes in DW-cells (five genes were up-regulated and 17 genes down-regulated). PBM induced a stimulatory effect on various CAMs namely cadherins, integrins, selectins and immunoglobulins, and hence may be used as a complementary therapy in advancing treatment of non-healing diabetic ulcers. The regulation of CAMs as well as evaluating the role of PBM on the molecular effects of these genes may expand knowledge and prompt further research into the cellular mechanisms in diabetic wound healing that may lead to valuable clinical outcomes.

  7. Periostin promotes migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma through the integrin/focal adhesion kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chuanyu, Sun; Yuqing, Zhu; Chong, Xu; Guowei, Xia; Xiaojun, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Periostin (POSTN) is an extracellular matrix protein which is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and has been related to tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma. However, the involvement of POSTN in renal cell carcinoma migration, invasion, and their underlying mechanisms has not been established. In this study, renal cell carcinoma cell lines stably overexpressing POSTN were established using a lentiviral vector, and the effects of POSTN on renal cell carcinoma cell migration and invasion were investigated. POSTN overexpression increased the migration and invasion capabilities of renal cell carcinoma cell lines as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Integrin αvβ3 and αvβ5 antibodies inhibited POSTN overexpression or recombinant POSTN-induced focal adhesion kinase activation, cell migration, and invasion. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated focal adhesion kinase knockdown and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor reduced POSTN-enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expressions, cell migration, and invasion. Our research thus indicates that POSTN promotes renal cell carcinoma cell migration and invasion through interaction with integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 and subsequent activation of the focal adhesion kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. These results suggest that POSTN plays a critical role in renal cell carcinoma metastasis and may represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches against renal cell carcinoma.

  8. Role of glucocorticoids in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression and function

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Vivienne

    1992-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are very effective inhibitors of both the acute and chronic inflammatory response. In this study the hypothesis that glucocorticoids inhibit an early component of the inflammatory response, neutrophil adhesion to endothelium, by down-regulation of adhesion molecules on neutrophils or endothelium was examined. No effect of dexamethasone on neutrophil adhesion to endothelium or of antigen expression by neutrophils or endothelium was found. The mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in the inflammatory response is probably not mediated by alterations in adhesion molecules. PMID:18475448

  9. Reciprocal Interactions between Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily and the Cytoskeleton in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites, and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function, and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail.

  10. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  11. Iron sucrose accelerates early atherogenesis by increasing superoxide production and upregulating adhesion molecules in CKD.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-11-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-κB signaling. We then measured mononuclear-endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear-endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-κB/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear-endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD.

  12. Adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix as drug targets for glioma.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Joji; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-04-01

    The formation of tumor vasculature and cell invasion along white matter tracts have pivotal roles in the development and progression of glioma. A better understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis and invasion in glioma will aid the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The processes of angiogenesis and invasion cause the production of an array of adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This review focuses on the role of adhesion molecules and the ECM in malignant glioma. The results of clinical trials using drugs targeted against adhesion molecules and the ECM for glioma are also discussed.

  13. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.

  14. Bordetella pertussis infection of human respiratory epithelial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression: role of filamentous hemagglutinin and pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2002-09-01

    Adhesion molecules on respiratory epithelial cells play a critical role in inflammatory cell recruitment and accumulation at sites of inflammation. Bordetella pertussis colonizes the human respiratory tract by infecting epithelial cells, leading to an inflammatory response. In this study, the role of bacterial factors in the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on human respiratory epithelial cells was investigated in response to B. pertussis. Flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR analysis showed that BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells expressed increased levels of ICAM-1 mRNA and surface protein in response to B. pertussis infection. Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) played a role in this response because of the impaired capability of a FHA-deficient isogenic strain. A mutant strain in which an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of FHA had been changed to Arg-Ala-Asp had diminished ability to up-regulate ICAM-1 expression. RGD sequence-associated up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression was also observed in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Pretreatment of cells with integrin antagonists such as RGD-containing peptide and antibody against very late antigen-5 (VLA-5) inhibited the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression, suggesting the participation of VLA-5 integrin in this response. Pertussis toxin (PT) prevented the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression because a PT-deficient mutant strain induced higher levels of ICAM-1 mRNA and surface protein than the parental strain. Consistent with this, purified PT suppressed the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression. These findings demonstrate that B. pertussis FHA up-regulates ICAM-1 expression on respiratory epithelial cells through interaction of its RGD site with host cell VLA-5 integrin, and that PT impairs this response.

  15. Nectin and junctional adhesion molecule are critical cell adhesion molecules for the apico-basal alignment of adherens and tight junctions in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomohiro; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Rikitsu, Etsuko; Kurita, Souichi; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2013-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) form an apical junctional complex at the apical side of the lateral membranes of epithelial cells, in which TJs are aligned at the apical side of AJs. Many cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and cell polarity molecules (CPMs) cooperatively regulate the formation of the apical junctional complex, but the mechanism for the alignment of TJs at the apical side of AJs is not fully understood. We developed a cellular system with which epithelial-like TJs and AJs were reconstituted in fibroblasts and analyzed the cooperative roles of CAMs and CPMs. We exogenously expressed various combinations of CAMs and CPMs in fibroblasts that express negligible amounts of these molecules endogenously. In these cells, the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion was formed at the apical side of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-based cell-cell adhesion, and cadherin and claudin were recruited to the nectin-3- and JAM-based cell-cell adhesion sites to form AJ-like and TJ-like domains, respectively. This inversed alignment of the AJ-like and TJ-like domains was reversed by complementary expression of CPMs Par-3, atypical protein kinase C, Par-6, Crb3, Pals1 and Patj. We describe the cooperative roles of these CAMs and CPMs in the apico-basal alignment of TJs and AJs in epithelial cells.

  16. Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; He, Xiaolin

    2012-02-13

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular {beta}-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC {beta}-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular {beta}-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function.

  17. Significant role of adhesion properties of primary osteoblast-like cells in early adhesion events for chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate surface molecules.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C M; Solursh, M; Keller, J C

    1999-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the role of cell surface adhesive macromolecules through enzyme modulation and metabolic recovery prior to and during a kinetic cell adhesion assay. Primary rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells were derived from Sprague-Dawley calvarial plates. Cell adhesion kinetics was evaluated with the definition of first-order adhesion kinetics. Osteoblasts were incubated in an adhesion buffer for 1 h prior to a cell attachment assay using various enzymes to remove cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A subtractive adhesion analysis was performed by plating cells at 5 x 10(4)/well for variable periods through 2 h. The medium was collected, the well surface washed and pooled, and the number of cells enumerated with a Coulter Counter. Cell adhesion demonstrated first-order logarithmic adhesion kinetics in the first 60 min. Scatchard analysis demonstrated a linear relationship. Preexposure of cells to various enzyme combinations demonstrated that 50% of the equilibrium adhesion was dependent on chondroitin sulfate or dermatan sulfate surface macromolecules. These results were confirmed with pretreatment with a metabolic inhibitor of GAG synthesis (beta-D-xyloside). These results suggest an important role for cell associated chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate in cell adhesion in addition to Arg-Gly-Asp or integrin mediated adhesion events.

  18. Venous levels of shear support neutrophil-platelet adhesion and neutrophil aggregation in blood via P-selectin and beta2-integrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantopoulos, K.; Neelamegham, S.; Burns, A. R.; Hentzen, E.; Kansas, G. S.; Snapp, K. R.; Berg, E. L.; Hellums, J. D.; Smith, C. W.; McIntire, L. V.; Simon, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After activation, platelets adhere to neutrophils via P-selectin and beta2-integrin. The molecular mechanisms and adhesion events in whole blood exposed to venous levels of hydrodynamic shear in the absence of exogenous activation remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole blood was sheared at approximately 100 s(-1). The kinetics of neutrophil-platelet adhesion and neutrophil aggregation were measured in real time by flow cytometry. P-selectin was upregulated to the platelet surface in response to shear and was the primary factor mediating neutrophil-platelet adhesion. The extent of neutrophil aggregation increased linearly with platelet adhesion to neutrophils. Blocking either P-selectin, its glycoprotein ligand PSGL-1, or both simultaneously by preincubation with a monoclonal antibody resulted in equivalent inhibition of neutrophil-platelet adhesion (approximately 30%) and neutrophil aggregation (approximately 70%). The residual amount of neutrophil adhesion was blocked with anti-CD11b/CD18. Treatment of blood with prostacyclin analogue ZK36374, which raises cAMP levels in platelets, blocked P-selectin upregulation and neutrophil aggregation to baseline. Complete abrogation of platelet-neutrophil adhesion required both ZK36374 and anti-CD18. Electron microscopic observations of fixed blood specimens revealed that platelets augmented neutrophil aggregation both by forming bridges between neutrophils and through contact-mediated activation. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with a model in which venous levels of shear support platelet adherence to neutrophils via P-selectin binding PSGL-1. This interaction alone is sufficient to mediate neutrophil aggregation. Abrogation of platelet adhesion and aggregation requires blocking Mac-1 in addition to PSGL-1 or P-selectin. The described mechanisms are likely of key importance in the pathogenesis and progression of thrombotic disorders that are exacerbated by leukocyte-platelet aggregation.

  19. The PI3-kinase delta inhibitor idelalisib (GS-1101) targets integrin-mediated adhesion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell to endothelial and marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Brown, Wells S; McIntyre, Bradley W; Estrov, Zeev; Maffei, Rossana; O'Brien, Susan; Sivina, Mariela; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Wierda, William G; Keating, Michael J; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E; Lannutti, Brian J; Marasca, Roberto; Burger, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood.

  20. The PI3-Kinase Delta Inhibitor Idelalisib (GS-1101) Targets Integrin-Mediated Adhesion of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Cell to Endothelial and Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Brown, Wells S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Estrov, Zeev; Maffei, Rossana; O’Brien, Susan; Sivina, Mariela; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Wierda, William G.; Keating, Michael J.; Ding, Wei; Kay, Neil E.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Marasca, Roberto; Burger, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    CLL cell trafficking between blood and tissue compartments is an integral part of the disease process. Idelalisib, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor causes rapid lymph node shrinkage, along with an increase in lymphocytosis, prior to inducing objective responses in CLL patients. This characteristic activity presumably is due to CLL cell redistribution from tissues into the blood, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We therefore analyzed idelalisib effects on CLL cell adhesion to endothelial and bone marrow stromal cells (EC, BMSC). We found that idelalisib inhibited CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC under static and shear flow conditions. TNFα-induced VCAM-1 (CD106) expression in supporting layers increased CLL cell adhesion and accentuated the inhibitory effect of idelalisib. Co-culture with EC and BMSC also protected CLL from undergoing apoptosis, and this EC- and BMSC-mediated protection was antagonized by idelalisib. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLL cell adhesion to EC and VLA-4 (CD49d) resulted in the phosphorylation of Akt, which was sensitive to inhibition by idelalisib. These findings demonstrate that idelalisib interferes with integrin-mediated CLL cell adhesion to EC and BMSC, providing a novel mechanism to explain idelalisib-induced redistribution of CLL cells from tissues into the blood. PMID:24376763

  1. Slug regulates integrin expression and cell proliferation in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Frances E; Broad, Simon; Khanim, Farhat L; Jeanes, Alexa; Talma, Sonia; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Hotchin, Neil A

    2006-07-28

    The human epidermis is a self-renewing epithelial tissue composed of several layers of keratinocytes. Within the epidermis there exists a complex array of cell adhesion structures, and many of the cellular events within the epidermis (differentiation, proliferation, and migration) require that these adhesion structures be remodeled. The link between cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation within the epidermis is well established, and in particular, there is strong evidence to link the process of terminal differentiation to integrin adhesion molecule expression and function. In this paper, we have analyzed the role of a transcriptional repressor called Slug in the regulation of adhesion molecule expression and function in epidermal keratinocytes. We report that activation of Slug, which is expressed predominantly in the basal layer of the epidermis, results in down-regulation of a number of cell adhesion molecules, including E-cadherin, and several integrins, including alpha3, beta1, and beta4. We demonstrate that Slug binds to the alpha3 promoter and that repression of alpha3 transcription by Slug is dependent on an E-box sequence within the promoter. This reduction in integrin expression is reflected in decreased cell adhesion to fibronectin and laminin-5. Despite the reduction in integrin expression and function, we do not observe any increase in differentiation. We do, however, find that activation of Slug results in a significant reduction in keratinocyte proliferation.

  2. RNAi targeting multiple cell adhesion molecules reduces immune cell recruitment and vascular inflammation after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Courties, Gabriel; Sun, Yuan; Heidt, Timo; Vinegoni, Claudio; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Tricot, Benoit; Khan, Omar F.; Kauffman, Kevin J.; Xing, Yiping; Shaw, Taylor E.; Libby, Peter; Langer, Robert; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to a systemic surge of vascular inflammation in mice and humans, resulting in secondary ischemic complications and high mortality. We show that, in ApoE−/− mice with coronary ligation, increased sympathetic tone up-regulates not only hematopoietic leukocyte production but also plaque endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. To counteract the resulting arterial leukocyte recruitment, we developed nanoparticle-based RNA interference (RNAi) that effectively silences five key adhesion molecules. Simultaneously encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA)–targeting intercellular cell adhesion molecules 1 and 2 (Icam1 and Icam2), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1), and E- and P-selectins (Sele and Selp) into polymeric endothelial-avid nanoparticles reduced post-MI neutrophil and monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions and decreased matrix-degrading plaque protease activity. Five-gene combination RNAi also curtailed leukocyte recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Therefore, targeted multigene silencing may prevent complications after acute MI. PMID:27280687

  3. Integrin-mediated osteoblastic adhesion on a porous manganese-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHENXIANG; GU, BEIBEI; ZHU, WEI; ZHU, LIXIAN

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bioactivity of manganese-incorporated TiO2 (Mn-TiO2) coating prepared on titanium (Ti) plate by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique in Ca-, P- and Mn-containing electrolytes. The surface topography, phase and element compositions of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. The adhesion of osteoblast-like MG63 cells onto Ti, TiO2 and Mn-TiO2 surfaces was evaluated, and the signal transduction pathway involved was confirmed by the sequential expression of the genes for integrins β1, β3, α1 and α3, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), including ERK1 and ERK2. The results obtained indicated that Mn was successfully incorporated into the porous nanostructured TiO2 coating, and did not alter the surface topography or the phase composition of the coating. The adhesion of the MG63 cells onto the Mn-incorporated TiO2 coating was significantly enhanced compared with that on the Mn-free TiO2 coating and the pure Ti plates. In addition, the enhanced cell adhesion on the Mn-TiO2 coatings may have been mediated by the binding of the integrin subunits, β1 and α1, and the subsequent signal transduction pathway, involving FAK and ERK2. The study indicated that the novel Mn-TiO2 coating has potential for orthopedic implant applications, and that further investigations are required. PMID:24137252

  4. Integrin-mediated osteoblastic adhesion on a porous manganese-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenxiang; Gu, Beibei; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Lixian

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bioactivity of manganese-incorporated TiO2 (Mn-TiO2) coating prepared on titanium (Ti) plate by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique in Ca-, P- and Mn-containing electrolytes. The surface topography, phase and element compositions of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. The adhesion of osteoblast-like MG63 cells onto Ti, TiO2 and Mn-TiO2 surfaces was evaluated, and the signal transduction pathway involved was confirmed by the sequential expression of the genes for integrins β1, β3, α1 and α3, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), including ERK1 and ERK2. The results obtained indicated that Mn was successfully incorporated into the porous nanostructured TiO2 coating, and did not alter the surface topography or the phase composition of the coating. The adhesion of the MG63 cells onto the Mn-incorporated TiO2 coating was significantly enhanced compared with that on the Mn-free TiO2 coating and the pure Ti plates. In addition, the enhanced cell adhesion on the Mn-TiO2 coatings may have been mediated by the binding of the integrin subunits, β1 and α1, and the subsequent signal transduction pathway, involving FAK and ERK2. The study indicated that the novel Mn-TiO2 coating has potential for orthopedic implant applications, and that further investigations are required.

  5. Solution structure of the focal adhesion adaptor PINCH LIM1 domain and characterization of its interaction with the integrin-linked kinase ankyrin repeat domain.

    PubMed

    Velyvis, A; Yang, Y; Wu, C; Qin, J

    2001-02-16

    PINCH is a recently identified adaptor protein that comprises an array of five LIM domains. PINCH functions through LIM-mediated protein-protein interactions that are involved in cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. The LIM1 domain of PINCH interacts with integrin-linked kinase (ILK), thereby mediating focal adhesions via a specific integrin/ILK signaling pathway. We have solved the NMR structure of the PINCH LIM1 domain and characterized its binding to ILK. LIM1 contains two contiguous zinc fingers of the CCHC and CCCH types and adopts a global fold similar to that of functionally distinct LIM domains from cysteine-rich protein and cysteine-rich intestinal protein families with CCHC and CCCC zinc finger types. Gel-filtration and NMR experiments demonstrated a 1:1 complex between PINCH LIM1 and the ankyrin repeat domain of ILK. A chemical shift mapping experiment identified regions in PINCH LIM1 that are important for interaction with ILK. Comparison of surface features between PINCH LIM1 and other functionally different LIM domains indicated that the LIM motif might have a highly variable mode in recognizing various target proteins.

  6. Identification of the binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for its receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, K L; Lu, J; Riddle, L; Kim, K J; Presta, L G; Bodary, S C

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is a member of the Ig superfamily and is a counterreceptor for the beta 2 integrins: lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), complement receptor 1 (MAC-1, CD11b/CD18), and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18). Binding of ICAM-1 to these receptors mediates leukocyte-adhesive functions in immune and inflammatory responses. In this report, we describe a cell-free assay using purified recombinant extracellular domains of LFA-1 and a dimeric immunoadhesin of ICAM-1. The binding of recombinant secreted LFA-1 to ICAM-1 is divalent cation dependent (Mg2+ and Mn2+ promote binding) and sensitive to inhibition by antibodies that block LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, indicating that its conformation mimics that of LFA-1 on activated lymphocytes. We describe six novel anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies, two of which are function blocking. Thirty-five point mutants of the ICAM-1 immunoadhesin were generated and residues important for binding of monoclonal antibodies and purified LFA-1 were identified. Nineteen of these mutants bind recombinant LFA-1 equivalently to wild type. Sixteen mutants show a 66-2500-fold decrease in LFA-1 binding yet, with few exceptions, retain binding to the monoclonal antibodies. These mutants, along with modeling studies, define the LFA-1 binding site on ICAM-1 as residues E34, K39, M64, Y66, N68, and Q73, that are predicted to lie on the CDFG beta-sheet of the Ig fold. The mutant G32A also abrogates binding to LFA-1 while retaining binding to all of the antibodies, possibly indicating a direct interaction of this residue with LFA-1. These data have allowed the generation of a highly refined model of the LFA-1 binding site of ICAM-1. Images PMID:9188101

  7. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27110743

  8. Freezing adhesion molecules in a state of high-avidity binding blocks eosinophil migration

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is mediated by multiple interactions of adhesive surface structures with ligands on endothelial cells and matrix components. The functional role of beta 1 (CD29) integrins (or very late antigen [VLA] proteins) in eosinophil migration across polycarbonate filters was examined under several in vitro conditions. Eosinophil migration induced by the chemoattractant C5a or platelet- activating factor was fully inhibited by monoclonal antibody (mAb) 8A2, a recently characterized "activating" CD29 mAb. However, inhibition by mAb 8A2 was observed only under filter conditions that best reflected the in vivo situation, i.e., when the eosinophils migrated over filters preincubated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN), or when the filters were covered with confluent monolayers of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). When bare untreated filters were used, mAb 8A2 had no effect, whereas the C5a- directed movement was prevented by CD18 mAb. Studies with alpha-subunit (CD49)-specific mAbs indicated that the integrins VLA-4 and -5 mediated migration across FN-preincubated filters, and VLA-2, -4, -5, and -6 were involved in eosinophil migration through filters covered with HUVEC. In contrast with the activating CD29 mAb 8A2, a combination of blocking CD49 mAbs or the nonactivating but blocking CD29 mAb AIIB2 failed to inhibit completely eosinophil migration over FN-preincubated or HUVEC-covered filters. mAb 8A2 stimulated binding to FN but not to HUVEC. Moreover, eosinophil migration over FN-preincubated or HUVEC- covered filters was significantly inhibited by anti-connecting segment 1 (CS-1) mAbs, as well as the soluble CS-1 peptide (unlike migration across bare untreated filters). Thus, inhibition of eosinophil migration by mAb 8A2 depended upon the presence of ECM proteins and not upon the presence of HUVEC per se. In conclusion, "freezing" adhesion receptors of the beta 1 integrin family into their high

  9. Positive and negative regulation by SLP-76/ADAP and Pyk2 of chemokine-stimulated T-lymphocyte adhesion mediated by integrin α4β1

    PubMed Central

    Dios-Esponera, Ana; Isern de Val, Soledad; Sevilla-Movilla, Silvia; García-Verdugo, Rosa; García-Bernal, David; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation by chemokines of integrin α4β1–dependent T-lymphocyte adhesion is a crucial step for lymphocyte trafficking. The adaptor Vav1 is required for chemokine-activated T-cell adhesion mediated by α4β1. Conceivably, proteins associating with Vav1 could potentially modulate this adhesion. Correlating with activation by the chemokine CXCL12 of T-lymphocyte attachment to α4β1 ligands, a transient stimulation in the association of Vav1 with SLP-76, Pyk2, and ADAP was observed. Using T-cells depleted for SLP-76, ADAP, or Pyk2, or expressing Pyk2 kinase–inactive forms, we show that SLP-76 and ADAP stimulate chemokine-activated, α4β1-mediated adhesion, whereas Pyk2 opposes T-cell attachment. While CXCL12-promoted generation of high-affinity α4β1 is independent of SLP-76, ADAP, and Pyk2, the strength of α4β1-VCAM-1 interaction and cell spreading on VCAM-1 are targets of regulation by these three proteins. GTPase assays, expression of activated or dominant-negative Rac1, or combined ADAP and Pyk2 silencing indicated that Rac1 activation by CXCL12 is a common mediator response in SLP-76–, ADAP-, and Pyk2-regulated cell adhesion involving α4β1. Our data strongly suggest that chemokine-stimulated associations between Vav1, SLP-76, and ADAP facilitate Rac1 activation and α4β1-mediated adhesion, whereas Pyk2 opposes this adhesion by limiting Rac1 activation. PMID:26202465

  10. The Sal-like 4 - integrin α6β1 network promotes cell migration for metastasis via activation of focal adhesion dynamics in basal-like breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Itou, Junji; Tanaka, Sunao; Li, Wenzhao; Iida, Atsuo; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko; Sato, Fumiaki; Toi, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    During metastasis, cancer cell migration is enhanced. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we addressed this issue by functionally analyzing the transcription factor Sal-like 4 (SALL4) in basal-like breast cancer cells. Loss-of-function studies of SALL4 showed that this transcription factor is required for the spindle-shaped morphology and the enhanced migration of cancer cells. SALL4 also up-regulated integrin gene expression. The impaired cell migration observed in SALL4 knockdown cells was restored by overexpression of integrin α6 and β1. In addition, we clarified that integrin α6 and β1 formed a heterodimer. At the molecular level, loss of the SALL4 - integrin α6β1 network lost focal adhesion dynamics, which impairs cell migration. Over-activation of Rho is known to inhibit focal adhesion dynamics. We observed that SALL4 knockdown cells exhibited over-activation of Rho. Aberrant Rho activation was suppressed by integrin α6β1 expression, and pharmacological inhibition of Rho activity restored cell migration in SALL4 knockdown cells. These results indicated that the SALL4 - integrin α6β1 network promotes cell migration via modulation of Rho activity. Moreover, our zebrafish metastasis assays demonstrated that this gene network enhances cell migration in vivo. Our findings identify a potential new therapeutic target for the prevention of metastasis, and provide an improved understanding of cancer cell migration.

  11. Expression, topography, and function of integrin receptors are severely altered in keratinocytes from involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin.

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, G; De Luca, M; Orecchia, G; Balzac, F; Cremona, O; Savoia, P; Cancedda, R; Marchisio, P C

    1992-01-01

    Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology and etiopathogenesis. Alteration of keratinocyte adhesiveness to basal lamina has been proposed as the initial disturbance leading to poorly controlled proliferation. Keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina and lateral interactions among basal epidermal cells are mediated, besides other molecules, by integrin receptors that are segregated to discrete membrane domains. In this paper, the expression and function of integrins in psoriatic keratinocytes were examined, both in vivo and in vitro. We found that: (a) in psoriatic keratinocytes the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4 have lost their polarized distribution on the plasma membrane; (b) the role of these integrins in mediating keratinocyte adhesion in vitro is altered; (c) psoriatic keratinocytes form focal contacts containing both beta 1 and beta 4 integrins. In normal adult keratinocytes the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor is poorly expressed and diffusely distributed on the basal keratinocyte plasma membrane and is not organized in defined adhesive structures. In contrast, psoriatic keratinocytes show a clear fibronectin receptor staining in vivo, and organize alpha 5 beta 1 in typical focal contacts in vitro without any obvious increase of its expression and synthesis. These multiple alterations of integrins are also present in uninvolved keratinocytes from psoriatic patients, suggesting a key role for altered integrin-mediated adhesion in the pathogenesis of this disease. Images PMID:1534817

  12. Expression, topography, and function of integrin receptors are severely altered in keratinocytes from involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, G; De Luca, M; Orecchia, G; Balzac, F; Cremona, O; Savoia, P; Cancedda, R; Marchisio, P C

    1992-06-01

    Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative cutaneous disease of unknown etiology and etiopathogenesis. Alteration of keratinocyte adhesiveness to basal lamina has been proposed as the initial disturbance leading to poorly controlled proliferation. Keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina and lateral interactions among basal epidermal cells are mediated, besides other molecules, by integrin receptors that are segregated to discrete membrane domains. In this paper, the expression and function of integrins in psoriatic keratinocytes were examined, both in vivo and in vitro. We found that: (a) in psoriatic keratinocytes the integrin heterodimers alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4 have lost their polarized distribution on the plasma membrane; (b) the role of these integrins in mediating keratinocyte adhesion in vitro is altered; (c) psoriatic keratinocytes form focal contacts containing both beta 1 and beta 4 integrins. In normal adult keratinocytes the alpha 5 beta 1 fibronectin receptor is poorly expressed and diffusely distributed on the basal keratinocyte plasma membrane and is not organized in defined adhesive structures. In contrast, psoriatic keratinocytes show a clear fibronectin receptor staining in vivo, and organize alpha 5 beta 1 in typical focal contacts in vitro without any obvious increase of its expression and synthesis. These multiple alterations of integrins are also present in uninvolved keratinocytes from psoriatic patients, suggesting a key role for altered integrin-mediated adhesion in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  13. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  14. The modulation of MiR-155 and MiR-23a manipulates Klebsiella pneumoniae Adhesion on Human pulmonary Epithelial cells via Integrin α5β1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yan; Miao, Junming; Shen, Xiaofei; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinyuan; Ren, Laibin; Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Junli; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Shanze; Wang, Yi; Huang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) critically regulate several host defense mechanisms, but their roles in the bacteria-epithelium interplay remain unclear. Our results displayed that the expression of miR-155 and miR-23a were down-regulated in K. pneumoniae-infected pulmonary epithelial cells. The elevated bacterial adhesion on A549 cells followed the enhancement of the cellular levels of these two miRNAs. Meanwhile, a mechanistic study demonstrated that miR-155 promoted integrin α5β1 function and resulted in the increased actin polymerization. Moreover, a non-histone nuclear protein, high mobility group nucleosomal-binding domain 2 (HMGN2) served as the potential target of miR-155 and miR-23a to regulate the integrin α5β1 expression and K. pneumoniae adhesion. Furthermore, the expression of a known integrin transcription suppressor-Nuclear Factor-I (NFI) was also repressed by miR-155, which paralleled with its chromatin location in the promoter regions of integrin α5 and β1. These results uncover novel links between miRNAs and integrin function to regulate bacterial adhesion, indicating a potential mechanism of host cell autonomous immune response to K. pneumoniae infection. PMID:27534887

  15. β7-Integrin exacerbates experimental DSS-induced colitis in mice by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon.

    PubMed

    Schippers, A; Muschaweck, M; Clahsen, T; Tautorat, S; Grieb, L; Tenbrock, K; Gaßler, N; Wagner, N

    2016-03-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is pivotal for the initiation and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and controlled by the specificity and interactions of chemokines and adhesion molecules. Interactions of the adhesion molecules α4β7-integrin and mucosal addressin cell-adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) promote the accumulation of pathogenic T-cell populations in the inflamed intestine. We aimed to elucidate the significance of β7-integrin expression on innate immune cells for the pathogenesis of IBD. We demonstrate that β7-integrin deficiency protects recombination-activating gene-2 (RAG-2)-deficient mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and coincides with decreased numbers of colonic effector monocytes. We also show that β7-integrin is expressed on most CD11b(+)CD64(low)Ly6C(+) bone marrow progenitors and contributes to colonic recruitment of these proinflammatory monocytes. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CD115(+) wild-type (WT) monocytes partially restored the susceptibility of RAG-2/β7-integrin double-deficient mice to DSS-induced colitis, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of β7-integrin-expressing monocytes for the development of DSS colitis. We also reveal that genetic ablation of MAdCAM-1 ameliorates experimental colitis in RAG-2-deficient mice as well. In summary, we demonstrate a previously unknown role of α4β7-integrin-MAdCAM-1 interactions as drivers of colitis by directing inflammatory monocytes into the colon.

  16. Neural cell adhesion molecule 2 as a target molecule for prostate and breast cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shu; Kato, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nakano, Rika; Kubota, Kazuishi; Hamada, Hirofumi

    2011-04-01

    In adenovirus-derived gene therapy, one of the problems is the difficulty in specific targeting. We have recently demonstrated that monoclonal antibody (mAb) libraries screened by fiber-modified adenovirus vector (Adv-FZ33), which is capable of binding to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), provide a powerful approach for the identification of suitable target antigens for prostate cancer therapy. Hybridoma libraries from mice immunized with androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP were screened and mAb were selected. Through this screening, we obtained one mAb, designated LNI-29, that recognizes a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kD. It was identified as neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2). Some prostate and breast cancer cell lines highly expressed NCAM2 whereas normal prostate cell lines expressed NCAM2 at low levels. In contrast to the low efficiency of gene transduction by Adv-FZ33 with a control antibody, LNI-29-mediated Adv-FZ33 infection induces high rates of gene delivery in NCAM2-positive cancers. NCAM2-mediated therapeutic gene transduction of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) had a highly effective cytotoxic effect on NCAM2-positive cancer cells, whereas it had less of an effect in cases with a control antibody. In conclusion, NCAM2 should be a novel gene therapy target for the treatment of prostate and breast cancer.

  17. Integrin-based Therapeutics: Biological Basis, Clinical Use and New Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus; Rivera-Nieves, Jesus; Sandborn, William J.; Shattil, Sanford

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are activatable adhesion and signaling molecules. Of the 24 known human integrins, three are currently targeted therapeutically by monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules. The platelet αIIbβ3 integrin is targeted by Abciximab, Eptifibatide and Tirofiban, all with indications for preventing thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions. The lymphocyte α4β1 and α4β7 integrins are targeted by Natalizumab with indications in multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Although efficacious, use of this antibody is limited by a rare but serious complication, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Vedolizumab is an antibody to a combinatorial epitope in α4β7 that is approved for use in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis in the United States, Canada and Europe. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy has not been observed in the clinical trials or clinical use of vedolizumab. New antibodies and small molecules targeting β7 integrins (α4β7 and αEβ7) and MAdCAM-1 are in clinical development for treatment of these inflammatory bowel diseases. Overall, integrin-based therapeutics have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients, leading to continued medical interest in the further development of novel integrin inhibitors. Of note, almost all integrin antagonists in use or in late-stage clinical trials target the ligand binding site, or the ligand itself. PMID:26822833

  18. The opposing roles of laminin-binding integrins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramovs, Veronika; Te Molder, Lisa; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Integrins play an important role in cell adhesion by linking the cytoskeleton of cells to components in the extracellular matrix. In this capacity, integrins cooperate with different cell surface receptors, including growth factor receptors and G-protein coupled receptors, to regulate intracellular signaling pathways that control cell polarization, spreading, migration, survival, and gene expression. A distinct subfamily of molecules in the integrin family of adhesion receptors is formed by receptors that mediate cell adhesion to laminins, major components of the basement membrane that lie under clusters of cells or surround them, separating them from other cells and/or adjacent connective tissue. During the past decades, many studies have provided evidence for a role of laminin-binding integrins in tumorigenesis, and both tumor-promoting and suppressive activities have been identified. In this review we discuss the dual role of the laminin-binding integrins α3β1 and α6β4 in tumor development and progression, and examine the factors and mechanisms involved in these opposing effects.

  19. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene inhibits adhesion and migration of human triple-negative breast cancer cells by suppressing β1 integrin function and surface protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Hua; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang; Kung, Po-Hsiung; Wu, Chin-Chung

    2015-03-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) exhibits an aggressive clinical course by high metastatic potential. It is known that integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration are important for cancer metastasis. In the present study, a synthetic compound, 3, 4-methyenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene (MNS), significantly inhibited adhesion of TNBC cell lines to different extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The antimetastatic capacity of MNS was also observed through reducing TNBC cells migration and invasion without affecting cell viability. Confocal microscopy revealed that MNS disrupted the formation of focal adhesion complex and actin stress fiber networks. Consistent with this finding, MNS inhibited phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin as detected by Western blot analysis. In exploring the underlying mechanism, we found that MNS inhibited phosphorylation of FAK as a result of reducing β1 integrin activation and clustering. A cell-impermeable dithiol reagent, 2, 3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid abrogated all of MNS's actions, indicating that MNS may react with thiol groups of cell surface proteins that are involved in regulation of β1 integrin function as well as cell adhesion and migration. Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been reported to be essential for the affinity modulation of β integrins. We also demonstrated that MNS inhibited PDI activity both in a pure enzyme system and in intact cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest that MNS inhibits in vitro metastatic properties of TNBC cells through suppression of β1 integrin activation and focal adhesion signaling. Moreover, inhibition of surface PDI may contribute, at least in part, to the actions of MNS. These results suggest that MNS has a potential to be developed as an anticancer agent for treatment of TNBC.

  20. Chronic restraint stress down-regulates amygdaloid expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Cordero, M I; Rodríguez, J J; Davies, H A; Peddie, C J; Sandi, C; Stewart, M G

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is a brain area which plays a decisive role in fear and anxiety. Since exposure to chronic stress can induce profound effects in emotion and cognition, plasticity in specific amygdaloid nuclei in response to prior stress has been hypothesized to account for stress-induced emotional alterations. In order to identify amygdala nuclei which may be affected under chronic stress conditions we evaluated the effects of 21-days chronic restraint stress on the expression of a molecule implicated crucially in alterations in structural plasticity: the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. We found that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity within the amygdala, present in somata and neuronal processes, has a regional gradient with the central medial and medial amygdaloid nuclei showing the highest levels. Our results demonstrate that chronic restraint stress induced an overall reduction in polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity in the amygdaloid complex, mainly due to a significant decrease in the central medial amygdaloid and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Our data suggest that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in these nuclei may play a prominent role in functional and structural remodeling induced by stress, being a potential mechanism for cognitive and emotional modulation. Furthermore, these finding provide the first clear evidence that life experiences can regulate the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the amygdaloid complex.

  1. Contribution of alpha4beta1 integrin to the antiallergic effect of levocabastine.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Ahmed R; Bucolo, Claudio; Baiula, Monica; Spartà, Antonino; Govoni, Paolo; Bedini, Andrea; Fascì, Domenico; Spampinato, Santi

    2008-09-15

    Levocabastine is an antiallergic drug acting as a histamine H1-receptor antagonist. In allergic conjunctivitis (AC), it may also antagonize up-regulation of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressed on epithelial conjunctival cells. However, little is known about its effects on eosinophils, important effector cells in AC. The adhesion molecule integrin alpha(4)beta(1) is expressed in eosinophils; it interacts with the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin (FN) in vascular endothelial cells and contributes to eosinophil activation and infiltration in AC. This study provides evidence that in a scintillation proximity assay levocabastine (IC(50) 406 microM), but not the first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine, displaced (125)I-FN binding to human integrin alpha(4)beta(1) and, in flow cytometry analysis, levocabastine antagonized the binding of a primary antibody to integrin alpha(4) expressed on the Jurkat cell surface. Levocabastine, but not chlorpheniramine, binds the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin and prevents eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1, FN or human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Similarly, levocabastine affects alpha(L)beta(2)/ICAM-1-mediated adhesion of Jurkat cells. In a model of AC levocabastine eye drops reduced the clinical aspects of the late-phase reaction and the conjunctival expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrin by reducing infiltrated eosinophils. We propose that blockade of integrin-mediated cell adhesion might be a target of the antiallergic action of levocabastine and may play a role in preventing eosinophil adhesion and infiltration in AC.

  2. Functional Hierarchy of Simultaneously Expressed Adhesion Receptors: Integrin α2β1 but Not CD44 Mediates MV3 Melanoma Cell Migration and Matrix Reorganization within Three-dimensional Hyaluronan-containing Collagen MatricesV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Maaser, Kerstin; Wolf, Katarina; Klein, C. Eberhard; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S.; Bröcker, Eva-B.; Friedl, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Haptokinetic cell migration across surfaces is mediated by adhesion receptors including β1 integrins and CD44 providing adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands such as collagen and hyaluronan (HA), respectively. Little is known, however, about how such different receptor systems synergize for cell migration through three-dimensionally (3-D) interconnected ECM ligands. In highly motile human MV3 melanoma cells, both β1 integrins and CD44 are abundantly expressed, support migration across collagen and HA, respectively, and are deposited upon migration, whereas only β1 integrins but not CD44 redistribute to focal adhesions. In 3-D collagen lattices in the presence or absence of HA and cross-linking chondroitin sulfate, MV3 cell migration and associated functions such as polarization and matrix reorganization were blocked by anti-β1 and anti-α2 integrin mAbs, whereas mAbs blocking CD44, α3, α5, α6, or αv integrins showed no effect. With use of highly sensitive time-lapse videomicroscopy and computer-assisted cell tracking techniques, promigratory functions of CD44 were excluded. 1) Addition of HA did not increase the migratory cell population or its migration velocity, 2) blocking of the HA-binding Hermes-1 epitope did not affect migration, and 3) impaired migration after blocking or activation of β1 integrins was not restored via CD44. Because α2β1-mediated migration was neither synergized nor replaced by CD44–HA interactions, we conclude that the biophysical properties of 3-D multicomponent ECM impose more restricted molecular functions of adhesion receptors, thereby differing from haptokinetic migration across surfaces. PMID:10512851

  3. Single-cell RNAseq reveals cell adhesion molecule profiles in electrophysiologically defined neurons

    PubMed Central

    Földy, Csaba; Darmanis, Spyros; Aoto, Jason; Malenka, Robert C.; Quake, Stephen R.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data, we identified two independent, developmentally regulated networks of interacting genes encoding molecules involved in cell adhesion, exocytosis, and signal transduction. Our approach provides a framework for a presumed cell adhesion and signaling code in neurons, enables correlating electrophysiological with molecular properties of neurons, and suggests avenues toward understanding synaptic specificity. PMID:27531958

  4. Latrophilins Function as Heterophilic Cell-adhesion Molecules by Binding to Teneurins

    PubMed Central

    Boucard, Antony A.; Maxeiner, Stephan; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Latrophilin-1, -2, and -3 are adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptors that are auxiliary α-latrotoxin receptors, suggesting that they may have a synaptic function. Using pulldowns, we here identify teneurins, type II transmembrane proteins that are also candidate synaptic cell-adhesion molecules, as interactors for the lectin-like domain of latrophilins. We show that teneurin binds to latrophilins with nanomolar affinity and that this binding mediates cell adhesion, consistent with a role of teneurin binding to latrophilins in trans-synaptic interactions. All latrophilins are subject to alternative splicing at an N-terminal site; in latrophilin-1, this alternative splicing modulates teneurin binding but has no effect on binding of latrophilin-1 to another ligand, FLRT3. Addition to cultured neurons of soluble teneurin-binding fragments of latrophilin-1 decreased synapse density, suggesting that latrophilin binding to teneurin may directly or indirectly influence synapse formation and/or maintenance. These observations are potentially intriguing in view of the proposed role for Drosophila teneurins in determining synapse specificity. However, teneurins in Drosophila were suggested to act as homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, whereas our findings suggest a heterophilic interaction mechanism. Thus, we tested whether mammalian teneurins also are homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, in addition to binding to latrophilins as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules. Strikingly, we find that although teneurins bind to each other in solution, homophilic teneurin-teneurin binding is unable to support stable cell adhesion, different from heterophilic teneurin-latrophilin binding. Thus, mammalian teneurins act as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules that may be involved in trans-neuronal interaction processes such as synapse formation or maintenance. PMID:24273166

  5. The binding capacity of α1β1-, α2β1- and α10β1-integrins depends on non-collagenous surface macromolecules rather than the collagens in cartilage fibrils.

    PubMed

    Woltersdorf, Christian; Bonk, Melanie; Leitinger, Birgit; Huhtala, Mikko; Käpylä, Jarmo; Heino, Jyrki; Gil Girol, Christian; Niland, Stephan; Eble, Johannes A; Bruckner, Peter; Dreier, Rita; Hansen, Uwe

    2017-02-10

    Interactions of cells with supramolecular aggregates of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are mediated, in part, by cell surface receptors of the integrin family. These are important molecular components of cell surface-suprastructures regulating cellular activities in general. A subfamily of β1-integrins with von Willebrand-factor A-like domains (I-domains) in their α-chains can bind to collagen molecules and, therefore, are considered as important cellular mechano-receptors. Here we show that chondrocytes strongly bind to cartilage collagens in the form of individual triple helical molecules but very weakly to fibrils formed by the same molecules. We also find that chondrocyte integrins α1β1-, α2β1- and α10β1-integrins and their I-domains have the same characteristics. Nevertheless we find integrin binding to mechanically generated cartilage fibril fragments, which also comprise peripheral non-collagenous material. We conclude that cell adhesion results from binding of integrin-containing adhesion suprastructures to the non-collagenous fibril periphery but not to the collagenous fibril cores. The biological importance of the well-investigated recognition of collagen molecules by integrins is unknown. Possible scenarios may include fibrillogenesis, fibril degradation and/or phagocytosis, recruitment of cells to remodeling sites, or molecular signaling across cytoplasmic membranes. In these circumstances, collagen molecules may lack a fibrillar organization. However, other processes requiring robust biomechanical functions, such as fibril organization in tissues, cell division, adhesion, or migration, do not involve direct integrin-collagen interactions.

  6. Hepatic stellate cells induce hepatocellular carcinoma cell resistance to sorafenib through the laminin-332/α3 integrin axis recovery of focal adhesion kinase ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Azzariti, Amalia; Mancarella, Serena; Porcelli, Letizia; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Caligiuri, Alessandra; Lupo, Luigi; Dituri, Francesco; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2016-12-01

    In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib, drug resistance is common. HCC develops in a microenvironment enriched with extracellular matrix proteins including laminin (Ln)-332, produced by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Ln-332 is the ligand of α3β1 and α6β4 integrins, differently expressed on the HCC cell surface, that deliver intracellular pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ln-332 on sorafenib's effectiveness. HCC cells were challenged with sorafenib in the presence of Ln-332 and of HSC conditioned medium (CM). Sorafenib impaired HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. HSC-CM or Ln-332 inhibited sorafenib's effectiveness in HCC cells expressing both α3β1 and α6β4. Inhibiting α3 but not α6 integrin subunit using blocking antibodies or small interfering RNA abrogated the protection induced by Ln-332 and HSC-CM. Hep3B cells expressing α6β4 but lacking the α3 integrin were insensitive to Ln-332 and HSC-CM protective effects. Hep3B α3-positive, but not wild-type and scramble transfected, cells acquired protection by sorafenib when plated on Ln-332-CM or HSCs. Sorafenib dephosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, whereas Ln-332 and HSC-CM partially restored the pathways. Silencing FAK, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, abrogated the protection induced by Ln-332 and HSC-CM, suggesting a specific role for FAK. Sorafenib down-regulated total FAK, inducing its proteasomal degradation, while Ln-332 and HSC-CM promoted the escape of FAK from ubiquitination, probably inducing a preferential membrane localization.

  7. Single-molecule manipulation experiments to explore friction and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, R.; Kawai, S.; Meier, T.; Glatzel, T.; Baratoff, A.; Meyer, E.

    2017-03-01

    Friction forces, which arise when two bodies that are in contact are moved with respect to one another, are ubiquitous phenomena. Although various measurement tools have been developed to study these phenomena at all length scales, such investigations are highly challenging when tackling the scale of single molecules in motion on a surface. This work reviews the recent advances in single-molecule manipulation experiments performed at low temperature with the aim of understanding the fundamental frictional response of single molecules. Following the advent of ‘nanotribology’ in the field based on the atomic force microscopy technique, we will show the technical requirements to direct those studies at the single-molecule level. We will also discuss the experimental prerequisites needed to obtain and interpret the phenomena, such as the implementation of single-molecule manipulation techniques, the processing of the experimental data or their comparison with appropriate numerical models. Finally, we will report examples of the controlled vertical and lateral manipulation of long polymeric chains, graphene nanoribbons or single porphyrin molecules that systematically reveal friction-like characteristics while sliding over atomically clean surfaces.

  8. Plasma treated polyethylene grafted with adhesive molecules for enhanced adhesion and growth of fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rimpelová, Silvie; Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Lemerová, Helena; Švorčík, Václav; Ruml, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    The cell-material interface plays a crucial role in the interaction of cells with synthetic materials for biomedical use. The application of plasma for tailoring polymer surfaces is of abiding interest and holds a great promise in biomedicine. In this paper, we describe polyethylene (PE) surface tuning by Ar plasma irradiating and subsequent grafting of the chemically active PE surface with adhesive proteins or motives to support cell attachment. These simple modifications resulted in changed polymer surface hydrophilicity, roughness and morphology, which we thoroughly characterized. The effect of our modifications on adhesion and growth was tested in vitro using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 cell line). We demonstrate that the plasma treatment of PE had a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and moderately on proliferation activity of NIH 3T3 cells. This effect was even more pronounced on PE coated with biomolecules.

  9. Involvement of oxidative stress and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mizushima, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Shimura, Takaya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease involves excessive immune effects of inflammatory cells against gut microbes. In genetically predisposed individuals, these effects are considered to contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal injury. Oxidative stress is a fundamental tissue-destructive mechanisms that can occur due to the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen metabolites which are released in abundance from numerous inflammatory cells that have extravasated from lymphatics and blood vessels to the lamina propria. This extravasation is mediated by interactions between adhesion molecules including mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on the surface of lymphocytes or neutrophils and their ligands on endothelial cells. Thus, reactive oxygen species and adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. The present review focuses on the involvement of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, in particular mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21373262

  10. Integrins and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kirat Kumar; Pal, Sekhar; Moulik, Shuvojit; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis is a combination of biological events that makes the difference between cancer and other diseases. Metastasis requires flow of erroneous but precisely coordinated basic cellular activities like cell migration–invasion, cell survival–apoptosis, cell proliferation, etc. All of these processes require efficient regulation of cell attachment and detachment, which recruit integrin receptors in this flow of events. World literatures show several aspects of interrelation of integrins and metastasis. Integrin molecules are being used as prime target to battle metastasis. In this review we are collating the observations showing importance of integrin biology in regulation of metastasis and the strategies where integrin receptors are being used as targets to regulate metastasis. PMID:23563505

  11. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257

  12. Early storage lesions in apheresis platelets are induced by the activation of the integrin αIIbβ₃ and focal adhesion signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Thomas; Iuga, Cristina; Janetzky, Susann; Schwertz, Hansjorg; Gesell Salazar, Manuela; Fürll, Birgit; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas; Steil, Leif

    2012-12-05

    Production and storage of platelet concentrates (PC) induce protein changes in platelets leading to impaired platelet function. This study aimed to identify signaling pathways involved in the development of early platelet storage lesions in apheresis-PCs stored in plasma or additive solution (PAS). Apheresis-PCs from four donors were stored in plasma or in PAS at 22°C (n=4 each). Platelets were analyzed at day 0 (production day) and after 1, 6 and 9 days of storage. Platelet response to agonists (TRAP, collagen, ADP) and to hypotonic shock decreased, CD62P expression increased in both storage media over time. Using DIGE 1550 protein spots were monitored and compared to baseline values at day 0. Platelets in plasma displayed changes in 352 spots (166/day 1, 263/day 6 and 201/day 9); in PAS 325 spots changed (202/day 1, 221/day 6, 200/day 9). LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of 405 platelet proteins revealed 32 proteins changed during storage in plasma (9/day 1, 15/day 6 and 26/day 9) and 28 in PAS (5/day 1, 20/day 6, 26/day 9). Ingenuity pathway analysis found integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling pathways involved in early alterations, being confirmed by Western blotting. Corresponding mRNAs in platelets were identified by next generation sequencing for 84 changed proteins. Integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling cause irreversible early storage lesions in apheresis platelets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  13. Regulation of cellular interactions with laminin by integrin cytoplasmic domains: the A and B structural variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin differentially modulate the adhesive strength, morphology, and migration of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, L M; Mercurio, A M

    1994-01-01

    Several integrin alpha subunits have structural variants that are identical in their extracellular and transmembrane domains but that differ in their cytoplasmic domains. The functional significance of these variants, however, is unknown. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the A and B variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin laminin receptor differ in function. For this purpose, we expressed the alpha 6A and alpha 6B cDNAs, as well as a truncated alpha 6 cDNA (alpha 6-delta CYT) in which the cytoplasmic domain sequence was deleted after the GFFKR pentapeptide, in P388D1 cells, an alpha 6 deficient macrophage cell line. Populations of stable alpha 6A, alpha 6B, and alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants that expressed equivalent levels of cell surface alpha 6 were obtained by fluorescence-activated cell sorter and shown to form heterodimers with endogenous beta 1 subunits. Upon attachment to laminin, the alpha 6A transfectants extended numerous pseudopodia. In contrast, the alpha 6B transfectants remained rounded and extended few processes. The transfectants were also examined for their ability to migrate toward a laminin substratum using Transwell chambers. The alpha 6A transfectants were three- to fourfold more migratory than the alpha 6B transfectants. The alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants did not attach to laminin in normal culture medium, but they did attach in the presence of Mn2+. The alpha 6-delta CYT transfectants migrated to a lesser extent than either the alpha 6A or alpha 6B transfectants in the presence of Mn2+. The alpha 6 transfectants differed significantly in the concentration of substratum bound laminin required for half-maximal adhesion in the presence of Mn2+:alpha 6A (2.1 micrograms/ml), alpha 6B (6.3 micrograms/ml), and alpha 6-delta CYT (8.8 micrograms/ml). Divalent cation titration studies revealed that these transfectants also differed significantly in both the [Ca2+] and [Mn2+] required to obtain half-maximal adhesion to laminin

  14. Integrins in periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Larjava, Hannu; Koivisto, Leeni; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari

    2014-07-15

    Cell surface integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion, migration and cellular signaling in all nucleated cells. They are activated by binding to extracellular ligands or by intracellular proteins, such as kindlins that engage with their cytoplasmic tails. Cells in the periodontal tissues express several integrins with overlapping ligand-binding capabilities. A distinct phenotype in the periodontium has only been described for knockouts or mutations of three integrin subunits, α11, β6 and β2. Integrin α11β1 appears to have some regulatory function in the periodontal ligament of continuously erupting incisors in mice. Integrin αvβ6 is expressed in the junctional epithelium (JE) of the gingiva. Animals deficient in this receptor develop classical signs of periodontal disease, including inflammation, apical migration of the JE and bone loss, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of periodontal inflmmation, likely through activation of transforming growth factor-β1. Lack of integrin activation in the JE is also associated with periodontitis. Patients with kindlin-1 mutations have severe early-onset periodontal disease. Finally, patients with mutations in the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin subunit have severe periodontal problems due to lack of transiting neutrophils in the periodontal tissues.

  15. Candida albicans stimulates cytokine production and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression by endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Filler, S G; Pfunder, A S; Spellberg, B J; Spellberg, J P; Edwards, J E

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cells have the potential to influence significantly the host immune response to blood-borne microbial pathogens, such as Candida albicans. We investigated the ability (of this organism to stimulate endothelial cell responses relevant to host defense in vitro. Infection with C. albicans induced endothelial cells to express mRNAs encoding E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and inducible cyclooxygenase (cox2). All three leukocyte adhesion molecule proteins were expressed on the surfaces of the endothelial cells after 8 h of exposure to C. albicans. An increase in secretion of all three cytokines was found after 12 h of infection. Cytochalasin D inhibited accumulation of the endothelial cell cytokine and leukocyte adhesion molecule mRNAs in response to C. albicans, suggesting that endothelial cell phagocytosis of the organism is required to induce this response. Live Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, a nongerminating strain of C. albicans, and killed C. albicans did not stimulate the expression of any of the cytokine or leukocyte adhesion molecule mRNAs. These findings indicate that a factor associated with live, germinating C. albicans is required for induction of endothelial cell mRNA expression. Furthermore, since endothelial cells phagocytize killed C. albicans, phagocytosis is likely necessary but not sufficient for this organism to stimulate mRNA accumulation. In conclusion, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules by endothelial cells in response to C. albicans could enhance the host defense against this organism by contributing to the recruitment of activated leukocytes to sites of intravascular infection. PMID:8698486

  16. Targeting sites of inflammation: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a target for novel inflammatory therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to sites of inflammation will provide effective, precise, and safe therapeutic interventions for treatment of diverse disease conditions, by limiting toxic side effects and/or increasing drug action. Disease-site targeting is believed to play a major role in the enhanced efficacy observed for a variety of drugs when formulated inside lipid vesicles. This article will focus on the factors and mechanisms involved in drug targeting to sites of inflammation and the importance of cell adhesion molecules, in particular intercellular adhesion molecule-1, in this process. PMID:24109453

  17. Regulation of Endothelial Cell Motility by Complexes of Tetraspan Molecules CD81/TAPA-1 and CD151/PETA-3 with α3β1 Integrin Localized at Endothelial Lateral Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Alfranca, Arántzazu; Cabañas, Carlos; Marazuela, Mónica; Tejedor, Reyes; Angeles Ursa, M.; Ashman, Leonie K.; de Landázuri, Manuel O.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    1998-01-01

    Cell-to-cell junction structures play a key role in cell growth rate control and cell polarization. In endothelial cells (EC), these structures are also involved in regulation of vascular permeability and leukocyte extravasation. To identify novel components in EC intercellular junctions, mAbs against these cells were produced and selected using a morphological screening by immunofluorescence microscopy. Two novel mAbs, LIA1/1 and VJ1/16, specifically recognized a 25-kD protein that was selectively localized at cell–cell junctions of EC, both in the primary formation of cell monolayers and when EC reorganized in the process of wound healing. This antigen corresponded to the recently cloned platelet-endothelial tetraspan antigen CD151/PETA-3 (platelet-endothelial tetraspan antigen-3), and was consistently detected at EC cell–cell contact sites. In addition to CD151/PETA-3, two other members of the tetraspan superfamily, CD9 and CD81/ TAPA-1 (target of antiproliferative antibody-1), localized at endothelial cell-to-cell junctions. Biochemical analysis demonstrated molecular associations among tetraspan molecules themselves and those of CD151/ PETA-3 and CD9 with α3β1 integrin. Interestingly, mAbs directed to both CD151/PETA-3 and CD81/ TAPA-1 as well as mAb specific for α3 integrin, were able to inhibit the migration of ECs in the process of wound healing. The engagement of CD151/PETA-3 and CD81/TAPA-1 inhibited the movement of individual ECs, as determined by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy studies. Furthermore, mAbs against the CD151/PETA-3 molecule diminished the rate of EC invasion into collagen gels. In addition, these mAbs were able to increase the adhesion of EC to extracellular matrix proteins. Together these results indicate that CD81/TAPA-1 and CD151/PETA-3 tetraspan molecules are components of the endothelial lateral junctions implicated in the regulation of cell motility, either directly or by modulation of the function of the associated

  18. Sequences from the First Fibronectin Type III Repeat of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Allow O-Glycan Polysialylation of an Adhesion Molecule Chimera*

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Deirdre A.; Swartzentruber, Kristin G.; Thompson, Matthew G.; Mendiratta, Shalu Shiv; Colley, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated, anti-adhesive polymer that is added to N-glycans on the fifth immunoglobulin domain (Ig5) of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We found that the first fibronectin type III repeat (FN1) of NCAM is required for the polysialylation of N-glycans on the adjacent Ig5 domain, and we proposed that the polysialyltransferases recognize specific sequences in FN1 to position themselves for Ig5 N-glycan polysialylation. Other studies identified a novel FN1 acidic surface patch and α-helix that play roles in NCAM polysialylation. Here, we characterize the contribution of two additional FN1 sequences, Pro510-Tyr511-Ser512 (PYS) and Gln516-Val517-Gln518 (QVQ). Replacing PYS or the acidic patch dramatically decreases the O-glycan polysialylation of a truncated NCAM protein, and replacing the α-helix or QVQ shifts polysialic acid to FN1 O-glycans in full-length NCAM. We also found that the FN1 domain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule, a homologous but unpolysialylated protein, could partially replace NCAM FN1. Inserting Pro510-Tyr511 eliminated N-glycan polysialylation and enhanced O-glycosylation of an NCAM- olfactory cell adhesion molecule chimera, and inserting other FN1 sequences unique to NCAM, predominantly the acidic patch, created a new polysialyltransferase recognition site. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the FN1 α-helix and QVQ sequences in N-glycan polysialylation and demonstrate that the acidic patch primarily functions in O-glycan polysialylation. PMID:20805222

  19. Expression of adhesion molecules during tooth resorption in feline teeth: a model system for aggressive osteoclastic activity.

    PubMed

    Shigeyama, Y; Grove, T K; Strayhorn, C; Somerman, M J

    1996-09-01

    Tooth resorption, a common feline dental problem, is often initiated at the cemento-enamel junction and hence is called cat 'neck' lesion. Studies have demonstrated that osteoclasts/odontoclasts are increased and activated at resorption sites, and that areas of resorption are partly repaired by formation of tissues resembling bone, cementum, and possibly dentin. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms/factors involved in resorption and repair are unknown. In this study of tissues from cats with 'neck' lesions, we used specific antibodies and immunohistochemical analyses to examine adhesion molecules associated with mineralized tissues, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), and a cell-surface receptor linked with these molecules, alpha v beta 3, for their localization in these lesions. In addition, to determine general cellular activity during repair, we performed in situ hybridization using a type I collagen riboprobe. Results showed OPN localized to resorption fronts and reversal lines, while BSP was localized to reversal lines. However, some osteoclasts and odontoblasts "sat" on mineralized surfaces not associated with OPN. The cell-surface receptor, alpha v beta 3, was localized to surfaces of osteoclasts/odontoclasts. Type I collagen mRNA was expressed where osteoblasts attempted to repair mineralized tissue. In contrast, odontoblasts did not express mRNA for type I collagen. This study suggests that osteoclastic resorption is the predominant activity in 'neck' lesions and that this activity was accompanied, at least in part, by increased concentrations of OPN and an associated integrin, alpha v beta 3, at resorption sites. Lack of collagen expression by odontoblasts indicates that odontoblasts do not play an active role in attempts at repair.

  20. Bio-active molecules modified surfaces enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mobasseri, Rezvan; Tian, Lingling; Soleimani, Masoud; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2017-01-29

    Surface modification of the substrate as a component of in vitro cell culture and tissue engineering, using bio-active molecules including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or peptides derived ECM proteins can modulate the surface properties and thereby induce the desired signaling pathways in cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) on glass substrates modified with fibronectin (Fn), collagen (Coll), RGD peptides (RGD) and designed peptide (R-pept) as bio-active molecules. The glass coverslips were coated with fibronectin, collagen, RGD peptide and R-peptide. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on different substrates and the adhesion behavior in early incubation times was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate the effect of different bio-active molecules on MSCs proliferation rate during 24 and 72 h. Formation of filopodia and focal adhesion (FA) complexes, two steps of cell adhesion process, were observed in MSCs cultured on bio-active molecules modified coverslips, specifically in Fn coated and R-pept coated groups. SEM image showed well adhesion pattern for MSCs cultured on Fn and R-pept after 2 h incubation, while the shape of cells cultured on Coll and RGD substrates indicated that they might experience stress condition in early hours of culture. Investigation of adhesion behavior, as well as proliferation pattern, suggests R-peptide as a promising bio-active molecule to be used for surface modification of substrate in supporting and inducing cell adhesion and proliferation.

  1. An agent based model of integrin clustering: Exploring the role of ligand clustering, integrin homo-oligomerization, integrin-ligand affinity, membrane crowdedness and ligand mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Yousef; Jamali, Tahereh; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    2013-07-01

    Integrins are cell-surface protein heterodimers that coordinate cellular responses to mechanochemical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and stimulate the assembly of small adhesion complexes, which are the initial sites of cell-ECM adhesion. Clustering of integrins is known to mediate signaling through a variety of signal transduction pathways. Yet, the molecular mechanisms of integrin clustering are poorly understood. In this paper, we develop computational models, using agent based modeling (ABM) techniques, to explore two key underlying mechanisms of integrin clustering, namely ligand organization and integrin homo-oligomerization. Our models help to shed light on the potential roles ligand clustering and integrin homo-oligomerization may play in controlling integrin clustering. A potential mechanism for the clustering of integrin is discussed and the effects of other parameters such as integrin-ligand affinity, membrane crowdedness and ligand mobility on integrin clustering are examined.

  2. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 after infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2003-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene and protein expression. It has also been shown that interaction of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) with host cell very late antigen (VLA)-5 (alpha 5 beta 1 integrin) is required for the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that pertussis toxin (PT) impairs this response. We therefore examined the molecular mechanisms leading to B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. A colorimetric nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation assay demonstrated that NF-kappa B was activated in response to infection of these cells with B. pertussis. This activation occurred in an FHA(RGD)-dependent manner, and was blocked by an antibody against VLA-5, implying that binding of the RGD to VLA-5 integrin is involved in NF-kappa B activation. Western blot analysis revealed that the activation of NF-kappa B by B. pertussis was preceded by degradation of I kappa B alpha, a major cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Pretreatment of the BEAS-2B cells with the NF-kappa B inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), MG-132, and SN50 resulted in a marked decrease in B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 expression, implying the involvement of NF-kappa B in ICAM-1 expression. Purified PT abrogated both NF-kappa B activation and I kappa B alpha degradation. These results suggest that ligation of VLA-5 integrin by FHA induces RGD-dependent NF-kappa B activation, thus leading to the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that a PT-sensitive G protein may be involved in this signaling pathway.

  3. Integrin alpha 3 beta 1 participates in the phagocytosis of extracellular matrix molecules by human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Coopman, P J; Thomas, D M; Gehlsen, K R; Mueller, S C

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms and receptors involved in phagocytosis by nonhematopoietic cells are not well understood. The involvement of the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin in phagocytosis of the extracellular matrix by human breast cancer cells was studied. The possible role of this integrin was suggested since alpha 3 and beta 1 but not alpha 2 subunits are concentrated at membrane sites where local degradation of fluorescently labeled gelatin occurs. Strikingly, anti-alpha 3 integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) stimulate the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled gelatin films, gelatin beads, and Matrigel films in a quantitative phagocytosis assay. Stimulation of the gelatin uptake by the anti-alpha 3 mAb is dose responsive, saturable, and time dependent. Antibodies against other integrin subunits have a lower stimulatory effect (anti-beta 1) or no significant effect (anti-alpha 2, -alpha 5, -alpha 6, and -alpha v) on gelatin phagocytosis. The synthetic HGD-6 human laminin peptide that binds specifically the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin, but not the scrambled HSGD-6 control peptide, also markedly stimulates gelatin uptake in a dose-responsive way. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of the HGD-6 peptide and the anti-alpha 3 mAb are additive, suggesting that they might promote phagocytosis in different ways. Other laminin (YIGSR, IKVAV) and fibronectin (GRGDS) peptides have no effect on gelatin phagocytosis. Immunofluorescence shows that the alpha 3 and the beta 1, but not the alpha 2 integrin subunit, concentrate into patches on the cell surface after treatment with their respective mAbs. And, both gelatin and the alpha 3 beta 1 but not the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin are cointernalized and routed to acidic vesicles such as lysosomes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human breast cancer cells locally degrade and phagocytose the extracellular matrix and show for the first time that the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin participates in this phagocytosis. We hypothesize that the anti-alpha 3

  4. Simulated microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion to matrix and other molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, K.; Ishii, S.; Ford, R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-01-01

    Microgravity has advantages for the cultivation of tissues with high fidelity; however, tissue formation requires cellular recognition and adhesion. We tested the hypothesis that simulated microgravity does not affect cell adhesion. Human colorectal carcinoma cells were cultured in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) under low shear stress with randomization of the gravity vector that simulates microgravity. After 6 - 7 days, cells were assayed for binding to various substrates and compared to cells grown in standard tissue culture flasks and static suspension cultures. The RWV cultures bound as well to basement membrane proteins and to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), an intercellular adhesion molecule, as control cultures did. Thus, microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion and may be useful for tissue engineering.

  5. Simulated microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion to matrix and other molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, K.; Ishii, S.; Ford, R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-08-01

    Microgravity has advantages for the cultivation of tissues with high fidelity; however, tissue formation requires cellular recognition and adhesion. We tested the hypothesis that simulated microgravity does not affect cell adhesion. Human colorectal carcinoma cells were cultured in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) under low shear stress with randomization of the gravity vector that simulates microgravity. After 6 - 7 days, cells were assayed for binding to various substrates and compared to cells grown in standard tissue culture flasks and static suspension cultures. The RWV cultures bound as well to basement membrane proteins and to CEA, an intercellular adhesion molecule, as control cultures did. Thus, microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion and may be useful for tissue engineering.

  6. Mechanotransduction molecules in the plant gravisensory response: amyloplast/statolith membranes contain a beta 1 integrin-like protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, T. M.; Lintilhac, P. M.; Domozych, D.

    1998-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the sedimentation of amyloplasts within root cap cells is the primary event in the plant gravisensory-signal transduction cascade. Statolith sedimentation, with its ability to generate weighty mechanical signals, is a legitimate means for organisms to discriminate the direction of the gravity vector. However, it has been demonstrated that starchless mutants with reduced statolith densities maintain some ability to sense gravity, calling into question the statolith sedimentation hypothesis. Here we report on the presence of a beta 1 integrin-like protein localized inside amyloplasts of tobacco NT-1 suspension culture, callus cells, and whole-root caps. Two different antibodies to the beta 1 integrin, one to the cytoplasmic domain and one to the extracellular domain, localize in the vicinity of the starch grains within amyloplasts of NT-1. Biochemical data reveals a 110-kDa protein immunoprecipitated from membrane fractions of NT-1 suspension culture indicating size homology to known beta 1 integrin in animals. This study provides the first direct evidence for the possibility of integrin-mediated signal transduction in the perception of gravity by higher plants. An integrin-mediated pathway, initiated by starch grain sedimentation within the amyloplast, may provide the signal amplification necessary to explain the gravitropic response in starch-depleted cultivars.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to human laminin α4 chain globular domain inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and binding of α6β1 integrin and MCAM to α4-laminins.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Taichi; Wondimu, Zenebech; Oikawa, Yuko; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Virtanen, Ismo; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    α4-Laminins, such as laminins 411 and 421, are mesenchymal laminins expressed by vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, leukocytes and other normal cell types. These laminins are recognized by α6β1 and α6β4 integrins and MCAM (CD146), and promote adhesion and migration of the cells. α4-Laminins are also expressed and secreted by some tumor cells and strongly promote tumor cell migration. Moreover, the abluminal side of blood and/or lymphatic vessels and the nerve perineurium, common tracks of tumor cell dissemination, express α4-laminins, and these laminin isoforms, when expressed in the stroma, may contribute to tumor invasion. In the present study, we examined ten mAbs to human laminin α4 chain for their reactivity with the isolated laminin α4 globular domain, their ability to inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and their effect on the binding of α6β1 integrin and MCAM to both α4-laminins. Most of the mAbs reacted with the laminin α4 globular domain, but only two, mAbs FC10 and 084, significantly inhibited tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminin-411. When used in combination, these antibodies practically abolished the cell adhesion and migration on laminin-411 and significantly reduced the cellular responses on laminin-421. Accordingly, mAbs FC10 and 084 significantly inhibited the binding of purified α6β1 integrin and MCAM to laminins 411 and 421. These results indicate that mAbs to the laminin α4 globular domain are able to inhibit tumor cell adhesion and migration on laminins 411 and 421, and that α6β1 integrin and MCAM bind α4-laminins at very close sites on the globular domain. These reagents contribute to a better understanding of the biology of α4-laminins and may have a therapeutic potential in malignant and inflammatory diseases.

  8. An integrin from oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates the phagocytosis toward Vibrio splendidus through LPS binding activity.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhihao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Mengqiang; Cheng, Qi; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-11-01

    Integrins are a family of cell adhesion molecules which play important roles in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis and phagocytosis. In the present study, the immune function of an integrin from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgIntegrin) was characterized to understand the regulatory mechanism of hemocyte phagocytosis toward different microbes. The full-length cDNA of CgIntegrin was 2571 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2397 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 799 amino acids. The mRNA transcripts of CgIntegrin were predominantly detected in hemocytes, gonad and adductor muscle, while lowly in hepatopancreas, mantle and gill. The mRNA expression level was up-regulated at 6 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed after peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation. The oyster hemocytes with relative high CgIntegrin expression level exhibited different phagocytic abilities towards different microorganism and particles, such as Gram-positive bacteria Vibrio splendidus, Gram-negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and latex beads. Moreover, the phagocytic rate towards V. splendidus was significantly decreased after the blockade of CgIntegrin using the polyclonal antibody. The recombinant CgIntegrin (rCgIntegrin) displayed agglutinating activity towards V. splendidus but not S. aureus and Y. lipolytica. It also exhibited a higher binding affinity towards LPS (compared to rTrx group) in a dose-dependent manner with the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 5.53 × 10(-6) M. The results indicated that CgIntegrin served as a pattern recognition receptor with LPS binding activity, which could directly bind to V. splendidus and enhance the phagocytosis of oyster hemocytes.

  9. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  10. Cell adhesion molecules involved in the leukocyte recruitment induced by venom of the snake Bothrops jararaca.

    PubMed Central

    Zamuner, Stella R; Teixeira, Catarina F P

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) induces a significant leukocyte accumulation, mainly neutrophils, at the local of tissue damage. Therefore, the role of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), LECAM-1, CD18, leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) on the BjV-induced neutrophil accumulation and the correlation with release of LTB4, TXA2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 have been investigated. Anti-mouse LECAM-1, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 monoclonal antibody injection resulted in a reduction of 42%, 80%, 66% and 67%, respectively, of neutrophil accumulation induced by BjV (250 microg/kg, intraperitoneal) injection in male mice compared with isotype-matched control injected animals. The anti-mouse CD18 monoclonal antibody had no significant effect on venom-induced neutrophil accumulation. Concentrations of LTB(4), TXA(2), IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significant increased in the peritoneal exudates of animals injected with venom, whereas no increment in IL-1 was detected. This results suggest that ICAM-1, LECAM-1, LFA-1 and PECAM-1, but not CD18, adhesion molecules are involved in the recruitment of neutrophils into the inflammatory site induced by BjV. This is the first in vivo evidence that snake venom is able to up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules by both leukocytes and endothelial cells. This venom effect may be indirect, probably through the release of the inflammatory mediators evidenced in the present study. PMID:12581499

  11. Regulation of tissue infiltration by neutrophils: Role of integrin α3β1 and other factors

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Pallavi; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Neutrophils have traditionally been viewed in the context of acute infection and inflammation forming the first line of defence against invading pathogens. Neutrophil trafficking to the site of inflammation requires adhesion and transmigration through blood vessels, which is orchestrated by adhesion molecules, such as β2- and β1-integrins, chemokines and cytokines. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the regulators of neutrophil recruitment during inflammation in both acute and chronic settings. Recent findings Recent findings suggest that besides the established pathways of selectin or chemokine-mediated integrin activation, signaling by distinct TLRs (especially TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5) can activate integrin-dependent neutrophil adhesion. Moreover, the integrin α3β1 has been vitally implicated as a new player in neutrophil recruitment and TLR-mediated responses in septic inflammation. Furthermore, several endogenous inhibitory mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment have been identified, including the secreted molecules Del-1, PTX3, and GDF-15, which block distinct steps of the leukocyte adhesion cascade, as well as novel regulatory signaling pathways, involving the protein kinase AKT1 and IFN-λ2/IL-28A. Summary The leukocyte adhesion cascade is a tightly regulated process, subjected to both positive and negative regulators. Dysregulation of this process and hence neutrophil recruitment can lead to the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26554893

  12. Fps/Fes protein-tyrosine kinase regulates mast cell adhesion and migration downstream of Kit and beta1 integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julie A; Samayawardhena, Lionel A; Craig, Andrew W B

    2010-03-01

    Activation of Kit receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) by its ligand Stem Cell Factor (SCF) is required for the development of mast cells, and for the regulation of mast cell proliferation, migration and modulation of inflammatory mediator release. Recent studies have implicated the non-receptor PTK Fps/Fes (hereafter referred to as Fes) in signaling downstream of oncogenic Kit, however, the potential role of Fes in regulating Kit signaling is not well defined. In this study, we show that SCF induces transient tyrosine phosphorylation of wild-type Fes as well as kinase-dead Fes in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). The latter finding implicates an upstream kinase acting on Fes, which we identified as Fyn PTK. SCF treatment of BMMCs promoted recruitment of Fes to Kit, potentially via direct interaction of the Fes SH2 domain with phosphorylated Kit. While Fes was not required for SCF-induced signaling to Akt and Erk kinases, Fes-deficient (fes-/-) BMMCs displayed a defect in sustained p38 kinase activation, compared to control cells. SCF-treated Fes-deficient BMMCs also displayed elevated beta1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectin, compared to control cells, and a reduction in cell polarization at later times of SCF treatment. Restoring Fes expression in fes-/- BMMCs by retroviral transduction was sufficient to rescue cell spreading and polarization defects. Interestingly, SCF-induced chemotaxis of BMMCs was also defective in Fes-deficient BMMCs, and restored in Fes-rescue BMMCs. Overall, these results implicate Fes in regulating cross-talk between Kit and beta1 integrins to promote cytoskeletal reorganization and motility of mast cells.

  13. Arabidopsis NDR1 is an integrin-like protein with a role in fluid loss and plasma membrane-cell wall adhesion.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Caleb; Savory, Elizabeth A; Day, Brad

    2011-05-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (NDR1), a plasma membrane-localized protein, plays an essential role in resistance mediated by the coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class of resistance (R) proteins, which includes RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE2 (RPS2), RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV MACULICOLA1, and RPS5. Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 expressing the bacterial effector proteins AvrRpt2, AvrB, and AvrPphB activates resistance by the aforementioned R proteins. Whereas the genetic requirement for NDR1 in plant disease resistance signaling has been detailed, our study focuses on determining a global, physiological role for NDR1. Through the use of homology modeling and structure threading, NDR1 was predicted to have a high degree of structural similarity to Arabidopsis LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT14, a protein implicated in abiotic stress responses. Specific protein motifs also point to a degree of homology with mammalian integrins, well-characterized proteins involved in adhesion and signaling. This structural homology led us to examine a physiological role for NDR1 in preventing fluid loss and maintaining cell integrity through plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions. Our results show a substantial alteration in induced (i.e. pathogen-inoculated) electrolyte leakage and a compromised pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune response in ndr1-1 mutant plants. As an extension of these analyses, using a combination of genetic and cell biology-based approaches, we have identified a role for NDR1 in mediating plasma membrane-cell wall adhesions. Taken together, our data point to a broad role for NDR1 both in mediating primary cellular functions in Arabidopsis through maintaining the integrity of the cell wall-plasma membrane connection and as a key signaling component of these responses during pathogen infection.

  14. Fibroblast surface-associated FGF-2 promotes contact-dependent colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion through FGFR-SRC signaling and integrin αvβ5-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Knuchel, Sarah; Anderle, Pascale; Werfelli, Patricia; Diamantis, Eva; Rüegg, Curzio

    2015-06-10

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts were reported to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion by secreting motility factors and extracellular matrix processing enzymes. Less is known whether fibroblasts may induce CRC cancer cell motility by contact-dependent mechanisms. To address this question we characterized the interaction between fibroblasts and SW620 and HT29 colorectal cancer cells in 2D and 3D co-culture models in vitro. Here we show that fibroblasts induce contact-dependent cancer cell elongation, motility and invasiveness independently of deposited matrix or secreted factors. These effects depend on fibroblast cell surface-associated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) -2. Inhibition of FGF-2 or FGF receptors (FGFRs) signaling abolishes these effects. FGFRs activate SRC in cancer cells and inhibition or silencing of SRC in cancer cells, but not in fibroblasts, prevents fibroblasts-mediated effects. Using an RGD-based integrin antagonist and function-blocking antibodies we demonstrate that cancer cell adhesion to fibroblasts requires integrin αvβ5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fibroblasts induce cell-contact-dependent colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion under 2D and 3D conditions in vitro through fibroblast cell surface-associated FGF-2, FGF receptor-mediated SRC activation and αvβ5 integrin-dependent cancer cell adhesion to fibroblasts. The FGF-2-FGFRs-SRC-αvβ5 integrin loop might be explored as candidate therapeutic target to block colorectal cancer invasion.

  15. Spatio-Temporally Restricted Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules during Chicken Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Priti; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2014-01-01

    Differential cell adhesive properties are known to regulate important developmental events like cell sorting and cell migration. Cadherins and protocadherins are known to mediate these cellular properties. Though a large number of such molecules have been predicted, their characterization in terms of interactive properties and cellular roles is far from being comprehensive. To narrow down the tissue context and collect correlative evidence for tissue specific roles of these molecules, we have carried out whole-mount in situ hybridization based RNA expression study for seven cadherins and four protocadherins. In developing chicken embryos (HH stages 18, 22, 26 and 28) cadherins and protocadherins are expressed in tissue restricted manner. This expression study elucidates precise expression domains of cell adhesion molecules in the context of developing embryos. These expression domains provide spatio-temporal context in which the function of these genes can be further explored. PMID:24806091

  16. Mechanotransduction through Integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses through cell surface integrin receptors and through their interconnections with the underlying cytoskeleton. Work completed and published in past funding period had provided direct support for this hypothesis. In particular, we demonstrated that application of mechanical stresses to activated integrin receptors (but not inactive integrins or other control transmembrane receptors) resulted in stress-dependent activation of the CAMP signaling pathway leading to gene transcription. We also showed that this form of mechanotransduction requires activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. In this grant, our specific aims included: 1) to characterize the signal processing capabilities of different integrins and other cell surface receptors, 2) to identify heterotrimeric G proteins that mediate CAMP signaling by stresses applied to integrins, 3) to identify molecules that mediate transmembrane mechanochemical coupling between integrins and G proteins, and 4) to use genome-wide gene expression profiling techniques to identify other genes and signaling pathways that are activated by mechanical forces transmitted over specific cell surface receptors. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation.

  17. Expression of the beta 7 integrin by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brezinschek, R. I.; Brezinschek, H. P.; Lazarovits, A. I.; Lipsky, P. E.; Oppenheimer-Marks, N.

    1996-01-01

    Integrin adhesion receptors mediate fundamental intercellular interactions of many cell types as well as cellular interactions with specific extracellular matrix molecules. To date, the beta 7 integrin has been shown to be expressed by leukocyte subsets and to mediate interactions of these cells with extracellular matrix molecules as well as with endothelial and epithelial cells. The data presented here indicate that human endothelial cells also express the beta 7 integrin both in vitro and in situ. Analysis of cDNA indicated that endothelial beta 7 was identical to that expressed by leukocytes. Cell surface expression of beta 7 was increased by exposure of the endothelium to the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta. In leukocytes, beta 7 complexes with alpha 4 or alpha E integrin chains. Endothelial cells also expressed a number of alpha-integrin chains, including alpha 4, but not alpha E. The expression and utilization of beta 7, presumably complexed with alpha 4, by endothelial cells may be instrumental in the maintenance of the function or phenotype of endothelial cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8909254

  18. Expression of adhesion molecules and chemotactic cytokines in cultured human mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jonjić, N; Peri, G; Bernasconi, S; Sciacca, F L; Colotta, F; Pelicci, P; Lanfrancone, L; Mantovani, A

    1992-10-01

    The mesothelium is a flat epithelial lining of serous cavities that could gate the traffic of molecules and cells between the circulation and these body compartments. The present study was designed to elucidate the capacity of mesothelial cells to express adhesion molecules and chemoattractant cytokines, two fundamental mechanisms of regulation of leukocyte recruitment. Cultured human mesothelial cells express appreciable levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and these were increased by in vitro exposure to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or TNF and IFN-gamma. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) was a less consistent stimulus for adhesion molecule expression in vitro. Unlike endothelial cells, used as a reference cell population, resting or stimulated mesothelial cells did not express E-selectin and ICAM-2, as assessed by flow cytometry. Analysis of VCAM-1 mRNA by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction using appropriate primers revealed that mesothelial cells expressed both the seven- and the six-Ig domain transcripts, with predominance of the longer species. Monocytes bound appreciably to "resting" and, to a greater extent, to stimulated mesothelial cells. Monocytes exposed to IFN-gamma and lipopolysaccharide, used as prototypic activation signals, showed increased capacity to bind mesothelial cells. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody significantly inhibited binding of monocytes to mesothelial cells, and this blocking effect was amplified by anti-very late antigen 4. Mesothelial cells were able to express the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 at the mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that mesothelial cells can express a set of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) overlapping with, but distinct from, that expressed in vascular endothelium (ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, E-selectin), and that these are functionally relevant for interacting with

  19. [Anti-adhesive and anti-thrombotic effects of integrin-inhibiting tripeptides (Arg-Gly-Asp)].

    PubMed

    Udvardy, M

    1995-10-01

    The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif has a widespread distribution in the cellular adhesive structures on platelets, lymphocytes, some viruses and matrix proteins. RGD sequence seems to confer adhesive properties to macromolecular proteins like fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen and many others. So RGD tripeptide and its analogues really deserve to be regarded as general disintegrin sequence. A concise review is given to analyze the most important achievements by using RGD peptides as antiplatelet agents along with an overview of the potential clinical application of the disintegrin peptides in other fields of medicine.

  20. Immunolocalization of integrins and fibronectin in tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Inan, Sevinc; Giray, Gulsen; Vatansever, H Seda; Ozbilgin, Kemal; Kuscu, N Kemal; Sayhan, Sevil

    2004-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of cell adhesion molecules that serve as receptors involved in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions during implantation. We studied immunohistochemical staining of integrins (alpha 3, alpha V, beta 1, and alpha 2 beta 1) and fibronectin in ectopic tubal pregnancy. Thirty fallopian tube samples with ectopic pregnancies and five normal tubal segments were obtained during ligation operations; the latter specimens served as controls in the study. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or primary antibodies against alpha 3, beta 1, alpha V, and alpha 2 beta 1 integrins and fibronectin, using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. A semi-quantitative grading system was used to compare staining intensities. In the control samples, immunostaining of all integrins was found in a single layer of tall columnar epithelial cells, the lamina propria (Lp) and the muscular layer. Fibronectin staining was detected in the Lp and the muscular layer. Staining intensities of alpha 3 and beta 1 integrins and fibronectin were increased in the normal part of fallopian tubes with ectopic pregnancies. Staining of beta 1 integrin was more intense than staining of alpha 3 and fibronectin, whereas there was no difference in alpha V and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin expression between normal tubal tissue in the ectopic pregnancy group and control tubal tissue. In the tubal pregnancy group at the site of implantation, staining intensity of alpha 3 and beta 1 integrins and fibronectin was strong in decidual cells, supporting tissue and placental villi, whereas alpha V and alpha 2 beta 1 staining was mild. We concluded that integrins, especially beta 1 and alpha 3, and fibronectin may play a role in progression of tubal implantation. Although the role of integrins has not yet been clearly defined, these molecules may function as markers of normal and abnormal states of receptivity. We like to suggest that integrins and

  1. Integrating with integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M. A.; Ingber, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Our central claim is that signaling by integrins provides a mechanism by which signals generated in response to adhesion, soluble hormones, and mechanical forces can interact. Such interactions permit cells to integrate these different classes of external stimuli and hence to orchestrate an efficient response. This integrating function of integrins is likely to be essential for much of development and physiology, as well as complex pathologies such as cancer. Understanding in detail how these signals are transduced and processed is likely to be an important area of research in the near future.

  2. Cigarette smoke modulates PC3 prostate cancer cell migration by altering adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    YANG, SUPING; LONG, MINICA; TACHADO, SOUVENIR D.; SENG, SEYHA

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among American males. Studies suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with the progression of PCa; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not been extensively investigated. PCa progression is characterized by increased cell migration and alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM)- and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)-related gene expression. In the present study, the influence of cigarette smoke medium (SM) on cell migration and on the expression of ECM- and CAM-related genes in PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. According to a wound-healing assay, SM treatment promoted PC3 cell migration. RNA expression levels from SM-treated and control cells were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Of 84 genes analyzed, 27.38% (23/84) exhibited a ≥2-fold change in threshold cycle in PC3 cells following 0.5% SM treatment. Functional gene grouping analysis demonstrated that SM treatment modulated the RNA transcription of approximately 18.4% of CAMs and 33.93% of ECM-related genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that SM treatment led to a significant decrease in transcription levels of the following genes: Collagen 5 α-1(V), connective tissue growth factor, integrin β-2, kallmann syndrome 1, laminin α 3, matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7), MMP13, secreted protein acidic cysteine-rich, thrombospondin-2 and versican; and that SM significantly increased the transcription levels of MMP2 and MMP12. Furthermore, MMP2 knockdown significantly reduced the migration of SM-treated PC3 cells. The present study provides novel insights into the association of cigarette smoking with PCa progression, via the alteration of ECM/CAM interactions. PMID:26351771

  3. Adhesion molecules in gonarthrosis and knee prosthesis aseptic loosening follow-up: possible therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Dambra, P; Loria, M P; Moretti, B; D'Oronzio, L; Patella, V; Pannofino, A; Cavallo, E; Pesce, V; Dell'Osso, A; Simone, C

    2003-05-01

    The involvement of the synovium is common in phlogistic processes of various joint diseases. Apart from synoviocytes and the other cells in the synovial tissue, circulating cells recruited from peripheral blood also participate in the phlogistic process. The increased expression of adhesion molecules on both circulating and endothelial cell surface may further this recruitment. We studied 15 patients affected by serious gonarthrosis requiring a prosthetic implant (GPI) and 7 with knee prosthesis aseptic loosening (KPL) to evaluate adhesion molecule expression and phlogistic infiltration in the synovium using immunohistochemistry and microscopic analysis. As control we studied 10 subjects affected by degenerative meniscopathies undergoing a selective arthroscopic surgical meniscectomy. Analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistical significant differences in the expression of CD54, CD11a, CD11b and CD18 in three groups examined. The model of variance analysis (Friedman test), showed that CD54 expression is greater in patients with GPI and KPL in comparison with the other molecules. Adhesion molecules and their functions are important in arthropathies not only because their evaluation can allow us to identify the degree of inflammation and to predict its evolution, but also because pharmacological control of their expression could have important therapeutic implications.

  4. Distribution of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules in human gingiva.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Torlakovic, Hong; Bjerkan, Louise; Schenck, Karl; Blix, Inger J S

    2012-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) are glycoproteins produced in epithelial, endothelial, lymphoid, and myeloid cells. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules mediate cell-cell contact and host-pathogen interactions. The aims of this study were to map the distribution and examine the regulation of CEACAMs in human gingival sites. Quantitative real-time PCR performed on human gingival biopsies from periodontitis sites revealed mRNA coding for CEACAM1, -5, -6, and -7. Immunohistochemistry showed that CEACAMs were not found in oral gingival epithelium, except for CEACAM5 in periodontitis. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules 1, 5, and 6 were present in the oral sulcular epithelium of periodontitis but not in that of healthy gingiva. In junctional epithelium, all three molecules were present in healthy gingiva, but in periodontitis only CEACAM1 and -6 were detected. Staining for CEACAM1 and -6 was also seen in the inflammatory cell infiltrate in periodontitis. No staining for CEACAM7 was found. Proinflammatory mediators, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), increased the expression of CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 mRNAs in cultured human oral keratinocytes. CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 mRNAs were also strongly up-regulated upon stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid. In conclusion, the distribution of different CEACAMs was related to specific sites in the gingiva. This might reflect different functional roles in this tissue.

  5. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epidermotropic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2-integrin molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Schrenzel, M. D.; Affolter, V. K.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1996-01-01

    Canine cutaneous histiocytoma (CCH) is a common, benign neoplasm of the dog. Histiocytomas most commonly occur as solitary lesions that undergo spontaneous regression. The age-specific incidence rate for histiocytomas drops precipitously after 3 years, although histiocytomas occur in dogs of all ages. Langerhans cells (LCs) in humans and dogs express abundant major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and a variety of leukocyte antigens characteristic of dendritic cell differentiation including CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD11c. The immunophenotype of CCH resembled that of cutaneous LCs by virtue of the expression of CD1 molecules (CD1a, -b, and -c), CD11c, and major histocompatibility complex class II. Furthermore, histiocytoma cells had a tropism for epidermis, which was also consistent with an epidermal LC lineage. The expression of adhesion molecules such as CD11b (variable), CD44, CD54 (ICAM-1), and CD49d (VLA-4) in CCH indicated that the infiltrating cells had some of the characteristics of activated LCs, as these molecules are not expressed by normal, resting canine epidermal LCs. CCH did not express Thy-1 or CD4. Thy-1 expression is a characteristic of human and canine dermal dendrocytes, which are perivascular dendritic antigen-presenting cells closely related to epidermal LCs. CD4 expression is prevalent in human LC histiocytosis, and in this respect CCH differed from human LC histiocytosis. Here we demonstrate that CCH is a localized form of self-limiting LC histiocytosis, which predominantly expresses an epidermal LC phenotype. CCH occurs as solitary or, less commonly, as multiple cutaneous nodules or plaques, which rarely may extend beyond the skin to local lymph nodes. Regression of CCH occurs spontaneously in the vast majority of cases in primary and secondary sites, and is mediated by CD8+ alpha beta T cells. The high frequency of CCH within the general canine population offers the potential that the dog may provide an interesting model system to

  6. The intermediate filament protein vimentin binds specifically to a recombinant integrin {alpha}2/{beta}1 cytoplasmic tail complex and co-localizes with native {alpha}2/{beta}1 in endothelial cell focal adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kreis, Stephanie; Schoenfeld, Hans-Joachim; Melchior, Chantal; Steiner, Beat; Kieffer, Nelly . E-mail: kieffer@cu.lu

    2005-04-15

    Integrin receptors are crucial players in cell adhesion and migration. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with their short {alpha} and {beta} cytoplasmic tails will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which integrins mediate bi-directional signaling across the plasma membrane. Integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 is a major collagen receptor but to date, only few proteins have been shown to interact with the {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail or with the {alpha}2{beta}1 complex. In order to identify novel binding partners of a {alpha}2{beta}1cytoplasmic domain complex, we have generated recombinant GST-fusion proteins, incorporating the leucine zipper heterodimerization cassettes of Jun and Fos. To ascertain proper functionality of the recombinant proteins, interaction with natural binding partners was tested. GST-{alpha}2 and GST-Jun {alpha}2 bound His-tagged calreticulin while GST-{beta}1 and GST-Fos {beta}1 proteins bound talin. In screening assays for novel binding partners, the immobilized GST-Jun {alpha}2/GST-Fos {beta}1 heterodimeric complex, but not the single subunits, interacted specifically with endothelial cell-derived vimentin. Vimentin, an abundant intermediate filament protein, has previously been shown to co-localize with {alpha}v{beta}3-positive focal contacts. Here, we provide evidence that this interaction also occurs with {alpha}2{beta}1-enriched focal adhesions and we further show that this association is lost after prolonged adhesion of endothelial cells to collagen.

  7. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule-B regulates JAM-C-dependent melanoma cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Frontera, Vincent; Bardin, Florence; Thomassin, Jeanne; Chetaille, Bruno; Adams, Susanne; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel

    2012-11-16

    Metastasis is a major clinical issue and results in poor prognosis for most cancers. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) expressed by B16 melanoma and endothelial cells has been involved in metastasis of tumor cells through homophilic JAM-C/JAM-C trans-interactions. Here, we show that JAM-B expressed by endothelial cells contributes to murine B16 melanoma cells metastasis through its interaction with JAM-C on tumor cells. We further show that this adhesion molecular pair mediates melanoma cell adhesion to primary Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells and that it is functional in vivo as demonstrated by the reduced metastasis of B16 cells in Jam-b deficient mice.

  8. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  9. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Skeletal Muscle Cells Augments Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  10. Mechanotransduction: all signals point to cytoskeleton, matrix, and integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, Francis J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical stresses modulate cell function by either activating or tuning signal transduction pathways. Mechanotransduction, the process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, occurs both in cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory. However, common among the various responses to mechanical stress is the importance of direct or indirect connections between the internal cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and traditional signal transducing molecules. In many instances, these elements converge at focal adhesions, sites of structural attachment between the cytoskeleton and ECM that are anchored by cell surface integrin receptors. Alenghat and Ingber discuss the accumulating evidence for the central role of cytoskeleton, ECM, and integrin-anchored focal adhesions in several mechanotransduction pathways.

  11. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-25

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  12. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-01

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  13. Correlation between the levels of circulating adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis in hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Serrano, Alberto Maceda; Vargas-Ayala, German; Rodriguez-Lopez, Leticia; Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature in type-2 diabetic patients and in hypertension, and is associated with inflammation, increased levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and the degree of atherosclerosis in hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients. We studied 30 hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients in whom VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin were measured by ELISA. Additionally, the intimal-medial thickness of both the common and internal carotid arteries was measured (B-mode ultrasound). The levels of circulating adhesion molecules and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thicknesses were correlated using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA. We found significant correlations between ICAM-1 (r = 0.5) levels and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thickness these patients. No correlation was observed with E-selectin and VCAM-1. Our results suggest that ICAM-1 is associated and correlated with the degree of atherosclerosis in type-2 diabetic hypertensive patients.

  14. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  15. Erythroid Adhesion Molecules in Sickle Cell Anaemia Infants: Insights Into Early Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Brousse, Valentine; Colin, Yves; Pereira, Catia; Arnaud, Cecile; Odièvre, Marie Helene; Boutemy, Anne; Guitton, Corinne; de Montalembert, Mariane; Lapouméroulie, Claudine; Picot, Julien; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) results from a single mutation in the β globin gene. It is seldom symptomatic in the first semester of life. We analysed the expression pattern of 9 adhesion molecules on red blood cells, in a cohort of 54 SCA and 17 non-SCA very young infants of comparable age (median 144 days, 81-196). Haemoglobin F (HbF) level was unsurprisingly elevated in SCA infants (41.2% ± 11.2) and 2-4 fold higher than in non-SCA infants, yet SCA infants presented significantly decreased Hb level and increased reticulocytosis. Cytometry analysis evidenced a specific expression profile on reticulocytes of SCA infants, with notably an increased expression of the adhesion molecules Lu/BCAM, ICAM-4 and LFA-3, both in percentage of positive cells and in surface density. No significant difference was found on mature red cells. Our findings demonstrate the very early onset of reticulocyte membrane modifications in SCA asymptomatic infants and allow an insight into the first pathological changes with the release of stress reticulocytes expressing a distinctive profile of adhesion molecules.

  16. Correlation between the levels of circulating adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis in type-2 diabetic normotensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Serrano, Alberto Maceda; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose Juan; Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature in type-2 diabetic patients and is associated with inflammation, increased levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and the degree of atherosclerosis in normotensive type-2 diabetic patients. Results: We found significant correlations between ICAM-1 (r = 0.69, p < 0.001 95% IC 0.65 to 0.82) and VCAM-1 (r = 0.4, p < 0.03, 95% IC 0.65 to 0.82) levels and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, whereas no correlation was observed with E-selectin. Methods: We studied 30 normotensive type-2 diabetic patients in whom VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured by ELISA. Additionally, the intimal-medial thickness of both the common and internal carotid arteries was measured (B-mode ultrasound). The levels of circulating adhesion molecules and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thicknesses were correlated using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are markers associated, and correlated with the degree of atherosclerosis in normotensive type-2 diabetic patients. PMID:19717975

  17. Control of islet intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interferon-alpha and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D; Huang, X; Beck, J; Henrich, J; McFarland, N; James, R F; Stewart, T A

    1996-10-01

    The ability of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce the adhesion molecules that characterize the islets of patients with type I diabetes has been investigated. We have found that all tested recombinant IFN-as will induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on arterial endothelial cells. Some but not all IFN-as will induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, there is only a transient and modest increase in VCAM on arterial endothelial cells. IFN-alpha has very little effect on endothelial MHC class II expression but will induce these proteins on monocytes. Thus, there is a close concordance between the biological actions of IFN-alpha and the appearance of those adhesion molecules induced in the islets of patients with type I diabetes. IFN-alpha is also produced in normal human islets during short-term cultures, probably as a result of the ischemia present at the center of the islet. This induction of IFN-alpha by hypoxia may explain the previously reported spontaneous induction of ICAM-1 in human islets and may also be a contributing factor to the failure of islet grafts.

  18. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Develops Independently of Endothelial Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Darley, Meghan M.; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM. PMID:23493396

  19. Experimental cerebral malaria develops independently of endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Theresa N; Bullard, Daniel C; Darley, Meghan M; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F; Barnum, Scott R

    2013-04-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM.

  20. Serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer: Can they be used as biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erturk, Kayhan; Tastekin, Didem; Bilgin, Elif; Serilmez, Murat; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Sakar, Burak

    2016-02-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules might be used as markers in diagnosis and prognosis in some types of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule-1 (ALCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localizations of the majority of the patients were antrum (n=42, 72.4%) and tumor histopathologies of the majority of the patients were diffuse (n=43, 74.1%). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n=41, 70.7%). Thirty six (62.1%) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1-97.2 months). At the end of the observation period, 26 patients (44.8%) were dead. The median survival for all patients was 21.4±5 months (%95 CI, 11.5-31.3). The 1-year survival rates were 66.2%. The baseline serum ALCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ICAM-1 between the patients and controls (p=0.232). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p>0.05). Tumor localization (p=0.03), histopathology (p=0.05), and response to chemotherapy (p=0.003) had prognostic factors on survival. Neither serum ALCAM levels nor serum ICAM-1 levels were identified to have a prognostic role on overall survival (ICAM-1 p=0.6, ALCAM p=0.25). In conclusion, serum levels of ALCAM were found to have diagnostic value in GC patients.

  1. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  2. Integrins are required for tissue organization and restriction of neurogenesis in regenerating planarians

    PubMed Central

    Seebeck, Florian; März, Martin; Meyer, Anna-Wiebke; Reuter, Hanna; Vogg, Matthias C.; Stehling, Martin; Mildner, Karina; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Rabert, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here, we show that members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage-restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites. These animals also formed ectopic spheroid structures of neural identity in regenerating heads. Interestingly, those polarized assemblies comprised a variety of neural cells and underwent continuous growth. Our study indicates that integrin-mediated cell adhesion is required for the regenerative formation of organized tissues and for restricting neurogenesis during planarian regeneration. PMID:28137894

  3. Integrins are required for tissue organization and restriction of neurogenesis in regenerating planarians.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, Florian; März, Martin; Meyer, Anna-Wiebke; Reuter, Hanna; Vogg, Matthias C; Stehling, Martin; Mildner, Karina; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Rabert, Franziska; Bartscherer, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here, we show that members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage-restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites. These animals also formed ectopic spheroid structures of neural identity in regenerating heads. Interestingly, those polarized assemblies comprised a variety of neural cells and underwent continuous growth. Our study indicates that integrin-mediated cell adhesion is required for the regenerative formation of organized tissues and for restricting neurogenesis during planarian regeneration.

  4. WNK1 kinase balances T cell adhesion versus migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Köchl, Robert; Thelen, Flavian; Vanes, Lesley; Brazão, Tiago F; Fountain, Kathryn; Xie, Jian; Huang, Chou-Long; Lyck, Ruth; Stein, Jens V; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2016-09-01

    Adhesion and migration of T cells are controlled by chemokines and by adhesion molecules, especially integrins, and have critical roles in the normal physiological function of T lymphocytes. Using an RNA-mediated interference screen, we identified the WNK1 kinase as a regulator of both integrin-mediated adhesion and T cell migration. We found that WNK1 is a negative regulator of integrin-mediated adhesion, whereas it acts as a positive regulator of migration via the kinases OXSR1 and STK39 and the ion co-transporter SLC12A2. WNK1-deficient T cells home less efficiently to lymphoid organs and migrate more slowly through them. Our results reveal that a pathway previously known only to regulate salt homeostasis in the kidney functions to balance T cell adhesion and migration.

  5. WNK1 kinase balances T cell adhesion versus migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Köchl, Robert; Thelen, Flavian; Vanes, Lesley; Brazao, Tiago F.; Fountain, Kathryn; Xie, Jian; Huang, Chou-Long; Lyck, Ruth; Stein, Jens V.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion and migration of T cells are controlled by chemokines and by adhesion molecules, especially integrins, and play critical roles in the normal physiological function of T lymphocytes. Using an RNA interference screen we have identified the WNK1 kinase as a regulator of both integrin-mediated adhesion and T cell migration. We demonstrate that WNK1 is a negative regulator of integrin-mediated adhesion, whereas it acts as a positive regulator of migration via OXSR1 and STK39 kinases and the SLC12A2 ion co-transporter. WNK1-deficient T cells home less efficiently to lymphoid organs, and migrate more slowly through them. Our results reveal that a pathway hitherto known only to regulate salt homeostasis in the kidney functions to balance T cell adhesion and migration. PMID:27400149

  6. β1-Integrin Cytoplasmic Subdomains Involved in Dominant Negative Function

    PubMed Central

    Retta, S. Francesco; Balzac, Fiorella; Ferraris, Piercarlo; Belkin, Alexey M.; Fässler, Reinhard; Humphries, Martin J.; De Leo, Giacomo; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tarone, Guido

    1998-01-01

    The β1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms (“common” region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform (“variable” region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used β1A and β1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (β1TR), the variable region (β1COM), or the common region (β1ΔCOM-B and β1ΔCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and β1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227–238, 1996), we show that β1B, β1COM, β1ΔCOM-B, and β1ΔCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, β1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that β1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with β1A and β3/β5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the β1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the β1B isoform. PMID:9529373

  7. beta1-integrin cytoplasmic subdomains involved in dominant negative function.

    PubMed

    Retta, S F; Balzac, F; Ferraris, P; Belkin, A M; Fässler, R; Humphries, M J; De Leo, G; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1998-04-01

    The beta1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms ("common" region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform ("variable" region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used beta1A and beta1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (beta1TR), the variable region (beta1COM), or the common region (beta1 deltaCOM-B and beta1 deltaCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and beta1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227-238, 1996), we show that beta1B, beta1COM, beta1 deltaCOM-B, and beta1 deltaCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, beta1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that beta1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with beta1A and beta3/beta5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the beta1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the beta1B isoform.

  8. Cucurbitacin B purified from Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich from Tunisia inhibits α5β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, migration, proliferation of human glioblastoma cell line and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Touihri-Barakati, Imen; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa; Ayadi, Wiem; Kovacic, Hervé; Hanchi, Belgacem; Hosni, Karim; Luis, José

    2017-02-15

    Integrins are essential protagonists in the complex multistep process of cancer progression and are thus attractive targets for the development of anticancer agents. Cucurbitacin B, a triterpenoid purified from the leaves of Tunisian Ecballium elaterium exhibited an anticancer effect and displayed anti-integrin activity on human glioblastoma U87 cells, without being cytotoxic at concentrations up to 500nM. Here we show that cucurbitacin B affected the adhesion and migration of U87 cells to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 86.2nM and 84.6nM, respectively. Time-lapse videomicroscopy showed that cucurbitacin B significantly reduced U87 cells motility and affected directional persistence. Cucurbitacin B also inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 70.1nM using Crystal Violet assay. Moreover, cucurbitacin B efficiently inhibited in vitro human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) angiogenesis with concentration up to 10nM. Interestingly, we demonstrate for the first time that this effect was specifically mediated by α5β1 integrins. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of action for cucurbitacin B, which displays a potential interest as a specific anti-integrin drug.

  9. ST3Gal III modulates breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion by altering the expression of invasion-related molecules.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong-Xia; Wang, Honglan; Wang, Yuchun; Song, Juan; Tian, Hua; Xia, Chunhui; Shen, Yetong

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the carbohydrate structure on the surface of tumor cells is an important feature of cancer metastasis. The specific role of sialic acids in the glycoconjugate terminal has not yet been clearly elucidated in these processes. Previously, we reported that α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer are associated with metastatic potential. The α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III, which adds α2,3-sialic acids to glycoproteins, is overexpressed in various tumors, and enzyme activity is correlated with tumor metastasis, yet its mechanistic role has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ST3Gal III on key steps in the process of breast cancer metastasis. ST3Gal III-overexpressing and ST3Gal III-silenced breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell lines were generated. They showed an increase or decrease in the tumor-associated antigen sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX). The E-selectin binding capacity of the transfectants was proportional to cell surface SLeX levels. Cell migration and invasion were positively correlated with ST3Gal III levels. Moreover, ST3Gal III expression modulated the protein expression of invasion-related molecules, including β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and cyclooxygenase-2, which may account for the mechanism involved in the effects of ST3Gal III on breast cancer invasiveness. In conclusion, our findings in these novel models of ST3Gal III expression revealed a critical requirement for ST3Gal III in several steps of breast cancer metastasis. ST3Gal III modulates breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion by altering the expression of invasion-related molecules. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying metastasis and suggests a new target for the effective drug treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

  10. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  11. Active Site Formation, Not Bond Kinetics, Limits Adhesion Rate between Human Neutrophils and Immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Richard E.; Lomakina, Elena B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The formation of receptor ligand bonds at the interface between different cells and between cells and substrates is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Physical measurements of bond formation rates between cells and substrates have been exploited to increase our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that regulate bond formation at interfaces. Heretofore, these measurements have been interpreted in terms of simple bimolecular reaction kinetics. Discrepancies between this simple framework and the behavior of neutrophils adhering to surfaces expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) motivated the development of a new kinetic framework in which the explicit formation of active bond formation sites (reaction zones) are a prerequisite for bond formation to occur. Measurements of cells interacting with surfaces having a wide range of VCAM-1 concentrations, and for different durations of contact, enabled the determination of novel kinetic rate constants for the formation of reaction zones and for the intrinsic bond kinetics. Comparison of these rates with rates determined previously for other receptor-ligand pairs points to a predominant role of extrinsic factors such as surface topography and accessibility of active molecules to regions of close contact in determining forward rates of bond formation at cell interfaces. PMID:19134479

  12. β7 Integrin controls mast cell recruitment, whereas αE integrin modulates the number and function of CD8+ T cells in immune complex-mediated tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Daisuke; Kadono, Takafumi; Masui, Yuri; Yanaba, Koichi; Sato, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    Immune complex (IC) deposition causes significant tissue injury associated with various autoimmune diseases such as vasculitis. In the cascade of inflammation, cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion via adhesion molecules are essential. To assess the role of αE and β7 integrin in IC-mediated tissue injury, peritoneal and cutaneous reverse-passive Arthus reaction was examined in mice lacking αE integrin (αE(-/-)) or β7 integrin (β7(-/-)). Both αE(-/-) and β7(-/-) mice exhibited significantly attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the peritoneal and cutaneous Arthus reaction. β7 integrin deficiency, not αE integrin deficiency, significantly reduced the number of mast cells in the peritoneal cavity, which was consistent with the result that mast cells expressed only α4β7 integrin, not αEβ7 integrin. αE(-/-) mice instead revealed the reduction of CD8(+) T cells in the peritoneal cavity, and nearly half of them in wild-type mice expressed αE integrin. These αE(+)CD8(+) T cells produced more proinflammatory cytokines than αE(-)CD8(+) T cells, and adoptive transfer of αE(+)CD8(+) T cell into αE(-/-) recipients restored cutaneous and peritoneal Arthus reaction. These results suggest that in the peritoneal and cutaneous reverse-passive Arthus reaction, α4β7 integrin is involved in the migration of mast cells for initial IC recognition. αEβ7 integrin, in contrast, contributes by recruiting αE(+)CD8(+) T cells, which produce more proinflammatory cytokines than αE(-)CD8(+) T cells and amplify IC-mediated inflammation.

  13. The adhesive and migratory effects of osteopontin are mediated via distinct cell surface integrins. Role of alpha v beta 3 in smooth muscle cell migration to osteopontin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, L; Skinner, M P; Raines, E W; Ross, R; Cheresh, D A; Schwartz, S M; Giachelli, C M

    1995-01-01

    Osteopontin is an arginine-glycine-aspartate containing acidic glycoprotein postulated to mediate adhesion, migration, and biomineralization in diverse tissues. The mechanisms explaining this multifunctionality are not well understood, although it is known that one osteopontin receptor is the alpha v beta 3 integrin. In this work, we studied human smooth muscle cells varying in alpha v beta 3 levels to identify additional osteopontin receptors. We report that, in addition to alpha v beta 3, both alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 are osteopontin receptors. Moreover, the presence or absence of alpha v beta 3 on the cell surface altered the adhesive and migratory responses of smooth muscle cells to osteopontin. Adhesion of alpha v beta 3-deficient cell populations to osteopontin was only half that of cells containing alpha v beta 3, and migration toward an osteopontin gradient in the Boyden chamber was dependent on cell surface alpha v beta 3. Although alpha v beta 3-deficient smooth muscle cells were unable to migrate to osteopontin, they did migrate significantly in response to vitronectin and fibronectin. These findings represent the first description of alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 as osteopontin receptors and suggest that, while adhesion to osteopontin is supported by integrins containing beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5, migration in response to osteopontin appears to depend on alpha v beta 3. Thus, interaction with distinct receptors is one mechanism by which osteopontin may initiate multiple functions. Images PMID:7532190

  14. β2-Integrins in demyelinating disease: not adhering to the paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xianzhen; Wohler, Jillian E.; Dugger, Kari J.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    The β2-integrins are a subfamily of integrins expressed on leukocytes that play an essential role in leukocyte trafficking, activation, and many other functions. Studies in EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis, show differential requirements for β2-integrins in this disease model, ranging from critical in the case of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) to unimportant in the case of CD11d/CD18. Importantly, expression of β2-integrins on T cell subsets provides some clues as to the function(s) these adhesion molecules play in disease development. For example, transferred EAE studies have shown that Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression on αβ T cells is critical for disease development, and the absence of LFA-1 on Tregs in recipient mice results in exacerbated disease. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of β2-integrins in demyelinating disease and new information about the role of β2-integrins with respect to alterations in Treg numbers and function. In addition, we discuss the potential for targeting β2-integrins in human demyelinating disease in light of the recent animal model studies. PMID:20007244

  15. beta2-integrins in demyelinating disease: not adhering to the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianzhen; Wohler, Jillian E; Dugger, Kari J; Barnum, Scott R

    2010-03-01

    The beta(2)-integrins are a subfamily of integrins expressed on leukocytes that play an essential role in leukocyte trafficking, activation, and many other functions. Studies in EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis, show differential requirements for beta(2)-integrins in this disease model, ranging from critical in the case of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) to unimportant in the case of CD11d/CD18. Importantly, expression of beta(2)-integrins on T cell subsets provides some clues as to the function(s) these adhesion molecules play in disease development. For example, transferred EAE studies have shown that Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) expression on alphabeta T cells is critical for disease development, and the absence of LFA-1 on Tregs in recipient mice results in exacerbated disease. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of beta(2)-integrins in demyelinating disease and new information about the role of beta(2)-integrins with respect to alterations in Treg numbers and function. In addition, we discuss the potential for targeting beta(2)-integrins in human demyelinating disease in light of the recent animal model studies.

  16. Differential Role of β1C and β1A Integrin Cytoplasmic Variants in Modulating Focal Adhesion Kinase, Protein Kinase B/AKT, and Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Mara; Steger, Craig A.; Bennett, Anton M.; Wu, J. Julie; Languino, Lucia R.

    2000-01-01

    The integrin cytoplasmic domain modulates cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and intracellular signaling. The β1 integrin subunits, β1C and β1A, that contain variant cytoplasmic domains differentially affect cell proliferation; β1C inhibits proliferation, whereas β1A promotes it. We investigated the ability of β1C and β1A to modulate integrin-mediated signaling events that affect cell proliferation and survival in Chinese hamster ovary stable cell lines expressing either human β1C or human β1A. The different cytodomains of either β1C or β1A did not affect either association with the endogenous α2, αV, and α5 subunits or cell adhesion to fibronectin or TS2/16, a mAb to human β1. Upon engagement of endogenous and exogenous integrins by fibronectin, cells expressing β1C showed significantly inhibited extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) 2 activation compared with β1A stable cell lines. In contrast, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and Protein Kinase B/AKT activity were not affected. Selective engagement of the exogenously expressed β1C by TS2/16 led to stimulation of Protein Kinase B/AKT phosphorylation but not of ERK2 activation; in contrast, β1A engagement induced activation of both proteins. We show that Ras activation was strongly reduced in β1C stable cell lines in response to fibronectin adhesion and that expression of constitutively active Ras, Ras 61 (L), rescued β1C-mediated down-regulation of ERK2 activation. Inhibition of cell proliferation in β1C stable cell lines was attributable to an inhibitory effect of β1C on the Ras/MAP kinase pathway because expression of activated MAPK kinase rescued β1C antiproliferative effect. These findings show that the β1C variant, by means of a unique signaling mechanism, selectively inhibits the MAP kinase pathway by preventing Ras activation without affecting either survival signals stimulated by integrins or cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix. These findings

  17. Identification of a peptide sequence involved in homophilic binding in the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is capable of mediating cell- cell adhesion via homophilic interactions. In this study, three strategies have been combined to identify regions of NCAM that participate directly in NCAM-NCAM binding: analysis of domain deletion mutations, mapping of epitopes of monoclonal antibodies, and use of synthetic peptides to inhibit NCAM activity. Studies on L cells transfected with NCAM mutant cDNAs using cell aggregation and NCAM- covasphere binding assays indicate that the third immunoglobulin-like domain is involved in homophilic binding. The epitopes of four monoclonal antibodies that have been previously shown to affect cell- cell adhesion mediated by NCAM were also mapped to domain 3. Overlapping hexapeptides were synthesized on plastic pins and assayed for binding with these monoclonal antibodies. One of them (PP) reacted specifically with the sequence KYSFNY. Synthetic oligopeptides containing the PP epitope were potent and specific inhibitors of NCAM binding activity. A substratum containing immobilized peptide conjugates also exhibited adhesiveness for neural retinal cells. Cell attachment was specifically inhibited by peptides that contained the PP- epitope and by anti-NCAM univalent antibodies. The shortest active peptide has the sequence KYSFNYDGSE, suggesting that this site is directly involved in NCAM homophilic interaction. PMID:1380002

  18. Macrosphelide B suppressed metastasis through inhibition of adhesion of sLe(x)/E-selectin molecules.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Akiko; Iijima, Kousuke; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Omura, Satoshi

    2002-03-08

    Macrosphelide B (MSB), a 16-membered macrolide from Microsphaeropsis sp. FO-5050, inhibits adhesion of sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x))-expressing HL-60 cells to LPS-activated (E-selectin-expressing) human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. This study examines MSB effects on metastasis of B16/BL6 mouse melanoma cells (B16/BL6 cells) and L5178Y-ML mouse lymphoma cells in vivo and analyzes the MSB antimetastatic activity mechanism. When administered MSB at 20 mg/kg/day, lung metastatic nodules of B16/BL6 cells were significantly decreased (T/C = 45%). However, no inhibition of metastasis of L5178Y-ML cells to the spleen and liver was observed. Flow cytometry analysis showed that B16/BL6 cells expressed high levels of sLe(x) antigen, whereas expression on L5178Y-ML cells was low. Under in vitro conditions, B16/BL6 cells demonstrated a greater degree of adhesion to LPS-activated HUVECs than L5178Y-ML cells, but adhesion was significantly inhibited by MSB and sLe(x) antibody. Combined therapy of MSB and cisplatin (CDDP) induced remarkable lung metastasis inhibition without adverse effects of CDDP to the host. All these findings suggest that MSB suppresses lung metastasis of B16/BL6 cells by inhibiting cell adhesion to endothelial cells through the sLe(x) molecule.

  19. Adhesion of single polyelectrolyte molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Long, Jun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-02-14

    In a recent study (Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 936), a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was used as a process aid to recover bitumen from oil sand ores. It was found that HPAM addition at the bitumen extraction step not only improved bitumen recovery but also enhanced fine solids settling in the tailings stream. To understand the role of HPAM, single-molecule force spectroscopy was employed for the first time to measure the desorption/adhesion forces of single HPAM molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Silicon wafers with an oxidized surface layer and newly cleaved mica were used, respectively, to represent sand grains and clays in oil sands. The force measurements were carried out in deionized water and in commercial plant process water under equilibrium conditions. The desorption/adhesion forces of HPAM obtained on mica, silica, and bitumen surfaces were approximately 200, 40, and 80 pN in deionized water and approximately 100, 50, and 40 pN in the plant process water, respectively. The measured adhesion forces together with the zeta potential values of these surfaces indicate that the polymer would preferentially adsorb onto clay surfaces rather than onto bitumen surfaces. It is the selective adsorption of HPAM that benefits both bitumen recovery and tailings settling when the polymer was added directly to the bitumen extraction process at an appropriate dosage.

  20. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Kenneth A.; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben R.; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J.; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell–cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  1. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 m

  2. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  3. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines, adhesions can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction . Adhesions inside the uterine cavity, called Asherman syndrome , ... 1. Read More Appendicitis Asherman syndrome Glaucoma Infertility Intestinal obstruction Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina ...

  4. Apoptotic and anti-adhesion effect of ajoene, a garlic derived compound, on the murine melanoma B16F10 cells: possible role of caspase-3 and the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Eliades; Apitz-Castro, Rafael; Cardier, José

    2004-03-31

    In this study we evaluated the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of ajoene could be associated with its apoptosis-inducing effect, and with its ability to block the expression of the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin, in the murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Ajoene induced a significant reduction in B16F10 viability (IC(50)=62 microM), in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the cytotoxic effect of this compound was associated with caspase-3 activation. Ajoene at 25 microM altered the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin expression on B16F10, and induced a significant reduction in the adhesion of these cells to an endothelial cell monolayer.

  5. Integrin alpha v beta 3 differentially regulates adhesive and phagocytic functions of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The plasma protein fibronectin is an important opsonin in wound repair and host defense. To better understand the process of fibronectin- mediated phagocytosis, we have transfected K562 cells, which endogenously express alpha 5 beta 1, with alpha v beta 3. In these transfectants, antibodies to alpha v beta 3 block phagocytosis of fibronectin-opsonized beads completely, even though half the ingestion occurs through endogenous alpha 5 beta 1 receptors. alpha 5 beta 1- mediated adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces is unaffected by alpha v beta 3 ligation. Neither alpha v beta 5 nor alpha M beta 2 ligation affects alpha 5 beta 1 phagocytic function in transfectants expressing these receptors. Pharmacologic data suggest that alpha v beta 3 ligation suppresses the phagocytic competence of high affinity alpha 5 beta 1 receptors through a signal transduction pathway, perhaps involving protein kinase C. In addition to its significance for phagocytosis, alpha v beta 3 regulation of alpha 5 beta 1 function may be significant for its roles in cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. PMID:7525603

  6. Association between genetic variants in adhesion molecules and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplants.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, B; Jackson, S; Basu, S; Jacobson, P; Gross, M D; Weisdorf, D J; Arora, M

    2013-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Adhesion molecules play an important role in endothelial activation and initiation of inflammatory response. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial molecules may contribute to heterogeneity in HCT outcomes. We evaluated the association of 4 SNPs in ICAM1 (rs5498), PECAM1 (rs668 and rs1131012) and SELL (rs2229569) genes with acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and those experiencing transplant-related mortality (TRM) within 1 year among 425 allogeneic HCT recipient-donor pairs. Using a Fine and Gray proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between genetic variants and clinical outcomes, after adjustment for recipient age, race, diagnosis, disease status, gender mismatch, cytomegalovirus serostatus, gender, donor type, conditioning regimen and year of transplant, only rs5498 in the ICAM1 gene among both recipients and donors was associated with a decreased risk of TRM (P ≤ 0.02). None of the SNPs were associated with acute or chronic GvHD risk. These findings suggest that genetic variants in the vascular adhesion molecules may be used to identify patients at high risk for TRM.

  7. Neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during cardiopulmonary bypass: a comparative study of roller and centrifugal pumps.

    PubMed

    Macey, M G; McCarthy, D A; Trivedi, U R; Venn, G E; Chambers, D J; Brown, K A

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether adhesion molecules and markers of cell activation were preferentially increased on blood neutrophils during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and whether such effects were influenced by the use of a roller pump or a centrifugal pump. Forty-six patients undergoing open heart surgery were randomly allocated into either the roller or centrifugal groups. Blood (1 ml volumes) was removed from arterial and venous lines immediately before and 1 h after the start of bypass. Whole blood samples were immunolabelled and flow cytometry used to measure the distribution and expression of the adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, CD62L on neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, in addition to CD64 on neutrophils and monocytes, and CD14 on monocytes. The expression of CD11b was significantly enhanced on neutrophils in arterial and venous samples from both the roller pump (mean 84% and 100% increase, respectively; p < 0.001) and centrifugal pump (mean 74% and 73% increase, respectively; p < 0.001) groups. Neutrophil L-selectin expression increased to a small but significant extent in arterial and venous samples from the centrifugal pump group (mean 16% increase; p < 0.001) and in venous samples from the roller pump group (mean 10% increase; p < 0.01). Neither the percentage of neutrophils bearing CD11b/CD18, CD62L and CD64, nor the expression of adhesion molecules on lymphocytes and monocytes were modified by 1 h of bypass. These results suggest that patients subjected to CPB with roller or centrifugal pumps are equally at risk to neutrophil activation that could lead to increased interaction of these cells with blood vessel walls.

  8. Inhalation of ultrafine particles alters blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules in humans.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Mark W; Stewart, Judith C; Oberdörster, Günter; Morrow, Paul E; Chalupa, David; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Frasier, Lauren M; Speers, Donna M; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects inhaled filtered air and freshly generated elemental carbon particles (count median diameter approximately 25nm, geometric standard deviation approximately 1.6), for 2 hr, in three separate protocols: 10 microg/m3 at rest, 10 and 25 microg/m3 with exercise, and 50 microg/m3 with exercise. In a fourth protocol, subjects with asthma inhaled air and 10 microg/m3 UFPs with exercise. Peripheral venous blood was obtained before and at intervals after exposure, and leukocyte expression of surface markers was quantitated using multiparameter flow cytometry. In healthy subjects, particle exposure with exercise reduced expression of adhesion molecules CD54 and CD18 on monocytes and CD18 and CD49d on granulocytes. There were also concentration-related reductions in blood monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils and increased lymphocyte expression of the activation marker CD25. In subjects with asthma, exposure with exercise to 10 microg/m3 UFPs reduced expression of CD11b on monocytes and eosinophils and CD54 on granulocytes. Particle exposure also reduced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Inhalation of elemental carbon UFPs alters peripheral blood leukocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules, in a pattern consistent with increased retention of leukocytes in the pulmonary vascular bed.

  9. Differential effects of heme oxygenase isoforms on heme mediation of endothelial intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wagener, F A; da Silva, J L; Farley, T; de Witte, T; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    1999-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), by catabolizing heme to bile pigments, down-regulates cellular hemoprotein, hemoglobin, and heme; the latter generates pro-oxidant products, including free radicals. Two HO isozymes, the products of distinct genes, have been described; HO-1 is the inducible isoform, whereas HO-2 is suggested to be constitutively expressed. We studied the inducing effect of several metal compounds (CoCl(2), stannic mesoporphyrin, and heme) on HO activity. Additionally, we studied HO-1 expression in experimental models of adhesion molecule expression produced by heme in endothelial cells, and the relationship of HO-1 expression to the induced adhesion molecules. Flow cytometry analysis showed that heme induces intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in a concentration (10-100 microM)- and time (1-24 h)-dependent fashion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment with stannic mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO activity, caused a 2-fold increase in heme-induced ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, HO induction by CoCl(2) decreased heme-induced ICAM-1 expression by 33%. To examine the contribution of HO-1 and HO-2 to endothelial HO activity, specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) of each isoform were tested for their specificity to inhibit HO activity in cells exposed to heme. Endothelial cells exposed to heme elicited increased HO activity, which was prevented (70%) by HO-1 antisense ODNs. HO-2 antisense ODN inhibited heme-induced HO activity by 21%. Addition of HO-1 antisense ODNs prevented heme degradation and resulted in elevation of microsomal heme. Western blot analysis showed that HO-1 antisense ODNs selectively inhibited HO-1 protein and failed to inhibit HO-2 protein. Incubation of endothelial cells with HO-1 antisense enhanced heme-dependent increase of ICAM-1. In contrast, addition of HO-2 antisense to endothelial cells failed to increase adhesion molecules. The role of glutathione, an important antioxidant, was examined on heme

  10. Tumor Specific Regulation of C-CAM Cell Adhesion Molecule in Prostate Cancer Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    692 9. Graff, J. R., Herman, J. G., Lapidus, R. G., Chopra, H., Xu , R., Jarrard, D. F., Isaacs, W. B., Pitha, P. M., Davidson, N. E., and Baylin, S. B...2001) 115-123 www.elsevier.com/locate/mce Androgen regulation of the cell-cell adhesion molecule-1 (Ceacam i) gene Dillon Phan a, Xiaomei Sui b, Dung...Nature Medicine, 1: 686-692, 1995. 27 34. Graff, J. R., Herman, J. G., Lapidus, R. G., Chopra, H., Xu , R., Jarrard, D. F., Isaacs, W. B., Pitha, P. M

  11. The clinical spectrum of mutations in L1, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, E.; Vits, L.; Van Camp, G.; Willems, P.J.

    1996-07-12

    Mutations in the gene encoding the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 are responsible for several syndromes with clinical overlap, including X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH, HSAS), MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, adducted thumbs) syndrome, complicated X-linked spastic paraplegia (SP 1), X-linked mental retardation-clasped thumb (MR-CT) syndrome, and some forms of X-linked agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). We review 34 L1 mutations in patients with these phenotypes. 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Overexpression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 predicts poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Aili; Lu, Funian; Chen, Hongxia; Fu, Pin; Zhao, Xianda; Chen, Honglei

    2017-02-01

    Junctional adhesion molecules are important components of tight junctions, and Eph/ephrin proteins constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both junctional adhesion molecules and Eph/ephrin are involved in normal tissue development and cancer progression. However, the expression levels and clinical significances of junctional adhesion molecule-A, a member of junctional adhesion molecules, and EphB2, a member of Eph/ephrin family, in lung adenocarcinoma patients are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify the expression and prognostic values of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 in lung adenocarcinoma patients' cohort. In our study, 70 (55.6%) showed high expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A protein and 51 (40.5%) showed high expression of EphB2 protein in 126 lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 expressions were both significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with noncancerous lung tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test indicated that low expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 proteins can predict better survival and low mortality rate of lung adenocarcinomas. In univariate analysis, high expression levels of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 were both found to be significantly correlated with poor overall survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.791, 95% confidence interval = 1.041-3.084, p = 0.035; hazard ratio = 1.762, 95% confidence interval = 1.038-2.992, p = 0.036, respectively). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that EphB2 expression is an independent prognosis parameter in lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.738, 95% confidence interval = 1.023-2.952, p = 0.016). Taken together, high expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 can predict poor overall survival and high mortality rate, and EphB2 is an independent prognostic biomarker in

  13. The alpha 4 integrin chain is a ligand for alpha 4 beta 7 and alpha 4 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The heterodimeric alpha 4 integrins alpha 4 beta 7 lymphocyte Peyer's patch adhesion molecule ([LPAM]-1) and alpha 4 beta 1 (very late antigen-4) are cell surface adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte trafficking and lymphocyte-cell and matrix interactions. Known cellular ligands include vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, which binds to alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 7, and the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM)-1, which binds to alpha 4 beta 7. Here we show that the alpha 4 chain of these integrins can itself serve as a ligand. The alpha 4 chain, immunoaffinity purified and immobilized on glass slides, binds thymocytes and T lymphocytes. Binding exhibits divalent cation requirements and temperature sensitivity which are characteristic of integrin-mediated interactions, and is specifically inhibited by anti-alpha 4 integrin antibodies, which exert their effect at the cell surface. Cells expressing exclusively alpha 4 beta 7 (TK-1) or alpha 4 beta 1 (L1-2) both bound avidly, whereas alpha 4-negative cells did not. A soluble 34-kD alpha 4 chain fragment retained binding activity, and it inhibited lymphocyte adhesion to alpha 4 ligands. It has been shown that alpha 4 integrin binding to fibronectin involves an leucine-aspartic acid-valine (LDV) motif in the HepII/IIICS region of fibronectin (CS-1 peptide), and homologous sequences are important in binding to VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1. Three conserved LDV motifs occur in the extracellular sequence of alpha 4. A synthetic LDV-containing alpha 4- derived oligopeptide supports alpha 4-integrin-dependent lymphocyte adhesion and blocks binding to the 34-kD alpha 4 chain fragment. Our results suggest that alpha 4 beta 7 and alpha 4 beta 1 integrins may be able to bind to the alpha 4 subunit on adjacent cells, providing a novel mechanism for alpha 4 integrin-mediated and activation-regulated lymphocyte interactions during immune responses. PMID:7629498

  14. An ICAM-1 like cell adhesion molecule is responsible for CD34 positive haemopoietic stem cells adhesion to bone-marrow stroma.

    PubMed

    Rao, S G; Chitnis, V S; Deora, A; Tanavde, V; Desai, S S

    1996-04-01

    The microenvironment in the haematopoietic organs plays an important role in regulating and sustaining differentiation and self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Although crucial for stem cell maintenance and homing, the stromal cell-stem cell interactions are poorly understood. Here we show that an ICAM-like molecule is responsible for stem cell adhesion to stromal cells in vitro. The molecule was characterized by a monoclonal antibody 3E10. Immunoblotting results indicated that the molecule had an electrophoretic mobility equal to that of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Binding inhibition assays, however, showed that inhibition of binding of enriched CD34 cells by 3E10 was more prominent in comparison with that of ICAM-1.

  15. Diatomic molecules and metallic adhesion, cohesion, and chemisorption - A single binding-energy relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    Potential-energy relations involving a few parameters in simple analytic forms have been found to represent well the energetics of a wide variety of diatomic molecules. However, such two-atom potential functions are not appropriate for metals. It is well known that, in the case of metals, there exist strong volume-dependent forces which can never be expressed as pairwise interactions. The present investigation has the objective to show that, in spite of the observation concerning metals, a single binding-energy relation can be found which accurately describes diatomic molecules as well as adhesion, cohesion, and chemisorption on metals. This universality reveals a commonality between the molecular and metallic bond.

  16. Expression of claudins, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 in canine organs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Da-Hye; Lee, Dongoh; Kang, Su-Myung; Seok, Ju-Hyung; Kang, Hee Young; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are classified as transmembrane proteins. These factors form selective permeability barriers between cells, act as paracellular transporters and regulate structural and functional polarity of cells. Although tight junctions have been previously studied, comparison of the transcriptional-translational levels of these molecules in canine organs remains to be investigated. In the present study, organ-specific expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 was examined in the canine duodenum, lung, liver and kidney. Results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the tight junctions were localized in intestinal villi and glands of the duodenum, bronchiolar epithelia and alveolar walls of the lung, endometrium and myometrium of the hepatocytes, and the distal tubules and glomeruli of the kidney. These results suggest that tight junctions are differently expressed in organs, and therefore may be involved in organ-specific functions to maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:27600198

  17. The interrelationship of alpha4 integrin and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Graesser, D; Mahooti, S; Haas, T; Davis, S; Clark, R B; Madri, J A

    1998-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that surface expression of alpha4 integrin by autoreactive T-cell clones is necessary for the clones to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for human multiple sclerosis. To provide direct evidence for this phenomenon, we have transfected alpha4 integrin into C19alpha4-LO, a myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell clone that does not express alpha4 integrin and does not induce EAE when adoptively transferred into a susceptible mouse strain. Transfection of alpha4 integrin converted this clone to an alpha4 integrin-expressing clone that induced EAE. We then examined potential mechanisms by which alpha4 integrin may facilitate the disease process. C19 T-cell clones adhered equally to a monolayer of microvascular endothelial cells, regardless of level of alpha4 integrin expression. However, in contrast to T-cell clones that do not express alpha4 integrin, T-cell clones that express alpha4 integrin (endogenously or by transfection) transmigrated through an endothelial cell layer and subendothelial matrix at an enhanced rate and adhered to recombinant vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (rVCAM-1) and the CS1 fragment of fibronectin, and after adhesion to these ligands, a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase (MMP-2) was induced and activated. The clones were also shown to constitutively express the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), an enzyme that activates MMP-2. GM6001 and UK-221,316, inhibitors of metalloproteinases, reduced alpha4 integrin-mediated transmigration and EAE induction by C19 T-cell clones. In addition, we studied a second EAE-inducing T-cell clone, MM4, which constitutively expresses alpha4 integrin and MMP-2. Engagement of alpha4 integrin on the MM4 clone up-regulated the expression and activation of MMP-2, without changing the expression of MT1-MMP. MMP inhibitors also reduced transmigration of and EAE induction by the MM4 T-cell clone. These studies demonstrate directly that

  18. Release activity-dependent control of vesicle endocytosis by the synaptic adhesion molecule N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    van Stegen, Bernd; Dagar, Sushma; Gottmann, Kurt

    2017-01-20

    At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4-64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging. The synaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 had distinct impacts on exo- and endocytosis at mature cortical synapses. Expression of Neuroligin1 enhanced vesicle release in a N-cadherin-dependent way. Most intriguingly, expression of N-cadherin enhanced both vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Further detailed analysis of N-cadherin knockout neurons revealed that the boosting of endocytosis by N-cadherin was largely dependent on preceding high levels of vesicle release activity. In summary, regulation of vesicle endocytosis was mediated at the molecular level by N-cadherin in a release activity-dependent manner. Because of its endocytosis enhancing function, N-cadherin might play an important role in the coupling of vesicle exo- and endocytosis.

  19. Mutations in PVRL4, encoding cell adhesion molecule nectin-4, cause ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brancati, Francesco; Fortugno, Paola; Bottillo, Irene; Lopez, Marc; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Boudghene-Stambouli, Omar; Agolini, Emanuele; Bernardini, Laura; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Iannicelli, Miriam; Rossi, Alfredo; Dib-Lachachi, Amina; Stuppia, Liborio; Palka, Giandomenico; Mundlos, Stefan; Stricker, Sigmar; Kornak, Uwe; Zambruno, Giovanna; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2010-08-13

    Ectodermal dysplasias form a large disease family with more than 200 members. The combination of hair and tooth abnormalities, alopecia, and cutaneous syndactyly is characteristic of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS). We used a homozygosity mapping approach to map the EDSS locus to 1q23 in a consanguineous Algerian family. By candidate gene analysis, we identified a homozygous mutation in the PVRL4 gene that not only evoked an amino acid change but also led to exon skipping. In an Italian family with two siblings affected by EDSS, we further detected a missense and a frameshift mutation. PVRL4 encodes for nectin-4, a cell adhesion molecule mainly implicated in the formation of cadherin-based adherens junctions. We demonstrated high nectin-4 expression in hair follicle structures, as well as in the separating digits of murine embryos, the tissues mainly affected by the EDSS phenotype. In patient keratinocytes, mutated nectin-4 lost its capability to bind nectin-1. Additionally, in discrete structures of the hair follicle, we found alterations of the membrane localization of nectin-afadin and cadherin-catenin complexes, which are essential for adherens junction formation, and we found reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Together with cleft lip and/or palate ectodermal dysplasia (CLPED1, or Zlotogora-Ogur syndrome) due to an impaired function of nectin-1, EDSS is the second known "nectinopathy" caused by mutations in a nectin adhesion molecule.

  20. Release activity-dependent control of vesicle endocytosis by the synaptic adhesion molecule N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    van Stegen, Bernd; Dagar, Sushma; Gottmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4–64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging. The synaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 had distinct impacts on exo- and endocytosis at mature cortical synapses. Expression of Neuroligin1 enhanced vesicle release in a N-cadherin-dependent way. Most intriguingly, expression of N-cadherin enhanced both vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Further detailed analysis of N-cadherin knockout neurons revealed that the boosting of endocytosis by N-cadherin was largely dependent on preceding high levels of vesicle release activity. In summary, regulation of vesicle endocytosis was mediated at the molecular level by N-cadherin in a release activity-dependent manner. Because of its endocytosis enhancing function, N-cadherin might play an important role in the coupling of vesicle exo- and endocytosis. PMID:28106089

  1. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, Gabby

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  2. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, forming trans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft or cis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics. PMID:28255461

  3. TMIGD1 is a novel adhesion molecule that protects epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Emad; Bondzie, Philip A; Rezazadeh, Kobra; Meyer, Rosana D; Hartsough, Edward; Henderson, Joel M; Schwartz, John H; Chitalia, Vipul; Rahimi, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative damage to renal tubular epithelial cells is a fundamental pathogenic mechanism implicated in both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases. Because epithelial cell survival influences the outcome of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases, identifying its molecular regulators could provide new insight into pathobiology and possible new therapeutic strategies for these diseases. We have identified transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain-containing 1 (TMIGD1) as a novel adhesion molecule, which is highly conserved in humans and other species. TMIGD1 is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells and promotes cell survival. The extracellular domain of TMIGD1 contains two putative immunoglobulin domains and mediates self-dimerization. Our data suggest that TMIGD1 regulates transepithelial electric resistance and permeability of renal epithelial cells. TMIGD1 controls cell migration, cell morphology, and protects renal epithelial cells from oxidative- and nutrient-deprivation-induced cell injury. Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cell injury downregulates TMIGD1 expression and targets it for ubiquitination. Moreover, TMIGD1 expression is significantly affected in both acute kidney injury and in deoxy-corticosterone acetate and sodium chloride (deoxy-corticosterone acetate salt)-induced chronic hypertensive kidney disease mouse models. Taken together, we have identified TMIGD1 as a novel cell adhesion molecule expressed in kidney epithelial cells that protects kidney epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury to promote cell survival.

  4. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity.

  5. Resveratrol abrogates adhesion molecules and protects against TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Dalaal M; Ismael, Naglaa R

    2011-11-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound with anti-inflammatory properties, has been previously evaluated for its beneficial effects in several ulcerative colitis models. However, the current study elucidates the effect of resveratrol on adhesion molecules, as well as its antioxidant efficacy in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ulcerative-colitis model. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of TNBS, followed by daily per os administration of either sulphasalazine (300 mg/kg) or resveratrol (2 and 10 mg/kg) for 7 days. Administration of resveratrol decreased the ulcerative area and colon mass index; these effects were further supported by the reduction in colon inflammation grades, as well as histolopathological changes, and reflected by the stalling of body mass loss. The anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol were indicated by lowered myeloperoxidase activity, and by suppressing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in the colon and serum. In addition, it restored a reduced colonic nitric oxide level and reinstated its redox balance, as evidenced by the suppression of lipid peroxides and prevention of glutathione depletion. The anti-ulcerative effect of the higher dose of resveratrol was comparable with those of sulphasalazine. The study confirms the anti-ulcerative effect of resveratrol in TNBS-induced experimental colitis via reduction of neutrophil infiltration, inhibition of adhesive molecules, and restoration of the nitric oxide level, as well as the redox status.

  6. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Lena; Schäfer, Julia; Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H; Imhof, Beat A; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/-) mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/-) mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/-) mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd) ventricle in JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  7. Human cell adhesion molecules: annotated functional subtypes and overrepresentation of addiction-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiaoming; Drgonova, Jana; Li, Chuan-Yun; Uhl, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Human cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are essential both for a) proper development, modulation and maintenance of interactions between cells and for b) cell-to-cell (and matrix-to-cell) communication about these interactions. CAMs are thus key to proper development and plasticity of organs and tissues that include the brain. Despite recognition of the existence of these dual CAM roles and appreciation of the differential functional significance of these roles, there have been surprisingly few systematic studies that have carefully enumerated the universe of CAMs, identified the preferred roles for specific CAMs in distinct types of cellular connections and communication, or related these issues to specific brain disorders or brain circuits. In this paper, we substantially update and review the set of human genes that are likely to encode CAMs based on searches of databases, literature reviews and annotations. We describe the likely CAMs and the functional CAM subclasses into which they fall. These include “iCAMs”, whose contacts largely mediate cell to cell communication, those involved in focal adhesions, CAM genes whose products are preferentially involved with stereotyped and morphologically-identifiable connections between cells (adherens junctions, gap junctions) and smaller numbers of genes in other classes. We discuss a novel proposed mechanism involving selective anchoring of the constituents of iCAM-containing lipid rafts in zones of close neuronal apposition to membranes expressing binding partners of these iCAMs. CAM data from genetic and genomic studies of addiction in humans and mouse models provide examples of the ways in which CAM variation is likely to contribute to a specific brain-based disorder. We discuss how differences in CAM splicing mediated by differences in the addiction-associated splicing regulator RBFOX1/A2BP1 could enrich this picture. CAM expression in dopamine neurons provides one of the ways in which variations in cell adhesion

  8. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Satoh, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. MapA-binding receptor-like molecules were detected in Caco-2 cell lysates by 2D-PAGE. Two proteins, annexin A13 (ANXA13) and paralemmin (PALM), were identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The results of a pull-down assay showed that MapA bound directly to ANXA13 and PALM. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed that MapA binding to ANXA13 and PALM was colocalized on the Caco-2 cell membrane. To evaluate whether ANXA13 and PALM are important for MapA adhesion, ANXA13 and PALM knockdown cell lines were established. The adhesion of MapA to the abovementioned cell lines was reduced compared with that to wild-type Caco-2 cells. These knockdown experiments established the importance of these receptor-like molecules in MapA adhesion.

  9. Expression of integrins by human periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts and their involvement in fibroblast adhesion to enamel matrix-derived proteins.

    PubMed

    van der Pauw, M T M; Everts, V; Beertsen, W

    2002-10-01

    We showed recently that human periodontal ligament (PDL) and gingival fibroblasts adhere and spread on enamel matrix protein (EMP) coatings. In the present study, we investigated whether this interaction can be attributed to integrin expression. Human PDL and gingival fibroblasts were cultured for periods up to 24 h on EMP coatings, in the presence of synthetic RGD-containing peptide or an antibody against the beta1 integrin subunit. The cells were first cultured for 24 h under serum-free conditions and then cultured on EMP coatings for 48 h. Integrin expression levels were assessed by flow cytometry analysis. It was found that attachment and spreading on EMP was inhibited by the synthetic RGD-containing peptide, but not by a synthetic RGE-peptide. Both PDL and gingival fibroblasts showed expression of the integrin subunits, alpha2, alpha5, beta1, and the integrin, alphavbeta3. Incubation with an antibody against the beta1 subunit significantly inhibited the attachment and spreading of PDL and gingival fibroblasts on EMP coatings. We conclude that integrins are involved in the interaction of PDL and gingival fibroblasts with EMP.

  10. αvβ1 integrin as a novel therapeutic target for tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic tissue injury with fibrosis results in disruption of tissue architecture, organ dysfunction and eventually organ failure. Currently, therapeutic options for tissue fibrosis are severely limited and organ transplantation including high cost and co-morbidities is the only effective treatment for end-stage fibrotic disease. Therefore, it is imperative to develop effective anti-fibrotic agents. Integrins are transmembrane proteins and are major receptors for cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell adhesion. Modulation of these molecules, particularly αv integrin family, has exhibited profound effects on fibrosis in multiple organ and disease state. Based on the several studies, the integrins αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, and αvβ8 have been known to modulate the fibrotic process via activation of latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in pre-clinical models of fibrosis. In this perspective, we reviewed the functions of αvβ1 integrin as a potentially useful target molecule for antifibrotic agent and introduced novel specific small-molecule inhibitors targeting this integrin. PMID:27867963

  11. The Enhancement of Metallic Silver Monomer Evaporation by the Adhesion of Polar Molecules to Silver Nanocluster Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-21

    POLAR MOLECULES TO SILVER NANOCLUSTER IONS by Clifton Fagerquist, Dilip K. Sensharma, Angel Rubio, Marvin L. Cohen and M. A. EI-Sayed Prepared for...MOLECULES TO SILVER NANOCLUSTER IONS Clifton K. Fagerquist#, Dilip K. Sensharma and Mostafa A. E1-Sayed* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry...CZVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. .:UNO:NG :.UMBERS Tl1E ENANCDEET OF METALLIC SILVER MONOMER EVAPORATION .- 1 9Y THE ADHESION OF POLAR MOLECULES TO SILVER

  12. Integrin-Specific Mechanoresponses to Compression and Extension Probed by Cylindrical Flat-Ended AFM Tips in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Irene; Luque, Tomás; Giménez, Alícia; Puig, Marta; Reguart, Noemi; Farré, Ramon; Navajas, Daniel; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Cells from lung and other tissues are subjected to forces of opposing directions that are largely transmitted through integrin-mediated adhesions. How cells respond to force bidirectionality remains ill defined. To address this question, we nanofabricated flat-ended cylindrical Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) tips with ∼1 µm2 cross-section area. Tips were uncoated or coated with either integrin-specific (RGD) or non-specific (RGE/BSA) molecules, brought into contact with lung epithelial cells or fibroblasts for 30 s to form focal adhesion precursors, and used to probe cell resistance to deformation in compression and extension. We found that cell resistance to compression was globally higher than to extension regardless of the tip coating. In contrast, both tip-cell adhesion strength and resistance to compression and extension were the highest when probed at integrin-specific adhesions. These integrin-specific mechanoresponses required an intact actin cytoskeleton, and were dependent on tyrosine phosphatases and Ca2+ signaling. Cell asymmetric mechanoresponse to compression and extension remained after 5 minutes of tip-cell adhesion, revealing that asymmetric resistance to force directionality is an intrinsic property of lung cells, as in most soft tissues. Our findings provide new insights on how lung cells probe the mechanochemical properties of the microenvironment, an important process for migration, repair and tissue homeostasis. PMID:22384196

  13. Expression of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells on plasma treated PET and PTFE in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pu, F R; Williams, R L; Markkula, T K; Hunt, J A

    2002-12-01

    We used a coculture model to evaluate the inflammatory potential of ammonia gas plasma modified PET and PTFE by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In these studies, human endothelial cells from umbilical cord (HUVEC) and promonocytic U937 cells were used. HUVECs grown on polystyrene tissue culture coverslips and HUVECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were used as controls. U937 adhesion to endothelium on each surface was evaluated at day 1 and day 7. To further investigate the role of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in cell-to-cell interaction on material surfaces, the expression of the leukocyte-endothelial CAMs: ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, and E-selectin on HUVECs were evaluated after U937 cell adhesion. The results demonstrated that plasma treated PET (T-PET) and treated PTFE (T-PTFE) did not increase U937 cell adhesion compared to the negative control. Maximal adhesion of U937 cells to HUVEC was observed on TNF-alpha stimulated endothelium with significant differences between day 1 and day 7, which is consistent with our prior observation that T-PET and T-PTFE did not cause HUVECs to increase the expression of adhesion molecules. After U937 cell adhesion, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of HUVECs were not different on T-PET and T-PTFE compared with the negative control. However, the expression of E-selectin was reduced on day 1, but not on day 7. The effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on HUVEC adhesion and proliferation were also studied. On day 1 there were slight increases in the growth of HUVECs on both of T-PET and T-PTFE but this was not statistically significant. On day 7, the cell number increased significantly on the surfaces compared to the negative control. The results demonstrate that the plasma treatment of PET and PTFE with ammonia improves the adhesion and growth of endothelial cells and these surfaces do not exhibit a direct inflammatory effect in terms of monocyte adhesion and expression of

  14. Adhesion to fibronectin promotes the activation of the p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Bearz, A; Tell, G; Formisano, S; Merluzzi, S; Colombatti, A; Pucillo, C

    1999-01-01

    The β1 integrins are a family of heterodimeric adhesion receptors involved in cell‐to‐cell contacts and cell‐to‐extracellular matrix interactions. Through their adhesive role, integrins participate in transduction of outside/inside signals and contribute to trigger a multitude of cellular events such as differentiation, cell activation, and motility. The fibronectin integrin receptors, α4β1 and α5β1, can function as costimulatory molecules in T‐cell receptor (TCR)‐dependent T‐cell activation. In the current study the Jurkat T‐cell line was used as a model system to investigate the TCR‐independent role of cell adhesion to fibronectin in the activation of Zap‐70, a central molecule in the signalling events in T cells. Upon adhesion to plastic immobilized fibronectin but not to bovine serum albumin (BSA) the phosphorylation of p125FAK, a protein kinase that localizes to focal adhesion sites, was induced. Moreover, clustering of fibronectin receptors led to the detection of a p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex. Finally, while the complex between fak‐B, another protein kinase localized to focal adhesion sites, and Zap‐70 was detected in cells plated either on BSA or on fibronectin, the formation of the p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex appeared specifically induced following fibronectin‐mediated integrin clustering. These data suggest the existence of a high degree of specificity when the members of the β1 integrin family mediate signalling pathways in T cells. PMID:10594689

  15. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  16. JAM-A promotes neutrophil chemotaxis by controlling integrin internalization and recycling.

    PubMed

    Cera, Maria Rosaria; Fabbri, Monica; Molendini, Cinzia; Corada, Monica; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Rehberg, Markus; Reichel, Christoph A; Krombach, Fritz; Pardi, Ruggero; Dejana, Elisabetta

    2009-01-15

    The membrane-associated adhesion molecule JAM-A is required for neutrophil infiltration in inflammatory or ischemic tissues. JAM-A expressed in both endothelial cells and neutrophils has such a role, but the mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that JAM-A has a cell-autonomous role in neutrophil chemotaxis both in vivo and in vitro, which is independent of the interaction of neutrophils with endothelial cells. On activated neutrophils, JAM-A concentrates in a polarized fashion at the leading edge and uropod. Surprisingly, a significant amount of this protein is internalized in intracellular endosomal-like vesicles where it codistributes with integrin beta1. Clustering of beta1 integrin leads to JAM-A co-clustering, whereas clustering of JAM-A does not induce integrin association. Neutrophils derived from JAM-A-null mice are unable to correctly internalize beta1 integrins upon chemotactic stimuli and this causes impaired uropod retraction and cell motility. Consistently, inhibition of integrin internalization upon treatment with BAPTA-AM induces a comparable phenotype. These data indicate that JAM-A is required for the correct internalization and recycling of integrins during cell migration and might explain why, in its absence, the directional migration of neutrophils towards an inflammatory stimulus is markedly impaired.

  17. Histamine H4 receptor mediates eosinophil chemotaxis with cell shape change and adhesion molecule upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ping; Ngo, Karen; Nguyen, Steven; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P; Karlsson, Lars; Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping

    2004-01-01

    During mast cell degranulation, histamine is released in large quantities. Human eosinophils were found to express histamine H4 but not H3 receptors. The possible effects of histamine on eosinophils and the receptor mediating these effects were investigated in our studies. Histamine (0.01–30 μM) induced a rapid and transient cell shape change in human eosinophils, but had no effects on neutrophils. The maximal shape change was at 0.3 μM histamine with EC50 at 19 nM. After 60 min incubation with 1 μM histamine, eosinophils were desensitized and were refractory to shape change response upon histamine restimulation. Histamine (0.01–1 μM) also enhanced the eosinophil shape change induced by other chemokines. Histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was mediated by the H4 receptor. This effect was completely inhibited by H4 receptor-specific antagonist JNJ 7777120 (IC50 0.3 μM) and H3/H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (IC50 1.4 μM), but not by selective H1, H2 or H3 receptor antagonists. H4 receptor agonists imetit (EC50 25 nM) and clobenpropit (EC50 72 nM) could mimic histamine effect in inducing eosinophil shape change. Histamine (0.01–100 μM) induced upregulation of adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) and CD54 (ICAM-1) on eosinophils. This effect was mediated by the H4 receptor and could be blocked by H4 receptor antagonists JNJ 7777120 and thioperamide. Histamine (0.01–10 μM) induced eosinophil chemotaxis with an EC50 of 83 nM. This effect was mediated by the H4 receptor and could be blocked by H4 receptor antagonists JNJ 7777120 (IC50 86 nM) and thioperamide (IC50 519 nM). Histamine (0.5 μM) also enhanced the eosinophil shape change induced by other chemokines. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a new mechanism of eosinophil recruitment driven by mast cells via the release of histamine. Using specific histamine receptor ligands, we have provided a definitive proof that the H4 receptor mediates eosinophil chemotaxis, cell shape change and

  18. Reduced intracellular oxidative metabolism promotes firm adhesion of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to vascular endothelium under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Montoya, M C; Luscinskas, F W; del Pozo, M A; Aragonés, J; de Landázuri, M O

    1997-08-01

    The interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) with the vascular endothelium and their subsequent extravasation to the tissues is a key step during different physiological and pathological processes. In certain of these pathologies the oxygen tension becomes very low, leading to reduced cellular oxidative status. To evaluate the effect of lowering the intracellular redox status in the interaction of PMN with the endothelium, exposure to hypoxic conditions as well as treatment with different antioxidant agents was carried out. PMN exposure to hypoxia enhanced beta2 integrin-dependent adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule-1-coated surfaces, concomitant with a decrease in the intracellular redox status of the cell. As occurs with hypoxia, treatment with antioxidants produced a decrease in the oxidation state of PMN. These agents enhanced adhesion of PMN to human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and this effect was also mediated by beta2 integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Adhesion studies under defined laminar flow conditions showed that the antioxidant treatment induced an enhanced adhesion mediated by beta2 integrins with a decrease in the fraction of PMN rolling on TNF-alpha-activated endothelial cells. The up-regulated PMN adhesion was correlated to an increase in the expression and activation of integrin Mac-1, without loss of L-selectin surface expression. Altogether, these results demonstrate that a reduction in the intracellular oxidative state produces an enhanced beta2 integrin-dependent adhesion of PMN to stimulated endothelial cells under conditions of flow.

  19. The integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein ICAP-1 binds and regulates Rho family GTPases during cell spreading

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Simona; Balzac, Fiorella; Brancaccio, Mara; Guazzone, Simona; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Silengo, Lorenzo; Eva, Alessandra; Tarone, Guido

    2002-01-01

    Using two-hybrid screening, we isolated the integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein (ICAP-1), an interactor for the COOH terminal region of the β1A integrin cytoplasmic domain. To investigate the role of ICAP-1 in integrin-mediated adhesive function, we expressed the full-length molecule in NIH3T3 cells. ICAP-1 expression strongly prevents NIH3T3 cell spreading on extracellular matrix. This inhibition is transient and can be counteracted by coexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of Cdc42, suggesting that ICAP-1 acts upstream of this GTPase. In addition, we found that ICAP-1 binds both to Cdc42 and Rac1 in vitro, and its expression markedly inhibits activation of these GTPases during integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin as detected by PAK binding assay. In the attempt to define the molecular mechanism of this inhibition, we show that ICAP-1 reduces both the intrinsic and the exchange factor–induced dissociation of GDP from Cdc42; moreover, purified ICAP-1 displaces this GTPase from cellular membranes. Together, these data show for the first time that ICAP-1 regulates Rho family GTPases during integrin-mediated cell matrix adhesion, acting as guanine dissociation inhibitor. PMID:11807099

  20. The integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein ICAP-1 binds and regulates Rho family GTPases during cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Degani, Simona; Balzac, Fiorella; Brancaccio, Mara; Guazzone, Simona; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Silengo, Lorenzo; Eva, Alessandra; Tarone, Guido

    2002-01-21

    Using two-hybrid screening, we isolated the integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein (ICAP-1), an interactor for the COOH terminal region of the beta1A integrin cytoplasmic domain. To investigate the role of ICAP-1 in integrin-mediated adhesive function, we expressed the full-length molecule in NIH3T3 cells. ICAP-1 expression strongly prevents NIH3T3 cell spreading on extracellular matrix. This inhibition is transient and can be counteracted by coexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of Cdc42, suggesting that ICAP-1 acts upstream of this GTPase. In addition, we found that ICAP-1 binds both to Cdc42 and Rac1 in vitro, and its expression markedly inhibits activation of these GTPases during integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin as detected by PAK binding assay. In the attempt to define the molecular mechanism of this inhibition, we show that ICAP-1 reduces both the intrinsic and the exchange factor-induced dissociation of GDP from Cdc42; moreover, purified ICAP-1 displaces this GTPase from cellular membranes. Together, these data show for the first time that ICAP-1 regulates Rho family GTPases during integrin-mediated cell matrix adhesion, acting as guanine dissociation inhibitor.

  1. Polyvalent integrin antagonist-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for triggering apoptosis in human leukemia cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Say, Rıdvan; Yazar, Suzan; Uğur, Alper; Hür, Deniz; Denizli, Adil; Ersöz, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Integrin family members are the main mediators of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and active as intra- and extracellular signaling molecules in a variety of processes. They bind to their ligands by interacting with short amino acid sequences, that is, RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence. RGD sequences have been used to enhance cell binding to artificial surfaces, so RGD mimics have been used to block integrin binding to its ligand. Integrin-ligand interactions are dependent on divalent cations, and Mg2+ provide higher-affinity binding to ligand for many integrins. In this study, we have designed new integrin antagonists using methacryloyl amidoaspartic acid (MAASP) monomer-conjugated silanized super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, the size of the nanoparticles was verified with an average size of 32.6 nm) and poly(MAASP- co-EDMA) shell-decorated silanized SPIONs. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe uptake of modified SPIONs into the cells, including receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our aim is to bind these modified SPIONs to the integrin-mediated aspartic acid ends of MAASP monomers and block integrin binding to their ligand.

  2. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) Regulates Claudin Dynamics and Tight Junctions* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuan-Jin; Mannan, Poonam; Lu, Michael; Udey, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (CD326) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by invasive carcinomas and some epithelia. Herein, we report that EpCAM regulates the composition and function of tight junctions (TJ). EpCAM accumulated on the lateral interfaces of human colon carcinoma and normal intestinal epithelial cells but did not co-localize with TJ. Knockdown of EpCAM in T84 and Caco-2 cells using shRNAs led to changes in morphology and adhesiveness. TJ formed readily after EpCAM knockdown; the acquisition of trans-epithelial electroresistance was enhanced, and TJ showed increased resistance to disruption by calcium chelation. Preparative immunoprecipitation demonstrated that EpCAM bound tightly to claudin-7. Co-immunoprecipitation documented associations of EpCAM with claudin-7 and claudin-1 but not claudin-2 or claudin-4. Claudin-1 associated with claudin-7 in co-transfection experiments, and claudin-7 was required for association of claudin-1 with EpCAM. EpCAM knockdown resulted in decreases in claudin-7 and claudin-1 proteins that were reversed with lysosome inhibitors. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that claudin-7 and claudin-1 continually trafficked into lysosomes. Although EpCAM knockdown decreased claudin-1 and claudin-7 protein levels overall, accumulations of claudin-1 and claudin-7 in TJ increased. Physical interactions between EpCAM and claudins were required for claudin stabilization. These findings suggest that EpCAM modulates adhesion and TJ function by regulating intracellular localization and degradation of selected claudins. PMID:23486470

  3. Optical tweezers for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Axner, Ove; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Fällman, Erik

    2006-08-01

    Instrumentation and methodologies for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles by the use of force measuring optical tweezers have been developed. A thorough study of the biomechanical properties of fimbrial adhesion organelles expressed by uropathogenic E. coli, so-called pili, is presented. Steady-state as well as dynamic force measurements on P pili, expressed by E. coli causing pyelonephritis, have revealed, among other things, various unfolding and refolding properties of the helical structure of P pili, the PapA rod. Based on these properties an energy landscape model has been constructed by which specific biophysical properties of the PapA rod have been extracted, e.g. the number of subunits, the length of a single pilus, bond lengths and activation energies for bond opening and closure. Moreover, long time repetitive measurements have shown that the rod can be unfolded and refolded repetitive times without losing its intrinsic properties. These properties are believed to be of importance for the bacteria's ability to maintain close contact with host cells during initial infections. The results presented are considered to be of importance for the field of biopolymers in general and the development of new pharmaceuticals towards urinary tract infections in particular. The results show furthermore that the methodology can be used to gain knowledge of the intrinsic biomechanical function of adhesion organelles. The instrumentation is currently used for characterization of type 1 pili, expressed by E. coli causing cystitis, i.e. infections in the bladder. The first force spectrometry investigations of these pili will be presented.

  4. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    He, Qian-ru; Cong, Meng; Chen, Qing-zhong; Sheng, Ya-feng; Li, Jian; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Fei; Gong, Yan-pei

    2016-01-01

    The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A. Western blot assay results demonstrated that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at the proximal end after injury, but its expression was greater in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks. Semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days and 1 week after injury. Nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 and semaphorin 3A expressions at the distal end were higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days, 1 and 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression at the proximal end was greater in the sensory nerves than in the motor nerves; semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks after injury. Taken together, these results indicated that nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A exhibited different expression patterns at the proximal and distal ends of sensory and motor nerves, and play a coordinating role in neural chemotaxis regeneration. PMID:28197202

  5. Association of Cell Adhesion Molecules Contactin-6 and Latrophilin-1 Regulates Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuko, Amila; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Post, Harm; Taggenbrock, Renske L. R. E.; van Dijk, Roland E.; Altelaar, A. F. Maarten; Heck, Albert J. R.; Petrenko, Alexander G.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Shimoda, Yasushi; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Burbach, J. Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    In view of important neurobiological functions of the cell adhesion molecule contactin-6 (Cntn6) that have emerged from studies on null-mutant mice and autism spectrum disorders patients, we set out to examine pathways underlying functions of Cntn6 using a proteomics approach. We identified the cell adhesion GPCR latrophilin-1 (Lphn1, a.k.a. CIRL1/CL, ADGRL1) as a binding partner for Cntn6 forming together a heteromeric cis-complex. Lphn1 expression in cultured neurons caused reduction in neurite outgrowth and increase in apoptosis, which was rescued by coexpression of Cntn6. In cultured neurons derived from Cntn6-/- mice, Lphn1 knockdown reduced apoptosis, suggesting that the observed apoptosis was Lphn1-dependent. In line with these data, the number of apoptotic cells was increased in the cortex of Cntn6-/- mice compared to wild-type littermate controls. These results show that Cntn6 can modulate the activity of Lphn1 by direct binding and suggests that Cntn6 may prevent apoptosis thereby impinging on neurodevelopment. PMID:28018171

  6. L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE IS NEUROPROTECTIVE OF ALCOHOL INDUCED CELL DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Gubitosi-Klug, Rose; Larimer, Corena G.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1), a protein critical for appropriate development of the central nervous system, is a target for ethanol teratogenicity. Ethanol inhibits both L1 mediated cell adhesion as well as L1 mediated neurite outgrowth. L1 has been shown to increase cell survival in cerebellar granule cells while ethanol has been shown to increase cell death. We sought to determine if L1 protected cells from ethanol induced cell death. Cerebellar granule cells from postnatal day 6 rat pups were cultured on either poly L-lysine with or without an L1 substratum. Alcohol was added at 2 hours post plating and cell survival was measured at various times. L1 substratum significantly increased cell survival at 72 and 120 hours. Ethanol significantly reduced cell survival at 48 hours, with no effect at 72 or 120 hours, both in the presence and absence of L1. At 48 hours, L1 significantly increased cell survival in the presence of ethanol. We conclude that ethanol interferes with processes other than L1-L1 interactions in causing cell death, and that ethanol effects would be more severe in the absence of L1. PMID:17267039

  7. The cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 is critical for normal enamel formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Martin J.; Brookes, Steven J.; Draper, Clare E.; Garrod, David; Kirkham, Jennifer; Shore, Roger C.; Dixon, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Nectin-1 is a member of a sub-family of immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules and a component of adherens junctions. In the current study, we have shown that mice lacking nectin-1 exhibit defective enamel formation in their incisor teeth. Although the incisors of nectin-1-null mice were hypomineralized, the protein composition of the enamel matrix was unaltered. While strong immunostaining for nectin-1 was observed at the interface between the maturation-stage ameloblasts and the underlying cells of the stratum intermedium (SI), its absence in nectin-1-null mice correlated with separation of the cell layers at this interface. Numerous, large desmosomes were present at this interface in wild-type mice; however, where adhesion persisted in the mutant mice, the desmosomes were smaller and less numerous. Nectins have been shown to regulate tight junction formation; however, this is the first report showing that they may also participate in the regulation of desmosome assembly. Importantly, our results show that integrity of the SI–ameloblast interface is essential for normal enamel mineralization. PMID:18703497

  8. PRIMING EFFECT OF HOMOCYSTEINE ON INDUCIBLE VASCULAR CELL ADHESION MOLECULE-1 EXPRESSION IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Chantal; Abid, Md. Ruhul; Spokes, Katherine C.; Schoots, Ivo G; Brkovic, Alexandre; Sirois, Martin G.; Aird, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, as well as for arterial and venous thrombosis. However, the mechanisms through which elevated circulating levels of homocysteine cause vascular injury and promote thrombosis remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that homocysteine (Hcy) sensitizes endothelial cells to the effect of inflammatory mediators. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with Hcy 1.0 mM for varying time points, and then treated in the absence or presence of 1.5 U/ml thrombin or 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hcy alone had no effect on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, Hcy enhanced thrombin- and LPS-mediated induction of VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Consistent with these results, pretreatment of HUVEC with Hcy resulted in a two-fold increase in LSP-mediated induction of leukocyte adhesion. The latter effect was significantly inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Together, these findings suggest that Hcy sensitizes HUVEC to the effect of inflammatory mediators thrombin and LPS, at least in part through VCAM-1 expression and function. PMID:18406566

  9. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) marks adult myogenic cells committed to differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Capkovic, Katie L.; Stevenson, Severin; Johnson, Marc C.; Thelen, Jay J.; Cornelison, D.D.W.

    2008-04-15

    Although recent advances in broad-scale gene expression analysis have dramatically increased our knowledge of the repertoire of mRNAs present in multiple cell types, it has become increasingly clear that examination of the expression, localization, and associations of the encoded proteins will be critical for determining their functional significance. In particular, many signaling receptors, transducers, and effectors have been proposed to act in higher-order complexes associated with physically distinct areas of the plasma membrane. Adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells) must, upon injury, respond appropriately to a wide range of extracellular stimuli: the role of such signaling scaffolds is therefore a potentially important area of inquiry. To address this question, we first isolated detergent-resistant membrane fractions from primary satellite cells, then analyzed their component proteins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transmembrane and juxtamembrane components of adhesion-mediated signaling pathways made up the largest group of identified proteins; in particular, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a multifunctional cell-surface protein that has previously been associated with muscle regeneration, was significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that not only is NCAM localized to discrete areas of the plasma membrane, it is also a very early marker of commitment to terminal differentiation. Using flow cytometry, we have sorted physically homogeneous myogenic cultures into proliferating and differentiating fractions based solely upon NCAM expression.

  10. Chick neural retina adhesion and survival molecule is a retinol-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, D.; LaCorbiere, M.; Esch, F.

    1986-01-01

    A 20,000-D protein called purpurin has recently been isolated from the growth-conditioned medium of cultured embryonic chick neural retina cells. Purpurin is a constituent of adherons and promotes cell-adheron adhesion by interacting with a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It also prolongs the survival of cultured neural retina cells. This paper shows that purpurin is a secretory protein that has sequence homology with a human protein synthesized in the liver that transports retinol in the blood, the serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). Purpurin binds (/sup 3/H)retinol, and both purpurin and chick serum RBP stimulate the adhesion of neural retina cells, although the serum protein is less active than purpurin. Purpurin and the serum RBP are, however, different molecules, for the serum protein is approx.3.000 D larger than purpurin and has different silver-staining characteristics. Finally, purpurin supports the survival of dissociated ciliary ganglion cells, indicating that RBPs can act as ciliary neurotrophic factors.

  11. Interactions between intercellular adhesion molecule-5 positive elements and their surroundings in the rodent visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Emily A; Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Gahmberg, Carl G; Tian, Li; Majewska, Ania K

    2013-11-01

    The telencephalon-associated intercellular adhesion molecule 5 (Telencephalin; ICAM-5) regulates dendritic maturation, a process dependent on extracellular proteases in the developing brain. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have reported previously that ICAM-5 is localized primarily in dendritic protrusions during a period of robust synaptogenesis (P14 in mouse visual cortex). As dendritic protrusions mature (P28), ICAM-5 immuno-reactivity shifts from dendritic protrusions into dendritic shafts. ICAM-5 immuno-reactivity does not shift in animals lacking the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a protease shown to regulate ICAM-5 cleavage. Cleaved ICAM-5 (soluble fraction; sICAM-5) has been shown to bind to a number of receptors located in neighboring structures, resulting in a variety of downstream signaling events, including enhanced neurotransmission. Here, we investigated the potential MMP-regulated ICAM-5 signaling by examining the relationship between ICAM-5 immuno-positive elements and the structures that directly neighbor them.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross retinal endothelium assisted by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Bharadwaj, Arpita S; Chipps, Timothy J; Pan, Yuzhen; Ashander, Liam M; Smith, Justine R

    2012-10-01

    Retinal infection is the most common clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. The route by which circulating Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross the vascular endothelium to enter the human retina is unknown. Convincing studies using murine encephalitis models have strongly implicated leukocyte taxis as one pathway used by the parasite to access target organs. To establish whether tachyzoites might also interact directly with vascular endothelium, we populated a transwell system with human ocular endothelial cells. Human retinal endothelial monolayers permitted transmigration of tachyzoites of RH and three natural isolate strains. Antibody blockade of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 significantly reduced this migration, but did not impact tachyzoite movement across an endothelial monolayer derived from the choroid, which lies adjacent to the retina within the eye. In demonstrating that tachyzoites are capable of independent migration across human vascular endothelium in vitro, this study carries implications for the development of therapeutics aimed at preventing access of T. gondii to the retina.

  13. Effects of Gravitational Mechanical Unloading in Endothelial Cells: Association between Caveolins, Inflammation and Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Grenon, S. Marlene; Jeanne, Marion; Aguado-Zuniga, Jesus; Conte, Michael S.; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical forces including gravity affect endothelial cell (ECs) function, and have been implicated in vascular disease as well as physiologic changes associated with low gravity environments. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of gravitational mechanical unloading on ECs phenotype as determined by patterns of gene expression. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells were exposed to 1-gravity environment or mechanical unloading (MU) for 24 hours, with or without periods of mechanical loading (ML). MU led to a significant decrease in gene expression of several adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the contrary, eNOS, Caveolin-1 and -2 expression were significantly increased with MU. There was a decrease in the length and width of the cells with MU. Addition of ML during the MU period was sufficient to reverse the changes triggered by MU. Our results suggest that gravitational loading could dramatically affect vascular endothelial cell function. PMID:23511048

  14. The junctional adhesion molecule JAM-C regulates polarized transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vivo.

    PubMed

    Woodfin, Abigail; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Beyrau, Martina; Colom, Bartomeu; Caille, Dorothée; Diapouli, Frantzeska-Maria; Nash, Gerard B; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Albelda, Steven M; Rainger, G Ed; Meda, Paolo; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2011-06-26

    The migration of neutrophils into inflamed tissues is a fundamental component of innate immunity. A decisive step in this process is the polarized migration of blood neutrophils through endothelial cells (ECs) lining the venular lumen (transendothelial migration (TEM)) in a luminal-to-abluminal direction. By real-time confocal imaging, we found that neutrophils had disrupted polarized TEM ('hesitant' and 'reverse') in vivo. We noted these events in inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion injury, characterized by lower expression of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) at EC junctions, and they were enhanced by blockade or genetic deletion of JAM-C in ECs. Our results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarized neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM of neutrophils can contribute to the dissemination of systemic inflammation.

  15. Neutrophil and monocyte adhesion molecules in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and effects of corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Ballabh, P; Simm, M; Kumari, J; Krauss, A; Jain, A; Califano, C; Lesser, M; Cunningham-Rundle..., S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study a longitudinal change in the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, and CD62L on neutrophils and monocytes in very low birth weight babies who develop respiratory distress syndrome, to compare these levels between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and non-BPD infants, and to assess the effect of corticosteroid treatment on these adhesion molecules. Methods: Of 40 eligible neonates, 11 neonates were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks (BPD 36 weeks), 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days, but not at 36 weeks (BPD d28), and 13 infants did not develop BPD. Seventeen neonates received a six day course of steroid treatment. Expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L was measured on neutrophils and monocytes in arterial blood on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28, and before and 2–3 days after initiation of dexamethasone treatment by flow cytometry. Results: CD18 expression on neutrophils and monocytes and CD62L on neutrophils, measured as mean fluorescent intensity, was significantly decreased in BPD neonates compared to non-BPD neonates on days 1–28. Dexamethasone treatment significantly decreased CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18L expression on monocytes. Conclusions: Decreased CD18 expression on neutrophils and monocytes, and decreased CD62L expression on neutrophils, measured as mean fluorescent intensity during the first four weeks of life in micropremies may be risk factors and early predictors of BPD. Dexamethasone use was associated with decreased expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L. PMID:14711863

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is upregulated in autoimmune murine lupus nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Wuthrich, R. P.; Jevnikar, A. M.; Takei, F.; Glimcher, L. H.; Kelley, V. E.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell-surface protein regulating interactions among immune cells. To determine whether altered expression of ICAM-1 occurs in autoimmune lupus nephritis, we studied ICAM-1 expression in kidneys of normal and autoimmune MRL-lpr and (NZBX NZW)F1 (NZB/W) mice. By immunoperoxidase staining, ICAM-1 is constitutively expressed at low levels in proximal tubules (PT), endothelium and interstitial cells in normal C3H/FeJ mice. In nephritic MRL-lpr and NZB/W kidneys, staining for ICAM-1 is increased in the PT, particularly in the brush border, and is prominent in the glomerular mesangium and the endothelium of large vessels. By Western blot analysis, ICAM-1 is not detected in the urine of normal BALB/c and C3H/FeJ or autoimmune MRL-lpr. By Northern blot analysis, nephritic MRL-lpr and NZB/W have a two- to fivefold increase in steady state levels of ICAM-1 transcripts in the kidney as compared with normal or prenephritic mice. This is paralleled by an increase in MHC class II transcripts. In cultured PT cells, ICAM-1 is expressed at basal levels in PT and is increased by the cytokines interferon-gamma, IL-1 alpha, and TNF-alpha. Thus cytokine-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 in lupus nephritis may promote interaction of immune cells with renal tissue. The predominant apical expression of ICAM-1 opposite to the basolateral Ia expression suggests a novel role for this adhesion molecule in PT. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1968316

  17. The Neuroplastin adhesion molecules: key regulators of neuronal plasticity and synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Philip W; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Seidenbecher, Constanze

    2014-11-01

    The Neuroplastins Np65 and Np55 are neuronal and synapse-enriched immunoglobulin superfamily molecules that play important roles in a number of key neuronal and synaptic functions including, for Np65, cell adhesion. In this review we focus on the physiological roles of the Neuroplastins in promoting neurite outgrowth, regulating the structure and function of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses in brain, and in neuronal and synaptic plasticity. We discuss the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the Neuroplastins exert their physiological effects and how these are dependent upon the structural features of Np65 and Np55, which enable them to bind to a diverse range of protein partners. In turn this enables the Neuroplastins to interact with a number of key neuronal signalling cascades. These include: binding to and activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor; Np65 trans-homophilic binding leading to activation of p38 MAPK and internalization of glutamate (GluR1) receptor subunits; acting as accessory proteins for monocarboxylate transporters, thus affecting neuronal energy supply, and binding to GABAA α1, 2 and 5 subunits, thus regulating the composition and localization of GABAA receptors. An emerging theme is the role of the Neuroplastins in regulating the trafficking and subcellular localization of specific binding partners. We also discuss the involvement of Neuroplastins in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including ischaemia, schizophrenia and breast cancer and the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human Neuroplastin (NPTN) gene locus in impairment of cortical development and cognitive functions. Neuroplastins are neuronal cell adhesion molecules, which induce neurite outgrowth and play important roles in synaptic maturation and plasticity. This review summarizes the functional implications of Neuroplastins for correct synaptic membrane protein localization, neuronal energy supply, expression of LTP and LTD

  18. Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV: A Predictor of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Berenguer, Juan; Miralles, Pilar; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Carrero, Ana; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Díez, Cristina; Tejerina, Francisco; Pérez-Latorre, Leire; Bellón, José M.; Resino, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher serum levels of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) are associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. We assessed the relationship between serum levels of adhesion molecules and liver-related events (LRE) or death, in coinfected patients. Methods We studied clinical characteristics and outcomes of 182 coinfected patients with a baseline liver biopsy (58 with advanced fibrosis) and simultaneous plasma samples who were followed for median of 9 years. We used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimized cutoff values (OCV) of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, defined as the values with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity for LRE. We used multivariate regression analysis to test the association between OCVs of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and outcomes. The variables for adjustment were age, HIV transmission category, liver fibrosis, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts, antiretroviral therapy, and sustained virologic response (SVR). Results During the study period 51 patients had SVR, 19 had LRE, and 16 died. The OCVs for LRE were 5.68 Log pg/mL for sICAM-1 and 6.25 Log pg/mL for sVCAM-1, respectively. The adjusted subhazard ratio (aSHR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of death or LRE, whichever occurred first, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 > OCV were 3.98 ([1.14; 13.89], P = 0.030) and 2.81 ([1.10; 7.19], respectively (P = 0.030). Conclusions Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 can serve as markers of outcome in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Therapies targeting necroinflammatory damage and fibrogenesis may have a role in the management chronic hepatitis C. PMID:26849641

  19. Neural cell adhesion molecule expression in dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with intramyocardial inflammation and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Karsten; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Noutsias, Michel

    2017-03-18

    Chronic intramyocardial inflammation (inflammatory cardiomyopathy/DCMi) is linked to the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in orchestrating cardiac muscle morphogenesis, but is down-regulated after embryogenesis. We investigated NCAM expression in adult DCM hearts, its possible association with DCMi-parameters, and with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (CMH). Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) from DCM patients (n=85; n=37 females; age: 48±19years; LVEF <40%) and controls from non-cardiac deaths were immunostained for DCMi markers and for NCAM expression, and quantified by digital image analysis (DIA). NCAM expression on the intercalated discs and the sarcolemma was confirmed in n=46 (54%) of the DCM-EMBs. In the 17 controls, NCAM expression was confined to scattered intramyocardial nerves, but was absent on cardiomyocytes. DIA-quantified area fraction (AF) of NCAM was significantly (p=0.0001) higher in the DCM hearts (0.0044±0.017) compared with the controls (0.0006±0.0004). Multivariate analysis of DIA-quantified NCAM-AF revealed significant associations with infiltrates (CD18(+), CD11a/LFA-1(+), CD11b/Mac-1(+), TNFα(+), CD3(+)) and with endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAM; CD54/ICAM-1 and CD29; p<0.05). The mean cardiomyocyte diameter (MCD) correlated highly significantly (p<0.01) with NCAM-AF, ICAM-1-AF, CD29-AF, CD18(+) and TNFa(+) infiltrates, and was associated less significantly (p<0.05) with CD3(+), CD11a/LFA-1(+), and CD11b/Mac-1(+) infiltrates. In conclusion, NCAM-expression in ca. 50% of adult DCM hearts is associated with CMH, and may be induced by inflammatory pathways.

  20. The effect of iron treatment on adhesion molecules in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Arif; Kebapcilar, Levent; Erdur, Erkan; Bozkaya, Giray; Sari, Ismail; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Kebapcilar, Ayse Gul; Sop, Gulten

    2010-12-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect of iron supplementation on levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In this study, 26 female patients diagnosed with iron deficiency were treated approximately 3 months of oral iron supplementation (99 ± 10 days; ferrous glycine sulfate; 100 mg/day of elemental iron). Levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were assessed prior to treatment and after approximately 3 months of treatment and compared with 26 healthy female subjects. A significant increase in sVCAM levels was found in the patients with iron deficiency at the end of the treatment relative to pretreatment levels compared to controls, whereas no significant differences were determined in sICAM levels. In the posttreatment period, no significant change was observed in sICAM levels compared to the pretreatment levels, whereas sVCAM levels decreased. However, after the treatment period, the sVCAM, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and serum ferritin levels did not return to the normal range compared to the controls. Pretreatment sVCAM-1 levels were inversely correlated with levels of hemoglobin, hemotocrit, MCV, serum iron, and ferritin. After treatment, the sVCAM-1 levels were negatively correlated with ferritin levels. Levels of sVCAM were significantly higher in patients with IDA than controls. After the treatment period, the sVCAM levels were not completely normalized in patients with IDA compared to controls, regardless of the presence of inadequate levels of hemoglobin, MCV, and serum ferritin. Thus, iron supplementation not only ameliorates anemia, but may also reduce the inflammation markers in cases with IDA.

  1. Expressions of integrin subunits in osteoblasts during weightlessness simulation using clionstat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Zhao, D.; Nie, J.; Li, Y.

    Space flight experiments and studies carried out in altered gravity environments have revealed that exposure to altered gravity conditions results in (mal)adaptation of cellular function. In the present study, we used a clinostat to generate a vector-averaged gravity to simulate weightlessness environment. We then observed the responses of rat calvarial osteoblasts subsequent to rotation at 30 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 72 h. We found that the gene expressions of three integrin subunits started to change from 24 h of rotation in clinostat but not in stationary cultures. The decreased percent changes of integrin a5 mRNA at 24, 48 and 72 h were 11.3 +/- 2.6%, 18.7 +/- 4.2% and 9.8 +/ - 2.1%, respectively. The same trend was saw in the expression of integrin av mRNA as 23.0 +/- 4.7%, 12.3 +/- 1.6% and 16.7 +/- 3.2%, respectively. Moreover, the expressions of integrin ß1 mRNA in different periods were also declined with the percent changes of 15.3 +/- 1.3%, 11.4 +/- 1.2% and 26.4 +/- 5.5%, respectively. All cells contain membrane-anchored attachment proteins able to recognize specific chemical motifs in the extracellular macromolecules forming the supporting scaffold, made of various types of collagen, adhesive glycoproteins, elastin, proteoglycans, etc. These cell-matrix interactions are mainly mediated by receptors of the integrins family, heterodimeric molecules made of an extracellular domain connected through a transmembrane sequence to an intracytoplasmic tail. Our results suggest that vector-averaged gravity causes alterations of signal transduction and integrin-mediated cell adhesion in osteoblasts by altering the gene expressions of several crucial integrin subunits. These alterations might contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporotic bone loss as observed in actual space flights.

  2. Significant Role of Collagen XVII And Integrin β4 in Migration and Invasion of The Less Aggressive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Jyri M; Löffek, Stefanie; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Sirpa; Väyrynen, Juha P; Hurskainen, Tiina; Manninen, Aki; Riihilä, Pilvi; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Kähäri, Veli-Matti; Salo, Tuula; Mäkinen, Markus J; Tasanen, Kaisa

    2017-03-22

    Collagen XVII and integrin α6β4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin α6β4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin γ2, collagen XVII and integrin β4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. The expression of laminin γ2 was highest i