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Sample records for adhesion molecules extracellular

  1. An extracellular adhesion molecule complex patterns dendritic branching and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xintong; Liu, Oliver W.; Howell, Audrey S.; Shen, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Summary Robust dendrite morphogenesis is a critical step in the development of reproducible neural circuits. However, little is known about the extracellular cues that pattern complex dendrite morphologies. In the model nematode C. elegans, the sensory neuron PVD establishes stereotypical, highly-branched dendrite morphology. Here, we report the identification of a tripartite ligand-receptor complex of membrane adhesion molecules that is both necessary and sufficient to instruct spatially restricted growth and branching of PVD dendrites. The ligand complex SAX-7/L1CAM and MNR-1 function at defined locations in the surrounding hypodermal tissue, while DMA-1 acts as the cognate receptor on PVD. Mutations in this complex lead to dramatic defects in the formation, stabilization, and organization of the dendritic arbor. Ectopic expression of SAX-7 and MNR-1 generates a predictable, unnaturally patterned dendritic tree in a DMA-1 dependent manner. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that all three molecules are needed for interaction. PMID:24120131

  2. Adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix as drug targets for glioma.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Joji; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-04-01

    The formation of tumor vasculature and cell invasion along white matter tracts have pivotal roles in the development and progression of glioma. A better understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis and invasion in glioma will aid the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The processes of angiogenesis and invasion cause the production of an array of adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This review focuses on the role of adhesion molecules and the ECM in malignant glioma. The results of clinical trials using drugs targeted against adhesion molecules and the ECM for glioma are also discussed.

  3. The role of novel and known extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in the homeostatic and regenerative bone marrow microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Klamer, Sofieke; Voermans, Carlijn

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells and differentiation of committed progenitors occurs in highly specialized niches. The interactions of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with cells, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment control homeostasis of HSPCs. We only start to understand the complexity of the haematopoietic niche(s) that comprises endosteal, arterial, sinusoidal, mesenchymal and neuronal components. These distinct niches produce a broad range of soluble factors and adhesion molecules that modulate HSPC fate during normal hematopoiesis and BM regeneration. Adhesive interactions between HSPCs and the microenvironment will influence their localization and differentiation potential. In this review we highlight the current understanding of the functional role of ECM- and adhesion (regulating) molecules in the haematopoietic niche during homeostatic and regenerative hematopoiesis. This knowledge may lead to the improvement of current cellular therapies and more efficient development of future cellular products. PMID:25482635

  4. Understanding the Functional Roles of Multiple Extracellular Domains in Cell Adhesion Molecules with a Coarse-Grained Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2017-04-07

    Intercellular contacts in multicellular organisms are maintained by membrane receptors called cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are expressed on cell surfaces. One interesting feature of CAMs is that almost all of their extracellular regions contain repeating copies of structural domains. It is not clear why so many extracellular domains need to be evolved through natural selection. We tackled this problem by computational modeling. A generic model of CAMs was constructed based on the domain organization of neuronal CAM, which is engaged in maintaining neuron-neuron adhesion in central nervous system. By placing these models on a cell-cell interface, we developed a Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm that incorporates both molecular factors including conformational changes of CAMs and cellular factor including fluctuations of plasma membranes to approach the physical process of CAM-mediated adhesion. We found that the presence of multiple domains at the extracellular region of a CAM plays a positive role in regulating its trans-interaction with other CAMs from the opposite side of cell surfaces. The trans-interaction can further be facilitated by the intramolecular contacts between different extracellular domains of a CAM. Finally, if more than one CAM is introduced on each side of cell surfaces, the lateral binding (cis-interactions) between these CAMs will positively correlate with their trans-interactions only within a small energetic range, suggesting that cell adhesion is an elaborately designed process in which both trans- and cis-interactions are fine-tuned collectively by natural selection. In short, this study deepens our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The release of cytokines, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix parameters during and after reperfusion in human liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A R; Platz, K P; Haak, M; Undi, H; Müller, C; Köttgen, E; Weidemann, H; Neuhaus, P

    1996-10-27

    Poor initial graft function may increase postoperative morbidity including the risk of early allograft rejection. Various mediators, including immunostimulatory cytokines, may be released during reperfusion in relation to the extent of preservation and reperfusion injury. For this purpose, 81 patients with 85 liver transplants were monitored for cytokines, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix (ECM) parameters, and neopterin at predefined time-points during and after transplantation. To estimate the origin of cytokine release, blood was obtained central and hepatic venously for the first 48 hr after reperfusion and subsequently from a peripheral vein. One-year patient survival was 88.9%; no relation to initial graft function was observed. Poor initial graft function failed to increase the risk for subsequent infectious complications but was associated with an increased risk of early allograft rejection. The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was significantly increased in patients with poor initial graft function (35.7% versus 12.7% in patients with good and moderate initial graft function; P < or = 0.05). Various cytokines, adhesion molecules, and ECM parameters including sTNF-RII, sIL-2R, IL-8, IL-10, sVCAM-1, E-selectin, hyaluronic acid, sialic acid, and laminin correlated significantly with the extent of preservation and reperfusion injury. Although none of these parameters was more appropriate in determining the extent of preservation and reperfusion injury than currently established parameters (AST, ALT, and color and amount of bile production), the combined increase in these parameters may not only promote tissue repair but may also perpetuate liver allograft injury and thereby cause significant morbidity. Besides cytokines and adhesion molecules, the ECM may play a pivotal role in determining repair or ongoing tissue injury. Ongoing changes at the microvasculature and basement membrane may result in an increase of local and circulating cytokines

  6. Cigarette smoke modulates PC3 prostate cancer cell migration by altering adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    YANG, SUPING; LONG, MINICA; TACHADO, SOUVENIR D.; SENG, SEYHA

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among American males. Studies suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with the progression of PCa; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not been extensively investigated. PCa progression is characterized by increased cell migration and alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM)- and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)-related gene expression. In the present study, the influence of cigarette smoke medium (SM) on cell migration and on the expression of ECM- and CAM-related genes in PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. According to a wound-healing assay, SM treatment promoted PC3 cell migration. RNA expression levels from SM-treated and control cells were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Of 84 genes analyzed, 27.38% (23/84) exhibited a ≥2-fold change in threshold cycle in PC3 cells following 0.5% SM treatment. Functional gene grouping analysis demonstrated that SM treatment modulated the RNA transcription of approximately 18.4% of CAMs and 33.93% of ECM-related genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that SM treatment led to a significant decrease in transcription levels of the following genes: Collagen 5 α-1(V), connective tissue growth factor, integrin β-2, kallmann syndrome 1, laminin α 3, matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7), MMP13, secreted protein acidic cysteine-rich, thrombospondin-2 and versican; and that SM significantly increased the transcription levels of MMP2 and MMP12. Furthermore, MMP2 knockdown significantly reduced the migration of SM-treated PC3 cells. The present study provides novel insights into the association of cigarette smoking with PCa progression, via the alteration of ECM/CAM interactions. PMID:26351771

  7. Differential Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Molecules in Fetal-Origin Amniotic Epithelial Cells of Preeclamptic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Yu, Ji Hea; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Ah Leum; Jo, Mi Hyun; Kim, MinGi; Cho, Sung-Rae; Kim, Young-Han

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common disease that can occur during human pregnancy and is a leading cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Inadequate trophoblast invasion and deficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries are associated with preeclampsia (PE). The development of this syndrome is thought to be related to multiple factors. Recently, we isolated patient-specific human amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) from the placentas of 3 women with normal pregnancy and 3 with preeclamptic pregnancy. Since the characteristics of human AECs in PE are different from those in normal pregnancy, we sought to confirm the genes differentially expressed between preeclamptic pregnancy and normal pregnancy. Therefore, we performed transcriptome analysis to investigate the candidate genes associated with the possible pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Pathway analysis was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) online resource. In this study, we selected a total of 12 pathways and focused on extracellular matrix-related and biological adhesion molecules. Using RT-PCR array and real-time PCR, we confirmed that COL16A1, ITGB2, and LAMA3 were significantly up-regulated, but ITGA1, ITGA3, ITGA6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP11 were significantly down-regulated in preeclamptic fetal origin cells. Taken together, we suggest that the genes and pathways identified here may be responsible for the occurrence and development of PE, and controlling their expression may play a role in communication with fetal-maternal placenta to keep normal pregnancy. PMID:27218821

  8. Cigarette smoke modulates PC3 prostate cancer cell migration by altering adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suping; Long, Minica; Tachado, Souvenir D; Seng, Seyha

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer‑related mortality among American males. Studies suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with the progression of PCa; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not been extensively investigated. PCa progression is characterized by increased cell migration and alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM)‑ and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)‑related gene expression. In the present study, the influence of cigarette smoke medium (SM) on cell migration and on the expression of ECM‑ and CAM‑related genes in PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. According to a wound‑healing assay, SM treatment promoted PC3 cell migration. RNA expression levels from SM‑treated and control cells were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Of 84 genes analyzed, 27.38% (23/84) exhibited a ≥2‑fold change in threshold cycle in PC3 cells following 0.5% SM treatment. Functional gene grouping analysis demonstrated that SM treatment modulated the RNA transcription of approximately 18.4% of CAMs and 33.93% of ECM‑related genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that SM treatment led to a significant decrease in transcription levels of the following genes: Collagen 5 α‑1(V), connective tissue growth factor, integrin β‑2, kallmann syndrome 1, laminin α 3, matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7), MMP13, secreted protein acidic cysteine‑rich, thrombospondin‑2 and versican; and that SM significantly increased the transcription levels of MMP2 and MMP12. Furthermore, MMP2 knockdown significantly reduced the migration of SM‑treated PC3 cells. The present study provides novel insights into the association of cigarette smoking with PCa progression, via the alteration of ECM/CAM interactions.

  9. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  10. Adhesion molecules in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Asrar, A.; Geboes, K.; Al-Kharashi, S.; Tabbara, K.; Missotten, L.; Desmet, V.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Adhesion molecules play a key role in the selective recruitment of different leucocyte population to inflammatory sites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of adhesion molecules in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—The presence and distribution of adhesion molecules were studied in 14 conjunctival biopsy specimens from seven patients with active VKC and in four normal conjunctival biopsy specimens. We used a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3), lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). In addition, a panel of mAbs were used to characterise the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, ICAM-1 was expressed on the vascular endothelium only, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 on epithelial and stromal mononuclear cells , and VLA-4 on stromal mononuclear cells. The expression of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was absent. The number of cells expressing adhesion molecules was found to be markedly increased in all VKC specimens. This was concurrent with a heavy inflammatory infiltrate. Strong ICAM-1 expression was induced on the basal epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was expressed on stromal mononuclear cells. LFA-1 and ICAM-3 were expressed on the majority of epithelial and stromal infiltrating mononuclear cells. VLA-4 expression was noted on stromal mononuclear cells. Compared with controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more ICAM-3+, LFA-1+, and VLA-4+ cells. VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 were induced on the vascular endothelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS—Increased expression of adhesion molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC.

 PMID

  11. Comparison of acute proton, photon, and low-dose priming effects on genes associated with extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in the lungs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crew members on space missions inevitably are exposed to low background radiation and can receive much higher doses during solar particle events (SPE) that consist primarily of protons. Ionizing radiation could cause lung pathologies. Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) are believed to participate in fibrogenesis. Interactions between CAM and extracellular matrix (ECM) affect epithelial repair mechanisms in the lung. However, there are very limited data on biological effects of protons on normal lung tissue. Numerous reports have shown that exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation can result in radioadaptation that renders cells more resistant to subsequent acute radiation. The goal of this study was to compare expression of genes associated with ECM and CAM, as well as critical profibrotic mediators, in mouse lungs after acute irradiation with photons and protons, and also determine whether pre-exposure to LDR γ-rays induces an adaptive effect. Results Overall, a marked difference was present in the proton vs. photon groups in gene expression. When compared to 0 Gy, more genes were affected by protons than by photons at both time points (11 vs. 6 on day 21 and 14 vs. 8 on day 56), and all genes affected by protons were upregulated. Many genes were modulated by LDR γ-rays when combined with photons or protons. Col1a1, mmp14, and mmp15 were significantly upregulated by all radiation regimens on day 21. Similarly, the change in expression of profibrotic proteins was also detected after acute and combination irradiation. Conclusion These data show that marked differences were present between acutely delivered protons and photons in modulating genes, and the effect of protons was more profound than that of photons. Pre-exposure to LDR γ-rays ‘normalized’ some genes that were modified by acute irradiation. PMID:23374750

  12. Effects of Arg-Gly-Asp-modified elastin-like polypeptide on pseudoislet formation via up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Min; Jung, Gwon-Soo; Park, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Seong-Kyoon; Jeon, Won Bae

    2013-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in controlling the β-cell morphology, survival and insulin secretary functions. An RGD-modified elastin-like polypeptide (RGD-ELP), TGPG[VGRGD(VGVPG)(6)](20)WPC, has been reported previously as a bioactive matrix. In this study, to investigate whether RGD-ELP affects β-cell growth characteristics and insulin secretion, β-TC6 cells were cultured on the RGD-ELP coatings prepared via thermally induced phase transition. On RGD-ELP, β-TC6 cells clustered into an islet-like architecture with high cell viability. Throughout 7days' culture, the proliferation rate of the cells within a pseudoislet was similar to that of monolayer culture. Under high glucose (25mM), β-TC6 pseudoislets showed up-regulated insulin gene expression and exhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Importantly, the mRNA and protein abundances of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) E-cadherin and connexin-36 were much higher in pseudoislets than in monolayer cells. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin or connexin-36 expression severely limited pseudoislet formation. In addition, the mRNA levels of collagen types I and IV, fibronectin and laminin were significantly elevated in pseudoislets. The results suggest that RGD-ELP promotes pseudoislet formation via up-regulation of the CAM and ECM components. The functional roles of RGD-ELP are discussed in respect of its molecular composition. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell adhesion molecules in adrenal medulla grafts: enhancement of chromaffin cell L1/Ng-CAM expression and reorganization of extracellular matrix following transplantation.

    PubMed

    Poltorak, M; Freed, W J

    1990-10-01

    Intracerebral adrenal medulla grafts have been used in human patients as an experimental treatment for Parkinson's disease, based on studies in animal models of this disorder. However, alterations in chromaffin cell properties after transplantation and the factors controlling graft survival are poorly understood. Since cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved in regeneration and development of neural tissue in vivo and in vitro, the present study was undertaken to determine the expression of CAMs in adrenal medulla isografts. Fragments of rat adrenal medulla were implanted into the right lateral ventricle. The majority of grafts survived quite well, for up to 2 months (the longest studied period). The implanted chromaffin cells did not develop extensive processes. The cells retained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) immunoreactivity, while phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) expression was decreased. Surviving transplanted chromaffin cells showed enhancement and spreading of surface L1/Ng-CAM expression as compared to normal chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla. The implanted chromaffin cells demonstrated only partial conversion to neuronal phenotypes. These chromaffin cells did not develop extensive processes, but showed an enhancement of L1/Ng-CAM expression. Surviving chromaffin cells were accompanied by reorganization of their closely associated extracellular matrix (ECM). As compared to normal in situ adrenal medulla, graft ECM demonstrated a substantial increase of L1/Ng-CAM and laminin immunoreactivities and a distinct decrease in J1/tenascin expression. Some adrenal medulla grafts degenerated, particularly when misplaced within the host brain parenchyma. In these cases the grafts showed fragmentation of ECM and gradual disappearance of CAMs. These results suggest that surviving adrenal medulla grafts exhibit increased synthesis of certain CAMs by chromaffin cells, which may be involved in interactions between

  14. [Adhesion molecules and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Hopps, E; Caimi, G

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play a significant role in leukocyte migration across the endothelium and are also involved in regulating immune system. It is shown that diabetic patients have an increase of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sICAM-2, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sL-selectin, sP-selectin) considered an integral part of inflammatory state. This inflammation is responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk of these patients. There is a close link between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, coagulopathy and inflammation and between these factors and the vascular damage. Various studies have showed the potential role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathy. They promote leukocyte recruitment, which is one of the initial steps in the genesis of atherosclerotic plaque. Adhesion molecules are also involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1; sICAM-1 would have a particular immunomodulatory role in the process of destroying beta-cells and could be used as a subclinical marker of insulitis. Plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules correlate with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity; they are associated with the development of nephropathy, retinopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke and obliterant peripheral arterial disease in diabetic type 1 and 2. Given the role of these molecules in endothelial dysfunction genesis and tissue damage associated with diabetes, they could constitute a therapeutic target for the prevention of genesis and progression of chronic complications of diabetic disease.

  15. Cell adhesion molecules and sleep.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Emma Kate; Ballester Roig, Maria Neus; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-03-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation. Further, some potential mechanisms by which SAMs may act to regulate sleep are outlined, and the proposition that these molecules may serve as molecular machinery in the two sleep regulatory processes, the circadian and homeostatic components, is presented. Together, the data argue that SAMs regulate the neuronal plasticity that underlies sleep and wakefulness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular adhesion between cartilage extracellular matrix macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Fredrick P; Batista, Michael A; Lindburg, C Alexander; Dean, Delphine; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Ortiz, Christine; Han, Lin

    2014-03-10

    In this study, we investigated the molecular adhesion between the major constituents of cartilage extracellular matrix, namely, the highly negatively charged proteoglycan aggrecan and the type II/IX/XI fibrillar collagen network, in simulated physiological conditions. Colloidal force spectroscopy was applied to measure the maximum adhesion force and total adhesion energy between aggrecan end-attached spherical tips (end radius R ≈ 2.5 μm) and trypsin-treated cartilage disks with undamaged collagen networks. Studies were carried out in various aqueous solutions to reveal the physical factors that govern aggrecan-collagen adhesion. Increasing both ionic strength and [Ca(2+)] significantly increased adhesion, highlighting the importance of electrostatic repulsion and Ca(2+)-mediated ion bridging effects. In addition, we probed how partial enzymatic degradation of the collagen network, which simulates osteoarthritic conditions, affects the aggrecan-collagen interactions. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in aggrecan-collagen adhesion even when there were no detectable changes at the macro- or microscales. It is hypothesized that the aggrecan-collagen adhesion, together with aggrecan-aggrecan self-adhesion, works synergistically to determine the local molecular deformability and energy dissipation of the cartilage matrix, in turn, affecting its macroscopic tissue properties.

  17. The extracellular electrical resistivity in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, Raimund; Fromherz, Peter

    2006-04-01

    The interaction of cells in a tissue depends on the nature of the extracellular matrix. The electrical properties of the narrow extracellular space are unknown. Here we consider cell adhesion mediated by extracellular matrix protein on a solid substrate as a model system. We culture human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells on silica coated with fibronectin and determine the electrical resistivity in the cell-solid junction rhoJ=rJdJ by combining measurements of the sheet resistance rJ and of the distance dJ between membrane and substrate. The sheet resistance is obtained from phase fluorometry of the voltage-sensitive dye ANNINE-5 by alternating-current stimulation from the substrate. The distance is measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy. We change the resistivity of the bath in a range from 66 Omega cm to 750 Omega cm and find that the sheet resistance rJ is proportionally enhanced, but that the distance is invariant around dJ=75 nm. In all cases, the resulting resistivity rhoJ is indistinguishable from the resistivity of the bath. A similar result is obtained for rat neurons cultured on polylysine. On that basis, we propose a "bulk resistivity in cell adhesion" model for cell-solid junctions. The observations suggest that the electrical interaction between cells in a tissue is determined by an extracellular space with the electrical properties of bulk electrolyte.

  18. Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms positively modulate soluble egg antigen-induced inflammatory hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Stereological analysis and immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins, adhesion molecules, and chemokines.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, W.; Bogers, J.; Deelder, A.; Wéry, M.; Van Marck, E.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronized liver granulomas were induced by injecting Sepharose beads to which SEA soluble egg antigen (SEA) or the concanavalin A binding fraction of SEA had been coupled into a mesenteric vein in naive, single-sex (35 days) and bisexually (28 days) Schistosoma mansoni-infected and Plasmodium berghei-immunized mice. Stereological analysis revealed that peak granuloma formation was already reached 8 days after injection in single-sex infected mice compared with 16 days in naive animals. No difference in granuloma formation between naive and P. berghei-immunized animals and between unisexually and bisexually S. mansoni-infected mice was observed. This suggests that the positive immunomodulatory effect on the granulomogenesis is worm specific and not likely to be due to arousal of the immune system by unrelated factors, nor is it influenced by the gender or degree of maturation of female worms. At all stages in time, the concanavalin A binding-fraction-induced granulomas reached only 65 to 70% of the volume of SEA-induced granulomas. Immunophenotyping of extracellular matrix proteins around deposited heads revealed that fibronectin was the dominant extracellular matrix protein and that also type I and IV collagen and laminin were deposited. Temporal analysis of the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-6 was performed. Morphological evidence is presented for the role of adhesion molecules in the initiation and maintenance of hepatic granuloma formation. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was expressed in the granuloma and in hepatic artery branches. From these data, it is concluded that adult S. mansoni worms positively modulate schistosomal hepatic granuloma formation in vivo. Adhesion molecules and chemokines play important roles in schistosomal granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176396

  19. Extracellular matrix proteins matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and correlations with clinical staging in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, Eva Z; Lackner, Nina; Birner, Armin; Bengesser, Susanne; Fellendorf, Frederike T; Platzer, Martina; Rieger, Alexandra; Queissner, Robert; Kainzbauer, Nora; Reininghaus, Bernd; McIntyre, Roger S; Mangge, Harald; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Fuchs, Dietmar; Dejonge, Silvia; Müller, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) are both involved in the restructuring of connective tissues. Evidence also implicates MMP9 and sICAM in cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases, where blood levels may be a marker of disease severity or prognosis. In individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), higher risk for cardiovascular illness has been extensively reported. The aim of this investigation was to measure and compare peripheral levels of serum MMP9 and sICAM in adults with euthymic BD and healthy controls (HC). Furthermore, we focussed on correlations with illness severity and metabolic parameters. MMP9 levels among the BD sample (n = 112) were significantly higher than among the HC (n = 80) (MMP9: F = 9.885, p = 0.002, η(2)  = 0.058) after controlling for confounding factors. Patients with BD in a later, progressive stage of disease showed significantly higher MMP9 as well as sICAM-1 levels compared to patients with BD in an earlier stage of disease (MMP9: F = 5.8, p = 0.018, η(2)  = 0.054; sICAM-1: F = 5.6, p = 0.020, η(2)  = 0.052). Correlation analyses of cognitive measures revealed a negative association between performance on the d2 Test of Attention and MMP9 (r = -0.287, p = 0.018) in the BD sample. Despite the sample being euthymic (i.e., according to conventional criteria) at the time of analysis, we found significant correlations between MMP9 as well as sICAM-1 and subthreshold depressive/hypomanic symptoms. A collection of disparate findings herein point to a role of MMP9 and cICAM-1 in the patho-progressive process of BD: the increased levels of serum MMP9 and sICAM-1, the correlation between higher levels of these parameters, progressive stage, and cognitive dysfunction in BD, and the positive correlation with subthreshold symptoms. As sICAM-1 and MMP9 are reliable biomarkers of inflammatory and early atherosclerotic disease, these markers may provide indications of the

  20. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD. PMID:27242933

  1. The Extracellular Electrical Resistivity in Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Gleixner, Raimund; Fromherz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of cells in a tissue depends on the nature of the extracellular matrix. The electrical properties of the narrow extracellular space are unknown. Here we consider cell adhesion mediated by extracellular matrix protein on a solid substrate as a model system. We culture human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells on silica coated with fibronectin and determine the electrical resistivity in the cell-solid junction \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\rho}_{{\\mathrm{J}}}=r_{{\\mathrm{J}}}d_{{\\mathrm{J}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} by combining measurements of the sheet resistance \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}r_{{\\mathrm{J}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and of the distance \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}d_{{\\mathrm{J}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} between membrane and substrate. The sheet resistance is obtained from phase fluorometry of the voltage-sensitive dye ANNINE-5 by alternating-current stimulation from the substrate. The distance is measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy. We change the resistivity of the bath in a range from \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}66\\hspace{.167em}{\\Omega}\\hspace{.167em

  2. Adhesion molecules--The lifelines of multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ben-Zion

    2010-06-01

    Multiple myeloma is an incurable hematological malignancy of terminally differentiated immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells. As a common presentation of the disease, the malignant plasma cells accumulate and proliferate in the bone marrow, where they disrupt normal hematopoiesis and bone physiology. Multiple myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment are linked by a composite network of interactions mediated by soluble factors and adhesion molecules. Integrins and syndecan-1/CD138 are the principal multiple myeloma receptor systems of extracellular matrix components, as well as of surface molecules of stromal cells. CD44 and RHAMM are the major hyaluronan receptors of multiple myeloma cells. The SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is a key factor in the homing of multiple myeloma cells to the bone marrow. The levels of expression and activity of these adhesion molecules are controlled by cytoplasmic operating mechanisms, as well as by extracellular factors including enzymes, growth factors and microenvironmental conditions. Several signaling responses are activated by adhesive interactions of multiple myeloma cells, and their outcomes affect the survival, proliferation and migration of these cells, and in many cases generate a drug-resistant phenotype. Hence, the adhesion systems of multiple myeloma cells are attractive potential therapeutic targets. Several approaches are being developed to disrupt the activities of adhesion molecules in multiple myeloma cells, including small antagonist molecules, direct targeting by immunoconjugates, stimulation of immune responses against these molecules, and signal transduction inhibitors. These potential novel therapeutics may be incorporated into current treatment schemes, or directed against minimal residual malignant cells during remission. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Single-molecule force spectroscopy of the Aplysia cell adhesion molecule reveals two homophilic bonds.

    PubMed

    Martines, E; Zhong, J; Muzard, J; Lee, A C; Akhremitchev, B B; Suter, D M; Lee, G U

    2012-08-22

    Aplysia californica neurons comprise a powerful model system for quantitative analysis of cellular and biophysical properties that are essential for neuronal development and function. The Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, is present in the growth cone plasma membrane and involved in neurite growth, synapse formation, and synaptic plasticity. apCAM has been considered to be the Aplysia homolog of the vertebrate neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM); however, whether apCAM exhibits similar binding properties and neuronal functions has not been fully established because of the lack of detailed binding data for the extracellular portion of apCAM. In this work, we used the atomic force microscope to perform single-molecule force spectroscopy of the extracellular region of apCAM and show for the first time (to our knowledge) that apCAM, like NCAM, is indeed a homophilic cell adhesion molecule. Furthermore, like NCAM, apCAM exhibits two distinct bonds in the trans configuration, although the kinetic and structural parameters of the apCAM bonds are quite different from those of NCAM. In summary, these single-molecule analyses further indicate that apCAM and NCAM are species homologs likely performing similar functions.

  4. Episialin (MUC1) overexpression inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Episialin (MUC1) is a transmembrane molecule with a large mucin-like extracellular domain protruding high above the cell surface. The molecule is located at the apical side of most glandular epithelial cells, whereas in carcinoma cells it is often present at the entire surface and it is frequently expressed in abnormally large quantities. We have previously shown that overexpression of episialin reduces cell- cell interactions. Here we show that the integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix of transfectants of a melanoma cell line (A375), a transformed epithelial cell line (MDCK-ras-e) and a human breast epithelial cell line (HBL-100) is reduced by high levels of episialin. This reduction can be reversed by inducing high avidity of the beta 1 integrins by mAb TS2/16 (at least for beta 1-mediated adhesion). The adhesion can also be restored by redistribution of episialin on the cell surface by monoclonal antibodies into patches or caps. Similarly, capping of episialin on ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma cells, growing in suspension, caused adherence and spreading of these cells. We propose that there is a delicate balance between adhesion and anti-adhesion forces in episialin expressing cells, which can be shifted towards adhesion by strengthening the integrin-mediated adhesion, or towards anti-adhesion by increasing the level of expression of episialin. PMID:7698991

  5. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks. PMID:27984584

  6. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks.

  7. Eosinophils adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 via podosomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Mats W; Lye, Ming H; Barthel, Steven R; Duffy, Allison K; Annis, Douglas S; Mosher, Deane F

    2004-10-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 supports specific eosinophil adhesion via alpha4beta1 integrin. We tested the hypothesis that adhesive contacts formed by eosinophils on VCAM-1 are different from focal adhesions formed by adherent fibroblasts. Eosinophils adherent on VCAM-1 formed punctate adhesions that fit the criteria for podosomes, highly dynamic structures found in adherent transformed fibroblasts, osteoclasts, and macrophages. The structures contained beta1 integrin subunit, phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, punctate filamentous actin, and gelsolin, a podosome marker. In contrast, nontransformed fibroblasts on VCAM-1 formed peripheral focal adhesions that were positive for alpha4, beta1, phosphotyrosine, vinculin, talin, and paxillin; negative for gelsolin; and associated with microfilaments. Phorbol myristate acetate or tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-5 stimulated podosome formation in adherent eosinophils. Because podosomes in tumor cells are associated with extracellular matrix degradation, we analyzed the VCAM-1 layer. VCAM-1 was lost under adherent eosinophils but not under adherent fibroblasts. This loss was inhibited by the metalloproteinase inhibitor ortho-phenanthroline and correlated with expression and podosome localization of a membrane-tethered metalloproteinase, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 8. Podosome-mediated VCAM-1 clearance may be a mechanism to regulate eosinophil arrest and extravasation in allergic conditions such as asthma.

  8. Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeshin; Scherer, Norbert F.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2006-08-01

    The glue proteins secreted by marine mussels bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments in which most adhesives function poorly. Studies of these functionally unique proteins have revealed the presence of the unusual amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), which is formed by posttranslational modification of tyrosine. However, the detailed binding mechanisms of dopa remain unknown, and the chemical basis for mussels' ability to adhere to both inorganic and organic surfaces has never been fully explained. Herein, we report a single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of a single dopa residue contacting a wet metal oxide surface reveal a surprisingly high strength yet fully reversible, noncovalent interaction. The magnitude of the bond dissociation energy as well as the inability to observe this interaction with tyrosine suggests that dopa is critical to adhesion and that the binding mechanism is not hydrogen bond formation. Oxidation of dopa, as occurs during curing of the secreted mussel glue, dramatically reduces the strength of the interaction to metal oxide but results in high strength irreversible covalent bond formation to an organic surface. A new picture of the interfacial adhesive role of dopa emerges from these studies, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition from organic to metallic. 3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine | atomic force microscopy | mussel adhesive protein

  9. Phylogeny of a neural cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Hall, A K; Rutishauser, U

    1985-07-01

    The phylogeny of adhesion among cells derived from neural tissue has been examined using a combination of functional and immunological analyses. The presence of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was evaluated with respect to NCAM-specific antigenic determinants attached to a polypeptide chain with appropriate electrophoretic properties. By these criteria, NCAM-like molecules were detected in all embryonic and adult vertebrates tested, and an adult mollusc, but not in an adult insect, crustacean, or nematode. The functional assays measured adhesiveness by simple aggregation of neural membrane vesicles, as well as by NCAM-specific binding between membranes from different species. The presence of the NCAM antigen in vertebrate membranes correlated with binding activity in both the NCAM-specific and general adhesion assays, implying that the adhesiveness of these membranes largely reflects NCAM-mediated binding. The results also indicate that NCAM function has been conserved during the evolution of vertebrates, and supports the possibility that mechanisms of nerve-nerve, nerve-muscle, and nerve-glial interaction, which have been demonstrated previously to involve NCAM, may be similar for many chordates. Whereas NCAM was not detected in adult fly and worm, these species did express NCAM-like antigens transiently during early development. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NCAM is required during several periods of development, and that the functions of this molecule in nematodes and insects may be distinct from or a subset of those that occur in vertebrates. The expanded role of the molecule represented by its expression during later stages of vertebrate development may thus have been an important contribution to the evolution of chordates.

  10. Mixed Extracellular Matrix Ligands Synergistically Modulate Integrin Adhesion and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Catherine D.; Petrie, Timothy A.; García, Andrés J

    2008-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components through cell-surface integrin receptors is essential to the formation, maintenance and repair of numerous tissues, and therefore represents a central theme in the design of bioactive materials that successfully interface with the body. While the adhesive responses associated with a single ligand have been extensively analyzed, the effects of multiple integrin subtypes binding to multivalent ECM signals remain poorly understood. In the present study, we generated a high throughput platform of non-adhesive surfaces presenting well-defined, independent densities of two integrin-specific engineered ligands for the type I collagen (COL-I) receptor α2β1 and the fibronectin (FN) receptor α5β1 to evaluate the effects of integrin cross-talk on adhesive responses. Engineered surfaces displayed ligand density-dependent adhesive effects, and mixed ligand surfaces significantly enhanced cell adhesion strength and focal adhesion assembly compared to single FN and COL-I ligand surfaces. Moreover, surfaces presenting mixed COL-I/FN ligands synergistically enhanced FAK activation compared to the single ligand substrates. The enhanced adhesive activities of the mixed ligand surfaces also promoted elevated proliferation rates. Our results demonstrate interplay between multivalent ECM ligands in adhesive responses and downstream cellular signaling. PMID:18613064

  11. Cleavage and Cell Adhesion Properties of Human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (HEPCAM)*

    PubMed Central

    Tsaktanis, Thanos; Kremling, Heidi; Pavšič, Miha; von Stackelberg, Ricarda; Mack, Brigitte; Fukumori, Akio; Steiner, Harald; Vielmuth, Franziska; Spindler, Volker; Huang, Zhe; Jakubowski, Jasmine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Luxenburger, Elke; Lauber, Kirsten; Lenarčič, Brigita; Gires, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed in carcinomas, which promotes proliferation after regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Here, we describe extracellular shedding of HEPCAM at two α-sites through a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) and at one β-site through BACE1. Transmembrane cleavage by γ-secretase occurs at three γ-sites to generate extracellular Aβ-like fragments and at two ϵ-sites to release human EPCAM intracellular domain HEPICD, which is efficiently degraded by the proteasome. Mapping of cleavage sites onto three-dimensional structures of HEPEX cis-dimer predicted conditional availability of α- and β-sites. Endocytosis of HEPCAM warrants acidification in cytoplasmic vesicles to dissociate protein cis-dimers required for cleavage by BACE1 at low pH values. Intramembrane cleavage sites are accessible and not part of the structurally important transmembrane helix dimer crossing region. Surprisingly, neither chemical inhibition of cleavage nor cellular knock-out of HEPCAM using CRISPR-Cas9 technology impacted the adhesion of carcinoma cell lines. Hence, a direct function of HEPCAM as an adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells is not supported and appears to be questionable. PMID:26292218

  12. The Role Of Cells, Neurotrophins, Extracellular Matrix And Cell Surface Molecules In Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Murali

    2009-01-01

    Wallerian degeneration is a complicated process whereby axons and myelin sheaths undergo degeneration, and eventually are phagocytosed by macrophages and Schwann cells following nerve damage. Schwann cells proliferate and the endoneural tubes persist. In addition, neurotrophins, neural cell adhesion molecules, cytokines and other soluble factors are upregulated to facilitate regeneration. The important role of cellular components, neurotrophins, and extracellular matrix components, including cell surface molecules involved in this regenerative process, is highlighted and discussed in this review. PMID:22589652

  13. [Molecular mechanisms underlying cell adhesion--molecules mediating lymphocyte migration].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, M

    2000-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play crucial roles in a variety of in vivo responses such as development of various tissues in embryos and also in the body defence mechanism in the postnatal period. Defects in adhesion molecules thus result in various pathological disorders. Recent investigation has identified a large number of novel adhesion molecules, particularly those involved in the extravasation of leukocytes including lymphocytes. However, there still appears to be a substantial number of unidentified adhesion molecules. In addition, signal transduction as well as regulatory mechanisms of adhesion molecules remain not fully explored. I will herein describe general characteristics of adhesion molecules and also discuss issues that need to be urgently resolved in the field of cell adhesion.

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move ‘up and down’ the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the blood–testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)—BTB—basement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. METHODS Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. RESULTS Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS ICAMs are crucial

  15. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the extracellular Ig modules I–IV and F3 modules I–III of the neural cell-adhesion molecule L1

    SciTech Connect

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kasper, Christina; Kristensen, Ole; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Gajhede, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Mouse L1 modules Ig I–IV and F3 I–III were crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.5 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. Four amino-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) modules and three fibronectin type III (F3) modules of the mouse neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 have been expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. The Ig modules I–IV of L1 crystallized in a trigonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 239.6, c = 99.3 Å, and the crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of about 3.5 Å. The F3 modules I–III of L1 crystallized in a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 80.1, c = 131 Å, and the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution. This is a step towards the structure determination of the multimodular constructs of the neural cell-adhesion molecule L1 in order to understand the function of L1 on a structural basis.

  16. Adhesion molecule expression in bullous keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S N; Nölle, B; Duncker, G

    1996-08-01

    Adhesion molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of bullous keratopathy. The expression of the integrin VLA-beta 1, alpha-subunits of the beta 2-integrins LFA-1, Mac-1, and p150,95, the members of the immunoglobulin family ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and the selectin ELAM-1 on corneas with bullous keratopathy (BK) secondary to intraocular surgery was studied immunohistochemically using an APAAP method. In the corneas with BK (in contrast to normal corneas), a downregulation of VLA-beta 1 was observed throughout the corneal tissues, particularly on the epithelial layer where bullae occurred; ICAM-1 was induced on epithelial membranes in both BK and inflamed corneas; and the expression of beta 2-integrins, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was upregulated in some specimens with remaining endothelial cells. The results show that the investigated adhesion molecules may participate in the pathogenesis of BK. The decrease in VLA-beta 1 in patients with BK may be an important factor in the occurrence and development of recurrent bullae; the induced ICAM-1 may recruit beta 2-integrin-positive leukocytes into the epithelial layer, thus aggravating epithelial damage; and beta 2-integrins and VCAM-1 may play a role in endothelial injury and decompensation.

  17. Analysis of Adhesion Molecules and Basement Membrane Contributions to Synaptic Adhesion at the Drosophila Embryonic NMJ

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Andre; Schenck, Annette; Prokop, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Synapse formation and maintenance crucially underlie brain function in health and disease. Both processes are believed to depend on cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Many different classes of CAMs localise to synapses, including cadherins, protocadherins, neuroligins, neurexins, integrins, and immunoglobulin adhesion proteins, and further contributions come from the extracellular matrix and its receptors. Most of these factors have been scrutinised by loss-of-function analyses in animal models. However, which adhesion factors establish the essential physical links across synaptic clefts and allow the assembly of synaptic machineries at the contact site in vivo is still unclear. To investigate these key questions, we have used the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of Drosophila embryos as a genetically amenable model synapse. Our ultrastructural analyses of NMJs lacking different classes of CAMs revealed that loss of all neurexins, all classical cadherins or all glutamate receptors, as well as combinations between these or with a Laminin deficiency, failed to reveal structural phenotypes. These results are compatible with a view that these CAMs might have no structural role at this model synapse. However, we consider it far more likely that they operate in a redundant or well buffered context. We propose a model based on a multi-adaptor principle to explain this phenomenon. Furthermore, we report a new CAM-independent adhesion mechanism that involves the basement membranes (BM) covering neuromuscular terminals. Thus, motorneuronal terminals show strong partial detachment of the junction when BM-to-cell surface attachment is impaired by removing Laminin A, or when BMs lose their structural integrity upon loss of type IV collagens. We conclude that BMs are essential to tie embryonic motorneuronal terminals to the muscle surface, lending CAM-independent structural support to their adhesion. Therefore, future developmental studies of these synaptic junctions in Drosophila need

  18. Alterations in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rabb, H; Calderon, E; Bittle, P A; Ramirez, G

    1996-02-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients can develop acute reactions during treatment as well as increased long-term susceptibility to infections and malignancies. Abnormalities in leukocyte adhesion may contribute to these processes. Recently, serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules have been detected in circulating blood of normal subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure. We studied the effects of a single dialysis session with new cuprophane membrane on the soluble (s) form of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), two adhesion molecules with a variety of immunologic roles. Significant elevations in both sICAM-1 (523 +/- 61 v 304 +/- 45 [SEM] ng/mL, P < 0.05) and sVCAM-1 (2,055 +/- 270 v 1,189 +/- 149 ng/mL, P < 0.05) were observed in HD patients at baseline compared with controls. Both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels decreased after a 3-hour HD session (P < 0.001). Early in HD, sICAM-1 levels, though lower than predialysis, were elevated in the exit line of the dialyzer compared with entrance (339 +/- 64 v 259 +/- 53 ng/mL, P < 0.001), whereas sVCAM-1 was decreased on the exit line compared with entrance (639 +/- 90 v 932 +/- 92 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Because ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are important for many leukocyte functions, alterations in serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 may play a role in the immunologic consequences of uremia and HD treatment.

  19. Immune receptors and adhesion molecules in human pulmonary leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Del Carlo Bernardi, Fabiola; Ctenas, Bruno; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Mauad, Thais

    2012-10-01

    Pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis has been increasingly reported in the last 20 years, being related to the severity and mortality of the disease. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis is not understood. Lung endothelial cells have been proposed as targets in the pathogenesis of lung involvement in leptospirosis through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 or the complement system, which stimulates the release of cytokines that lead to the activation of adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of immune pathways and of the intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule and vascular cell adhesion molecule, respectively) in the lungs of patients with pulmonary involvement of leptospirosis. We studied the lungs of 18 patients who died of leptospirosis and compared them with 2 groups of controls: normal and noninfectious hemorrhagic lungs. Using immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we quantified the expression of the C3a anaphylatoxin receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, and Toll-like receptor 2 in small pulmonary vessels and in the alveolar septa. There was an increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (P < .03) and C3a anaphylatoxin receptor (P < .008) in alveolar septa in the leptospirosis group compared with the normal and hemorrhagic controls. In the vessels of the leptospirosis group, there was an increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (P = .004), vascular cell adhesion molecule (P = .030), and Toll-like receptor 2 (P = .042) compared with the normal group. Vascular cell adhesion molecule expression in vessels was higher in the leptospirosis group compared with the hemorrhagic group (P = .015). Our results indicate that immune receptors and adhesion molecules participate in the phenomena leading to pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeting of adhesion molecules as a therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Neri, Paola; Bahlis, Nizar J

    2012-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal disorder of plasma cells that remains, for the most part, incurable despite the advent of several novel therapeutic agents. Tumor cells in this disease are cradled within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment by an array of adhesive interactions between the BM cellular residents, the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as fibronectin (FN), laminin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), proteoglycans, collagens and hyaluronan, and a variety of adhesion molecules on the surface of MM cells including integrins, hyaluronan receptors (CD44 and RHAMM) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Several signaling responses are activated by these interactions, affecting the survival, proliferation and migration of MM cells. An important consequence of these direct adhesive interactions between the BM/ECM and MM cells is the development of drug resistance. This phenomenon is termed "cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance" (CAM-DR) and it is thought to be one of the major mechanisms by which MM cells escape the cytotoxic effects of therapeutic agents. This review will focus on the adhesion molecules involved in the cross-talk between MM cells and components of the BM microenvironment. The complex signaling networks downstream of these adhesive molecules mediated by direct ligand binding or inside-out soluble factors signaling will also be reviewed. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies targeting these molecules will be discussed. Identification of the mediators of MM-BM interaction is essential to understand MM biology and to elucidate novel therapeutic targets for this disease.

  1. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Villa-Verde, D M; Calado, T C; Ocampo, J S; Silva-Monteiro, E; Savino, W

    1999-05-01

    Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble beta-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  2. Cloning and characterization of R-PTP-kappa, a new member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family with a proteolytically cleaved cellular adhesion molecule-like extracellular region.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Y P; Wang, H; D'Eustachio, P; Musacchio, J M; Schlessinger, J; Sap, J

    1993-01-01

    We describe a new member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family, R-PTP-kappa, cDNA cloning predicts that R-PTP-kappa is synthesized from a precursor protein of 1,457 amino acids. Its intracellular domain displays the classical tandemly repeated protein tyrosine phosphatase homology, separated from the transmembrane segment by an uncharacteristically large juxta-membrane region. The extracellular domain of the R-PTP-kappa precursor protein contains an immunoglobulin-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats, preceded by a signal peptide and a region of about 150 amino acids with similarity to the Xenopus A5 antigen, a putative neuronal recognition molecule (S. Takagi, T. Hsrata, K. Agata, M. Mochii, G. Eguchi, and H. Fujisawa, Neuron 7:295-307, 1991). Antibodies directed against the intra- and extracellular domains reveal that the R-PTP-kappa precursor protein undergoes proteolytic processing, following which both cleavage products remain associated. By site-directed mutagenesis, the likely cleavage site was shown to be a consensus sequence for cleavage by the processing endopeptidase furin, located in the fourth fibronectin type III-like repeat. In situ hybridization analysis indicates that expression of R-PTP-kappa in the central nervous system is developmentally regulated, with highest expression seen in actively developing areas and, in the adult, in areas capable of developmental plasticity such as the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex. The mouse R-PTP-kappa gene maps to chromosome 10, at approximately 21 centimorgans from the centromere. Images PMID:8474452

  3. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

    2003-01-01

    Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein. PMID:19570245

  4. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

    2003-01-01

    Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  5. Fibroblast extracellular matrix and adhesion on microtextured polydimethylsiloxane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Morgan M; Parrillo, Allegra; Thomas, Gawain M; McGimpsey, W Grant; Wen, Qi; Bellin, Robert M; Lambert, Christopher R

    2015-05-01

    The immediate physical and chemical surroundings of cells provide important biochemical cues for their behavior. Designing and tailoring biomaterials for controlled cell signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) can be difficult due to the complexity of the cell-surface relationship. To address this issue, our research has led to the development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffold with defined microtopography and chemistry for surface driven ECM assembly. When human fibroblasts were cultured on this microtextured PDMS with 2-6 µm wide vertical features, significant changes in morphology, adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, and fibronectin generation were noted when compared with cells cultured on unmodified PDMS. Investigation of cellular response and behavior was performed with atomic force microscopy in conjunction with fluorescent labeling of focal adhesion cites and fibronectin in the ECM. Changes in the surface topography induced lower adhesion, an altered actin cytoskeleton, and compacted units of fibronectin similar to that observed in vivo. Overall, these findings provide critical information of cell-surface interactions with a microtextured, polymer substrate that can be used in the field of tissue engineering for controlling cellular ECM interactions.

  6. Extracellular matrix-specific focal adhesions in vascular smooth muscle produce mechanically active adhesion sites

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhe; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.; Hill, Michael A.; Meininger, Gerald A.

    2008-01-01

    Integrin-mediated mechanotransduction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the physiological control of tissue blood flow and vascular resistance. To test whether force applied to specific extracellular matrix (ECM)-integrin interactions could induce myogenic-like mechanical activity at focal adhesion sites, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to apply controlled forces to specific ECM adhesion sites on arteriolar VSMCs. The tip of AFM probes were fused with a borosilicate bead (2∼5 μm) coated with fibronectin (FN), collagen type I (CNI), laminin (LN), or vitronectin (VN). ECM-coated beads induced clustering of α5- and β3-integrins and actin filaments at sites of bead-cell contact indicative of focal adhesion formation. Step increases of an upward (z-axis) pulling force (800∼1,600 pN) applied to the bead-cell contact site for FN-specific focal adhesions induced a myogenic-like, force-generating response from the VSMC, resulting in a counteracting downward pull by the cell. This micromechanical event was blocked by cytochalasin D but was enhanced by jasplakinolide. Function-blocking antibodies to α5β1- and αvβ3-integrins also blocked the micromechanical cell event in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar pulling experiments with CNI, VN, or LN failed to induce myogenic-like micromechanical events. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mechanical force applied to integrin-FN adhesion sites induces an actin-dependent, myogenic-like, micromechanical event. Focal adhesions formed by different ECM proteins exhibit different mechanical characteristics, and FN appears of particular relevance in its ability to strongly attach to VSMCs and to induce myogenic-like, force-generating reactions from sites of focal adhesion in response to externally applied forces. PMID:18495809

  7. Adhesion Molecules in CNS Disorders: Biomarker and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingyi; Chen, Sheng; Klebe, Damon; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence has been provided regarding the crucial role of leukocyte extravasation and subsequent inflammatory response in several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The infiltrated leukocytes release pro-inflammatory mediators and activate resident cells, leading to tissue injury. Leukocyte-endothelia interaction is critical for leukocyte extravasation and migration from the intravascular space into the tissue during inflammation. The basic physiology of leukocyte-endothelia interaction has been investigated extensively. Traditionally, three kinds of adhesion molecules, selectin, integrin, and immunoglobulin families, are responsible for this multiple-step interaction. Furthermore, blocking adhesion molecule function by genetic knockout, antagonizing antibodies, or inhibitory pharmacological drugs provides neuroprotection, which is associated with a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with in the tissue. Detection of the soluble form of adhesion molecules has also been proven to predict outcomes in CNS disorders. Lately, vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), a novel adhesion molecule and endothelial cell surface enzyme, has been implicated as a brake during leukocyte extravasation. In this review, we summarize the functions of traditional adhesion molecules as well as VAP-1 in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. We also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of adhesion molecules in CNS disorders. PMID:23469854

  8. Circulating adhesion molecules in obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pak, Victoria M; Grandner, Michael A; Pack, Allan I

    2014-02-01

    Over 20 years of evidence indicates a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease. Although inflammatory processes have been heavily implicated as an important link between the two, the mechanism for this has not been conclusively established. Atherosclerosis may be one of the mechanisms linking OSA to cardiovascular morbidity. This review addresses the role of circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA, and how these may be part of the link between cardiovascular disease and OSA. There is evidence for the role of adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease risk. Some studies, albeit with small sample sizes, also show higher levels of adhesion molecules in patients with OSA compared to controls. There are also studies that show that levels of adhesion molecules diminish with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Limitations of these studies include small sample sizes, cross-sectional sampling, and inconsistent control for confounding variables known to influence adhesion molecule levels. There are potential novel therapies to reduce circulating adhesion molecules in patients with OSA to diminish cardiovascular disease. Understanding the role of cell adhesion molecules generated in OSA will help elucidate one mechanistic link to cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.

  9. [Role of "leukocyte adhesion molecules" in early periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Vierucci, S

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to focus on functional characteristics of leukocyte adhesion molecules, on their localization and specific ligands. In fact, leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelium is an essential step in promoting adequate immune response to bacterial infections. Since periodontal health is highly dependent on neutrophil function against the microbial dental plaque, defects in chemotaxis and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium often result in severe, early onset periodontitis. Furthermore, oral lesions may be the only clinical manifestation of neutrophil impairment.

  10. Cell adhesion molecules and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Simopoulou, Maria; Nikolopoulou, Elena; Dimakakos, Andreas; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses issues regarding the need in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) field for further predictive markers enhancing the standing embryo selection criteria. It aims to serve as a source of defining information for an audience interested in factors related to the wide range of multiple roles played by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in several aspects of IVF ultimately associated with the success of an IVF cycle. We begin by stressing the importance of enriching the standing embryo selection criteria available aiming for the golden standard: "extract as much information as possible focusing on non-invasive techniques" so as to guide us towards selecting the embryo with the highest implantation potential. We briefly describe the latest trends on how to best select the right embryo, moving closer towards elective single embryo transfer. These trends are: frozen embryo transfer for all, preimplantation genetic screening, non-invasive selection criteria, and time-lapse imaging. The main part of this review is dedicated to categorizing and presenting published research studies focused on the involvement of CAMs in IVF and its final outcome. Specifically, we discuss the association of CAMs with conditions and complications that arise from performing assisted reproductive techniques, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, the state of the endometrium, and tubal pregnancies, as well as the levels of CAMs in biological materials available in the IVF laboratory such as follicular fluid, trophectoderm, ovarian granulosa cells, oocytes, and embryos. To conclude, since CAMs have been successfully employed as a diagnostic tool in several pathologies in routine clinical work, we suggest that their multi-faceted nature could serve as a prognostic marker in assisted reproduction, aiming to enrich the list of non-invasive selection and predictive criteria in the IVF setting. We propose that in light of the well-documented involvement of CAMs in the developmental

  11. Cell adhesion molecules: detection with univalent second antibody

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against certain cell surface molecules of Dictyostelium discoideum blocks cell-cell adhesion when the in vitro assay is performed in the presence of univalent goat anti-rabbit antibody. Under appropriate experimental conditions, the univalent second antibody blocks agglutination induced by the rabbit antibody without significantly interfering with its effect on cell-cell adhesion. This method promises to be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies raised against potential cell adhesion molecules because: (a) it allows for the screening of large numbers of antibody samples without preparation of univalent fragments; and (b) it requires much less antibody because of the greater affinity of divalent antibodies for antigens. PMID:6970200

  12. Insights into adhesion biology using single-molecule localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tabarin, Thibault; Pageon, Sophie V; Bach, Cuc T T; Lu, Yong; O'Neill, Geraldine M; Gooding, J Justin; Gaus, Katharina

    2014-03-17

    Focal adhesions are complex multi-protein structures that mediate cell adhesion and cell migration in multicellular organisms. Most of the protein components involved in focal adhesion formation have been identified, but a major challenge remains: determination of the spatial and temporal dynamics of adhesion proteins in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of adhesion assembly, maturation, signal regulation, and disassembly. Progress in this field has been hampered by the limited resolution of fluorescence microscopy. Recent advances have led to the development of super-resolution techniques including single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). Here, we discuss how the application of these techniques has revealed important new insights into focal adhesion structure and dynamics, including the first description of the three-dimensional nano-architecture of focal adhesions and of the dynamic exchange of integrins in focal adhesions. Hence, SMLM has contributed to the refinement of existing models of adhesions as well as the establishment of novel models, thereby opening new research directions. With current improvements in SMLM instrumentation and analysis, it has become possible to study cellular adhesions at the single-molecule level. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cell Adhesion Molecules in Chemically-Induced Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules are integral cell-membrane proteins that maintain cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion, and in some cases, act as regulators of intracellular signaling cascades. In the kidney, cell adhesion molecules such as the cadherins, the catenins, ZO-1, occludin and the claudins are essential for maintaining the epithelial polarity and barrier integrity that are necessary for the normal absorption/excretion of fluid and solutes. A growing volume of evidence indicates that these cell adhesion molecules are important early targets for a variety of nephrotoxic substances including metals, drugs, and venom components. In addition, it is now widely appreciated that molecules such as ICAM-1, the integrins and selectins play important roles in the recruitment of leukocytes and inflammatory responses that are associated with nephrotoxic injury. This review summarizes the results of recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicating that these cell adhesion molecules may be primary molecular targets in many types of chemically-induced renal injury. Some of the specific agents that are discussed include Cd, Hg, Bi, cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine) (DCVC) and various venom toxins. This review also includes a discussion of the various mechanisms by which these substances can affect cell adhesion molecules in the kidney. PMID:17316817

  14. Amniotic fluid adhesion molecules during parturition at term.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Birgit; von Rango, Ulrike; Brehme, Anja; Rath, Werner

    2009-01-01

    During term parturition a constant elevation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) as well as increases of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) in the lower uterine segment and of ICAM-1 in fetal membranes were observed. We examined ELAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 during normal term parturition to find out whether amniotic fluid adhesion molecules change accordingly. Amniotic fluid specimens of 35 patients undergoing cesarean section at term with various stages of cervical dilatation (<2 cm, n=11; 2-<4 cm, n=10; 4-6 cm, n=6; >6 cm, n=8) and different durations of labor (0 h, n=11; >0 h, n=24) were examined for ELAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by enzyme immunoassay. For statistical analysis one-way ANOVA (cervical dilatation) and unpaired t-test (duration of labor) were used (P<0.05). Neither ELAM-1 nor VCAM-1 correlated with cervical dilatation or with the duration of labor. ICAM-1 showed a tendency to decline with the last phase of cervical dilatation (P=0.06) and a significant decline with labor (P=0.046). In contrast to adhesion molecules in the lower uterine segment amniotic fluid adhesion molecules ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 do not rise significantly during parturition. The decline of ICAM-1 may be due to a transfer to other compartments (i.e., lower uterine segment or retroplacental blood) thereby contributing to labor and cervical dilatation.

  15. Extracellular proteins from Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 prevent adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Urdaci, María C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the interference of the extracellular proteins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 with the adhesion of some well-known gut pathogens. The extracellular proteins secreted by L. plantarum BMCM12 in MRS broth were precipitated, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Discordances between the observed and the theoretical molecular masses of several proteins suggested the presence of protein glycosylation, corroborated with specific glycoprotein staining after protein de-glycosylation using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Experiments of exclusion, competition, or prevention of the pathogen adhesion to mucin were performed using BMCM12 extracellular proteins, using Escherichia coli LMG2092 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica LMG15860. Extracellular proteins from BMCM12 reduced significantly the adhesion of the pathogens when they were added prior to adhesion assays. These proteins play thus important roles in preventing pathogen adhesion to the mucin layer.

  16. Adhesion Molecule-Modified Biomaterials for Neural Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shreyas S.; Winter, Jessica O.

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion molecules (AMs) represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored. PMID:19668707

  17. Methamphetamine-associated cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-5.

    PubMed

    Conant, Katherine; Lonskaya, Irina; Szklarczyk, Arek; Krall, Caroline; Steiner, Joseph; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen; Lim, Seung T

    2011-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that, used in excess, may be neurotoxic. Although the mechanisms that underlie its addictive potential are not completely understood, in animal models matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors can reduce behavioral correlates of addiction. In addition, evidence from genome-wide association studies suggests that polymorphisms in synaptic cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), known MMP substrates, are linked to addictive potential in humans. In the present study, we examined the ability of MA to stimulate cleavage of intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5), a synaptic CAM expressed on dendritic spines in the telencephalon. Previous studies have shown that shedding of ICAM-5 is associated with maturation of dendritic spines, and that MMP-dependent shedding occurs with long term potentiation. Herein, we show that MA stimulates ectodomain cleavage of ICAM-5 in vitro, and that this is abrogated by a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor. We also show that an acute dose of MA, administered in vivo, is associated with cleavage of ICAM-5 in murine hippocampus and striatum. This occurs within 6 h and is accompanied by an increase in MMP-9 protein. In related experiments, we examined the potential consequences of ICAM-5 shedding. We demonstrate that the ICAM-5 ectodomain can interact with β(1) integrins, and that it can stimulate β(1) integrin-dependent phosphorylation of cofilin, an event that has previously been linked to MMP-dependent spine maturation. Together these data support an emerging appreciation of MMPs as effectors of synaptic plasticity and suggest a mechanism by which MA may influence the same. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Cytokines and adhesion molecules in stroke and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S

    1996-05-01

    Once thought as immunologically naive, cells from the central nervous system have been shown to become immunologically reactive and produce various substances including cytokines and adhesion molecules. Recent investigations have revealed that mRNAs of certain cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 are expressed in the ischemic brain of the animals. Chemokines including CINC, MCP-1, and MIP-1, as well as adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1. ELAM and P-selectin were also found to be expressed. Although identification of the cells producing these cytokines were often difficult, neurons, endothelia, activated astrocytes and microglia/macrophages were the likely sources. The induction of these molecules in ischemic brain is time-locked and appears to be controlled in a highly regulated manner during the process of ischemic cascade. The functional role, interrelationship, and basic mechanism of action of these molecules are being increasingly recognized, while trials such as antiadhesion antibody molecules, growth factors, and anticytokine antibodies have been successful in reducing the neuronal damage in animals subjected to ischemic injury. Furthermore, changes of certain cytokines or adhesion molecules have been detected in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stroke and related diseases suggesting that these molecules play a role in the pathogenesis of human stroke. Understanding of these cytokine-adhesion molecule cascades in the ischemic brain may allow us to develop new strategies for the treatment of stroke.

  19. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ubiquitination—Functions and Significance

    PubMed Central

    Homrich, Mirka; Gotthard, Ingo; Wobst, Hilke; Diestel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily represent the biggest group of cell adhesion molecules. They have been analyzed since approximately 40 years ago and most of them have been shown to play a role in tumor progression and in the nervous system. All members of the Ig superfamily are intensively posttranslationally modified. However, many aspects of their cellular functions are not yet known. Since a few years ago it is known that some of the Ig superfamily members are modified by ubiquitin. Ubiquitination has classically been described as a proteasomal degradation signal but during the last years it became obvious that it can regulate many other processes including internalization of cell surface molecules and lysosomal sorting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the ubiquitination of cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily and to discuss its potential physiological roles in tumorigenesis and in the nervous system. PMID:26703751

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase modulates ethanol inhibition of cell adhesion mediated by the L1 neural cell adhesion molecule

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaowei; Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Menkari, Carrie E.; Parnell, Scott E.; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Charness, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    There is a genetic contribution to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but the identification of candidate genes has been elusive. Ethanol may cause FASD in part by decreasing the adhesion of the developmentally critical L1 cell adhesion molecule through interactions with an alcohol binding pocket on the extracellular domain. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of ERK2 did not alter L1 adhesion, but markedly decreased ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion in NIH/3T3 cells and NG108-15 cells. Likewise, leucine replacement of S1248, an ERK2 substrate on the L1 cytoplasmic domain, did not decrease L1 adhesion, but abolished ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion. Stable transfection of NIH/3T3 cells with human L1 resulted in clonal cell lines in which L1 adhesion was consistently sensitive or insensitive to ethanol for more than a decade. ERK2 activity and S1248 phosphorylation were greater in ethanol-sensitive NIH/3T3 clonal cell lines than in their ethanol-insensitive counterparts. Ethanol-insensitive cells became ethanol sensitive after increasing ERK2 activity by transfection with a constitutively active MAP kinase kinase 1. Finally, embryos from two substrains of C57BL mice that differ in susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis showed corresponding differences in MAPK activity. Our data suggest that ERK2 phosphorylation of S1248 modulates ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion by inside-out signaling and that differential regulation of ERK2 signaling might contribute to genetic susceptibility to FASD. Moreover, identification of a specific locus that regulates ethanol sensitivity, but not L1 function, might facilitate the rational design of drugs that block ethanol neurotoxicity. PMID:23431142

  1. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric P; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Lee, Warren L; Downey, Gregory P

    2016-03-15

    This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling. The role of specific CAMs in the process of platelet aggregation and hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration will be reviewed as examples of the complex and cooperative interplay between CAMs during physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx and the glycobiology of this complex system related to inflammatory states such as sepsis will be reviewed. We will then focus on the role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of specific disease processes involving the lungs and cardiovascular system. The potential of targeting adhesion molecules in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases will be highlighted in the relevant sections throughout the manuscript.

  2. Bio-active molecules modified surfaces enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mobasseri, Rezvan; Tian, Lingling; Soleimani, Masoud; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2017-01-29

    Surface modification of the substrate as a component of in vitro cell culture and tissue engineering, using bio-active molecules including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or peptides derived ECM proteins can modulate the surface properties and thereby induce the desired signaling pathways in cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) on glass substrates modified with fibronectin (Fn), collagen (Coll), RGD peptides (RGD) and designed peptide (R-pept) as bio-active molecules. The glass coverslips were coated with fibronectin, collagen, RGD peptide and R-peptide. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on different substrates and the adhesion behavior in early incubation times was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate the effect of different bio-active molecules on MSCs proliferation rate during 24 and 72 h. Formation of filopodia and focal adhesion (FA) complexes, two steps of cell adhesion process, were observed in MSCs cultured on bio-active molecules modified coverslips, specifically in Fn coated and R-pept coated groups. SEM image showed well adhesion pattern for MSCs cultured on Fn and R-pept after 2 h incubation, while the shape of cells cultured on Coll and RGD substrates indicated that they might experience stress condition in early hours of culture. Investigation of adhesion behavior, as well as proliferation pattern, suggests R-peptide as a promising bio-active molecule to be used for surface modification of substrate in supporting and inducing cell adhesion and proliferation.

  3. Adhesion molecules in breast carcinoma: a challenge to the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Claudia; Reis, Beatriz da Costa Aguiar Alves; Delgado, Pamela de Oliveira; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia B C; Feder, David; Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The role of adhesion molecules is very important both in the activation of carcinogenesis and in the differentiation of subtypes of breast carcinoma, aiding in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic choice in these tumors. Therefore, understanding the functions and interrelationships among these molecules is crucial to the pathologist, who often uses these factors as a resource to differentiate tumors and further classify them according to a molecular point of view. Our goal is to describe the applicability and the difficulties encountered by the pathologist in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma, discussing the most commonly used markers of adhesion in routine analyses.

  4. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: an examination of the involvement of lymphocytes, adhesion molecules and HLA-DR antigens.

    PubMed

    Limb, G A; Franks, W A; Munasinghe, K R; Chignell, A H; Dumonde, D C

    1993-06-01

    This paper addresses the molecular basis of interactions between leucocytes, other cells in the vitreoretinal environment and extracellular matrix that may underlie the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In this study we report the expression of adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11c, CD18 and ICAM-1), lymphocyte surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD22) and HLA-DR molecules in 25 epiretinal membranes obtained from eyes undergoing vitrectomy for the treatment of retinal detachment complicated by epiretinal membrane formation. Retinas from normal cadaveric eyes were used as controls. The results showed that cells expressing the adhesion molecules CD11a, CD11c and CD18 were present in 5 of 25, 17 of 25 and 11 of 23 membranes, respectively. Cells stained with antibodies against intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were observed in 24 of 25 membranes, whilst HLA-DR positive cells were seen in all membranes investigated. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the molecules ICAM-1 or HLA-DR were not only expressed on inflammatory cells but also distributed within the extracellular matrix in several specimens. Lymphocytes expressing CD3 markers were present in 12 of 25 membranes, whilst T lymphocytes expressing CD4 and CD8 markers were observed in 5 of 18 and 12 of 24 membranes, respectively. In contrast, B lymphocytes expressing CD22 molecules were not found in any of the membranes. Leucocyte surface molecules were not expressed in control cadaveric retinas, although occasional cells expressing ICAM-1 were identified in the inner plexiform layer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Pentoxifylline decreases serum level of adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Allah Abadi, Ghazaleh; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels.

  6. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  7. Investigating Single Molecule Adhesion by Atomic Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Frank W. S.; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment. PMID:25867282

  8. Eimeria bovis modulates adhesion molecule gene transcription in and PMN adhesion to infected bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Zahner, Horst; Taubert, Anja

    2006-04-01

    Eimeria bovis is an important coccidian parasite of cattle causing severe diarrhea in young animals. Its first schizogony takes place in endothelial cells of the ileum resulting in the formation of macroschizonts 14-18 days p.i. This longlasting development suggests a particular immune evasion strategy of the parasite. Here, we analyse early innate immune reactions to E. bovis by determining the adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to infected endothelial cell layers under flow conditions and the transcription of adhesion molecule genes in infected host cells. Bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) were infected with E. bovis sporozoites. Sporozoites invaded BUVEC within 1h and the first mature macroschizonts occurred 14 days p.i. PMN adhesion was enhanced in E. bovis-infected BUVEC layers as early as 8h p.i.; maximum adhesion occurred 48 h p.i. Increased adhesion rates persisted until the end of the observation period at 14 days p.i. PMN adhered to both infected and uninfected cells within monolayers, suggesting paracrine cell activation. E. bovis infection upregulated the transcription of genes encoding for P-selectin, E-selectin, vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Most marked effects concerned E-selectin followed by P-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Increased transcript levels were found beginning 30 min p.i. and maximum values occurred 1-2h p.i. (P-selectin) and 2-4h p.i. (E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1). By 12-24h p.i. levels had decreased to those of uninfected controls. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced PMN adhesion was significantly reduced in infected vs. uninfected BUVEC. Eimeria bovis also had suppressive effects on TNFalpha-mediated upregulation of adhesion molecule gene transcription. The data presented here suggest that infection of BUVEC with E. bovis on one hand induces proinflammatory reactions resulting in enhanced PMN adhesion mediated by upregulated adhesion

  9. Bone marrow extracellular matrix molecules improve gene transfer into human hematopoietic cells via retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Moritz, T; Patel, V P; Williams, D A

    1994-04-01

    Direct contact between hematopoietic cells and viral packaging cell lines or other sources of stroma has been shown to increase the efficiency of retroviral-mediated gene transfer into these target cells compared with infection with viral supernatant. We have investigated the role of defined bone marrow extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) in this phenomenon. Here we report that infection of cells adhering to the carboxy-terminal 30/35-kD fragment of the fibronectin molecule (30/35 FN), which contains the alternatively spliced CS-1 cell adhesion domain, significantly increases gene transfer into hematopoietic cells. Two retroviral vectors differing in recombinant viral titer were used. Gene transfer into committed progenitor cells and long-term culture-initiating cells, an in vitro assay for human stem cells, was significantly increased when the cells were infected while adherent to 30/35 FN-coated plates compared with cells infected on BSA-coated control plates or plates coated with other bone marrow ECM molecules. Although gene transfer into committed progenitor cells and to a lesser degree into long-term culture-initiating cells was increased on intact fibronectin as well, increased gene transfer efficiency into hematopoietic cells on 30/35 FN was dependent on CS-1 sequence since infection on a similar FN fragment lacking CS-1 (42 FN) was suboptimal. 30/35 FN has previously been shown by our laboratory and other investigators to mediate adhesion of primitive murine and human hematopoietic stem cells to the hematopoietic microenvironment. Additional studies showed that neither soluble 30/35 FN nor nonspecific binding of hematopoietic cells to poly-L-lysine-coated plates had any appreciable effect on the infection efficiency of these cells. Our findings indicate that hematopoietic stem cell adhesion to specific ECM molecules alters retroviral infection efficiency. These findings should aid in the design of gene transfer protocols using hematopoietic progenitor and

  10. Extracellular matrix molecules as targets for brown spider venom toxins.

    PubMed

    Veiga, S S; Zanetti, V C; Braz, A; Mangili, O C; Gremski, W

    2001-07-01

    Loxoscelism, the term used to describe lesions and clinical manifestations induced by brown spider's venom (Loxosceles genus), has attracted much attention over the last years. Brown spider bites have been reported to cause a local and acute inflammatory reaction that may evolve to dermonecrosis (a hallmark of envenomation) and hemorrhage at the bite site, besides systemic manifestations such as thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolysis, and renal failure. The molecular mechanisms by which Loxosceles venoms induce injury are currently under investigation. In this review, we focused on the latest reports describing the biological and physiopathological aspects of loxoscelism, with reference mainly to the proteases recently described as metalloproteases and serine proteases, as well as on the proteolytic effects triggered by L. intermedia venom upon extracellular matrix constituents such as fibronectin, fibrinogen, entactin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, besides the disruptive activity of the venom on Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm basement membranes. Degradation of these extracellular matrix molecules and the observed disruption of basement membranes could be related to deleterious activities of the venom such as loss of vessel and glomerular integrity and spreading of the venom toxins to underlying tissues.

  11. Astrocytes as a Source for Extracellular Matrix Molecules and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Stefan; Karus, Michael; Faissner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Research of the past 25 years has shown that astrocytes do more than participating and building up the blood-brain barrier and detoxify the active synapse by reuptake of neurotransmitters and ions. Indeed, astrocytes express neurotransmitter receptors and, as a consequence, respond to stimuli. Within the tripartite synapse, the astrocytes owe more and more importance. Besides the functional aspects the differentiation of astrocytes has gained a more intensive focus. Deeper knowledge of the differentiation processes during development of the central nervous system might help explaining and even help treating neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinsons disease, and psychiatric disorders in which astrocytes have been shown to play a role. Specific differentiation of neural stem cells toward the astroglial lineage is performed as a multi-step process. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. This switch toward the more astroglial differentiation is regulated by a change in receptor composition on the cell surface and responsiveness to Fibroblast growth factor and Epidermal growth factor (EGF). The glial precursor cell is driven into the astroglial direction by signaling molecules like Ciliary neurotrophic factor, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, and EGF. However, the early astrocytes influence their environment not only by releasing and responding to diverse soluble factors but also express a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, in particular proteoglycans of the lectican family and tenascins. Lately these ECM molecules have been shown to participate in glial development. In this regard, especially the matrix protein Tenascin C (Tnc) proved to be an important regulator of astrocyte precursor cell proliferation and migration during spinal cord development. Nevertheless, ECM molecules expressed by reactive astrocytes

  12. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related ligand triggering upregulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and promotes leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Petrillo, Maria Grazia; Ruffini, Federica; Muzi, Alessia; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Ronchetti, Simona; Migliorati, Graziella; Riccardi, Carlo; Graziani, Grazia; Nocentini, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    The interaction of glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-family related (GITR) protein with its ligand (GITRL) modulates different functions, including immune/inflammatory response. These effects are consequent to intracellular signals activated by both GITR and GITRL. Previous results have suggested that lack of GITR expression in GITR(-/-) mice decreases the number of leukocytes within inflamed tissues. We performed experiments to analyze whether the GITRL/GITR system modulates leukocyte adhesion and extravasation. For that purpose, we first evaluated the capability of murine splenocytes to adhere to endothelial cells (EC). Our results indicated that adhesion of GITR(-/-) splenocytes to EC was reduced as compared with wild-type cells, suggesting that GITR plays a role in adhesion and that this effect may be due to GITRL-GITR interaction. Moreover, adhesion was increased when EC were pretreated with an agonist GITR-Fc fusion protein, thus indicating that triggering of GITRL plays a role in adhesion by EC regulation. In a human in vitro model, the adhesion to human EC of HL-60 cells differentiated toward the monocytic lineage was increased by EC pretreatment with agonist GITR-Fc. Conversely, antagonistic anti-GITR and anti-GITRL Ab decreased adhesion, thus further indicating that GITRL triggering increases the EC capability to support leukocyte adhesion. EC treatment with GITR-Fc favored extravasation, as demonstrated by a transmigration assay. Notably, GITRL triggering increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 Abs reversed GITR-Fc effects. Our study demonstrates that GITRL triggering in EC increases leukocyte adhesion and transmigration, suggesting new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches based on inhibition of GITRL-GITR interaction.

  13. Modulation of lens cell adhesion molecules by particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, M. P.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; Chou, W.; Lockett, S. J.; Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins which anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but whose functions also include signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. We are testing a hypothesis that particle radiations modulate CAM expression and this contributes to radiation-induced lens opacification. We observed dose-dependent changes in the expression of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 in exponentially-growing and confluent cells of a differentiating human lens epithelial cell model after exposure to particle beams. Human lens epithelial (HLE) cells, less than 10 passages after their initial culture from fetal tissue, were grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell-derived ECM in medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum and supplemented with 5 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Multiple cell populations at three different stages of differentiation were prepared for experiment: cells in exponential growth, and cells at 5 and 10 days post-confluence. The differentiation status of cells was characterized morphologically by digital image analysis, and biochemically by Western blotting using lens epithelial and fiber cell-specific markers. Cultures were irradiated with single doses (4, 8 or 12 Gy) of 55 MeV protons and, along with unirradiated control samples, were fixed using -20 degrees C methanol at 6 hours after exposure. Replicate experiments and similar experiments with helium ions are in progress. The intracellular localization of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies specific for each CAM. Cells known to express each CAM were also processed as positive controls. Both exponentially-growing and confluent, differentiating cells demonstrated a dramatic proton-dose-dependent modulation (upregulation for exponential cells, downregulation for confluent cells) and a change in the intracellular distribution of the beta 1-integrin, compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast

  14. Modulation of lens cell adhesion molecules by particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, M. P.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; Chou, W.; Lockett, S. J.; Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins which anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but whose functions also include signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. We are testing a hypothesis that particle radiations modulate CAM expression and this contributes to radiation-induced lens opacification. We observed dose-dependent changes in the expression of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 in exponentially-growing and confluent cells of a differentiating human lens epithelial cell model after exposure to particle beams. Human lens epithelial (HLE) cells, less than 10 passages after their initial culture from fetal tissue, were grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell-derived ECM in medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum and supplemented with 5 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Multiple cell populations at three different stages of differentiation were prepared for experiment: cells in exponential growth, and cells at 5 and 10 days post-confluence. The differentiation status of cells was characterized morphologically by digital image analysis, and biochemically by Western blotting using lens epithelial and fiber cell-specific markers. Cultures were irradiated with single doses (4, 8 or 12 Gy) of 55 MeV protons and, along with unirradiated control samples, were fixed using -20 degrees C methanol at 6 hours after exposure. Replicate experiments and similar experiments with helium ions are in progress. The intracellular localization of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies specific for each CAM. Cells known to express each CAM were also processed as positive controls. Both exponentially-growing and confluent, differentiating cells demonstrated a dramatic proton-dose-dependent modulation (upregulation for exponential cells, downregulation for confluent cells) and a change in the intracellular distribution of the beta 1-integrin, compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast

  15. Investigation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) properties of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis and their role in bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Harimawan, Ardiyan; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix in biofilm poses important functions such as a diffusion barrier to antimicrobial agents so that biofilm cells are more difficult to completely eliminate. Therefore, biofilm cells exhibit enhanced resilience unlike planktonic cells, and are more difficult to completely eliminate. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of bacterial adhesion to surfaces, knowledge of the composition and conformational properties of EPS produced during growth and biofilm formation is required, since their adhesive and conformational properties remain poorly understood at molecular level. Present study has provided further insights into identifying compositional and conformational properties of EPS produced by planktonic and biofilm cells of B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. Various spectroscopy analyses showed that EPS produced by the two different species were chemically dissimilar. More proteinaceous compounds were present in EPS from B. subtilis, while EPS from P. aeruginosa were characterized by greater carbohydrate components. However, relative proportions of polysaccharides and/or proteins constituents varied with the growth mode of the bacteria. AFM was then used to probe the adhesive nature of EPS produced by the bacteria by using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy (SMFS). Comparison of the two bacterial species indicated that the presence of polysaccharides promoted the adhesion strength of the EPS while proteins had lesser adherence effects. Comparison of the two growth modes for the same bacterial strain also indicated that greater EPS production and enhanced cellular adhesion are associated with biofilm growth.

  16. Junctional adhesion molecule-C promotes metastatic potential of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Chiaki; Ishida, Yuuki; Hikita, Tomoya; Asai, Tomohiro; Oku, Naoto

    2007-03-16

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family is a key molecule in a process called transendothelial migration or diapedesis. Here, we report implications of JAM-C in cancer metastasis. We first determined the mRNA expression of JAMs in 19 kinds of cancer cell lines. JAM-C was expressed in most of tumors having potent metastatic properties. Especially in murine K-1735 melanoma cell lines, the highly metastatic sublines (M2 and X21) strongly expressed JAM-C when compared with the poorly metastatic ones (C-10 and C23). Next, we investigated the role of JAM-C in cancer metastasis by using human JAM-C (hJAM-C) gene-transfected HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In comparison with mock-transfected HT1080 cells, these cells showed a significant increase in the adhesion to various extracellular substrates and the invasion across a Matrigel-coated membrane. The knockdown of hJAM-C using small interfering RNA resulted in the suppression of both the adhesion and the invasion of HT1080 cells, suggesting that endogenous hJAM-C might be involved in tumor metastasis. Finally, we studied the role of hJAM-C in an in vivo experimental metastatic model. The results showed that the overexpression of hJAM-C in HT1080 cells significantly decreased the life spans of the tumorbearing mice. In contrast, the knockdown of hJAM-C in HT1080 cells suppressed the weight gain of the lungs with metastatic colonies. We conclude that the expression of JAM-C promotes metastasis by enhancing both the adhesion of cancer cells to extracellular matrices and the subsequent invasion.

  17. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through homophilic trans-interactions.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Francis X; Martin, Ryan A; Springer, Evan M; Leffler, Maxwell S; Woelmer, Bryce R; Recker, Isaac J; Leaman, Douglas W

    2017-07-11

    The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments. We report that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion to myoblasts and myotubes through homophilic trans-interactions. Such adhesive interactions enhanced levels of active Rac in adherent and fusing myoblasts, as well as triggered lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts through the signaling function of the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. Rac inhibition negated ICAM-1 mediated lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts. The fusogenic property of ICAM-1-ICAM-1 interactions was restricted to myogenic cells, as forced expression of ICAM-1 by fibroblasts did not augment their fusion to ICAM-1+ myoblasts/myotubes. We conclude that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through its ability to self-associate and initiate Rac-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  18. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein induces proliferation and increases adhesion molecule expression of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Asci, Gulay; Basci, Ali; Shah, Sudhir V; Basnakian, Alexei; Toz, Huseyin; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Ok, Ercan

    2008-12-01

    Presence of accelerated atherosclerosis in dialysis patients cannot be entirely explained by conventional risk factors. Exposure to urea, which is elevated in patients with kidney disease, leads to the carbamylation of proteins. We investigated the effects of carbamylated low-density lipoprotein (cLDL) on human coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Native LDL (nLDL) was carbamylated with potassium cyanate. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of cLDL carbamylated at different time points. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), expression of adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix protein synthesis were studied. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein exposure leads to morphological alterations and presence of cellular debris. Neither nLDL nor cLDL caused apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was not different between groups. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein led to a striking proliferation in VSMC compared to nLDL. Carbamylated low-density lipoprotein significantly increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression compared to the control. The effects of cLDL on proliferation and adhesion molecule expression were dose-dependent and correlated with the degree of low-density lipoprotein carbamylation. cLDL had no effect on extracellular matrix protein synthesis. The results support the hypothesis that cLDL may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in uraemic patients.

  19. Detecting cell-adhesive sites in extracellular matrix using force spectroscopy mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chirasatitsin, Somyot; Engler, Adam J

    2010-01-01

    The cell microenvironment is composed of extracellular matrix (ECM), which contains specific binding sites that allow the cell to adhere to its surroundings. Cells employ focal adhesion proteins, which must be able to resist a variety of forces to bind to ECM. Current techniques for detecting the spatial arrangement of these adhesions, however, have limited resolution and those that detect adhesive forces lack sufficient spatial characterization or resolution. Using a unique application of force spectroscopy, we demonstrate here the ability to determine local changes in the adhesive property of a fibronectin substrate down to the resolution of the fibronectin antibody-functionalized tip diameter, ~20 nm. To verify the detection capabilities of force spectroscopy mapping (FSM), changes in loading rate and temperature were used to alter the bond dynamics and change the adhesion force. Microcontact printing was also used to pattern fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated fibronectin in order to mimic the discontinuous adhesion domains of native ECM. Fluorescent detection was used to identify the pattern while FSM was used to map cell adhesion sites in registry with the initial fluorescent image. The results show that FSM can be used to detect the adhesion domains at high resolution and may subsequently be applied to native ECM with randomly distributed cell adhesion sites. PMID:21152375

  20. Glucosyltransferases of Viridans Group Streptococci Modulate Interleukin-6 and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Endothelial Cells and Augment Monocytic Cell Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Chen, Jen-Yang; Chia, Jean-San

    2006-01-01

    Recruitment of monocytes plays important roles during vegetation formation and endocardial inflammation in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE). Bacterial antigens or modulins can activate endothelial cells through the expression of cytokines or adhesion molecules and modulate the recruitment of leukocytes. We hypothesized that glucosyltransferases (GTFs), modulins of viridans group streptococci, may act directly to up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules and also interleukin-6 (IL-6) to augment monocyte attachment to endothelial cells. Using primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model, we demonstrated that GTFs (in the cell-bound or free form) could specifically modulate the expression of IL-6, and also adhesion molecules, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results of inhibition assays suggested that enhanced expression of adhesion molecules was dependent on the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways also contributed to the release of IL-6. Streptococcus-infected HUVECs or treatment with purified IL-6 plus soluble IL-6 receptor α enhanced the expression of ICAM-1 and the adherence of the monocytic cell line U937. These results suggest that streptococcal GTFs might play an important role in recruiting monocytic cells during inflammation in IE through induction of adhesion molecules and IL-6, a cytokine involved in transition from neutrophil to monocyte recruitment. PMID:16428777

  1. Glucosyltransferases of viridans group streptococci modulate interleukin-6 and adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells and augment monocytic cell adherence.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Chen, Jen-Yang; Chia, Jean-San

    2006-02-01

    Recruitment of monocytes plays important roles during vegetation formation and endocardial inflammation in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE). Bacterial antigens or modulins can activate endothelial cells through the expression of cytokines or adhesion molecules and modulate the recruitment of leukocytes. We hypothesized that glucosyltransferases (GTFs), modulins of viridans group streptococci, may act directly to up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules and also interleukin-6 (IL-6) to augment monocyte attachment to endothelial cells. Using primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model, we demonstrated that GTFs (in the cell-bound or free form) could specifically modulate the expression of IL-6, and also adhesion molecules, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results of inhibition assays suggested that enhanced expression of adhesion molecules was dependent on the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways also contributed to the release of IL-6. Streptococcus-infected HUVECs or treatment with purified IL-6 plus soluble IL-6 receptor alpha enhanced the expression of ICAM-1 and the adherence of the monocytic cell line U937. These results suggest that streptococcal GTFs might play an important role in recruiting monocytic cells during inflammation in IE through induction of adhesion molecules and IL-6, a cytokine involved in transition from neutrophil to monocyte recruitment.

  2. Adiponectin Enhances Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Promotes Monocyte Adhesion in Human Synovial Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Shih, James Meng-Kun; Chen, Yen-Jen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted predominantly by differentiated adipocytes and is involved in energy homeostasis. Adiponectin expression is significantly high in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important adhesion molecule that mediates monocyte adhesion and infiltration during OA pathogenesis. Adiponectin-induced expression of ICAM-1 in human OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) was examined by using qPCR, flow cytometry and western blotting. The intracellular signaling pathways were investigated by pretreated with inhibitors or transfection with siRNA. The monocyte THP-1 cell line was used for an adhesion assay with OASFs. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin induced ICAM-1 expression. Pretreatment with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors (AraA and compound C) or transfection with siRNA against AMPKα1 and two AMPK upstream activator- liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) diminished the adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression. Stimulation of OASFs with adiponectin increased phosphorylation of LKB1, CaMKII, AMPK, and c-Jun, resulting in c-Jun binding to AP-1 element of ICAM-1 promoter. In addition, adiponectin-induced activation of the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, and AP-1 pathway increased the adhesion of monocytes to the OASF monolayer. Our results suggest that adiponectin increases ICAM-1 expression in human OASFs via the LKB1/CaMKII, AMPK, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. Adiponectin-induced ICAM-1 expression promoted the adhesion of monocytes to human OASFs. These findings may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and can utilize this knowledge to design a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24667577

  3. Extracellular matrix-mimetic adhesive biomaterials for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Shekaran, Asha; García, Andrés J.

    2010-01-01

    Limited osseointegration of current orthopaedic biomaterials contributes to the failure of implants such as arthroplasties, bone screws and bone grafts, which present a large socioeconomic cost within the United States. These implant failures underscore the need for biomimetic approaches that modulate host cell-implant material responses to enhance implant osseointegration and bone formation. Bioinspired strategies have included functionalizing implants with ECM proteins or ECM-derived peptides or protein fragments which engage integrins and direct osteoblast adhesion and differentiation. This review discusses 1) bone ECM composition and key integrins implicated in osteogenic differentiation, 2) the use of implants functionalized with ECM-mimetic peptides/protein fragments, and 3) growth-factor derived peptides to promote the mechanical fixation of implants to bone and to enhance bone healing within large defects. PMID:21105174

  4. Topographical control of multiple cell adhesion molecules for traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Polio, Samuel R; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Canović, Elizabeth P; Gaut, Carolynn M; Aksyonova, Diana; Stamenović, Dimitrije; Smith, Michael L

    2014-03-01

    Cellular traction forces are important quantitative measures in cell biology as they have provided much insight into cell behavior in contexts such as cellular migration, differentiation, and disease progression. However, the complex environment in vivo permits application of cell traction forces through multiple types of cell adhesion molecules. Currently available approaches to differentiate traction forces among multiple cell adhesion molecules are limited to specialized approaches to decouple cell-cell from cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) tractions. Here, we present a technique which uses indirect micropatterning onto a polyacrylamide gel to pattern multiple, spatially distinct fluorescently labeled ECM proteins, specifically gelatin and fibronectin (Fn), and confine the area to which cells can adhere. We found that cells interacting with both gelatin and Fn altered their traction forces significantly in comparison to cells on Fn-only substrates. This crosstalk interaction resulted in a decrease in overall traction forces on dual-patterned substrates as compared to cells on Fn-only substrates. This illustrates the unique need to study such interactions and demonstrates great potential in future studies in multi-ligand environments. Current micropatterning techniques on glass can easily be adapted to present other protein classes, such as cadherins, while maintaining control of adhesion spacing, cell spread area, and stiffness, each of which are important regulators of cell mechanobiology.

  5. Distribution of TNF alpha and its reactive vascular adhesion molecules in fibrovascular membranes of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Limb, G A; Chignell, A H; Green, W; LeRoy, F; Dumonde, D C

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: This study investigated the presence of the cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and the vascular adhesion glycoproteins ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, and PECAM within fibrovascular membranes of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: The presence of these molecules was determined by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies and the APAAP technique. RESULTS: Staining for TNF alpha was observed on the retinal vascular endothelium of five of 12 specimens, on infiltrating cells within all membranes, and on the extracellular matrix of nine specimens. This staining wa abolished by absorption of the monoclonal antibody with human recombinant TNF alpha. Likewise, ICAM-1 staining was given by infiltrating cells and extracellular matrix of nine membranes and by the endothelium of three of the specimens. VCAM-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin staining was observed on the vascular endothelium of 5/12, 4/12, and 3/12 epiretinal membranes respectively. PECAM was expressed by the endothelium of 4/12 specimens, by infiltrating cells of 8/12 membranes, and also by the extracellular matrix of two of the specimens. CONCLUSION: The widespread distribution of TNF alpha and the nature of the adhesion molecules expressed by vascular endothelial cells in PDR membranes suggest that local activation of TNF alpha and enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules may play an important role in the development of the proliferative phase of diabetic retinopathy. Images PMID:8814750

  6. [Neutrophils expression of adhesion molecules in diabetic nephropaty patients].

    PubMed

    Shcherban', T D

    2013-01-01

    CD11b and CD54 expression on neutrophils in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), arterial hypertension patients and healthy donors were examined. Development of DN associates with an increase of the number of CD11b and CD54 positive cells and violation of cellular co-operation. In the conditions of diabetic microenvironment expression of adhesion molecules rises substantially, what may characterized the mechanism of connection between hyperglycemia and vascular and tissues injury at DN. Authentication of morphological and biochemical markers of intercellular co-operation must in a prospect assist the deeper understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of DN.

  7. Integrin-dependent force transmission to the extracellular matrix by α-actinin triggers adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Cusachs, Pere; del Rio, Armando; Puklin-Faucher, Eileen; Gauthier, Nils C.; Biais, Nicolas; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesions are mechanosensitive elements that enable mechanical communication between cells and the extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate a major mechanosensitive pathway in which α-actinin triggers adhesion maturation by linking integrins to actin in nascent adhesions. We show that depletion of the focal adhesion protein α-actinin enhances force generation in initial adhesions on fibronectin, but impairs mechanotransduction in a subsequent step, preventing adhesion maturation. Expression of an α-actinin fragment containing the integrin binding domain, however, dramatically reduces force generation in depleted cells. This behavior can be explained by a competition between talin (which mediates initial adhesion and force generation) and α-actinin for integrin binding. Indeed, we show in an in vitro assay that talin and α-actinin compete for binding to β3 integrins, but cooperate in binding to β1 integrins. Consistently, we find opposite effects of α-actinin depletion and expression of mutants on substrates that bind β3 integrins (fibronectin and vitronectin) versus substrates that only bind β1 integrins (collagen). We thus suggest that nascent adhesions composed of β3 integrins are initially linked to the actin cytoskeleton by talin, and then α-actinin competes with talin to bind β3 integrins. Force transmitted through α-actinin then triggers adhesion maturation. Once adhesions have matured, α-actinin recruitment correlates with force generation, suggesting that α-actinin is the main link transmitting force between integrins and the cytoskeleton in mature adhesions. Such a multistep process enables cells to adjust forces on matrices, unveiling a role of α-actinin that is different from its well-studied function as an actin cross-linker. PMID:23515331

  8. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C Mediates Leukocyte Adhesion to Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovium

    PubMed Central

    Rabquer, Bradley J.; Pakozdi, Angela; Michel, James E.; Gujar, Bansari S.; Haines, G. Kenneth; Imhof, Beat A.; Koch, Alisa E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Leukocyte infiltration into the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium is a multistep process in which leukocytes leave the bloodstream and invade the synovial tissue (ST). Leukocyte transendothelial migration and adhesion to RA ST requires adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells and RA ST fibroblasts. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) in mediating leukocyte recruitment and retention in the RA joint. Methods Immunohistologic analysis was performed on RA, osteoarthritis (OA), and normal ST samples to quantify JAM-C expression. Fibroblast JAM-C expression was also analyzed using Western blotting, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence. To determine the role of JAM-C in leukocyte retention in the RA synovium, in vitro and in situ adhesion assays and RA ST fibroblast transmigration assays were performed. Results JAM-C was highly expressed by RA ST lining cells, and its expression was increased in OA ST and RA ST endothelial cells compared with normal ST endothelial cells. JAM-C was also expressed on the surface of OA ST and RA ST fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that myeloid U937 cell adhesion to both OA ST and RA ST fibroblasts and to RA ST was dependent on JAM-C. U937 cell migration through an RA ST fibroblast monolayer was enhanced in the presence of neutralizing antibodies against JAM-C. Conclusion Our results highlight the novel role of JAM-C in recruiting and retaining leukocytes in the RA synovium and suggest that targeting JAM-C may be important in combating inflammatory diseases such as RA. PMID:18821692

  9. Prestress and Adhesion Site Dynamics Control Cell Sensitivity to Extracellular Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Féréol, S.; Fodil, R.; Laurent, V.M.; Balland, M.; Louis, B.; Pelle, G.; Hénon, S.; Planus, E.; Isabey, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at improving the understanding of mechanisms responsible for cell sensitivity to extracellular environment. We explain how substrate mechanical properties can modulate the force regulation of cell sensitive elements primarily adhesion sites. We present a theoretical and experimental comparison between two radically different approaches of the force regulation of adhesion sites that depends on their either stationary or dynamic behavior. The most classical stationary model fails to predict cell sensitivity to substrate stiffness whereas the dynamic model predicts extracellular stiffness dependence. This is due to a time dependent reaction force in response to actomyosin traction force exerted on cell sensitive elements. We purposely used two cellular models, i.e., alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages exhibiting respectively stationary and dynamic adhesion sites, and compared their sensitivity to theoretical predictions. Mechanical and structural results show that alveolar epithelial cells exhibit significant prestress supported by evident stress fibers and lacks sensitivity to substrate stiffness. On the other hand, alveolar macrophages exhibit low prestress and exhibit sensitivity to substrate stiffness. Altogether, theory and experiments consistently show that adhesion site dynamics and cytoskeleton prestress control cell sensitivity to extracellular environment with an optimal sensitivity expected in the intermediate range. PMID:19254561

  10. Specific inhibition of T-cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and proinflammatory cytokine secretion by human recombinant galectin-1

    PubMed Central

    RABINOVICH, G A; ARIEL, A; HERSHKOVIZ, R; HIRABAYASHI, J; KASAI, K-I; LIDER, O

    1999-01-01

    The migration of immune cells through the extracellular matrix (ECM) towards inflammatory sites is co-ordinated by receptors recognizing ECM glycoproteins, chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines. In this context, galectins are secreted to the extracellular milieu, where they recognize poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains on major ECM glycoproteins, such as fibronectin and laminin. We investigated the possibility that galectin-1 could modulate the adhesion of human T cells to ECM and ECM components. T cells were purified from human blood, activated with interleukin-2 (IL-2), labelled, and incubated further with intact immobilized ECM and ECM glycoproteins in the presence of increasing concentrations of human recombinant galectin-1, or its more stable, related, C2-S molecule obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The presence of galectin-1 was shown to inhibit T-cell adhesion to intact ECM, laminin and fibronectin, and to a lesser extent to collagen type IV, in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was specifically blocked by anti-galectin-1 antibody and was dependent on the lectin’s carbohydrate-binding properties. The inhibition of T-cell adhesion by galectin-1 correlates with the ability of this molecule to block the re-organization of the activated cell’s actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production was markedly reduced when IL-2-activated T cells were incubated with galectin-1 or its mutant. This effect was prevented by β-galactoside-related sugars. The present study reveals an alternative inhibitory mechanism for explaining the suppressive properties of the galectin-1 subfamily on inflammatory and autoimmune processes. PMID:10447720

  11. Surface characteristics and adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7: role of extracellular macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjung N; Hong, Yongsuk; Lee, Ilkeun; Bradford, Scott A; Walker, Sharon L

    2009-09-14

    Experiments were conducted using enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells to investigate the influence of extracellular macromolecules on cell surface properties and adhesion behavior to quartz sand. Partial removal of the extracellular macromolecules on cells by a proteolytic enzyme (proteinase K) was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The proteinase K treated cells exhibited more negative electrophoretic mobility (EPM) at an ionic strength (IS) < or = 1 mM, a slightly lower isoelectric point, and were less hydrophobic as compared to the untreated cells. Potentiometric titration results indicated that the total site concentration (i.e., the total amount of exposed functional groups per cell) on the treated cells was approximately 22% smaller than the untreated cells, while the dissociation constants were almost identical. Analysis of the EPM data using soft particle theory showed that the removal of extracellular macromolecules resulted in polymeric layers outside the cell surface that were less electrophoretically soft. The more negative mobility for the treated cells was likely due to the combined effects of a change in the distribution of functional groups and an increase in the charges per unit volume after enzyme treatment and not just removal of extracellular macromolecules. The proteolytic digestion of extracellular macromolecules led to a significant difference in the cell adhesion to quartz sand. The adhesion behavior for treated cells was consistent with DLVO theory and increased with IS due to less negativity in the EPM. In contrast, the adhesion behavior of untreated cells was much more complex and exhibited a maximum at IS = 1 mM. The treated cells exhibited less adhesion than the untreated cells when the IS < or = 1 mM due to their more negative EPM. However, when the IS > or = 10 mM, a sudden decrease in the removal efficiency was observed only for the untreated cells even through EPM values were similar for

  12. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P < .001) before but not after delivery. Expression of the integrin counter receptors on leukocytes was similarly increased in preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i

  13. [Cell adhesion molecules in evaluation of Crohn's disease therapy].

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, L B; Boldyreva, O N; Parfenov, A I; Trubitsyna, I E; Shcherbakov, P L; Khomeriki, S G; Kniazev, O V; Sagynbaeva, V É

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) is one of actual problems of modern gastroenterology and coloproctology. In recent years a great attention is paid to the molecules of adhesion. Adhesion proteins play a significant role in the development of inflammation in patients with IBD. They cause the migration of cells from the capillaries into the center of inflammation, i.e. do much to increase the inflammatory infiltration of the mucosa and homing of lymphocytes. Changes in the levels of adhesion factors under the influence of biological therapy have been insufficiently studied. So the aim of our study was to determine the diagnostic value of adhesion molecules--integrin-sVCAM-1 and selectins P-, E-, L- for the assessment of the effectiveness of therapy in patients with UC and CD and prognosis of the disease. 15 patients with IBD were examined (15 patients with Crohn's disease (CD)). 9 patients were treated using infliximab 5 mg/kg according to the standard scheme (0-2-6 and then every 8 weeks). 3 patients with IBD received anti-inflammatory therapy with the introduction of the culture of MSC in the number of 150 x 108 cells suspended in 200 ml of physiological solution with the addition of heparin (10 IU/ml). 3 patients received azathioprine (2 mg/kg) and glucocorticosteroids (GCS) 1 mg/kg. The clinical symptoms, the level of leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and also were analyzed before and after the treatment with infliximab and transplantation of MSC. The status of the colonic mucosa was evaluated using colonoscopy with biopsy. The concentration of adhesion molecules L-selectin, E-selectin, P-selectin, integrin-sVCAM-1 in blood serum was analyzed using immunoenzyme method twice before the beginning of treatment and after 2 months. It is established that after the standard therapy with the use of corticosteroids and azathioprine clinical and laboratory signs

  14. New Type of Antitumor Agent Targeting the Cell Adhesion Molecule, Integrin.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Fumio

    2017-01-01

     The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a variety of biological signals for cell regulation. It is apparent that some of these signals are derived from functional sites, which are concealed in the higher structure of ECM protein molecules. Previously, we found that fibronectin, a ubiquitous cell adhesive ECM protein, harbors a cryptic functional site termed FNIII14, which can be exposed through the processing of fibronectin by inflammatory proteinases, including matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). FNIII14, once exposed, induces a conformational change in beta1-integrins necessary for their functional inactivation, resulting in weakened cell adhesion to the ECM. Interestingly, eukaryotic peptide elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) was recently identified as a membrane receptor mediating this anti-adhesive effect of FNIII14. Here, we show that exposure of FNIII14 from the fibronectin matrix, and its interaction with the membrane receptor eEF1A, contributes to the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Furthermore, an in vivo experiment using a mouse xenograft model shows that FNIII14 could be a promising target for preventing lung metastasis of melanoma.

  15. The assembly of integrin adhesion complexes requires both extracellular matrix and intracellular rho/rac GTPases

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Interaction of cells with extracellular matrix via integrin adhesion receptors plays an important role in a wide range of cellular: functions, for example cell growth, movement, and differentiation. Upon interaction with substrate, integrins cluster and associate with a variety of cytoplasmic proteins to form focal complexes and with the actin cytoskeleton. Although the intracellular signals induced by integrins are at present undefined, it is thought that they are mediated by proteins recruited to the focal complexes. It has been suggested, for example, that after recruitment to focal adhesions p125FAK can activate the ERK1/2 MAP kinase cascade. We have previously reported that members of the rho family of small GTPases can trigger the assembly of focal complexes when activated in cells. Using microinjection techniques, we have now examined the role of the extracellular matrix and of the two GTP-binding proteins, rac and rho, in the assembly of integrin complexes in both mouse and human fibroblasts. We find that the interaction of integrins with extracellular matrix alone is not sufficient to induce integrin clustering and focal complex formation. Similarly, activation of rho or rac by extracellular growth factors does not lead to focal complex formation in the absence of matrix. Focal complexes are only assembled in the presence of both matrix and functionally active members of the rho family. In agreement with this, the interaction of integrins with matrix in the absence of rho/rac activity is unable to activate the ERK1/2 kinases in Swiss 3T3 cells. In fact, ERK1/2 can be activated fully by growth factors in the absence of matrix and it seems unlikely, therefore, that the adhesion dependence of fibroblast growth is mediated through the ras/MAP kinase pathway. We conclude that extracellular matrix is not sufficient to trigger focal complex assembly and subsequent integrin-dependent signal transduction in the absence of functionally active members of the rho

  16. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  17. The endothelial glycocalyx as a barrier to leukocyte adhesion and its mediation by extracellular proteases.

    PubMed

    Lipowsky, Herbert H

    2012-04-01

    The endothelial cell (EC) surface is coated with a layer of polysaccharides linked to membrane-bound and trans-membrane proteoglycans that comprise the glycocalyx, which is augmented by adsorbed proteins derived from the blood stream. This surface layer has been shown to affect hemodynamics in small blood vessels of the microcirculation, the resistance to flow, and leukocyte (WBC) to EC adhesion. Parallel studies of WBC-EC adhesion in response to chemoattractants and cytokines, and shedding of constituents of the glycocalyx, have suggested a role for activation of extracellular proteases in mediating the dynamics of WBC adhesion in response to inflammatory and ischemic stimuli. Likely candidates among the many proteases present are the matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Inhibition of MMP activation with sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline, or zinc chelators, has also inhibited WBC adhesion and shedding of glycans from the EC surface in response to the chemoattractant fMLP. Taken together, these studies suggest that shedding of the EC glycocalyx exposes adhesion receptors and thus enhances WBC-EC adhesion. Future therapeutic strategies for treating pathologies such as the low flow state and inflammation may benefit by further exploration of the mechanics of the glycocalyx in light of protease activation and shear-dependent effects.

  18. Systematic analysis of tumour cell-extracellular matrix adhesion identifies independent prognostic factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jocelyn P.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Yuan, Yinyin; Tan, Aik-Choon; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are fundamental for discrete steps in breast cancer progression. In particular, cancer cell adhesion to ECM proteins present in the microenvironment is critical for accelerating tumour growth and facilitating metastatic spread. To assess the utility of tumour cell-ECM adhesion as a means for discovering prognostic factors in breast cancer survival, here we perform a systematic phenotypic screen and characterise the adhesion properties of a panel of human HER2 amplified breast cancer cell lines across six ECM proteins commonly deregulated in breast cancer. We determine a gene expression signature that defines a subset of cell lines displaying impaired adhesion to laminin. Cells with impaired laminin adhesion showed an enrichment in genes associated with cell motility and molecular pathways linked to cytokine signalling and inflammation. Evaluation of this gene set in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) cohort of 1,964 patients identifies the F12 and STC2 genes as independent prognostic factors for overall survival in breast cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential of in vitro cell adhesion screens as a novel approach for identifying prognostic factors for disease outcome. PMID:27556857

  19. Exenatide Alters Gene Expression of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule (ICAM), and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM) in the Hippocampus of Type 2 Diabetic Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gumuslu, Esen; Cine, Naci; Gökbayrak, Merve Ertan; Mutlu, Oguz; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Ulak, Guner

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor, ameliorates the symptoms of diabetes through stimulation of insulin secretion. Exenatide is a potent and selective agonist for the GLP-1 receptor. Cell adhesion molecules are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and are involved in synaptic rearrangements in the mature brain. Material/Methods The present study demonstrated the effects of exenatide treatment (0.1 μg/kg, subcutaneously, twice daily for 2 weeks) on the gene expression levels of cell adhesion molecules, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM), and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in the brain tissue of diabetic BALB/c male mice by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA) injection to male mice. Results The results of this study revealed that hippocampal gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were found to be up-regulated in STZ-NA-induced diabetic mice compared to those of controls. A significant decrease in the gene expression levels of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM were determined after 2 weeks of exenatide administration. Conclusions Cell adhesion molecules may be involved in the molecular mechanism of diabetes. Exenatide has a strong beneficial action in managing diabetes induced by STZ/NA by altering gene expression of NCAM, ICAM, and VCAM. PMID:27465247

  20. TMIGD1 is a novel adhesion molecule that protects epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Emad; Bondzie, Philip A; Rezazadeh, Kobra; Meyer, Rosana D; Hartsough, Edward; Henderson, Joel M; Schwartz, John H; Chitalia, Vipul; Rahimi, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative damage to renal tubular epithelial cells is a fundamental pathogenic mechanism implicated in both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases. Because epithelial cell survival influences the outcome of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases, identifying its molecular regulators could provide new insight into pathobiology and possible new therapeutic strategies for these diseases. We have identified transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain-containing 1 (TMIGD1) as a novel adhesion molecule, which is highly conserved in humans and other species. TMIGD1 is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells and promotes cell survival. The extracellular domain of TMIGD1 contains two putative immunoglobulin domains and mediates self-dimerization. Our data suggest that TMIGD1 regulates transepithelial electric resistance and permeability of renal epithelial cells. TMIGD1 controls cell migration, cell morphology, and protects renal epithelial cells from oxidative- and nutrient-deprivation-induced cell injury. Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cell injury downregulates TMIGD1 expression and targets it for ubiquitination. Moreover, TMIGD1 expression is significantly affected in both acute kidney injury and in deoxy-corticosterone acetate and sodium chloride (deoxy-corticosterone acetate salt)-induced chronic hypertensive kidney disease mouse models. Taken together, we have identified TMIGD1 as a novel cell adhesion molecule expressed in kidney epithelial cells that protects kidney epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury to promote cell survival.

  1. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of adhesion molecules in vitiligo skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Reichert Faria, Adriane; Jung, Juliana Elizabeth; Silva de Castro, Caio César; de Noronha, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Because defects in adhesion impairment seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of vitiligo, this study aimed to compare the immunohistochemical expression of several adhesion molecules in the epidermis of vitiligo and non lesional vitiligo skin. Sixty-six specimens of lesional and non lesional skin from 33 volunteers with vitiligo were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-beta-catenin, anti-E-cadherin, anti-laminin, anti-beta1 integrin, anti-collagen IV, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Biopsies of vitiligo skin demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of laminin and integrin. The average value of the immunohistochemically positive reaction area of the vitiligo specimens was 3053.2μm(2), compared with the observed value of 3431.8μm(2) in non vitiligo skin (p=0.003) for laminin. The immuno-positive area was 7174.6μm(2) (vitiligo) and 8966.7μm(2) (non lesional skin) for integrin (p=0.042). A reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the basal layer of the epidermis in vitiligo samples was also observed (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to the expression of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, and collagen IV between vitiligo and non lesional skin. Our results suggest that an impairment in adhesion exists in vitiligo skin, which is supported by the diminished immunohistochemical expression of laminin, beta1 integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacology of Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kiryushko, Darya; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system under normal conditions. They also are involved in numerous pathological processes such as inflammation, degenerative disorders, and cancer, making them attractive targets for drug development. The majority of CAMs are signal transducing receptors. CAM-induced intracellular signalling is triggered via homophilic (CAM-CAM) and heterophilic (CAM - other counter-receptors) interactions, which both can be targeted pharmacologically. We here describe the progress in the CAM pharmacology focusing on cadherins and CAMs of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, such as NCAM and L1. Structural basis of CAM-mediated cell adhesion and CAM-induced signalling are outlined. Different pharmacological approaches to study functions of CAMs are presented including the use of specific antibodies, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides. We also discuss how unravelling of the 3D structure of CAMs provides novel pharmacological tools for dissection of CAM-induced signalling pathways and offers therapeutic opportunities for a range of neurological disorders. PMID:19305742

  3. Carbohydrate ligands for endothelial - Leukocyte adhesion molecule 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemeyer, M.; Swiedler, S.J.; Ishihara, Masayuki; Moreland, M.; Schweingruber, H.; Hirtzer, P.; Brandley, B.K. )

    1991-02-15

    The acute inflammatory response requires that circulating leukocytes bind to and penetrate the vascular wall to access the site of injury. Several receptors have been implicated in this interaction, including a family of putative carbohydrate-binding proteins. The authors report here the identification of an endogenous carbohydrate ligand for one of these receptors, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1). Radiolabeled COS cells transfected with a plasmid containing the cDNA for ELAM-1 were used as probes to screen glycolipids extracted from human leukocytes. COS cells transfected with this plasmid adhered to a subset of sialylated glycolipids resolved on TLC plates or adsorbed on polyvinyl chloride microtiter wells. Adhesion to these glycolipids required calcium but was not inhibited by heparin, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or yeast phosphomannan. Monosaccharide composition, linkage analysis, and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the glycolipids indicate that the ligands for ELAM-1 are terminally sialylated lactosylceramides with a variable number of N-acetyllactosamine repeats and at least one fucosylated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

  4. ZDHHC3 Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulates Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Patricia Marie-Jeanne; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Cesca, Fabrizia; Gorinski, Natalya; Galil, Dalia Abdel; Cherkas, Volodimir; Ronkina, Natalia; Lafera, Juri; Gaestel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. It is broadly expressed in the nervous system and regulates neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Previous in vitro studies revealed that palmitoylation of NCAM is required for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-stimulated neurite outgrowth and identified the zinc finger DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys)-containing proteins ZDHHC3 and ZDHHC7 as specific NCAM-palmitoylating enzymes. Here, we verified that FGF2 controlled NCAM palmitoylation in vivo and investigated molecular mechanisms regulating NCAM palmitoylation by ZDHHC3. Experiments with overexpression and pharmacological inhibition of FGF receptor (FGFR) and Src revealed that these kinases control tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 and that ZDHHC3 is phosphorylated by endogenously expressed FGFR and Src proteins. By site-directed mutagenesis, we found that Tyr18 is an FGFR1-specific ZDHHC3 phosphorylation site, while Tyr295 and Tyr297 are specifically phosphorylated by Src kinase in cell-based and cell-free assays. Abrogation of tyrosine phosphorylation increased ZDHHC3 autopalmitoylation, enhanced interaction with NCAM, and upregulated NCAM palmitoylation. Expression of ZDHHC3 with tyrosine mutated in cultured hippocampal neurons promoted neurite outgrowth. Our findings for the first time highlight that FGFR- and Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of ZDHHC3 modulates ZDHHC3 enzymatic activity and plays a role in neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:27247265

  5. Interactions between intercellular adhesion molecule-5 positive elements and their surroundings in the rodent visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Emily A; Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Gahmberg, Carl G; Tian, Li; Majewska, Ania K

    2013-11-01

    The telencephalon-associated intercellular adhesion molecule 5 (Telencephalin; ICAM-5) regulates dendritic maturation, a process dependent on extracellular proteases in the developing brain. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have reported previously that ICAM-5 is localized primarily in dendritic protrusions during a period of robust synaptogenesis (P14 in mouse visual cortex). As dendritic protrusions mature (P28), ICAM-5 immuno-reactivity shifts from dendritic protrusions into dendritic shafts. ICAM-5 immuno-reactivity does not shift in animals lacking the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a protease shown to regulate ICAM-5 cleavage. Cleaved ICAM-5 (soluble fraction; sICAM-5) has been shown to bind to a number of receptors located in neighboring structures, resulting in a variety of downstream signaling events, including enhanced neurotransmission. Here, we investigated the potential MMP-regulated ICAM-5 signaling by examining the relationship between ICAM-5 immuno-positive elements and the structures that directly neighbor them.

  6. Targeting integrins and adhesion molecules to combat inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Marafini, Irene; Sedda, Silvia; Pallone, Francesco; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    : The etiologies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the 2 major forms of inflammatory bowel disease in humans, remain unknown, but experimental studies suggest that inflammatory bowel disease results from interaction between environmental and genetic factors, which promotes an exaggerated and inappropriately controlled inflammatory response that is directed against normal components of the gut flora. There is also evidence that tissue damage is due to a dynamic interplay between immune and nonimmune cells, and recruitment of lymphocytes from the blood stream to the gut wall is crucial for amplifying and sustaining the ongoing mucosal inflammation. These advances have led to the development of several compounds blocking gut homing of effector lymphocytes, which have recently been used or are now ready to move into clinical practice. This article summarizes the recent data on the use of integrin-targeting and adhesion molecule-targeting therapeutics to attenuate the detrimental inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Junction adhesion molecule is a receptor for reovirus.

    PubMed

    Barton, E S; Forrest, J C; Connolly, J L; Chappell, J D; Liu, Y; Schnell, F J; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A; Dermody, T S

    2001-02-09

    Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein sigma1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning to identify junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an integral tight junction protein, as a reovirus receptor. JAM binds directly to sigma1 and permits reovirus infection of nonpermissive cells. Ligation of JAM is required for reovirus-induced activation of NF-kappaB and apoptosis. Thus, reovirus interaction with cell-surface receptors is a critical determinant of both cell-type specific tropism and virus-induced intracellular signaling events that culminate in cell death.

  8. Mimicking bone extracellular matrix: integrin-binding peptidomimetics enhance osteoblast-like cells adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, Roberta; Rechenmacher, Florian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Manero, José M; Gil, Javier; Kessler, Horst; Mas-Moruno, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Interaction between the surface of implants and biological tissues is a key aspect of biomaterials research. Apart from fulfilling the non-toxicity and structural requirements, synthetic materials are asked to direct cell response, offering engineered cues that provide specific instructions to cells. This work explores the functionalization of titanium with integrin-binding peptidomimetics as a novel and powerful strategy to improve the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells to implant materials. Such biomimetic strategy aims at targeting integrins αvβ3 and α5β1, which are highly expressed on osteoblasts and are essential for many fundamental functions in bone tissue development. The successful grafting of the bioactive molecules on titanium is proven by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescent labeling. Early attachment and spreading of cells are statistically enhanced by both peptidomimetics compared to unmodified titanium, reaching values of cell adhesion comparable to those obtained with full-length extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, and statistically higher cell proliferation and mineralization are observed on surfaces coated with the peptidomimetics. This study shows an unprecedented biological activity for low-molecular-weight ligands on titanium, and gives striking evidence of the potential of these molecules to foster bone regeneration on implant materials.

  9. Structure and function of ameloblastin as an extracellular matrix protein: adhesion, calcium binding, and CD63 interaction in human and mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Luan, Xianghong

    2011-12-01

    The functional significance of extracellular matrix proteins in the life of vertebrates is underscored by a high level of sequence variability in tandem with a substantial degree of conservation in terms of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion interactions. Many extracellular matrix proteins feature multiple adhesion domains for successful attachment to substrates, such as integrin, CD63, and heparin. Here we have used homology and ab initio modeling algorithms to compare mouse ameloblastin (mAMBN) and human ameloblastin (hABMN) isoforms and to analyze their potential for cell adhesion and interaction with other matrix molecules as well as calcium binding. Sequence comparison between mAMBN and hAMBN revealed a 26-amino-acid deletion in mAMBN, corresponding to a helix-loop-helix frameshift. The human AMBN domain (174Q-201G), homologous to the mAMBN 157E-178I helix-loop-helix region, formed a helix-loop motif with an extended loop, suggesting a higher degree of flexibility of hAMBN compared with mAMBN, as confirmed by molecular dynamics simulation. Heparin-binding domains, CD63-interaction domains, and calcium-binding sites in both hAMBN and mAMBN support the concept of AMBN as an extracellular matrix protein. The high level of conservation between AMBN functional domains related to adhesion and differentiation was remarkable when compared with only 61% amino acid sequence homology.

  10. Physiology and pathophysiology of selectins, integrins, and IgSF cell adhesion molecules focusing on inflammation. A paradigm model on infectious endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Golias, Christos; Batistatou, Anna; Bablekos, Georgios; Charalabopoulos, Alexandros; Peschos, Dimitrios; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos

    2011-06-01

    The development of adhesion bonds, either among cells or among cells and components of the extracellular matrix, is a crucial process. These interactions are mediated by some molecules collectively known as adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs are ubiquitously expressed proteins playing a central role in controlling cell migration, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Besides their key function in physiological maintenance of tissue integrity, CAMs play an eminent role in various pathological processes such as cardiovascular disorders, atherogenesis, atherosclerotic plaque progression and regulation of the inflammatory response. CAMs such as selectins, integrins, and immunoglobulin superfamily take part in interactions between leukocyte and vascular endothelium (leukocyte rolling, arrest, firm adhesion, migration). Experimental data and pathologic observations support the assumption that pathogenic microorganisms attach to vascular endothelial cells or sites of vascular injury initiating intravascular infections. In this review a paradigm focusing on cell adhesion molecules pathophysiology and infective endocarditis development is given.

  11. Human Dermal Mast Cells Contain and Release Tumor Necrosis Factor α, which Induces Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Laurence J.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Waldorf, Heidi A.; Whitaker, Diana; Murphy, George F.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-α within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-α protein and TNF-α mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-α. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion.

  12. Adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts on extracellular matrix protein-functionalized poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Cai, Ning; Gong, Yingxue; Chian, Kerm Sin; Chan, Vincent; Liao, Kin

    2008-03-01

    Effective attachment of esophageal cells on biomaterials is one important requirement in designing engineered esophagus substitute for esophageal cancer treatment. In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was subjected to surface modification by coupling extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on its surface to promote cell adhesion. Two typical ECM proteins, collagen type I (COL) and fibronectin (FN), were immobilized on the PLA surface with the aid of glutaraldehyde as a cross linker between aminolyzed PLA and ECM proteins. By using confocal reflectance interference contrast microscopy (C-RICM) integrating with phase contrast microscopy, the long-term adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts (PEFs) on four types of surfaces (unmodified PLA, PLA-COOH, PLA-COL and PLA-FN) was investigated during 24 h of culture. It is demonstrated by C-RICM results that PEFs form strong adhesion contact on all four types of surfaces at different stages of cell seeding. Among the four surfaces, PEFs on the PLA-FN surface reach the maximum adhesion energy (9.5 x 10(-7) J m(-2)) in the shortest time (20 min) during the initial stage of cell seeding. After adhesion energy reaches the maximum value, PEFs maintain their highly deformed geometries till they reached a steady state after 20 h of culture. F-actin immunostaining results show that the evolvement of spatial organization of F-actin is tightly correlated with the formation of adhesion contact and cell spreading. Furthermore, the cell attachment ratio of PEFs on PLA in 2 h is only 26% compared with 88% on PLA-FN, 73% on PLA-COL and 36% on PLA-COOH. All the results demonstrate the effect of surface functionalization on the biophysical responses of PEFs in cell adhesion. Fibronectin-immobilized PLA demonstrates promising potential for application as an engineered esophagus substitute.

  13. Bifidobacterium bifidum Extracellular Sialidase Enhances Adhesion to the Mucosal Surface and Supports Carbohydrate Assimilation.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Yamamoto, Yuji; Sugiyama, Makoto; Takaki, Takashi; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi; Okada, Nobuhiko; Mukai, Takao

    2017-10-03

    Bifidobacterium is a natural inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We studied the role of the extracellular sialidase (SiaBb2, 835 amino acids [aa]) from Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 in mucosal surface adhesion and carbohydrate catabolism. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) or porcine mucin oligosaccharides as the sole carbon source enhanced B. bifidum growth. This was impaired in a B. bifidum ATCC 15696 strain harboring a mutation in the siabb2 gene. Mutant cells in early to late exponential growth phase also showed decreased adhesion to human epithelial cells and porcine mucin relative to the wild-type strain. These results indicate that SiaBb2 removes sialic acid from HMOs and mucin for metabolic purposes and may promote bifidobacterial adhesion to the mucosal surface. To further characterize SiaBb2-mediated bacterial adhesion, we examined the binding of His-tagged recombinant SiaBb2 peptide to colonic mucins and found that His-SiaBb2 as well as a conserved sialidase domain peptide (aa 187 to 553, His-Sia) bound to porcine mucin and murine colonic sections. A glycoarray assay revealed that His-Sia bound to the α2,6-linked but not to the α2,3-linked sialic acid on sialyloligosaccharide and blood type A antigen [GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ] at the nonreducing termini of sugar chains. These results suggest that the sialidase domain of SiaBb2 is responsible for this interaction and that the protein recognizes two distinct carbohydrate structures. Thus, SiaBb2 may be involved in Bifidobacterium-mucosal surface interactions as well as in the assimilation of a variety of sialylated carbohydrates.IMPORTANCE Adhesion to the host mucosal surface and carbohydrate assimilation are important for bifidobacterium colonization and survival in the host gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic basis for B. bifidum extracellular sialidase (SiaBb2)-mediated adhesion. SiaBb2 cleaved sialyl-human milk oligosaccharides and mucin

  14. Human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and rat homologue NILE are ligands for integrin alpha v beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Integrin alpha v beta 3 is distinct in its capacity to recognize the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) in many extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the recognition of ECM components, alpha v beta 3 can interact with the neural cell adhesion molecule L1-CAM; a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). M21 melanoma cells displayed significant Ca(++)-dependent adhesion and spreading on immunopurified rat L1 (NILE). This adhesion was found to be dependent on the expression of the alpha v-integrin subunit and could be significantly inhibited by an antibody to the alpha v beta 3 heterodimer. M21 cells also displayed some alpha v beta 3-dependent adhesion and spreading on immunopurified human L1. Ligation between this ligand and alpha v beta 3 was also observed to promote significant haptotactic cell migration. To map the site of alpha v beta 3 ligation we used recombinant L1 fragments comprising the entire extracellular domain of human L1. Significant alpha v beta 3-dependent adhesion and spreading was evident on a L1 fragment containing Ig-like domains 4, 5, and 6. Importantly, mutation of an RGD sequence present in the sixth Ig-like domain of L1 abrogated M21 cell adhesion. We conclude that alpha v beta 3-dependent recognition of human L1 is dependent on ligation of this RGD site. Despite high levels of L1 expression the M21 melanoma cells did not display significant adhesion via a homophilic L1-L1 interaction. These data suggest that M21 melanoma cells recognize and adhere to L1 through a mechanism that is primarily heterophilic and integrin dependent. Finally, we present evidence that melanoma cells can shed and deposit L1 in occluding ECM. In this regard, alpha v beta 3 may recognize L1 in a cell-cell or cell- substrate interaction. PMID:8636223

  15. Cell Migration in the Immune System: the Evolving Inter-Related Roles of Adhesion Molecules and Proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Graesser, Donnasue

    2000-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation into perivascular tissue during inflammation and lymphocyte homing to lymphoid organs involve transient adhesion to the vessel endothelium, followed by transmigration through the endothelial cell (EC) layer and establishment of residency at the tissue site for a period of time. In these processes, leukocytes undergo multiple attachments to, and detachments from, the vessel-lining endothelial cells, prior to transendothelial cell migration. Transmigrating leukocytes must traverse a subendothelial basement membrane en route to perivascular tissues and utilize enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases to make selective clips in the extracellular matrix components of the basement membrane. This review will focus on the evidence for a link between adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, the induction of matrix metalloproteinases mediated by engagement of adhesion receptors on leukocytes, and the ability to utilize these matrix metalloproteinases to facilitate leukocyte invasion of tissues. Leukocytes with invasive phenotypes express high levels of MMPs, and expression of MMPs enhances the migratory and invasive properties of these cells. Furthermore, MMPs may be used by lymphocytes to proteolytically cleave molecules such as adhesion receptors and membrane bound cytokines, increasing their efficiency in the immune response. Engagement of leukocyte adhesion receptors may modulate adhesive (modulation of integrin affinities and expression), synthetic (proteinase induction and activation), and surface organization (clustering of proteolyric complexes) behaviors of invasive leukocytes. Elucidation of these pathways will lead to better understanding of controlling mechanisms in order to develop rational therapeutic approaches in the areas of inflammation and autoimmunity. PMID:11097205

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy influences T cell adhesion to extracellular matrix in women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Jerzak, M; Rechberger, T; Górski, A

    2000-12-01

    To determine activated T cell adhesion level to extracellular matrix (ECM) in non-pregnant women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA). In addition, to evaluate a small-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy influences on T cell adhesion to ECM. Phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) activated T cell adhesion to the following extracellular matrix proteins: collagen IV, fibronectin and elastin were studied in women with the history of RSA. In addition, IVIG immunotherapy influence on T cell adhesion was studied. Normal T cells adhesion values were established in non-pregnant healthy women with the previous successful pregnancy outcome and in normal healthy pregnant women. PHA activated T cell adhesion to collagen IV (P = 0.04), fibronectin (P = 0.0003) nad elastin (P = 0.02) were significantly higher in women with the history of RSA when compared to non-pregnant healthy women wit the previous successful pregancy outcome. IVIG immunotherapy normalized the T cell adhesion level and favored a successful pregnancy. Increased T cell adhesion to collagen IV, fibronectin and elastin characterize women with the history of RSA. Decreased T cell adhesion to the main extracellular matrix components of human placenta may underlie possible effect of IVIG action.

  17. Tocotrienol is the most effective vitamin E for reducing endothelial expression of adhesion molecules and adhesion to monocytes.

    PubMed

    Theriault, Andre; Chao, Jun-Tzo; Gapor, Abdul; Chao, Jun Tzo; Gapor, Abeli

    2002-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol and its esterified derivatives have been shown to be effective in reducing monocytic-endothelial cell adhesion. However, the effect of alpha-tocotrienol (alpha-T3) has not been characterized. In the present study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as the model system, we examined the relative inhibitory effects of alpha-T3 and other vitamin E derivatives on cell surface adhesion molecule expression under TNF-alpha stimulation. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that alpha-T3 markedly inhibited the surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in TNF-alpha activated HUVEC in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The optimal inhibition was observed at 25 micromol/l alpha-T3 within 24 h (77+/-5%) without cytotoxicity. In addition, the surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin were also reduced by 40+/-7 and 42+/-5%, respectively. In order to further evaluate the effects of alpha-T3 on the vascular endothelium, we investigated the ability of monocytes to adhere to endothelial cells. Interestingly, a 63+/-3% decrease in monocytic cell adherence was observed. Compared to alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl succinate, alpha-T3 displayed a more profound inhibitory effect on adhesion molecule expression and monocytic cell adherence. This inhibitory action by alpha-T3 on TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion was shown to be NF-kappaB dependent and was interestingly reversed with co-incubation with farnesol and geranylgeraniol, suggesting a role for prenylated proteins in the regulation of adhesion molecule expression. In summary, the above results suggest that alpha-T3 is a potent and effective agent in the reduction of cellular adhesion molecule expression and monocytic cell adherence.

  18. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor: a functional integrator of extracellular proteolysis, cell adhesion, and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Gian Maria Sarra; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2013-06-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a cell surface receptor involved in a multitude of physiologic and pathologic processes. uPAR regulates simultaneously a branch of the plasminogen activator system and modulates cell adhesion and intracellular signaling by interacting with extracellular matrix components and signaling receptors. The multiple uPAR functions are deeply interconnected, and their integration determines the effects that uPAR expression triggers in different contexts. The proteolytic function of uPAR affects both the signaling and the adhesive functions of the receptor, whereas these latter two are closely interconnected. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that connect and mutually regulate the different uPAR functions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  20. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) marks adult myogenic cells committed to differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Capkovic, Katie L.; Stevenson, Severin; Johnson, Marc C.; Thelen, Jay J.; Cornelison, D.D.W.

    2008-04-15

    Although recent advances in broad-scale gene expression analysis have dramatically increased our knowledge of the repertoire of mRNAs present in multiple cell types, it has become increasingly clear that examination of the expression, localization, and associations of the encoded proteins will be critical for determining their functional significance. In particular, many signaling receptors, transducers, and effectors have been proposed to act in higher-order complexes associated with physically distinct areas of the plasma membrane. Adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells) must, upon injury, respond appropriately to a wide range of extracellular stimuli: the role of such signaling scaffolds is therefore a potentially important area of inquiry. To address this question, we first isolated detergent-resistant membrane fractions from primary satellite cells, then analyzed their component proteins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Transmembrane and juxtamembrane components of adhesion-mediated signaling pathways made up the largest group of identified proteins; in particular, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a multifunctional cell-surface protein that has previously been associated with muscle regeneration, was significant. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that not only is NCAM localized to discrete areas of the plasma membrane, it is also a very early marker of commitment to terminal differentiation. Using flow cytometry, we have sorted physically homogeneous myogenic cultures into proliferating and differentiating fractions based solely upon NCAM expression.

  1. Effects of fibroblast extracellular matrix calcification on platelet adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, J N; Melchior, A; Endt-Knauer, H; Schrör, K; Fischer, J W; Weber, A-A

    2008-09-01

    Calcified atherosclerotic lesions are more prone to rupture during angioplasty than non-calcified lesions and are associated with an increased risk of thrombotic complications following angioplasty. This study investigates the possible role of extracellular matrix (ECM) calcification for platelet adhesion. Human cultured fibroblasts (CRL-1635) were subjected to beta-glycerophosphate (10 mM) for 10 to 16 days. Calcification was visualized by von Kossa staining and quantified by the O-cresolphthalein complexone method. Adhesion of calcein-labelled platelets was measured by fluorescence microscopy at static conditions and in a parallel-flow chamber at a shear rate of 1000 s(-1). beta-glycerophosphate treatment resulted in a marked calcification of the ECM. In parallel, a small, albeit significant increase in platelet adhesion under static conditions was observed. In contrast, at flow conditions, the area covered by thrombi was significantly lower when calcified ECM was used. The number of thrombi was not significantly different which is compatible with a smaller thrombus size. Taken together, it appears unlikely that calcification of atherosclerotic lesions contributes to thrombotic complications by an increased platelet adhesion.

  2. Purification, composition, and structure of macrophage adhesion molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Remold-O'Donnell, E.; Savage, B.

    1988-01-12

    Macrophage adhesion molecule (MAM) is a surface heterodimer consisting of the trypsin- and plasmin-sensitive glycopeptide gp160 (MAM-..cap alpha..) and the glycopeptide gp93 (MAM-..beta..). MAM, which is the guinea pig analog of Mo1 and Mac-1, was purified from detergent lysates of peritoneal neutrophils by lentil lectin chromatography and M2-antibody chromatography. The pure heterodimer molecule was dissociated by acidic conditions (pH 3.5), and MAM-..cap alpha.. and MAM-..beta.. were separated by M7-antibody chromatography. MAM-..beta.. is an approx. 640 amino acid residue polypeptide with exceptionally high cysteine content. At 7.2 residues per 100 amino acids, Cys/2 of MAM-..beta.. is more than 3 times the mean for 200 purified proteins. Reactivity with six ..beta..-subunit-specific /sup 125/I-labeled monoclonal antibodies recognizing at least four epitopes demonstrated that intrapeptide disulfide bonds are required to maintain the structure of MAM-..beta... All six antibodies failed to react when MAM-..beta.. was treated with reducing agents. MAM-..beta.. is 18% carbohydrate; the major monosaccharides are mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, and sialic acid. MAM-..beta.. is estimated to contain five to six N-linked carbohydrate units. MAM-..cap alpha.. is an approx. 1100-residue polypeptide with lower Cys/2 content (2.0 residues per 100 amino acid residues). MAM-..cap alpha.. is 21% carbohydrate. The major monosaccharides are mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, and sialic acid; the mannose content is higher in MAM-..cap alpha.. than MAM-..beta.. is estimated to contain 12 N-linked carbohydrate units.

  3. L1 cell adhesion molecule as a novel independent poor prognostic factor in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Song-Yi; Jo, Young Suk; Huang, Song-Mei; Liang, Zhe Long; Min, Jeong-Ki; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jin-Man

    2011-10-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a lethal malignancy and is hard to cure by current treatment. Thus, identification of molecular prognostic markers to predict gallbladder carcinoma as therapeutic targets is urgently needed. Recent studies have demonstrated that L1 cell adhesion molecule is associated with the prognosis of variable malignancy. Here, we investigated L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in gallbladder carcinoma and its prognostic significance. In this study, we examined L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in tumor specimens from 69 patients with gallbladder carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between L1 cell adhesion molecule expression and clinicopathologic factors or survival. L1 cell adhesion molecule was not expressed in the normal epithelium of the gallbladder but in 63.8% of gallbladder carcinomas, remarkably at the invasive front of the tumors. In addition, L1 cell adhesion molecule expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, advanced pathologic T stage and clinical stage, and positive venous/lymphatic invasion. Multivariate analyses showed that L1 cell adhesion molecule expression (hazard ratio, 3.503; P = .028) and clinical stage (hazard ratio, 3.091; P = .042) were independent risk factor for disease-free survival. L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in gallbladder carcinoma was significantly correlated with tumor progression and unfavorable clinicopathologic features. L1 cell adhesion molecule expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Taken together, our findings suggest that L1 cell adhesion molecule expression could be used as a novel prognostic factor for patient survival and might be a potential therapeutic target in gallbladder carcinomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Leukocyte adhesion molecule dynamics after Natalizumab withdrawal in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cobo-Calvo, Álvaro; Figueras, Agnes; Bau, Laura; Matas, Elisabet; Mañé Martínez, María Alba; León, Isabel; Majòs, Carles; Romero-Pinel, Lucia; Martínez-Yélamos, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) dynamics in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients have been widely studied after Natalizumab (NTZ) introduction. However, their temporal dynamics after NTZ withdrawal (NTZ-W) has not been described. We prospectively evaluate changes in the expression levels of CAMs (CD49d, CD29, L-Selectin and CD11a) involved in T cell migration of 22 MS patients after NTZ-W. CD49d, CD29 and CD11a expression experienced a continuous increase expression two months after NTZ-W and Cd49d expression at month six after NTZ-W correlated to NTZ treatment duration, both in CD45(+)CD4(+) and CD45(+)CD8(+). CD49d expression up to month three after NTZ-W was related to MS activity in CD45(+)CD8(+) at the end of the study. Results from this study suggest that patients with a longer NTZ treatment are more susceptible to present a "molecular rebound" after NTZ-W. CD49d determination may be a useful tool to closely monitor MS activity in patients who interrupt NTZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Angiogenesis in Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gaoyuan; Fehrenbach, Melane L.; Williams, James T.; Finklestein, Jeffrey M.; Zhu, Jing-Xu; DeLisser, Horace M.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been previously implicated in endothelial cell migration; additionally, anti-PECAM-1 antibodies have been shown to inhibit in vivo angiogenesis. Studies were therefore performed with PECAM-1-null mice to further define the involvement of PECAM-1 in blood vessel formation. Vascularization of subcutaneous Matrigel implants as well as tumor angiogenesis were both inhibited in PECAM-1-null mice. Reciprocal bone marrow transplants that involved both wild-type and PECAM-1-deficient mice revealed that the impaired angiogenic response resulted from a loss of endothelial, but not leukocyte, PECAM-1. In vitro wound migration and single-cell motility by PECAM-1-null endothelial cells were also compromised. In addition, filopodia formation, a feature of motile cells, was inhibited in PECAM-1-null endothelial cells as well as in human endothelial cells treated with either anti-PECAM-1 antibody or PECAM-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of PECAM-1 promoted filopodia formation and increased the protein expression levels of Cdc42, a Rho GTPase that is known to promote the formation of filopodia. In the developing retinal vasculature, numerous, long filamentous filopodia, emanating from endothelial cells at the tips of angiogenic sprouts, were observed in wild-type animals, but to a lesser extent in the PECAM-1-null mice. Together, these data further establish the involvement of endothelial PECAM-1 in angiogenesis and suggest that, in vivo, PECAM-1 may stimulate endothelial cell motility by promoting the formation of filopodia. PMID:19574426

  6. The effect of adhesion molecule blockade on pulmonary reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Levine, Adrian J; Parkes, Karen; Rooney, Stephen J; Bonser, Robert S

    2002-04-01

    Selectins are the molecules involved in the initial adhesion of the activated neutrophil on pulmonary endothelium. We investigated the efficacy of selectin blockade in a selective (monoclonal antibody RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) manner in pulmonary reperfusion injury. Groups of six rat lungs were flushed with University of Wisconsin solution then stored at 4 degrees C for 4 hours. They then underwent sanguinous reperfusion for 30 minutes during which functional measures (gas exchange, pulmonary artery pressure, and airway pressure) of lung performance were made. After reperfusion we estimated their capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc units g/cm water/minute/g wet lung tissue) using a gravimetric technique. Four groups were studied: group I had no reperfusion, group II had 30 minutes of reperfusion, group III had infusion of 20 mg/kg Fucoidin before reperfusion, and group IV had infusion of 20 microg/mL RMP-1 before reperfusion. Reperfusion injury was found between groups I and II by an increase in capillary filtration coefficient (1.048 +/- 0.316 to 3.063 +/- 0.466, p < 0.01). Groups III and IV had a significantly lower Kfc than group II (0.967 +/- 0.134 and 1.205 +/- 0.164, respectively, p < 0.01). There was no significant functional difference between groups II, III, and IV. Reperfusion-induced hyperpermeability was ameliorated by selective (RMP-1) and nonselective (Fucoidin) selectin blockade.

  7. Calsyntenins Function as Synaptogenic Adhesion Molecules in Concert with Neurexins

    PubMed Central

    Um, Ji Won; Pramanik, Gopal; Ko, Ji Seung; Song, Min-Young; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Park, Kang-Sik; Südhof, Thomas C.; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Ko, Jaewon

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple synaptic adhesion molecules govern synapse formation. Here, we propose calsyntenin-3/alcadein-β as a synapse organizer that specifically induces presynaptic differentiation in heterologous synapse-formation assays. Calsyntenin-3 (CST-3) was highly expressed during various postnatal periods of mouse brain development. The simultaneous knockdown of all three CSTs, but not CST-3 alone, decreased inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse densities in cultured hippocampal neurons. Moreover, the knockdown of CSTs specifically reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, the loss of CSTs induced a concomitant decrease in neuron soma size in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Furthermore, α-neurexins (α-Nrxs) were affinity-purified as components of a CST-3 complex involved in CST-3-mediated presynaptic differentiation. However, CST-3 did not directly bind to Nrxs. Viewed together, these data suggest that the three CSTs redundantly regulate inhibitory synapse formation, inhibitory synapse function, and neuron development in concert with Nrxs. PMID:24613359

  8. Small Molecule Agonists of Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 Mimic L1 Functions In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Hardeep; Lutz, David; Chaudhary, Harshita; Schachner, Melitta; Loers, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery after injury, leading to severe disabilities in motor functions and pain. Peripheral nerve injury impairs motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, particularly in cases where nerve gaps are large and chronic nerve injury ensues. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration after acute injury. We screened libraries of known drugs for small molecule agonists of L1 and evaluated the effect of hit compounds in cell-based assays in vitro and in mice after femoral nerve and spinal cord injuries in vivo. We identified eight small molecule L1 agonists and showed in cell-based assays that they stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth and enhance Schwann cell proliferation and migration and myelination of neurons in an L1-dependent manner. In a femoral nerve injury mouse model, enhanced functional regeneration and remyelination after application of the L1 agonists were observed. In a spinal cord injury mouse model, L1 agonists improved recovery of motor functions, being paralleled by enhanced remyelination, neuronal survival, and monoaminergic innervation, reduced astrogliosis, and activation of microglia. Together, these findings suggest that application of small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate the beneficial homophilic L1 functions may prove to be a valuable addition to treatments of nervous system injuries.

  9. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediates murine colon adenocarcinoma invasion.

    PubMed

    Howard, Kenton; Lo, Karen K; Ao, Lihua; Gamboni, Fabia; Edil, Barish H; Schulick, Richard; Barnett, Carlton C

    2014-03-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) modulates cell-cell adhesion and is a receptor for cognate ligands on leukocytes. Upregulation of ICAM-1 has been demonstrated in malignant transformation of adenomas and is associated with poor prognosis for many malignancies. ICAM-1 is upregulated on the invasive front of pancreatic metastases and melanomas. These data suggest that the upregulated ICAM-1 expression promotes malignant progression. We hypothesize that the downregulation of ICAM-1 will mitigate tumor progression. Mouse colon adenocarcinoma cells (MC38) were evaluated for the expression of ICAM-1 using Western immunoblot analysis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transduction was used to downregulate ICAM-1. Tumor invasion determined via a modified Boyden chamber was used as a surrogate of tumor progression examining MC38 cells, MC38 ICAM-1 knockdowns, and MC38 transduced with vehicle control. The cells were cultured in full media for 24 h and serum-starved for 24 h. A total of 5 × 10(4) cells were plated and allowed to migrate for 24 h using full media with 10% fetal bovine serum as a chemoattractant. Inserts were fixed and stained with crystal violet. Blinded investigators counted the cells using a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance with Fischer protected least significant difference and a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. ICAM-1 was constitutively expressed on MC38 cells. Transduction with anti-ICAM-1 shRNA vector downregulated ICAM-1 protein expression by 30% according to the Western blot analysis (P < 0.03) and decreased ICAM-1 messenger RNA expression by 70% according to the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. shRNA knockdown cells had a significant reduction in invasion >45% (P < 0.03). There were no significant differences between the invasion rates of MC38 and MC38 vehicle controls. Downregulation of ICAM-1 mitigates MC38 invasion. These data suggest that targeted

  10. Extracellular vesicles as novel carriers for therapeutic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Nambin; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural carriers of biomolecules that play central roles in cell-to-cell communications. Based on this, there have been various attempts to use EVs as therapeutic drug carriers. From chemical reagents to nucleic acids, various macromolecules were successfully loaded into EVs; however, loading of proteins with high molecular weight has been huddled with several problems. Purification of recombinant proteins is expensive and time consuming, and easily results in modification of proteins due to physical or chemical forces. Also, the loading efficiency of conventional methods is too low for most proteins. We have recently proposed a new method, the so-called exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein-protein interaction (EXPLORs), to overcome the limitations. Since EXPLORs are produced by actively loading of intracellular proteins into EVs using blue light without protein purification steps, we demonstrated that the EXPLOR technique significantly improves the loading and delivery efficiency of therapeutic proteins. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate the potential of EXPLOR technology as a novel platform for biopharmaceuticals, by successful delivery of several functional proteins such as Cre recombinase, into the target cells. PMID:27733233

  11. Extracellular vesicles as novel carriers for therapeutic molecules.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nambin; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are natural carriers of biomolecules that play central roles in cell-to-cell communications. Based on this, there have been various attempts to use EVs as therapeutic drug carriers. From chemical reagents to nucleic acids, various macromolecules were successfully loaded into EVs; however, loading of proteins with high molecular weight has been huddled with several problems. Purification of recombinant proteins is expensive and time consuming, and easily results in modification of proteins due to physical or chemical forces. Also, the loading efficiency of conventional methods is too low for most proteins. We have recently proposed a new method, the so-called exosomes for protein loading via optically reversible protein-protein interaction (EXPLORs), to overcome the limitations. Since EXPLORs are produced by actively loading of intracellular proteins into EVs using blue light without protein purification steps, we demonstrated that the EXPLOR technique significantly improves the loading and delivery efficiency of therapeutic proteins. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate the potential of EXPLOR technology as a novel platform for biopharmaceuticals, by successful delivery of several functional proteins such as Cre recombinase, into the target cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(11): 585-586].

  12. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1, and Cluster of Differentiation 146 Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Complications

    PubMed Central

    Saribal, Devrim; Yenmis, Guven; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2017-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multisystemic, chronic disease accompanied by microvascular complications involving various complicated mechanisms. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and cluster of differentiation-146 (CD146) are mainly expressed by endothelial cells, and facilitate the adhesion and transmigration of immune cells, leading to inflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with microvascular complications of T2DM. Methods Serum and whole blood samples were collected from 58 T2DM patients with microvascular complications and 20 age-matched healthy subjects. Levels of soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while flow cytometry was used to determine CD146 levels. Results Serum sICAM-1 levels were lower in T2DM patients with microvascular complications than in healthy controls (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 and CD146 levels between the study and the control group. Although patients were subdivided into groups according to the type of microvascular complications that they experienced, cell adhesion molecule levels were not correlated with the complication type. Conclusion In the study group, most of the patients were on insulin therapy (76%), and 95% of them were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor agents. Insulin and ACE-inhibitors have been shown to decrease soluble adhesion molecule levels via various mechanisms, so we suggest that the decreased or unchanged levels of soluble forms of cellular adhesion molecules in our study group may have resulted from insulin and ACE-inhibitor therapy, as well as tissue-localized inflammation in patients with T2DM. PMID:28345319

  13. Androgen exposure increases human monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and endothelial cell expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    McCrohon, J A; Jessup, W; Handelsman, D J; Celermajer, D S

    1999-05-04

    Male sex is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Owing to the importance of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in the development of atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that androgens might promote this process. We therefore studied the effects of the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on human monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells and on endothelial cell-surface expression of adhesion molecules. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were grown to confluence in media supplemented with postmenopausal female serum, then exposed for 48 hours to either DHT (40 and 400 nmol/L), with or without the androgen receptor blocker hydroxyflutamide (HF) (4 micromol/L); HF alone; or vehicle control (ethanol 0.1%). Human monocytes obtained by elutriation were incubated for 1 hour with the HUVECs at 37 degrees C, and adhesion was measured by light microscopy. Compared with vehicle control, monocyte adhesion was increased in the androgen-treated HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (116+/-6% and 128+/-3% for DHT 40 and 400 nmol/L respectively; P<0.001). HF blocked this increase (P>/=0.3 compared with control). Surface expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules was measured by ELISA and revealed an increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the DHT-treated HUVECs (125+/-5% versus 100+/-4% in controls; P=0.002), an effect also antagonized by HF (P>/=0.3 compared with controls). Furthermore, the DHT-related increase in adhesion was completely blocked by coincubation with anti-VCAM-1 antibody. Comparable results were obtained in arterial endothelial cells and in endothelium stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Androgen exposure is associated with increased human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, a proatherogenic effect mediated at least in part by an increased endothelial cell-surface expression of VCAM-1.

  14. Natural extracellular nanovesicles and photodynamic molecules: is there a future for drug delivery?

    PubMed

    Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Matsubara, Takao; Murata, Hiroaki; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Iessi, Elisabetta; Di Raimo, Rossella; Carta, Fabrizio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Photodynamic molecules represent an alternative approach for cancer therapy for their property (i) to be photo-reactive; (ii) to be not-toxic for target cells in absence of light; (iii) to accumulate specifically into tumour tissues; (iv) to be activable by a light beam only at the tumour site and (v) to exert cytotoxic activity against tumour cells. However, to date their clinical use is limited by the side effects elicited by systemic administration. Extracellular vesicles are endogenous nanosized-carriers that have been recently introduced as a natural delivery system for therapeutic molecules. We have recently shown the ability of human exosomes to deliver photodynamic molecules. Therefore, this review focussed on extracellular vesicles as a novel strategy for the delivery of photodynamic molecules at cancer sites. This completely new approach may enhance the delivery and decrease the toxicity of photodynamic molecules, therefore, represent the future for photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment.

  15. Role of glucocorticoids in neutrophil and endothelial adhesion molecule expression and function

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Vivienne

    1992-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are very effective inhibitors of both the acute and chronic inflammatory response. In this study the hypothesis that glucocorticoids inhibit an early component of the inflammatory response, neutrophil adhesion to endothelium, by down-regulation of adhesion molecules on neutrophils or endothelium was examined. No effect of dexamethasone on neutrophil adhesion to endothelium or of antigen expression by neutrophils or endothelium was found. The mechanism of action of glucocorticoids in the inflammatory response is probably not mediated by alterations in adhesion molecules. PMID:18475448

  16. Erythroid cell adhesion molecules Lutheran and LW in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Parsons, S F; Spring, F A; Chasis, J A; Anstee, D J

    1999-12-01

    The Lutheran and LW glycoproteins are blood group-active proteins found at the surface of human red cells. The Lutheran glycoprotein (Lu gp) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) that binds the extracellular matrix protein laminin, in particular, laminin isoforms containing the alpha 5 subunit. The LW glycoprotein (LW gp), also an IgSF member, has substantial sequence homology with the family of intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs). LW gp binds the integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, alpha 4 beta 1) and alpha V-containing integrins. Studies on the expression of LW and Lu gps during erythropoiesis utilizing in vitro cultures of haemopoietic progenitor cells have shown that LW gp expression precedes that of Lu gp. These observations have led to the suggestion that LW gp on erythroblasts may interact with VLA-4 on macrophages to stabilize erythroblastic islands in normal bone marrow and that Lu gp may facilitate trafficking of more mature erythroid cells to the sinusoidal endothelium where alpha 5-containing laminins are known to be expressed. Levels of Lu gp and LW gp expression on sickle red cells are greater than on normal red cells and sickle red cells adhere to alpha 5-containing laminins. These data suggest that the Lu and LW molecules may contribute to the vaso-occlusive events associated with episodes of acute pain in sickle cell disease.

  17. Reciprocal Interactions between Cell Adhesion Molecules of the Immunoglobulin Superfamily and the Cytoskeleton in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) including the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and members of the L1 family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules play important functions in the developing nervous system by regulating formation, growth and branching of neurites, and establishment of the synaptic contacts between neurons. In the mature brain, members of IgSF regulate synapse composition, function, and plasticity required for learning and memory. The intracellular domains of IgSF cell adhesion molecules interact with the components of the cytoskeleton including the submembrane actin-spectrin meshwork, actin microfilaments, and microtubules. In this review, we summarize current data indicating that interactions between IgSF cell adhesion molecules and the cytoskeleton are reciprocal, and that while IgSF cell adhesion molecules regulate the assembly of the cytoskeleton, the cytoskeleton plays an important role in regulation of the functions of IgSF cell adhesion molecules. Reciprocal interactions between NCAM and L1 family members and the cytoskeleton and their role in neuronal differentiation and synapse formation are discussed in detail.

  18. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  19. Leukocyte adhesion molecules as biocompatibility markers for hemodialysis membranes.

    PubMed

    von Appen, K; Goolsby, C; Mehl, P; Goewert, R; Ivanovich, P

    1994-01-01

    Comparative flow cytometric measurement was used to evaluate the significance of leukocyte adhesion molecule (LAM) activity changes during hemodialysis (HD) with different cellulosic and non cellulosic membranes. Six hemodialysis patients (men) who were in a maintenance program for more than 6 months were treated consecutively with five different dialyzers (cuprophan, hemophan, 2 types of cellulose acetate, and polysulfone). During each study HD, blood was sampled from the arterial line at 0, 15, and 60 min and from the venous port at 3 min to harvest leukocytes immediately after the first cell-membrane contact. After whole blood lysis preparation, leukocytes were incubated with fluorescent antibodies to label LAM CD 11A/18 (LFA-1), CD 11B/18 (Mac-1), CD 11C/18 (p150/95), and CD 54 (ICAM-1) (Becton-Dickinson, San Jose, CA). Data were acquired for the granulocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte population based on forward and 90 degrees scatter light measurements. Accuracy of gating was verified by CD 14/45 staining for all samples. Baseline integrin expression for the selected populations before biomaterial contact was found to be heterogeneous for different patients, but underwent changes for the same patient during HD treatment. The fluorescent intensity corresponding to specific integrins was characterized by different patterns of up/down regulation with maximal deviations occurring at 3 min. Fluorescent intensity of the granulocyte and monocyte populations sampled at 15 min was 40-50% lower as compared with those sampled immediately after the first biomaterial contact. Based on the basal fluorescence levels and values recorded after the first biomaterial contact and those at 15 min, two coefficients were generated to compare membrane properties.

  20. Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M.; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K.; Nobrega, Marcelo M.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Temperini, Marcia L. A.; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; de Souza, Alessandra A.; Cotta, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Understanding their organization can unveil vulnerabilities leading to potential treatments; spatially and temporally-resolved comprehensive experimental characterization can provide new details of biofilm formation, and possibly new targets for disease control. Here, biofilm formation of economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa was analyzed at single-cell resolution using nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques, addressing the role of different types of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) at each stage of the entire bacterial life cycle. Single cell adhesion is caused by unspecific electrostatic interactions through proteins at the cell polar region, where EPS accumulation is required for more firmly-attached, irreversibly adhered cells. Subsequently, bacteria form clusters, which are embedded in secreted loosely-bound EPS, and bridged by up to ten-fold elongated cells that form the biofilm framework. During biofilm maturation, soluble EPS forms a filamentous matrix that facilitates cell adhesion and provides mechanical support, while the biofilm keeps anchored by few cells. This floating architecture maximizes nutrient distribution while allowing detachment upon larger shear stresses; it thus complies with biological requirements of the bacteria life cycle. Using new approaches, our findings provide insights regarding different aspects of the adhesion process of X. fastidiosa and biofilm formation. PMID:25891045

  1. Spatiotemporal distribution of different extracellular polymeric substances and filamentation mediate Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Janissen, Richard; Murillo, Duber M; Niza, Barbara; Sahoo, Prasana K; Nobrega, Marcelo M; Cesar, Carlos L; Temperini, Marcia L A; Carvalho, Hernandes F; de Souza, Alessandra A; Cotta, Monica A

    2015-04-20

    Microorganism pathogenicity strongly relies on the generation of multicellular assemblies, called biofilms. Understanding their organization can unveil vulnerabilities leading to potential treatments; spatially and temporally-resolved comprehensive experimental characterization can provide new details of biofilm formation, and possibly new targets for disease control. Here, biofilm formation of economically important phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa was analyzed at single-cell resolution using nanometer-resolution spectro-microscopy techniques, addressing the role of different types of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) at each stage of the entire bacterial life cycle. Single cell adhesion is caused by unspecific electrostatic interactions through proteins at the cell polar region, where EPS accumulation is required for more firmly-attached, irreversibly adhered cells. Subsequently, bacteria form clusters, which are embedded in secreted loosely-bound EPS, and bridged by up to ten-fold elongated cells that form the biofilm framework. During biofilm maturation, soluble EPS forms a filamentous matrix that facilitates cell adhesion and provides mechanical support, while the biofilm keeps anchored by few cells. This floating architecture maximizes nutrient distribution while allowing detachment upon larger shear stresses; it thus complies with biological requirements of the bacteria life cycle. Using new approaches, our findings provide insights regarding different aspects of the adhesion process of X. fastidiosa and biofilm formation.

  2. Iron sucrose accelerates early atherogenesis by increasing superoxide production and upregulating adhesion molecules in CKD.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ko-Lin; Hung, Szu-Chun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-11-01

    High-dose intravenous iron supplementation is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CKD, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Our study investigated the causative role of iron sucrose in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, an index of early atherogenesis, and subsequent atherosclerosis in the mouse remnant kidney model. We found that expression levels of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and adhesion of U937 cells increased in iron-treated human aortic endothelial cells through upregulated NADPH oxidase (NOx) and NF-κB signaling. We then measured mononuclear-endothelial adhesion and atherosclerotic lesions of the proximal aorta in male C57BL/6 mice with subtotal nephrectomy, male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with uninephrectomy, and sham-operated mice subjected to saline or parenteral iron loading. Iron sucrose significantly increased tissue superoxide production, expression of tissue cell adhesion molecules, and endothelial adhesiveness in mice with subtotal nephrectomy. Moreover, iron sucrose exacerbated atherosclerosis in the aorta of ApoE(-/-) mice with uninephrectomy. In patients with CKD, intravenous iron sucrose increased circulating mononuclear superoxide production, expression of soluble adhesion molecules, and mononuclear-endothelial adhesion compared with healthy subjects or untreated patients. In summary, iron sucrose aggravated endothelial dysfunction through NOx/NF-κB/CAM signaling, increased mononuclear-endothelial adhesion, and exacerbated atherosclerosis in mice with remnant kidneys. These results suggest a novel causative role for therapeutic iron in cardiovascular complications in patients with CKD.

  3. Nectin and junctional adhesion molecule are critical cell adhesion molecules for the apico-basal alignment of adherens and tight junctions in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomohiro; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Rikitsu, Etsuko; Kurita, Souichi; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2013-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) form an apical junctional complex at the apical side of the lateral membranes of epithelial cells, in which TJs are aligned at the apical side of AJs. Many cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and cell polarity molecules (CPMs) cooperatively regulate the formation of the apical junctional complex, but the mechanism for the alignment of TJs at the apical side of AJs is not fully understood. We developed a cellular system with which epithelial-like TJs and AJs were reconstituted in fibroblasts and analyzed the cooperative roles of CAMs and CPMs. We exogenously expressed various combinations of CAMs and CPMs in fibroblasts that express negligible amounts of these molecules endogenously. In these cells, the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion was formed at the apical side of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-based cell-cell adhesion, and cadherin and claudin were recruited to the nectin-3- and JAM-based cell-cell adhesion sites to form AJ-like and TJ-like domains, respectively. This inversed alignment of the AJ-like and TJ-like domains was reversed by complementary expression of CPMs Par-3, atypical protein kinase C, Par-6, Crb3, Pals1 and Patj. We describe the cooperative roles of these CAMs and CPMs in the apico-basal alignment of TJs and AJs in epithelial cells.

  4. A quantitative method for determining polarization of neutrophil adhesion molecules associated with ischemia reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Khiabani, Kayvan T; Stephenson, Linda L; Gabriel, Allen; Nataraj, Chandra; Wang, Wei Z; Zamboni, William A

    2004-12-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion-induced neutrophil adhesion to endothelium is CD18-dependent, but information regarding polarity of CD18 adhesion molecules remains speculative. This study evaluated neutrophil adhesion using an in vitro cell adhesion assay and introduces a quantitative method of measuring CD18 membrane distribution using confocal microscopy. Neutrophils from normal animals were isolated from whole blood and incubated with plasma from rat gracilis muscle flaps with no ischemia and reperfusion (nonischemic control, n = 10) or 4 hours of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion, n = 10), on coverslips pretreated with and without (phosphate-buffered saline) soluble intercellular adhesion molecules. Coverslips without intercellular adhesion molecules represented a negative control (intercellular adhesion molecules were required for adhesion). Percent adherence to intercellular adhesion molecules was expressed as a ratio of adherent cells/total cells. CD18 polarization was assessed by staining neutrophils with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-CD11b, followed by confocal microscopy and Z-stack analysis. Membrane-associated CD18 was expressed as fluorescence intensity units in three equal areas of the cell membrane. Capping was defined as twice as much fluorescence in 33 percent of the cell membrane as in the remaining 67 percent. Neutrophils exposed to ischemia and reperfusion plasma showed a significant increase in adhesion (0.8 +/- 0.1 percent versus 16.7 +/- 2.2 percent, p < 0.001) and CD18 polarization (6.2 +/- 1.7 percent versus 43.9 +/- 12.2 percent, p = 0.0206) compared with controls. This article describes an in vitro assay that reliably reproduces the neutrophil adhesion phenomenon associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results from confocal microscopy allowed for quantitative estimation of membrane-associated receptor polarization.

  5. Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; He, Xiaolin

    2012-02-13

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular {beta}-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC {beta}-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular {beta}-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function.

  6. RNAi targeting multiple cell adhesion molecules reduces immune cell recruitment and vascular inflammation after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Courties, Gabriel; Sun, Yuan; Heidt, Timo; Vinegoni, Claudio; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Tricot, Benoit; Khan, Omar F.; Kauffman, Kevin J.; Xing, Yiping; Shaw, Taylor E.; Libby, Peter; Langer, Robert; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to a systemic surge of vascular inflammation in mice and humans, resulting in secondary ischemic complications and high mortality. We show that, in ApoE−/− mice with coronary ligation, increased sympathetic tone up-regulates not only hematopoietic leukocyte production but also plaque endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. To counteract the resulting arterial leukocyte recruitment, we developed nanoparticle-based RNA interference (RNAi) that effectively silences five key adhesion molecules. Simultaneously encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA)–targeting intercellular cell adhesion molecules 1 and 2 (Icam1 and Icam2), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1), and E- and P-selectins (Sele and Selp) into polymeric endothelial-avid nanoparticles reduced post-MI neutrophil and monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions and decreased matrix-degrading plaque protease activity. Five-gene combination RNAi also curtailed leukocyte recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Therefore, targeted multigene silencing may prevent complications after acute MI. PMID:27280687

  7. Role of cell adhesion molecules in leukocyte recruitment in the liver and gut

    PubMed Central

    Ala, A; Dhillon, AP; Hodgson, HJ

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence that adhesion molecules are critical in leukocyte recirculation and pathogenesis of diseases affecting the closely related tissues of the liver and gut, which offer novel opportunities for treatment. PMID:12694483

  8. Bacteriocin-producing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum inhibit adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to extracellular matrix: quantitative insight and implications in antibacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sandipan; Ramesh, Aiyagari

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the adhesion of bacteriocin-producing probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum onto extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and mucin and their potential to prevent pathogen invasion onto the ECM was ascertained. Fluorescence-based in vitro assays indicated that L. plantarum strains CRA21, CRA38 and CRA52 displayed considerable adhesion to ECM molecules, which was comparable to the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Flow cytometry-based quantitative assessment of the adhesion potential suggested that L. plantarum CRA21 exhibited superior adhesion onto the ECM as compared with other lactic acid bacteria strains. Furthermore, fluorescence-based assays suggested that the highest inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion onto collagen and mucin by bacteriocin-producing L. plantarum strains was observed in the exclusion mode as compared with the competition and displacement modes. This observation was supported by the higher binding affinity (k(d)) for the ECM exhibited by the L. plantarum strains as compared with S. aureus. Interestingly, a crude plantaricin A extract from food isolates of L. plantarum displayed potent antibacterial activity on ECM-adhered S. aureus cells. It is envisaged that the L. plantarum isolates displaying bacteriocinogenic and ECM-adhering traits can perhaps be explored to develop safe antibacterial therapeutic agents.

  9. Integrin-mediated traction force enhances paxillin molecular associations and adhesion dynamics that increase the invasiveness of tumor cells into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Mekhdjian, Armen H.; Kai, FuiBoon; Rubashkin, Matthew G.; Prahl, Louis S.; Przybyla, Laralynne M.; McGregor, Alexandra L.; Bell, Emily S.; Barnes, J. Matthew; DuFort, Christopher C.; Ou, Guanqing; Chang, Alice C.; Cassereau, Luke; Tan, Steven J.; Pickup, Michael W.; Lakins, Jonathan N.; Ye, Xin; Davidson, Michael W.; Lammerding, Jan; Odde, David J.; Dunn, Alexander R.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis requires tumor cells to navigate through a stiff stroma and squeeze through confined microenvironments. Whether tumors exploit unique biophysical properties to metastasize remains unclear. Data show that invading mammary tumor cells, when cultured in a stiffened three-dimensional extracellular matrix that recapitulates the primary tumor stroma, adopt a basal-like phenotype. Metastatic tumor cells and basal-like tumor cells exert higher integrin-mediated traction forces at the bulk and molecular levels, consistent with a motor-clutch model in which motors and clutches are both increased. Basal-like nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells also display an altered integrin adhesion molecular organization at the nanoscale and recruit a suite of paxillin-associated proteins implicated in invasion and metastasis. Phosphorylation of paxillin by Src family kinases, which regulates adhesion turnover, is similarly enhanced in the metastatic and basal-like tumor cells, fostered by a stiff matrix, and critical for tumor cell invasion in our assays. Bioinformatics reveals an unappreciated relationship between Src kinases, paxillin, and survival of breast cancer patients. Thus adoption of the basal-like adhesion phenotype may favor the recruitment of molecules that facilitate tumor metastasis to integrin-based adhesions. Analysis of the physical properties of tumor cells and integrin adhesion composition in biopsies may be predictive of patient outcome. PMID:28381423

  10. Inflammation Determines the Pro-Adhesive Properties of High Extracellular D-Glucose in Human Endothelial Cells In Vitro and Rat Microvessels In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Azcutia, Verónica; Abu-Taha, May; Romacho, Tania; Vázquez-Bella, Marta; Matesanz, Nuria; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Sanz, María Jesús; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F.; Peiró, Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia is acknowledged as an independent risk factor for developing diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. At present, most therapeutic approaches are targeted at a tight glycemic control in diabetic patients, although this fails to prevent macrovascular complications of the disease. Indeed, it remains highly controversial whether or not the mere elevation of extracellular D-glucose can directly promote vascular inflammation, which favors early pro-atherosclerotic events. Methods and Findings In the present work, increasing extracellular D-glucose from 5.5 to 22 mmol/L was neither sufficient to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, analyzed by flow cytometry, nor to promote leukocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro, measured by flow chamber assays. Interestingly, the elevation of D-glucose levels potentiated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion induced by a pro-inflammatory stimulus, such as interleukin (IL)-1β (5 ng/mL). In HUVEC, high D-glucose augmented the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) elicited by IL-1β, measured by Western blot and electromobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively, but had no effect by itself. Both ERK 1/2 and NF-κB were necessary for VCAM-1 expression, but not for ICAM-1 expression. In vivo, leukocyte trafficking was evaluated in the rat mesenteric microcirculation by intravital microscopy. In accordance with the in vitro data, the acute intraperitoneal injection of D-glucose increased leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and migration, but only when IL-1β was co-administered. Conclusions These results indicate that the elevation of extracellular D-glucose levels is not sufficient to promote vascular inflammation, and they highlight the pivotal role of a pro-inflammatory environment in diabetes, as a critical factor

  11. Elevated serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules in coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, H; Ko, Y; Zimmermann, C; Nickenig, G; Glänzer, K; Walger, P; Sachinidis, A; Vetter, H

    1997-09-29

    Adhesion molecules are involved in a number of chronic conditions and diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, tumor growth and wound repair. Soluble adhesion molecules (SAM) play an important role in angiogenesis which is a common aspect of the conditions mentioned above and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and the impact of elevated soluble adhesive molecule plasma concentrations in patients with atherosclerosis. In this study, we measured the soluble forms of intercellular adhesive molecule (sICAM), endothelial adhesive molecule (sELAM) and vascular adhesive molecule (sVCAM) using a sandwich ELISA technique in plasma of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary heart disease (CHD) and in healthy subjects (HS). Patients suffering from CHD and AMI showed significant higher plasma concentrations of sICAM (p <0. 05 and p <0.005), sELAM (p <0.01 and p <0.001) and sVCAM (p <0.001 and p <0.005) than HS. In patients with fatal outcome of myocardial infarction the plasma concentrations of sICAM, sELAM and sVCAM were significantly elevated compared to surviving patients (p <0.005; p <0.005; p <0.05). In patients undergoing thrombolytic therapy there were no significant differences of plasma adhesive molecule concentrations. The levels of SAM were not related to other risk factors like diabetes, nicotin abuse, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and a familiary history of cardiovascular disease. Elevated levels of SAMs are found in patients with coronary heart disease. High SAM levels in plasma seem to be a prognostic factor in acute myocardial infarction. This effect is independent from other concomitant risk factors. Our results suggest that SAMs are involved both in acute phase of myocardial infarction and chronic process of atherosclerosis. It seems that similiar to other chronic inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis seems to be modulated by soluble forms of adhesive molecules.

  12. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 regulates human embryonic stem cell adhesion, stemness, and survival via control of epithelial cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Tae; Seo Choi, Hong; Min Lee, Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2014-10-01

    B-Cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) regulates the export of secreted membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the downstream secretory pathway. Previously, we generated a monoclonal antibody 297-D4 against the surface molecule on undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we found that 297-D4 antigen was localized to pluripotent hESCs and downregulated during early differentiation of hESCs and identified that the antigen target of 297-D4 was BAP31 on the hESC-surface. To investigate the functional role of BAP31 in hESCs, BAP31 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA. BAP31 depletion impaired hESC self-renewal and pluripotency and drove hESC differentiation into multicell lineages. BAP31 depletion hindered hESC proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and inducing caspase-independent cell death. Interestingly, BAP31 depletion reduced hESC adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM). Analysis of cell surface molecules showed decreased expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in BAP31-depleted hESCs, while ectopic expression of BAP31 elevated the expression of EpCAM. EpCAM depletion also reduced hESC adhesion to ECM, arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induced cell death, producing similar effects to those of BAP31 depletion. BAP31 and EpCAM were physically associated and colocalized at the ER and cell surface. Both BAP31 and EpCAM depletion decreased cyclin D1 and E expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting that BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. These findings provide, for the first time, mechanistic insights into how BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression.

  13. Prolactin signaling through focal adhesion complexes is amplified by stiff extracellular matrices in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barcus, Craig E; Keely, Patricia J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Schuler, Linda A

    2016-07-26

    Estrogen receptor α positive (ERα+) breast cancer accounts for most breast cancer deaths. Both prolactin (PRL) and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness/density have been implicated in metastatic progression of this disease. We previously demonstrated that these factors cooperate to fuel processes involved in cancer progression. Culture of ERα+ breast cancer cells in dense/stiff 3D collagen-I matrices shifts the repertoire of PRL signals, and increases crosstalk between PRL and estrogen to promote proliferation and invasion. However, previous work did not distinguish ECM stiffness and collagen density. In order to dissect the ECM features that control PRL signals, we cultured T47D and MCF-7 cells on polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying elastic moduli (stiffness) with varying collagen-I concentrations (ligand density). Increasing stiffness from physiological to pathological significantly augmented PRL-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the SFK target, FAK-Y925, with only modest effects on pSTAT5. In contrast, higher collagen-I ligand density lowered PRL-induced pSTAT5 with no effect on pERK1/2 or pFAK-Y925. Disrupting focal adhesion signaling decreased PRL signals and PRL/estrogen-induced proliferation more efficiently in stiff, compared to compliant, extracellular environments. These data indicate that matrix stiffness shifts the balance of PRL signals from physiological (JAK2/STAT5) to pathological (FAK/SFK/ERK1/2) by increasing PRL signals through focal adhesions. Together, our studies suggest that PRL signaling to FAK and SFKs may be useful targets in clinical aggressive ERα+ breast carcinomas.

  14. Prolactin signaling through focal adhesion complexes is amplified by stiff extracellular matrices in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Barcus, Craig E.; Keely, Patricia J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Schuler, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α positive (ERα+) breast cancer accounts for most breast cancer deaths. Both prolactin (PRL) and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness/density have been implicated in metastatic progression of this disease. We previously demonstrated that these factors cooperate to fuel processes involved in cancer progression. Culture of ERα+ breast cancer cells in dense/stiff 3D collagen-I matrices shifts the repertoire of PRL signals, and increases crosstalk between PRL and estrogen to promote proliferation and invasion. However, previous work did not distinguish ECM stiffness and collagen density. In order to dissect the ECM features that control PRL signals, we cultured T47D and MCF-7 cells on polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying elastic moduli (stiffness) with varying collagen-I concentrations (ligand density). Increasing stiffness from physiological to pathological significantly augmented PRL-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the SFK target, FAK-Y925, with only modest effects on pSTAT5. In contrast, higher collagen-I ligand density lowered PRL-induced pSTAT5 with no effect on pERK1/2 or pFAK-Y925. Disrupting focal adhesion signaling decreased PRL signals and PRL/estrogen-induced proliferation more efficiently in stiff, compared to compliant, extracellular environments. These data indicate that matrix stiffness shifts the balance of PRL signals from physiological (JAK2/STAT5) to pathological (FAK/SFK/ERK1/2) by increasing PRL signals through focal adhesions. Together, our studies suggest that PRL signaling to FAK and SFKs may be useful targets in clinical aggressive ERα+ breast carcinomas. PMID:27344177

  15. [Effect of extracellular matrix components on adhesion of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to polytetrafluoroethylene].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, A A; Rozanova, I A; Poveshchenko, O V; Lykov, A P; Bondarenko, N A; Kim, I I; Nikonorova, Iu V; Podkhvatilina, N A; Sergeevichev, D S; Popova, I V; Konenkov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Search for new bioengineering materials for creation of small-diameter vascular grafts is currently a priority task. One of the promising trends of creating tissue engineering constructions is coating the internal layer of implants made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with autologous mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. In the study we assessed the ability of separate components of the extracellular matrix such as fibronectin, type I collagen and type IV collagen to influence adhesion, proliferation and morphology of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells being cultured on PTFE. Bone marrow multipotent stromal cells taken from second-passage Wistar rats in the amount of 106 per 1 cm2 were applied onto PTFE. We used the following variants of preliminary treatment of the material prior to seeding: fibronectin with type I collagen, fibronectin with type IV collagen, fibronectin with a mixture of type I and IV collagens, as well as a control group without coating. After six weeks of cell growth on PTFE patches the samples were subjected to fixation in 10% formalin followed by haematoxylin-eosin stain and morphometric assessment of adhered cells by calculation using the software AxioVision (Carl Zeiss), assessing the number of cells, area of the cellular monolayer, dimensions and ratios of the area of separate cells and the area of cellular nuclei. The maximal area of the monolayer from mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells on the PTFE surface was revealed while culturing with a mixture of fibronectin and type I and IV collagens. Cell colonization density while treatment of the synthetic material with mixtures of fibronectin with type I collagen, type IV collagen and type I and IV collagens demonstrated the results exceeding the parameters of the control specimen 5-, 2.5- and 7-fold, respectively. Hence, extracellular matrix components considerably increase enhance adhesion of cells to PTFE, as well as improve formation of a monolayer from mesenchymal multipotent

  16. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27110743

  17. Significance of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressions in preeclamptic placentae.

    PubMed

    Goksu Erol, Azize Yasemin; Nazli, Mumtaz; Elis Yildiz, Sevda

    2012-08-01

    Although preeclampsia (PE) is one of the most important problems affecting pregnant women, etiologic factors in its development are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the expression levels of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in preeclamptic and control healthy placentas. Placental tissue samples were obtained after delivery from patients diagnosed with PE, and from normal term pregnants and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression levels of the two adhesion molecules PECAM-1 and ICAM-1. A strong expression of PECAM-1 in endothelial cells lining the vessel walls of placental villi in placentas of control group was found, but the intensity of PECAM-1 expression was highly reduced in placentas of PE group (p = 0.017). Conversely, a strong expression of ICAM-1 was observed in placental villi in PE, significantly higher than that of normal placentas (p = 0.005). The findings of a decrease of PECAM-1 expression and an increase of ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic placenta suggest the existence of functional roles of these adhesion molecules in the pathophysiology of PE, probably by contributing to the reduced trophoblast invasion and the increased vascular damage, respectively. Inhibiting ICAM-1 (i.e., with ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody) and promoting PECAM-1 expression may be good therapeutic approaches to prevent PE symptoms in the future.

  18. Low-dose aspirin ameliorated hyperlipidemia, adhesion molecule, and chemokine production induced by high-fat diet in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Li; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Hsieh, Su-Ling; An, Li-Mei; Shen, Kuo-Ping

    2014-03-01

    In this study the effects of low-dose aspirin (5 mg/kg) on adhesion molecule and chemokine expression in a hyperlipidemic rat model. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to two control groups receiving either a regular diet or high-fat diet (HFD) and a treatment group fed HFD with 5 mg/kg aspirin for a 10-week period. Compared with the regular diet control group, the HFD control group had higher body weight, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein, higher concentrations of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein, but no differences in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were clearly shortened in the HFD group. That group also had increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-2, ICAM-3, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) and P-selectin in platelets and vascular adhesion protein-1 in lymphocyte and in aorta increased expressions of ICAM-1, ICAM-2, ICAM-3, VCAM, PECAM, E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CCR2. The HFD rats also had increased PKCα, IκB kinase α (IKKα), p65, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), and their phosphorylated forms. Low-dose aspirin improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, recovered PT and aPTT, inhibited upregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines and reduced expression of PKCα, IKKα, p65, and MAPKs. Low-dose aspirin ameliorates HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, and prevents HFD-induced expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine formation.

  19. Identification and characterization of the intercellular adhesion molecule-2 gene as a novel p53 target

    PubMed Central

    Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakagaki, Takafumi; Koyama, Ryota; Idogawa, Masashi; Hiratsuka, Hiroyoshi; Tokino, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor inhibits cell growth through the activation of both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which maintain genome stability and prevent cancer development. Here, we report that intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM2) is transcriptionally activated by p53. Specifically, ICAM2 is induced by the p53 family and DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner. We identified a p53 binding sequence located within the ICAM2 gene that is responsive to wild-type p53, TAp73, and TAp63. In terms of function, we found that the ectopic expression of ICAM2 inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. In addition, we demonstrated that silencing endogenous ICAM2 in cancer cells caused a marked increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation levels, suggesting that ICAM2 inhibits migration and invasion of cancer cells by suppressing ERK signaling. Moreover, ICAM2 is underexpressed in human cancer tissues containing mutant p53 as compared to those with wild-type p53. Notably, the decreased expression of ICAM2 is associated with poor survival in patients with various cancers. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM2 induction by p53 has a key role in inhibiting migration and invasion. PMID:27556181

  20. CD44: a novel synaptic cell adhesion molecule regulating structural and functional plasticity of dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Roszkowska, Matylda; Skupien, Anna; Wójtowicz, Tomasz; Konopka, Anna; Gorlewicz, Adam; Kisiel, Magdalena; Bekisz, Marek; Ruszczycki, Blazej; Dolezyczek, Hubert; Rejmak, Emilia; Knapska, Ewelina; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Dzwonek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic cell adhesion molecules regulate signal transduction, synaptic function, and plasticity. However, their role in neuronal interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is not well understood. Here we report that the CD44, a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronan, modulates synaptic plasticity. High-resolution ultrastructural analysis showed that CD44 was localized at mature synapses in the adult brain. The reduced expression of CD44 affected the synaptic excitatory transmission of primary hippocampal neurons, simultaneously modifying dendritic spine shape. The frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents decreased, accompanied by dendritic spine elongation and thinning. These structural and functional alterations went along with a decrease in the number of presynaptic Bassoon puncta, together with a reduction of PSD-95 levels at dendritic spines, suggesting a reduced number of functional synapses. Lack of CD44 also abrogated spine head enlargement upon neuronal stimulation. Moreover, our results indicate that CD44 contributes to proper dendritic spine shape and function by modulating the activity of actin cytoskeleton regulators, that is, Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42). Thus CD44 appears to be a novel molecular player regulating functional and structural plasticity of dendritic spines. PMID:27798233

  1. Myelin Basic Protein Cleaves Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 and Promotes Neuritogenesis and Cell Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, David; Loers, Gabriele; Kleene, Ralf; Oezen, Iris; Kataria, Hardeep; Katagihallimath, Nainesh; Braren, Ingke; Harauz, George; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecule L1 is a Lewisx-carrying glycoprotein that plays important roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Here we show that myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to L1 in a Lewisx-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MBP is released by murine cerebellar neurons as a sumoylated dynamin-containing protein upon L1 stimulation and that this MBP cleaves L1 as a serine protease in the L1 extracellular domain at Arg687 yielding a transmembrane fragment that promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cell culture. L1-induced neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival are reduced in MBP-deficient cerebellar neurons and in wild-type cerebellar neurons in the presence of an MBP antibody or L1 peptide containing the MBP cleavage site. Genetic ablation of MBP in shiverer mice and mutagenesis of the proteolytically active site in MBP or of the MBP cleavage site within L1 as well as serine protease inhibitors and an L1 peptide containing the MBP cleavage site abolish generation of the L1 fragment. Our findings provide evidence for novel functions of MBP in the nervous system. PMID:24671420

  2. Structure and dynamics of the fibronectin-III domains of Aplysia californica cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Catherine M; Muzard, Julien; Brooks, Bernard R; Lee, Gil U; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-04-21

    Due to their homophilic and heterophilic binding properties, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrin, cadherin and the immunoglobulin superfamily CAMs are of primary importance in cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, signalling pathways and other crucial biological processes. We study the molecular structures and conformational dynamics of the two fibronectin type III (Fn-III) extracellular domains of the Aplysia californica CAM (apCAM) protein, by constructing and probing an atomically-detailed structural model based on apCAM's homology with other CAMs. The stability and dynamic properties of the Fn-III domains, individually and in tandem, are probed and analysed using all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and normal mode analysis of their corresponding elastic network models. The refined structural model of the Fn-III tandem of apCAM reveals a specific pattern of amino acid interactions that controls the stability of the β-sheet rich structure and could affect apCAM's response to physical or chemical changes of its environment. It also exposes the important role of several specific charged residues in modulating the structural properties of the linker segment connecting the two Fn-III domains, as well as of the inter-domain interface.

  3. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule expression predicts lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Michiel; Takes, Robert P; Blokpoel-deRuyter, Marianne; Slootweg, Piet J; van Kempen, Léon C L

    2010-05-01

    Lymphatic metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is important for prognosis and clinical decision making concerning the treatment of the neck but may be difficult to detect. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), has been shown to correlate with prognosis or tumor grade in different tumor types and may be a predictor of lymphatic metastasis. ALCAM expression at the invasive front in fresh frozen tissue samples of oral SCC's (n=41) was studied immunohistochemically, using a polyclonal antibody directed against ALCAM's extracellular domain. Membranous expression of ALCAM at the invasive front was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (p=0.001, sensitivity 69%, specificity 84%) and tumor grade (p=0.035). There was no significant relationship with tumor thickness (p=0.394). Lymph node status (p=0.030), correlated with 5-year overall survival. A significant relation between ALCAM and prognosis could not be established, due to an insufficient sample size. However, ALCAM expression does appears to increase risk of early death. Membranous ALCAM expression at the invasive front serves as a molecular marker for lymphatic metastasis and may facilitate better treatment choices concerning the neck in patients with oral SCC.

  4. N-Glycosylation at the SynCAM (Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule) Immunoglobulin Interface Modulates Synaptic Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    A Fogel; Y Li; Q Wang; T Lam; Y Modis; T Biederer

    2011-12-31

    Select adhesion molecules connect pre- and postsynaptic membranes and organize developing synapses. The regulation of these trans-synaptic interactions is an important neurobiological question. We have previously shown that the synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SynCAMs) 1 and 2 engage in homo- and heterophilic interactions and bridge the synaptic cleft to induce presynaptic terminals. Here, we demonstrate that site-specific N-glycosylation impacts the structure and function of adhesive SynCAM interactions. Through crystallographic analysis of SynCAM 2, we identified within the adhesive interface of its Ig1 domain an N-glycan on residue Asn(60). Structural modeling of the corresponding SynCAM 1 Ig1 domain indicates that its glycosylation sites Asn(70)/Asn(104) flank the binding interface of this domain. Mass spectrometric and mutational studies confirm and characterize the modification of these three sites. These site-specific N-glycans affect SynCAM adhesion yet act in a differential manner. Although glycosylation of SynCAM 2 at Asn(60) reduces adhesion, N-glycans at Asn(70)/Asn(104) of SynCAM 1 increase its interactions. The modification of SynCAM 1 with sialic acids contributes to the glycan-dependent strengthening of its binding. Functionally, N-glycosylation promotes the trans-synaptic interactions of SynCAM 1 and is required for synapse induction. These results demonstrate that N-glycosylation of SynCAM proteins differentially affects their binding interface and implicate post-translational modification as a mechanism to regulate trans-synaptic adhesion.

  5. Human pathogens utilize host extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen for adhesion and invasion of the host.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Fleury, Christophe; Jalalvand, Farshid; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2012-11-01

    Laminin (Ln) and collagen are multifunctional glycoproteins that play an important role in cellular morphogenesis, cell signalling, tissue repair and cell migration. These proteins are ubiquitously present in tissues as a part of the basement membrane (BM), constitute a protective layer around blood capillaries and are included in the extracellular matrix (ECM). As a component of BMs, both Lns and collagen(s), thus function as major mechanical containment molecules that protect tissues from pathogens. Invasive pathogens breach the basal lamina and degrade ECM proteins of interstitial spaces and connective tissues using various ECM-degrading proteases or surface-bound plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinases recruited from the host. Most pathogens associated with the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or urogenital tracts, as well as with the central nervous system or the skin, have the capacity to bind and degrade Lns and collagen(s) in order to adhere to and invade host tissues. In this review, we focus on the adaptability of various pathogens to utilize these ECM proteins as enhancers for adhesion to host tissues or as a targets for degradation in order to breach the cellular barriers. The major pathogens discussed are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Yersinia, Treponema, Mycobacterium, Clostridium, Listeria, Porphyromonas and Haemophilus; Candida, Aspergillus, Pneumocystis, Cryptococcus and Coccidioides; Acanthamoeba, Trypanosoma and Trichomonas; retrovirus and papilloma virus.

  6. Neural cell adhesion molecule 2 as a target molecule for prostate and breast cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shu; Kato, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nakano, Rika; Kubota, Kazuishi; Hamada, Hirofumi

    2011-04-01

    In adenovirus-derived gene therapy, one of the problems is the difficulty in specific targeting. We have recently demonstrated that monoclonal antibody (mAb) libraries screened by fiber-modified adenovirus vector (Adv-FZ33), which is capable of binding to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), provide a powerful approach for the identification of suitable target antigens for prostate cancer therapy. Hybridoma libraries from mice immunized with androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP were screened and mAb were selected. Through this screening, we obtained one mAb, designated LNI-29, that recognizes a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kD. It was identified as neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2). Some prostate and breast cancer cell lines highly expressed NCAM2 whereas normal prostate cell lines expressed NCAM2 at low levels. In contrast to the low efficiency of gene transduction by Adv-FZ33 with a control antibody, LNI-29-mediated Adv-FZ33 infection induces high rates of gene delivery in NCAM2-positive cancers. NCAM2-mediated therapeutic gene transduction of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) had a highly effective cytotoxic effect on NCAM2-positive cancer cells, whereas it had less of an effect in cases with a control antibody. In conclusion, NCAM2 should be a novel gene therapy target for the treatment of prostate and breast cancer.

  7. Mechanism of Collaborative Enhancement of Binding of Paired Antibodies to Distinct Epitopes of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

    PubMed Central

    Greineder, Colin F.; Villa, Carlos H.; Hood, Elizabeth D.; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Sun, Jing; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Abraham, Valsamma; DeLisser, Horace M.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to extracellular epitopes of human and mouse Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD31 or PECAM-1) stimulate binding of other mAbs to distinct adjacent PECAM-1 epitopes. This effect, dubbed Collaborative Enhancement of Paired Affinity Ligands, or CEPAL, has been shown to enhance delivery of mAb-targeted drugs and nanoparticles to the vascular endothelium. Here we report new insights into the mechanism underlying this effect, which demonstrates equivalent amplitude in the following models: i) cells expressing a full length PECAM-1 and mutant form of PECAM-1 unable to form homodimers; ii) isolated fractions of cellular membranes; and, iii) immobilized recombinant PECAM-1. These results indicate that CEPAL is mediated not by interference in cellular functions or homophilic PECAM-1 interactions, but rather by conformational changes within the cell adhesion molecule induced by ligand binding. This mechanism, mediated by exposure of partially occult epitopes, is likely to occur in molecules other than PECAM-1 and may represent a generalizable phenomenon with valuable practical applications. PMID:28085903

  8. Mechanism of Collaborative Enhancement of Binding of Paired Antibodies to Distinct Epitopes of Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, Raisa; Greineder, Colin F; Villa, Carlos H; Hood, Elizabeth D; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Sun, Jing; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Abraham, Valsamma; DeLisser, Horace M; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to extracellular epitopes of human and mouse Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (CD31 or PECAM-1) stimulate binding of other mAbs to distinct adjacent PECAM-1 epitopes. This effect, dubbed Collaborative Enhancement of Paired Affinity Ligands, or CEPAL, has been shown to enhance delivery of mAb-targeted drugs and nanoparticles to the vascular endothelium. Here we report new insights into the mechanism underlying this effect, which demonstrates equivalent amplitude in the following models: i) cells expressing a full length PECAM-1 and mutant form of PECAM-1 unable to form homodimers; ii) isolated fractions of cellular membranes; and, iii) immobilized recombinant PECAM-1. These results indicate that CEPAL is mediated not by interference in cellular functions or homophilic PECAM-1 interactions, but rather by conformational changes within the cell adhesion molecule induced by ligand binding. This mechanism, mediated by exposure of partially occult epitopes, is likely to occur in molecules other than PECAM-1 and may represent a generalizable phenomenon with valuable practical applications.

  9. Small molecule proteostasis regulators that reprogram the ER to reduce extracellular protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Plate, Lars; Cooley, Christina B; Chen, John J; Paxman, Ryan J; Gallagher, Ciara M; Madoux, Franck; Genereux, Joseph C; Dobbs, Wesley; Garza, Dan; Spicer, Timothy P; Scampavia, Louis; Brown, Steven J; Rosen, Hugh; Powers, Evan T; Walter, Peter; Hodder, Peter; Wiseman, R Luke; Kelly, Jeffery W

    2016-01-01

    Imbalances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis are associated with etiologically-diverse degenerative diseases linked to excessive extracellular protein misfolding and aggregation. Reprogramming of the ER proteostasis environment through genetic activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)-associated transcription factor ATF6 attenuates secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we employed a screening approach that included complementary arm-specific UPR reporters and medium-throughput transcriptional profiling to identify non-toxic small molecules that phenocopy the ATF6-mediated reprogramming of the ER proteostasis environment. The ER reprogramming afforded by our molecules requires activation of endogenous ATF6 and occurs independent of global ER stress. Furthermore, our molecules phenocopy the ability of genetic ATF6 activation to selectively reduce secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. These results show that small molecule-dependent ER reprogramming, achieved through preferential activation of the ATF6 transcriptional program, is a promising strategy to ameliorate imbalances in ER function associated with degenerative protein aggregation diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15550.001 PMID:27435961

  10. Dynamics of adhesion molecule domains on neutrophil membranes: surfing the dynamic cell topography.

    PubMed

    Gaborski, Thomas R; Sealander, Michael N; Waugh, Richard E; McGrath, James L

    2013-12-01

    Lateral organization and mobility of adhesion molecules play a significant role in determining the avidity with which cells can bind to target cells or surfaces. Recently, we have shown that the lateral mobility of the principal adhesion molecules on neutrophils is lower for rolling associated adhesion molecules (RAAMs: L-selectin and PSGL-1) than for β2 integrins (LFA-1 and Mac-1). Here we report that all four adhesion molecules exhibit distinct punctate distributions that are mobile on the cell surface. Using uniform illumination image correlation microscopy, we measure the lateral mobility of these topologically distinct domains. For all four molecules, we find that diffusion coefficients calculated from domain mobility agree with measurements we made previously using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This agreement indicates that the transport of receptors on the surface of the resting neutrophil is dominated by the lateral movement of domains rather than individual molecules. The diffusion of pre-assembled integrin domains to zones of neutrophil/endothelial contact may provide a mechanism to facilitate high avidity adhesion during the earliest stages of firm arrest.

  11. Chronic restraint stress down-regulates amygdaloid expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Cordero, M I; Rodríguez, J J; Davies, H A; Peddie, C J; Sandi, C; Stewart, M G

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is a brain area which plays a decisive role in fear and anxiety. Since exposure to chronic stress can induce profound effects in emotion and cognition, plasticity in specific amygdaloid nuclei in response to prior stress has been hypothesized to account for stress-induced emotional alterations. In order to identify amygdala nuclei which may be affected under chronic stress conditions we evaluated the effects of 21-days chronic restraint stress on the expression of a molecule implicated crucially in alterations in structural plasticity: the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. We found that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity within the amygdala, present in somata and neuronal processes, has a regional gradient with the central medial and medial amygdaloid nuclei showing the highest levels. Our results demonstrate that chronic restraint stress induced an overall reduction in polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-immunoreactivity in the amygdaloid complex, mainly due to a significant decrease in the central medial amygdaloid and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Our data suggest that polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in these nuclei may play a prominent role in functional and structural remodeling induced by stress, being a potential mechanism for cognitive and emotional modulation. Furthermore, these finding provide the first clear evidence that life experiences can regulate the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the amygdaloid complex.

  12. Assessment of Endothelial Dysfunction With Adhesion Molecules in Patients With Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Comba, Atakan; Çaltepe, Gönül; Yank, Keramettin; Gör, Ufuk; Yüce, Özlem; Kalayc, Ayhan G

    2016-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic immune disorder. We assessed serum levels of adhesion molecules as a marker of endothelial dysfunction in patients with CD at first diagnosis and in those on a gluten-free diet. Sixty-five patients with CD (mean age 6.74 ± 4.6 years) and 51 age- and sex-matched control patients participated in the present case-controlled, prospective clinical study. Serum levels of vascular adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endothelial selectin, vascular endothelial cadherin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and homocysteine levels were measured. Average soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (CD vs control group: 1320 ± 308 vs 1120 ± 406 ng/mL, P = 0.006), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (336 ± 99 vs 263 ± 67 ng/mL, P = 0.025), and soluble endothelial selectin (113.9 ± 70 vs 76.9 ± 32 ng/mL, P = 0.007) levels were significantly higher in cases of newly diagnosed CD than in the control group. Soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (1050 ± 190 ng/mL) and soluble endothelial selectin (68.7 ± 45 ng/mL) levels in patients with CD, who were fully compliant with a gluten-free diet, were significantly lower than that in those newly diagnosed as having CD (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0012, respectively). These results show that serum adhesion molecule levels are higher in patients with CD. Some of the risks associated with endothelial dysfunction may be related to CD and these risks can be reduced with an appropriate and fully controlled diet.

  13. Role of the initiator element in the regulation of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule gene.

    PubMed

    Karlen, S; Braathen, L R

    2000-10-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule is a membrane glycoprotein whose expression is associated with tumor progression and the development of metastatic potential. The mechanisms for upregulation of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule during melanoma progression are still poorly understood. In this study, we show further evidence that melanoma cell adhesion molecule expression is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level. Using a combination of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter assays and DNA mobility shift experiments, we investigated the role played by three putative melanoma cell adhesion molecule regulatory elements, namely the initiator sequence, the SCA element, and the ASp element. The SCA and the ASp boxes can potentially interact with the transcription factors Sp1 and AP-2. Sp1 binding to both sites was confirmed, but only the SCA sequence could form a complex with AP-2. AP-2-driven downregulation of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule promoter, however, did not depend only on a functional SCA element. The pyrimidine-rich CTCACTTG initiator, which overlaps the RNA start site, was essential for promoter function and was shown to interact with proteins related to basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Binding in nonmetastatic melanoma cells was induced by cAMP. In metastatic cells, however, binding was constitutive, but could be markedly decreased upon treatment with phorbol esters. As melanoma cell adhesion molecule expression is modulated by cAMP and phorbol ester signaling, these results suggest that the initiator is the central element that mediates cAMP and phorbol ester sensitivity and initiates melanoma cell adhesion molecule overexpression in melanomas.

  14. Single-cell RNAseq reveals cell adhesion molecule profiles in electrophysiologically defined neurons

    PubMed Central

    Földy, Csaba; Darmanis, Spyros; Aoto, Jason; Malenka, Robert C.; Quake, Stephen R.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data, we identified two independent, developmentally regulated networks of interacting genes encoding molecules involved in cell adhesion, exocytosis, and signal transduction. Our approach provides a framework for a presumed cell adhesion and signaling code in neurons, enables correlating electrophysiological with molecular properties of neurons, and suggests avenues toward understanding synaptic specificity. PMID:27531958

  15. Single-cell RNAseq reveals cell adhesion molecule profiles in electrophysiologically defined neurons.

    PubMed

    Földy, Csaba; Darmanis, Spyros; Aoto, Jason; Malenka, Robert C; Quake, Stephen R; Südhof, Thomas C

    2016-08-30

    In brain, signaling mediated by cell adhesion molecules defines the identity and functional properties of synapses. The specificity of presynaptic and postsynaptic interactions that is presumably mediated by cell adhesion molecules suggests that there exists a logic that could explain neuronal connectivity at the molecular level. Despite its importance, however, the nature of such logic is poorly understood, and even basic parameters, such as the number, identity, and single-cell expression profiles of candidate synaptic cell adhesion molecules, are not known. Here, we devised a comprehensive list of genes involved in cell adhesion, and used single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to analyze their expression in electrophysiologically defined interneurons and projection neurons. We compared the cell type-specific expression of these genes with that of genes involved in transmembrane ion conductances (i.e., channels), exocytosis, and rho/rac signaling, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Using these data, we identified two independent, developmentally regulated networks of interacting genes encoding molecules involved in cell adhesion, exocytosis, and signal transduction. Our approach provides a framework for a presumed cell adhesion and signaling code in neurons, enables correlating electrophysiological with molecular properties of neurons, and suggests avenues toward understanding synaptic specificity.

  16. Latrophilins Function as Heterophilic Cell-adhesion Molecules by Binding to Teneurins

    PubMed Central

    Boucard, Antony A.; Maxeiner, Stephan; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Latrophilin-1, -2, and -3 are adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptors that are auxiliary α-latrotoxin receptors, suggesting that they may have a synaptic function. Using pulldowns, we here identify teneurins, type II transmembrane proteins that are also candidate synaptic cell-adhesion molecules, as interactors for the lectin-like domain of latrophilins. We show that teneurin binds to latrophilins with nanomolar affinity and that this binding mediates cell adhesion, consistent with a role of teneurin binding to latrophilins in trans-synaptic interactions. All latrophilins are subject to alternative splicing at an N-terminal site; in latrophilin-1, this alternative splicing modulates teneurin binding but has no effect on binding of latrophilin-1 to another ligand, FLRT3. Addition to cultured neurons of soluble teneurin-binding fragments of latrophilin-1 decreased synapse density, suggesting that latrophilin binding to teneurin may directly or indirectly influence synapse formation and/or maintenance. These observations are potentially intriguing in view of the proposed role for Drosophila teneurins in determining synapse specificity. However, teneurins in Drosophila were suggested to act as homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, whereas our findings suggest a heterophilic interaction mechanism. Thus, we tested whether mammalian teneurins also are homophilic cell-adhesion molecules, in addition to binding to latrophilins as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules. Strikingly, we find that although teneurins bind to each other in solution, homophilic teneurin-teneurin binding is unable to support stable cell adhesion, different from heterophilic teneurin-latrophilin binding. Thus, mammalian teneurins act as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules that may be involved in trans-neuronal interaction processes such as synapse formation or maintenance. PMID:24273166

  17. Endothelial Cell Junctional Adhesion Molecules: Role and Regulation of Expression in Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reglero-Real, Natalia; Colom, Bartomeu; Bodkin, Jennifer Victoria; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cells line the lumen of all blood vessels and play a critical role in maintaining the barrier function of the vasculature. Sealing of the vessel wall between adjacent endothelial cells is facilitated by interactions involving junctionally expressed transmembrane proteins, including tight junctional molecules, such as members of the junctional adhesion molecule family, components of adherence junctions, such as VE-Cadherin, and other molecules, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. Of importance, a growing body of evidence indicates that the expression of these molecules is regulated in a spatiotemporal manner during inflammation: responses that have significant implications for the barrier function of blood vessels against blood-borne macromolecules and transmigrating leukocytes. This review summarizes key aspects of our current understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms that regulate the expression of endothelial cells junctional molecules during inflammation and discusses the associated functional implications of such events in acute and chronic scenarios. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. The effect of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) on non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of demineralized dentin and the adhesive properties of restorative resins.

    PubMed

    Boukpessi, T; Menashi, S; Camoin, L; Tencate, J M; Goldberg, M; Chaussain-Miller, C

    2008-11-01

    Dentin non-collagenous matrix components (NCPs) are structural proteins involved in the formation, the architecture and the mineralization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We investigated here how recombinant metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, also termed MMP-3, initiates the release of ECM molecules from artificially demineralized human dentin. Analysis of the supernatants by Western blotting reveals that MMP-3 extracts PGs (decorin, biglycan), and also a series of phosphorylated proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and MEPE, but neither dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), another member of the SIBLING family, nor osteocalcin (OC), a non-phosphorylated matrix molecule. After treatment of dentin surfaces by MMP-3, scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of resin replica shows an increased penetration of the resin into the dentin tubules when compared to surfaces only treated by demineralizing solutions. This preclinical investigation suggests that MMP-3 may be used to improve the adhesive properties of restorative materials.

  19. Immunohistochemical evaluation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in human dental pulp: effects of tooth preparation and adhesive application.

    PubMed

    Bagis, Bora; Atilla, Pergin; Cakar, Nur; Hasanreisoglu, Ufuk

    2007-08-01

    Studies have demonstrated that restorative procedures can initiate pulpal inflammation. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells mediate the leukocyte-endothelium interaction, which is the fundamental event of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in the endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of human dental pulp with tooth preparation, and after the application of one-step self-etch adhesive. Twenty healthy human premolars and third molars scheduled to be extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to four experimental groups. Group 1 involved sound intact teeth representing the controls. In group 2, teeth were prepared for full crown and extracted within 2h. Groups 3 and 4 comprised the teeth coated with one-step self-etch adhesive, iBond Gluma inside following the preparation and extracted after 24 and 48h, respectively. Tissue distribution and staining intensity of CAMs including E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and PECAM-1 was investigated in the pulp samples using monoclonal antibodies and the streptavidin-biotin-horse-radish immunoperoxidase procedure. The assessment of immunohistochemical reactions was performed by two independent observers using a semi-quantitative scale. All the CAMs evaluated were expressed by the healthy pulp tissues. Significant alterations in the distribution and staining intensity of CAMs were detected following tooth preparation. One-step self-etch adhesive tested in the present study induced inflammatory reactions in the pulp (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test). It seems evident that tooth preparation for full crown and application of one-step self-etch adhesive on prepared teeth had a potential to interfere with the inflammatory response.

  20. Alterations in the biosynthesis of extracellular matrix molecules in connective tissues by electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ciombor, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) of certain configurations have been shown to be effective clinically in promoting the healing of fracture non-unions and are believed to enhance calcification of extracellular matrix. In vitro studies have suggested that PEMFs may also have the effect of modifying the extracellular matrix by promoting the synthesis of matrix molecules. This study examines the effect of one particular type of PEMF and a sinusoidal continuous wave upon the extracellular matrix and calcification of endochondral ossification in vivo. The pulsed magnetic field (SS-22) utilized in these studies is being used clinically for the treatment of fracture non-unions, a condition in which the bone is not restored to form or function. The sinusoidal continuous wave was designed to provide a 5 Gauss amplitude at a 15 Hz. rate. The synthesis of cartilage molecules is enhanced by this type of PEMF and since wave and subsequent endochondral calcification is stimulated. Histomorphometric studies indicate that the maturation of bone trabeculae is also promoted by this type of PEMF stimulation. These results indicate that a specific PEMF or continuous waveform can change the composition of cartilage extracellular matrix in vivo and raises the possibility that the effects on other processes of endochondral ossification (e.g., fracture healing and growth plates) may occur through a similar mechanism.

  1. Effects of hormone therapy on soluble cell adhesion molecules in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Joseph; Klein, Karen; Brosnihan, Bridget; Reboussin, David; Herrington, David M

    2008-01-01

    Although observational studies showed an apparent lower ischemic coronary disease risk in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy (HT), randomized clinical trials in postmenopausal women showed an increase in ischemic cardiovascular events. Soluble cell adhesion molecules have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and events. HT reduces circulating levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in healthy postmenopausal women, but its effects in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease are less clear. We assessed the effect of HT on soluble cell adhesion molecules in the Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis trial. The Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis trial was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study that randomized 309 postmenopausal women (mean age, 65.8 y) to daily unopposed estrogen (conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg), estrogen plus 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate, or placebo, with a mean follow-up period of 3.2 years. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin were measured in serum obtained from participants at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. Of the 265 women with complete data, 87 women were assigned to unopposed estrogen, 88 women to estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 90 women to placebo. Compared with placebo, 12 months of HT (n = 175) was associated with reductions in soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (25.6 +/- 4.7 vs 10.6 +/- 6.4 ng/mL, P = 0.06), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (80.2+/- 10.6 vs 28.8 +/- 14.7 ng/mL, P = 0.005), and E-selectin (8.8 +/- 0.9 vs -1.1 +/- 1.2 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Twelve months of HT in postmenopausal women with established coronary artery disease was associated with reductions in serum markers of endothelial cell activation/injury such as soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin.

  2. LFA-1 and other accessory molecules functioning in adhesions of T and B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Martz, E

    1987-01-01

    Adhesions of lymphocytes, among themselves or with other cell types, are necessary for most steps in immune responses including both induction and effector phases. Among adhesions of T cells involving specific immunological recognition, CTL-target adhesions have been the most studied. Although CTL-mediated killing is highly specific (specific/nonspecific lytic activity 50-fold), CTL-target adhesion (conjugation) is less so. In the mouse, specificity of conjugation has typically been four to eightfold. Two recent studies with cloned human CTL found much less specificity of conjugation, from one-fold (no specificity) to 1.5-fold. Thus, with cloned human CTL, adhesion may occur promiscuously with any potential target; recognition following adhesion is necessary for lethal hit delivery. The fact that antibodies to the antigen receptor (Ti or CD3) inhibit killing without inhibiting CTL-target conjugation supports this view. The ability of lymphocytes to form nonspecific adhesions, plus the dependence of even the specific mouse adhesions on temperature, metabolic energy, magnesium, and an intact cytoskeleton suggest that the bulk of the strength of T lymphocyte adhesions are not simply the sum of the bonds between antigen receptors (Ti) and antigen. Lymphocytes evidently possess separate "adhesion strengthening" mechanisms. The similarities in the properties of CTL-target adhesions and antigen-independent homotypic B lymphocyte adhesions (Table 2) suggest that at least some of these mechanisms are widely used among cells of hematopoietic origin. MoAbs to most lymphocyte surface molecules, when bound to the living lymphocyte membrane, have no evident functional effects on lymphocyte function. However, a minority can either activate or inhibit lymphocyte functions. Such antibodies identify "leukocyte (or lymphocyte) function-associated antigens," or LFAs (not all of which happen to have "LFA" in their names, Table 1). Most of the inhibitory antibodies inhibit lymphocyte

  3. Spatiotemporal segregation of endothelial cell integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding proteins during adhesion events

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) attachments to laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen are inhibited by soluble arginine-glycine- aspartate (RGD)-containing peptides, and YGRGDSP activity is responsive to titration of either soluble peptide or matrix protein. To assess the presence of RGD-dependent receptors, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting studies were conducted and demonstrated integrin beta 1, beta 3, and associated alpha subunits as well as a beta 1 precursor. Immunofluorescence of BAECs plated on laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen reveals different matrix-binding specificities of each of these integrin subclasses. By 1 h after plating, organization of beta 1 integrin into fibrillar streaks is influenced by laminin and fibronectin, whereas beta 3 integrin punctate organization is influenced by fibrinogen and the integrin spatial distribution changes with time in culture. In contrast, the nonintegrin laminin-binding protein LB69 only organizes after cell-substrate contact is well established several hours after plating. Migration of BAECs is also mediated by both integrin and nonintegrin matrix-binding proteins. Specifically, BAEC migration on laminin is remarkably sensitive to RGD peptide inhibition, and, in its presence, beta 1 integrin organization dissipates and reorganizes into perinuclear vesicles. However, RGD peptides do not alter LB69 linear organization during migration. Similarly, agents that block LB69--e.g., antibodies to LB69 as well as YIGSR-NH2 peptide--do not inhibit attachment of nonmotile BAECs to laminin. However, both anti-LB69 and YIGSR-NH2 inhibit late adhesive events such as spreading. Accordingly, we propose that integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding protein organizations in BAECs are both temporally and spatially segregated during attachment processes. High affinity nonintegrin interaction with matrix may create necessary stable contacts for longterm attachment, while lower affinity integrins may be important

  4. Thrombocyte adhesion and release of extracellular microvesicles correlate with surface morphology of adsorbent polymers for lipid apheresis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, René; Spittler, Andreas; Schmitz, Gerd; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria

    2014-07-14

    Whole blood lipid apheresis is clinically applied to reduce low density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Here, we studied the correlation between physicochemical parameters, in particular, surface roughness and blood compatibility, of two polyacrylate-based and a dextran sulfate-based polymer for lipid apheresis. The adsorbent surface roughness was assessed by atomic force microscopy. Freshly isolated human thrombocytes were circulated over adsorbent columns downscaled equivalent to clinical use to study thrombocyte adhesion and microvesicle generation. Quantification of thrombocytes and microvesicles in the flow-through of the columns revealed that both thrombocyte adhesion and microvesicle generation increased with increasing adsorbent surface roughness. Activation of thrombocytes with thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6 favored their adhesion to the adsorbents, as demonstrated by preferential depletion of CD62(+) and PAC-1(+) thrombocytes. Taken together, enhanced polymer surface roughness fostered cell adhesion and microvesicle release, underscoring the role of extracellular microvesicles as markers of cellular activation and of blood compatibility.

  5. Single-molecule manipulation experiments to explore friction and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, R.; Kawai, S.; Meier, T.; Glatzel, T.; Baratoff, A.; Meyer, E.

    2017-03-01

    Friction forces, which arise when two bodies that are in contact are moved with respect to one another, are ubiquitous phenomena. Although various measurement tools have been developed to study these phenomena at all length scales, such investigations are highly challenging when tackling the scale of single molecules in motion on a surface. This work reviews the recent advances in single-molecule manipulation experiments performed at low temperature with the aim of understanding the fundamental frictional response of single molecules. Following the advent of ‘nanotribology’ in the field based on the atomic force microscopy technique, we will show the technical requirements to direct those studies at the single-molecule level. We will also discuss the experimental prerequisites needed to obtain and interpret the phenomena, such as the implementation of single-molecule manipulation techniques, the processing of the experimental data or their comparison with appropriate numerical models. Finally, we will report examples of the controlled vertical and lateral manipulation of long polymeric chains, graphene nanoribbons or single porphyrin molecules that systematically reveal friction-like characteristics while sliding over atomically clean surfaces.

  6. Role of Extracellular Transaldolase from Bifidobacterium bifidum in Mucin Adhesion and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Irene; Sánchez, Borja; Ruiz, Lorena; Turroni, Francesca; Ventura, Marco; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bifidobacteria to establish in the intestine of mammals is among the main factors considered to be important for achieving probiotic effects. The role of surface molecules from Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon in mucin adhesion capability and the aggregation phenotype of this bacterial species was analyzed. Adhesion to the human intestinal cell line HT29 was determined for a collection of 12 B. bifidum strains. In four of them—B. bifidum LMG13195, DSM20456, DSM20239, and A8—the involvement of surface-exposed macromolecules in the aggregation phenomenon was determined. The aggregation of B. bifidum A8 and DSM20456 was abolished after treatment with proteinase K, this effect being more pronounced for the strain A8. Furthermore, a mucin binding assay of B. bifidum A8 surface proteins showed a high adhesive capability for its transaldolase (Tal). The localization of this enzyme on the surface of B. bifidum A8 was unequivocally demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy experiments. The gene encoding Tal from B. bifidum A8 was expressed in Lactococcus lactis, and the protein was purified to homogeneity. The pure protein was able to restore the autoaggregation phenotype of proteinase K-treated B. bifidum A8 cells. A recombinant L. lactis strain, engineered to secrete Tal, displayed a mucin- binding level more than three times higher than the strain not producing the transaldolase. These findings suggest that Tal, when exposed on the cell surface of B. bifidum, could act as an important colonization factor favoring its establishment in the gut. PMID:22447584

  7. [Adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in patients with chronic polyarthritis--effects of inpatient rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Neff, H; Pöllmann, G; Machreich, K; Schwann, H

    1999-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 mediates the adhesion of leucocytes following subsequent transendothelial migration including interactions and adhesion of several cell types such as fibroblasts, T-lymphocytes and synoviocytes. Significantly increased ICAM-1 levels were measured in the acute phase of RA. The correlation of ICAM-1 levels with the pteridine neopterin (p < or = 0.01) may reflect the role of this adhesion molecule in modulation of immune responses. Despite the significantly higher levels of acute phase reactions parallel to the elevated ICAM-1 levels, no correlations were found between ICAM-1 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum-Amyloid A (SAA). During an in-patient multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme the levels of ICAM-1 in serum and the majority of all investigated laboratory and clinical parameters such as ESR, CRP, SAA, fibrinogen, pain, swollen and painful joint count, morning stiffness and health assessment questionnaire improved.

  8. Plasma treated polyethylene grafted with adhesive molecules for enhanced adhesion and growth of fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rimpelová, Silvie; Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Lemerová, Helena; Švorčík, Václav; Ruml, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    The cell-material interface plays a crucial role in the interaction of cells with synthetic materials for biomedical use. The application of plasma for tailoring polymer surfaces is of abiding interest and holds a great promise in biomedicine. In this paper, we describe polyethylene (PE) surface tuning by Ar plasma irradiating and subsequent grafting of the chemically active PE surface with adhesive proteins or motives to support cell attachment. These simple modifications resulted in changed polymer surface hydrophilicity, roughness and morphology, which we thoroughly characterized. The effect of our modifications on adhesion and growth was tested in vitro using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 cell line). We demonstrate that the plasma treatment of PE had a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and moderately on proliferation activity of NIH 3T3 cells. This effect was even more pronounced on PE coated with biomolecules.

  9. Nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is a crucial regulator of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Beate M; Laschke, Matthias W; Rössler, Oliver G; Huang, Wenhui; Scheller, Anja; Menger, Michael D; Ampofo, Emmanuel

    2017-09-27

    The proteoglycan nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is expressed on multiple cell types and mediates cell proliferation and migration. However, little is known about its function in gene regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that in pericytes and glioblastoma cells intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an essential protein for leukocyte adhesion and transmigration, underlies a NG2-dependent expression. As shown by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), silencing of NG2 in human placenta-derived pericytes increased the expression of ICAM-1. Pathway analyses revealed that this is mediated by extracellular-regulated-kinases (ERK) 1/2 signaling. Moreover, leukocyte adhesion to NG2 siRNA-treated pericytes was significantly enhanced when compared to scrambled (scr) siRNA-treated control cells. In vivo, we detected increased ICAM-1 protein levels in the retina of mice lacking NG2 expression. To exclude that this novel mechanism is pericyte-specific, we additionally analyzed the expression of ICAM-1 in dependency of NG2 in two glioblastoma cell lines. We found that A1207 and M059K cells exhibit an inverse expression pattern of NG2 and ICAM-1. Finally, downregulation of NG2 in A1207 cells significantly increased ICAM-1 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that NG2 may represent a promising target for the modulation of ICAM-1-mediated immune responses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Sesamin attenuates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vitro in TNF-alpha-treated human aortic endothelial cells and in vivo in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Wang, Shu-Huei; Kuan, I-I; Kao, Ya-Shi; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Kao, Chiu-Hua; Huang, Ching-Jang; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2010-09-01

    Sesame lignans have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. We focused on the effects of the lignans sesamin and sesamol on the expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). When HAECs were pretreated with sesamin (10 or 100 microM), the TNF-alpha-induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was significantly reduced (35 or 70% decrease, respectively) by Western blotting. Sesamol was less effective at inhibiting ICAM-1 expression (30% decrease at 100 microM). Sesamin and sesamol reduced the marked TNF-alpha-induced increase in human antigen R (HuR) translocation and the interaction between HuR and the 3'UTR of ICAM-1 mRNA. Both significantly reduced the binding of monocytes to TNF-alpha-stimulated HAECs. Sesamin significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion by downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Furthermore, in vivo, sesamin attenuated intimal thickening and ICAM-1 expression seen in aortas of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Taken together, these data suggest that sesamin inhibits TNF-alpha-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65, cytoplasmic translocalization of HuR and thereby suppresses ICAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced adhesion of leukocytes. These results also suggest that sesamin may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  11. Involvement of oxidative stress and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanida, Satoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mizushima, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Shimura, Takaya; Kamiya, Takeshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Joh, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease involves excessive immune effects of inflammatory cells against gut microbes. In genetically predisposed individuals, these effects are considered to contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of mucosal injury. Oxidative stress is a fundamental tissue-destructive mechanisms that can occur due to the reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen metabolites which are released in abundance from numerous inflammatory cells that have extravasated from lymphatics and blood vessels to the lamina propria. This extravasation is mediated by interactions between adhesion molecules including mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on the surface of lymphocytes or neutrophils and their ligands on endothelial cells. Thus, reactive oxygen species and adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. The present review focuses on the involvement of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, in particular mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21373262

  12. Extracellular cytochrome c as an intercellular signaling molecule regulating microglial functions.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Ayden; Bajwa, Ekta; Klegeris, Andis

    2017-09-01

    Cytochrome c is well known to be released from mitochondria into the cytosol where it can initiate apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that cytochrome c is also released into the extracellular space by both healthy and damaged cells, where its function is not well understood. We hypothesized that extracellular cytochrome c could function as an intercellular signaling molecule of the brain, which is recognized by brain microglia. These cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be activated by endogenous substances associated with diverse pathologies including trauma, ischemic damage and neurodegenerative diseases. Three different cell types were used to model microglia. Respiratory burst activity, nitric oxide production and cytotoxic secretions were measured following exposure of microglial cells to cytochrome c. We showed that extracellular cytochrome c primed the respiratory burst response of differentiated HL-60 cells, enhanced nitric oxide secretion by BV-2 cells, and augmented cytotoxicity of differentiated THP-1 cells. We demonstrated that the effects of cytochrome c on microglia-like cells were at least partially mediated by the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling pathway. Extracellular cytochrome c can interact with microglia TLR4 and modulate select functions of these brain immune cells. Our data identifies extracellular cytochrome c as a potential intercellular signaling molecule, which may be recognized by microglia causing or enhancing their immune activation. The data obtained support targeting TLR4 and JNK signaling as potential treatment strategies for brain diseases characterized by excessive cellular death and activation of microglia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257

  14. Soluble adhesion molecules as markers for sepsis and the potential pathophysiological discrepancy in neonates, children and adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe and life-threatening systemic inflammatory response to infection that affects all populations and age groups. The pathophysiology of sepsis is associated with aberrant interaction between leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. As inflammation progresses, the adhesion molecules that mediate these interactions become shed from cell surfaces and accumulate in the blood as soluble isoforms that are being explored as potential prognostic disease biomarkers. We critically review the studies that have tested the predictive value of soluble adhesion molecules in sepsis pathophysiology with emphasis on age, as well as the underlying mechanisms and potential roles for inflammatory shedding. Five soluble adhesion molecules are associated with sepsis, specifically, E-selectin, L-selectin and P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. While increased levels of these soluble adhesion molecules generally correlate well with the presence of sepsis, their degree of elevation is still poorly predictive of sepsis severity scores, outcome and mortality. Separate analyses of neonates, children and adults demonstrate significant age-dependent discrepancies in both basal and septic levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules. Additionally, a range of both clinical and experimental studies suggests protective roles for adhesion molecule shedding that raise important questions about whether these should positively or negatively correlate with mortality. In conclusion, while predictive properties of soluble adhesion molecules have been researched intensively, their levels are still poorly predictive of sepsis outcome and mortality. We propose two novel directions for improving clinical utility of soluble adhesion molecules: the combined simultaneous analysis of levels of adhesion molecules and their sheddases; and taking age-related discrepancies into account. Further attention to these issues may provide better

  15. Soluble adhesion molecules as markers for sepsis and the potential pathophysiological discrepancy in neonates, children and adults.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld, Rens; Martinelli, Roberta; Shapiro, Nathan I; Kuijpers, Taco W; Plötz, Frans B; Carman, Christopher V

    2014-02-18

    Sepsis is a severe and life-threatening systemic inflammatory response to infection that affects all populations and age groups. The pathophysiology of sepsis is associated with aberrant interaction between leukocytes and the vascular endothelium. As inflammation progresses, the adhesion molecules that mediate these interactions become shed from cell surfaces and accumulate in the blood as soluble isoforms that are being explored as potential prognostic disease biomarkers. We critically review the studies that have tested the predictive value of soluble adhesion molecules in sepsis pathophysiology with emphasis on age, as well as the underlying mechanisms and potential roles for inflammatory shedding. Five soluble adhesion molecules are associated with sepsis, specifically, E-selectin, L-selectin and P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. While increased levels of these soluble adhesion molecules generally correlate well with the presence of sepsis, their degree of elevation is still poorly predictive of sepsis severity scores, outcome and mortality. Separate analyses of neonates, children and adults demonstrate significant age-dependent discrepancies in both basal and septic levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules. Additionally, a range of both clinical and experimental studies suggests protective roles for adhesion molecule shedding that raise important questions about whether these should positively or negatively correlate with mortality. In conclusion, while predictive properties of soluble adhesion molecules have been researched intensively, their levels are still poorly predictive of sepsis outcome and mortality. We propose two novel directions for improving clinical utility of soluble adhesion molecules: the combined simultaneous analysis of levels of adhesion molecules and their sheddases; and taking age-related discrepancies into account. Further attention to these issues may provide better

  16. Ramipril inhibits high glucose-stimulated up-regulation of adhesion molecules via the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moo Hyun; Kang, Hae Min; Kim, Chae-Eun; Han, Seongho; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2015-12-01

    Ramipril has recently been shown to have anti-atherogenic properties. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ramipril on induction of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using high-glucose (HG) conditions and to investigate possible underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of ramipril on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 production, and ERK phosphorylation were examined in HG-induced HUVECs with inhibitors targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. HG induced the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Pretreatment with ramipril drastically inhibited ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, upon investigating the effects of ramipril on the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, we found that ramipril completely inhibited HG-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. ERK inhibitors completely prevented the inhibitory effect of HG. This study demonstrated that ramipril reduces HG-stimulated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression via MAPK signaling, which may be useful for inhibition of atherosclerosis.

  17. Candida albicans stimulates cytokine production and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression by endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Filler, S G; Pfunder, A S; Spellberg, B J; Spellberg, J P; Edwards, J E

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cells have the potential to influence significantly the host immune response to blood-borne microbial pathogens, such as Candida albicans. We investigated the ability (of this organism to stimulate endothelial cell responses relevant to host defense in vitro. Infection with C. albicans induced endothelial cells to express mRNAs encoding E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and inducible cyclooxygenase (cox2). All three leukocyte adhesion molecule proteins were expressed on the surfaces of the endothelial cells after 8 h of exposure to C. albicans. An increase in secretion of all three cytokines was found after 12 h of infection. Cytochalasin D inhibited accumulation of the endothelial cell cytokine and leukocyte adhesion molecule mRNAs in response to C. albicans, suggesting that endothelial cell phagocytosis of the organism is required to induce this response. Live Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, a nongerminating strain of C. albicans, and killed C. albicans did not stimulate the expression of any of the cytokine or leukocyte adhesion molecule mRNAs. These findings indicate that a factor associated with live, germinating C. albicans is required for induction of endothelial cell mRNA expression. Furthermore, since endothelial cells phagocytize killed C. albicans, phagocytosis is likely necessary but not sufficient for this organism to stimulate mRNA accumulation. In conclusion, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules by endothelial cells in response to C. albicans could enhance the host defense against this organism by contributing to the recruitment of activated leukocytes to sites of intravascular infection. PMID:8698486

  18. Modulation of adhesion molecules by cholesterol-lowering therapy in mononuclear cells from hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice Cristina; Alves, Camila; Genvigir, Fabiana Dalla Vecchia; Fajardo, Cristina Moreno; Dorea, Egidio Lima; Gusukuma, Maria Cecilia; Pinto, Gelba Almeida; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo

    2015-08-01

    Cholesterol-lowering therapy has been related with several pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory action in vascular endothelium; however, their influence on monocyte adhesion molecules is poorly described. To investigate the effect of inhibitors of synthesis (statins) and absorption (ezetimibe) of cholesterol on expression of adhesion molecules L-selectin, PSGL-1, VLA-4, LFA-1, and Mac-1 in mononuclear cells in vivo and in vitro using THP-1 cells. The influence of simvastatin (10 mg/day), ezetimibe (10 mg/day), and their combination (10 mg each/day) on mRNA expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hypercholesterolemics. The effects of atorvastatin, simvastatin, and ezetimibe on mRNA and protein expression of adhesion molecules were also evaluated in THP-1 cells. Simvastatin/ezetimibe combination, but not the monotherapies, reduced the mRNA expression of the PSGL-1, LFA-1, and Mac-1 genes in PBMC from hypercholesterolemics. Total and LDL cholesterol in serum correlated with PSGL-1 mRNA expression, whereas HDL cholesterol negatively correlated with mRNA levels of L-selectin and VLA-4 genes (P < 0.05). Plasma hsCRP was also correlated with mRNA levels of VLA-4, LFA-1, and Mac-1 (P < 0.05). Atorvastatin and simvastatin at 10 μM reduced mRNA and protein expression of L-selectin, PSGL-1, and VLA-4 in THP-1 cells (P < 0.05). Cholesterol-lowering therapy modulates gene expression of adhesion molecules in PBMC from hypercholesterolemics and THP-1 cells. Simvastatin/ezetimibe combination gives more benefits by reducing to a larger extent the expression of adhesion molecules in mononuclear cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mitogenic properties of major extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, J P; Hatzfeld, A; Hatzfeld, J

    1991-08-01

    The major plasma and extracellular matrix proteins are multifunctional molecules. Some, such as fibrinogen or C3, have one domain that binds adhesion receptors and another that specifically binds and activates a separate, mitogenic receptor. In this review, Jean-Pierre Lévesque, Antoinette Hatzfeld and Jacques Hatzfeld describe adhesion and mitogenic receptors that bind to distinct domains of the same extracellular matrix protein and discuss the possibility of common ancestral genes for cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors and their receptors.

  20. Xenopus laevis neuronal cell adhesion molecule (nrcam): plasticity of a CAM in the developing nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lokapally, Ashwin; Metikala, Sanjeeva; Hollemann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the L1 immunoglobulin superfamily, which plays diverse roles during nervous system development including axon growth and guidance, synapse formation, and formation of the myelinated nerve. Perturbations in NRCAM function cause a wide variety of disorders, which can affect wiring and targeting of neurons, or cause psychiatric disorders as well as cancers through abnormal modulation of signaling events. In the present study, we characterize the Xenopus laevis homolog of nrcam. Expression of Xenopus nrcam is most abundant along the dorsal midline throughout the developing brain and in the outer nuclear layer of the retina.

  1. Targeting sites of inflammation: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a target for novel inflammatory therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to sites of inflammation will provide effective, precise, and safe therapeutic interventions for treatment of diverse disease conditions, by limiting toxic side effects and/or increasing drug action. Disease-site targeting is believed to play a major role in the enhanced efficacy observed for a variety of drugs when formulated inside lipid vesicles. This article will focus on the factors and mechanisms involved in drug targeting to sites of inflammation and the importance of cell adhesion molecules, in particular intercellular adhesion molecule-1, in this process. PMID:24109453

  2. The association between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and peritoneal injury in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yusuke; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizawa, Hiromichi; Imai, Reika; Imai, Toshimi; Hirahara, Ichiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ookawara, Susumu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum causes peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and its circulating form, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, play pivotal roles in inflammation. However, their role in peritoneal injury is unclear. We measured changes in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in rats. The associations between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and the solute transport rate (D/P-Cr and D/D0-glucose) determined by the peritoneal equilibration test, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in drained dialysate were investigated in 94 peritoneal drained dialysate samples. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in the peritoneum of rats with peritoneal injury. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate were significantly positively correlated with D/P-Cr (r = .51, p < .01) and inversely correlated with D/D0-glucose (r = -.44, p < .01). They were also significantly positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in drained dialysate (r = .86, p < .01). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1expression is increased in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in the rat, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate are associated with peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. These results suggest that soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 could be a novel biomarker of peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  3. Expression and Localization of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule and Polysialic Acid during Chick Corneal Development

    PubMed Central

    Schwend, Tyler; Conrad, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To assay for expression and localization of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and polysialic acid (polySia) in the chick cornea during embryonic and postnatal development. Methods. Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses were used to determine NCAM expression and polysiaylation in embryonic, hatchling, and adult chick corneas. Immunofluorescence staining for NCAM and polySia was conducted on cryosections of embryonic and adult corneas, whole embryonic corneas, and trigeminal neurons. Results. NCAM and ST8SiaII mRNA transcripts peaked by embryonic day (E)9, remained steady between E10 and E14 and slowly decreased thereafter during embryonic development. Both gene transcripts showed > 190-fold decline in the adult chick cornea compared with E9. In contrast, ST8SiaIV expression gradually decreased 26.5-fold from E6 to E19, increased thereafter, and rose to the early embryonic level in the adult cornea. Western blot analysis revealed NCAM was polysialylated and its expression developmentally changed. Other polysiaylated proteins aside from NCAM were also detected by Western blot analysis. Five NCAM isoforms including NCAM-120, NCAM-180 and three soluble NCAM isoforms with low molecular weights (87–96 kDa) were present in chick corneas, with NCAM-120 being the predominate isoform. NCAM was localized to the epithelium, stroma, and stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) of the embryonic cornea. In stroma, NCAM expression shifted from anterior to posterior stroma during embryonic development and eventually became undetectable in 20-week-old adult cornea. Additionally, both NCAM and polySia were detected on embryonic corneal and pericorneal nerves. Conclusions. NCAM and polySia are expressed and developmentally regulated in chick corneas. Both membrane-associated and soluble NCAM isoforms are expressed in chick corneas. The distributions of NCAM and polySia in cornea and on corneal nerves suggest their potential functions in corneal innervation. PMID

  4. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Regulates Semaphorin 3F-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Demyanenko, Galina P.; Mohan, Vishwa; Zhang, Xuying; Brennaman, Leann H.; Dharbal, Katherine E.S.; Tran, Tracy S.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1. Whole-cell recordings in cortical slices from NrCAM-null mice revealed increased frequency of mEPSCs in star pyramidal neurons. Recombinant Sema3F-Fc protein induced spine retraction on apical dendrites of wild-type, but not NrCAM-null cortical neurons in culture, while re-expression of NrCAM rescued the spine retraction response. NrCAM formed a complex in brain with Sema3F receptor subunits Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) through an Npn-2-binding sequence (TARNER) in the extracellular Ig1 domain. A trans heterozygous genetic interaction test demonstrated that Sema3F and NrCAM pathways interacted in vivo to regulate spine density in star pyramidal neurons. These findings reveal NrCAM as a novel postnatal regulator of dendritic spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons, and an integral component of the Sema3F receptor complex. The results implicate NrCAM as a contributor to excitatory/inhibitory balance in neocortical circuits. PMID:25143608

  5. Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis and Degradation of Murine Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule mEpCAM

    PubMed Central

    Hachmeister, Matthias; Bobowski, Karolina D.; Hogl, Sebastian; Dislich, Bastian; Fukumori, Akio; Eggert, Carola; Mack, Brigitte; Kremling, Heidi; Sarrach, Sannia; Coscia, Fabian; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Steiner, Harald; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Gires, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is highly and frequently expressed in carcinomas and (cancer-)stem cells, and which plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We show here that murine EpCAM (mEpCAM) is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis in various cells including embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinomas. As shown with ectopically expressed EpCAM variants, cleavages occur at α-, β-, γ-, and ε-sites to generate soluble ectodomains, soluble Aβ-like-, and intracellular fragments termed mEpEX, mEp-β, and mEpICD, respectively. Proteolytic sites in the extracellular part of mEpCAM were mapped using mass spectrometry and represent cleavages at the α- and β-sites by metalloproteases and the b-secretase BACE1, respectively. Resulting C-terminal fragments (CTF) are further processed to soluble Aβ-like fragments mEp-β and cytoplasmic mEpICD variants by the g-secretase complex. Noteworthy, cytoplasmic mEpICD fragments were subject to efficient degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In addition the γ-secretase complex dependent cleavage of EpCAM CTF liberates different EpICDs with different stabilities towards proteasomal degradation. Generation of CTF and EpICD fragments and the degradation of hEpICD via the proteasome were similarly demonstrated for the human EpCAM ortholog. Additional EpCAM orthologs have been unequivocally identified in silico in 52 species. Sequence comparisons across species disclosed highest homology of BACE1 cleavage sites and in presenilin-dependent γ-cleavage sites, whereas strongest heterogeneity was observed in metalloprotease cleavage sites. In summary, EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, and is subject to shedding, γ-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:24009667

  6. The function of multiple extracellular matrix receptors in mediating cell adhesion to extracellular matrix: preparation of monoclonal antibodies to the fibronectin receptor that specifically inhibit cell adhesion to fibronectin and react with platelet glycoproteins Ic-IIa

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have identified monoclonal antibodies that inhibit human cell adhesion to collagen (P1H5), fibronectin (P1F8 or P1D6), and collagen and fibronectin (P1B5) that react with a family of structurally similar glycoproteins referred to as extracellular matrix receptors (ECMRs) II, VI, and I, respectively. Each member of this family contains a unique alpha subunit, recognized by the antibodies, and a common beta subunit, each of approximately 140 kD. We show here that ECMR VI is identical to the fibronectin receptor (FNR), very late antigen (VLA) 5, and platelet glycoproteins Ic-IIa and shall be referred to as FNR. Monoclonal antibodies to FNR inhibit lymphocyte, fibroblast, and platelet adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces. ECMRs I, II, and FNR were differentially expressed in platelets, resting or activated lymphocytes, and myeloid, epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblast cell populations, suggesting a functional role for the receptors in vascular emigration and selective tissue localization. Tissue staining of human fetal skin localized ECMRs I and II to the basal epidermis primarily, while monoclonal antibodies to the FNR stained both the dermis and epidermis. Experiments carried out to investigate the functional roles of these receptors in mediating cell adhesion to complex extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cells in culture revealed that complete inhibition of cell adhesion to ECM required antibodies to both the FNR and ECMR II, the collagen adhesion receptor. These results show that multiple ECMRs function in combination to mediate cell adhesion to complex EMC templates and predicts that variation in ECM composition and ECMR expression may direct cell localization to specific tissue domains. PMID:2846588

  7. Sequences from the First Fibronectin Type III Repeat of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Allow O-Glycan Polysialylation of an Adhesion Molecule Chimera*

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Deirdre A.; Swartzentruber, Kristin G.; Thompson, Matthew G.; Mendiratta, Shalu Shiv; Colley, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Polysialic acid is a developmentally regulated, anti-adhesive polymer that is added to N-glycans on the fifth immunoglobulin domain (Ig5) of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We found that the first fibronectin type III repeat (FN1) of NCAM is required for the polysialylation of N-glycans on the adjacent Ig5 domain, and we proposed that the polysialyltransferases recognize specific sequences in FN1 to position themselves for Ig5 N-glycan polysialylation. Other studies identified a novel FN1 acidic surface patch and α-helix that play roles in NCAM polysialylation. Here, we characterize the contribution of two additional FN1 sequences, Pro510-Tyr511-Ser512 (PYS) and Gln516-Val517-Gln518 (QVQ). Replacing PYS or the acidic patch dramatically decreases the O-glycan polysialylation of a truncated NCAM protein, and replacing the α-helix or QVQ shifts polysialic acid to FN1 O-glycans in full-length NCAM. We also found that the FN1 domain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule, a homologous but unpolysialylated protein, could partially replace NCAM FN1. Inserting Pro510-Tyr511 eliminated N-glycan polysialylation and enhanced O-glycosylation of an NCAM- olfactory cell adhesion molecule chimera, and inserting other FN1 sequences unique to NCAM, predominantly the acidic patch, created a new polysialyltransferase recognition site. Taken together, our results highlight the role of the FN1 α-helix and QVQ sequences in N-glycan polysialylation and demonstrate that the acidic patch primarily functions in O-glycan polysialylation. PMID:20805222

  8. Gamma knife irradiation increases cerebral endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Christopher D; Jawahar, Ajay; Warren, April C; Elrod, John W; Nanda, Anil; Alexander, J Steven

    2003-07-01

    Alterations in multiple functions of the microvasculature occur in response to gamma irradiation and are thought to contribute to radiation-induced end organ damage by inducing inflammatory responses, particularly leukocyte infiltration into the affected area. Endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ECAMs) mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration. Here, we validate a method to study the effect of Leksell gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the expression of ECAMs on human cerebral endothelium at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after irradiation. A human brain endothelial cell line (IHEC) was cultured on 12-mm coverslips and subjected to 50 Gy of collimated gamma irradiation with the Leksell gamma knife (Elekta Instruments, Inc., Atlanta, GA). Lactate dehydrogenase release was measured at 24, 48, and 72 hours after irradiation and caspase-3 at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. ECAM expression was measured at postirradiation intervals of 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours by cell enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. We used a cell irradiator composed of two chambers. The upper chamber holds the coverslips firmly in place while they are immersed in media. The lower chamber is connected to a peristaltic pump, which pumps water into the chamber and maintains the media in the upper chamber at 37 degrees C through convection. None of the ECAMs tested was significantly elevated compared with the control basally. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 was significantly elevated on brain endothelial cells but there was no significant elevation of E-selectin. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was increased slightly but not significantly and decreased at 48 hours. At 72 hours, E-selectin expression was significantly increased; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were not altered relative to sham controls. Increased ECAM expression and lactate dehydrogenase release support the idea that the cerebral microvasculature undergoes an

  9. Adhesion molecules expression in CLL: Potential impact on clinical and hematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Azza M; El-Sharkawy, Nahla M; Osman, Randa A; Abd El-Fattah, Eman K; El-Noshokaty, Essam; Abd El-Hamid, Thoraya; Kandeel, Eman Z

    2016-03-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is marked by the accumulation of CD5+ B lymphocytes within the blood, bone marrow (BM), and secondary lymphoid tissues. Abnormalities in the expression and function of cell adhesion molecules may account for the patterns of intra-nodal growth and hematogenous spread of the malignant cells. Chemokines and integrin-mediated adhesion and trans-endothelial migration (TEM) are central aspects in trafficking and retention of hematopoietic cells in the BM and lymphoid organs. This work was conducted to study adhesion molecules status in CLL and its potential impact on both hematological and clinical parameters. The study included 78 newly diagnosed CLL patients. Immunophenotyping was performed on peripheral blood using the chronic lymphoid panel. Adhesion molecules (CD11a, CD11b, CD49d, CD49C, CD29 and CD38) were tested using monoclonal antibodies and analyzed by Flow Cytometry. Positive correlation was encountered between adhesion molecules: CD38 with CD49d (r=0.25, p=0.028), CD11a with CD11b, CD49d and CD29 (r=0.394, p=0.001; r=0.441, p=<0.01 and r=0.446, p<0.01 respectively) and CD29 with CD49c and CD49d (r=0.437, p<0.01; r=0.674, p<0.01 respectively). CD49c showed negative correlation with Rai staging (r=-0.269, p=0.033). CD11a and CD29 showed a significant relation with splenomegaly (p=0.04 and 0.03 respectively) and CD49d showed a significant relation with lymphadenopathy (p=0.02). The level of different adhesion molecules expression in CLL is apparently reflected on the potential migratory behavior of the leukemic cells to different organs. Copyright © 2016 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of subtilisin on the adhesion of a marine bacterium which produces mainly proteins as extracellular polymers.

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Delbarre, C; Ghillebaert, F; Compere, C; Combes, D

    2008-09-01

    The nature of exopolymers involved in the adhesion of a marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 was investigated to evaluate and understand the antifouling potential of subtilisin. The exopolymers of D41 produced by fermentation were analysed by FTIR and SDS-PAGE showing the presence of polysaccharides, glycoproteins and proteins. A high content of proteins was detected both in soluble and capsular fractions. The microscopic observations of fluorescamine and calcofluor stained adhered D41 indicated mainly the presence of proteins in exopolymers produced during adhesion. Subtilisin, the broad spectrum protease, tested in natural sea water and in polystyrene microplates showed that antifouling activity was higher in the prevention of bacterial adhesion than in the detachment of adhered D41 cells. Overall, these results demonstrate the involvement of proteins in Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41 adhesion and confirm the high antifouling potential of subtilisin. This study emphasizes the major role of proteins instead of polysaccharides, thus extending our knowledge regarding the nature of extracellular polymers involved in bacterial adhesion. Furthermore, the high antifouling potential of subtilisin evaluated in the very first stages of fouling, bacterial adhesion, could lead to less toxic compounds than organometallic compounds in antifouling paint.

  11. Integrin-mediated traction force enhances paxillin molecular associations and adhesion dynamics that increase the invasiveness of tumor cells into a three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Mekhdjian, Armen H; Kai, FuiBoon; Rubashkin, Matthew G; Prahl, Louis S; Przybyla, Laralynne M; McGregor, Alexandra L; Bell, Emily S; Barnes, J Matthew; DuFort, Christopher C; Ou, Guanqing; Chang, Alice C; Cassereau, Luke; Tan, Steven J; Pickup, Michael W; Lakins, Jonathan N; Ye, Xin; Davidson, Michael W; Lammerding, Jan; Odde, David J; Dunn, Alexander R; Weaver, Valerie M

    2017-06-01

    Metastasis requires tumor cells to navigate through a stiff stroma and squeeze through confined microenvironments. Whether tumors exploit unique biophysical properties to metastasize remains unclear. Data show that invading mammary tumor cells, when cultured in a stiffened three-dimensional extracellular matrix that recapitulates the primary tumor stroma, adopt a basal-like phenotype. Metastatic tumor cells and basal-like tumor cells exert higher integrin-mediated traction forces at the bulk and molecular levels, consistent with a motor-clutch model in which motors and clutches are both increased. Basal-like nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells also display an altered integrin adhesion molecular organization at the nanoscale and recruit a suite of paxillin-associated proteins implicated in invasion and metastasis. Phosphorylation of paxillin by Src family kinases, which regulates adhesion turnover, is similarly enhanced in the metastatic and basal-like tumor cells, fostered by a stiff matrix, and critical for tumor cell invasion in our assays. Bioinformatics reveals an unappreciated relationship between Src kinases, paxillin, and survival of breast cancer patients. Thus adoption of the basal-like adhesion phenotype may favor the recruitment of molecules that facilitate tumor metastasis to integrin-based adhesions. Analysis of the physical properties of tumor cells and integrin adhesion composition in biopsies may be predictive of patient outcome. © 2017 Mekhdjian, Kai, Rubashkin, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Novel Roles of the Chemorepellent Axon Guidance Molecule RGMa in Cell Migration and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lah, Grace J.

    2012-01-01

    The repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a contact-mediated axon guidance molecule that has significant roles in central nervous system (CNS) development. Here we have examined whether RGMa has novel roles in cell migration and cell adhesion outside the nervous system. RGMa was found to stimulate cell migration from Xenopus animal cap explants in a neogenin-dependent and BMP-independent manner. RGMa also stimulated the adhesion of Xenopus animal cap cells, and this adhesion was dependent on neogenin and independent of calcium. To begin to functionally characterize the role of specific domains in RGMa, we assessed the migratory and adhesive activities of deletion mutants. RGMa lacking the partial von Willebrand factor type D (vWF) domain preferentially perturbed cell adhesion, while mutants lacking the RGD motif affected cell migration. We also revealed that manipulating the levels of RGMa in vivo caused major migration defects during Xenopus gastrulation. We have revealed here novel roles of RGMa in cell migration and adhesion and demonstrated that perturbations to the homeostasis of RGMa expression can severely disrupt major morphogenetic events. These results have implications for understanding the role of RGMa in both health and disease. PMID:22215618

  13. Dimerization of Cell-Adhesion Molecules Can Increase Their Binding Strength.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenmao; Qin, Meng; Li, Ying; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-14

    Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs) often exist as homodimers under physiological conditions. However, owing to steric hindrance, simultaneous binding of two ligands to the homodimers at the same location can hardly be satisfied, and the molecular mechanism underlying this natural design is still unknown. Here, we present a theoretical model to understand the rupture behavior of cell-adhesion bonds formed by multiple binding ligands with a single receptor. We found that the dissociation forces for the cell-adhesion bond could be greatly enhanced in comparison with the monomer case through a ligand rebinding and exchange mechanism. We also confirmed this prediction by measuring dimeric cRGD (cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp) unbinding from integrin (αvβ3) using atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy. Our finding addresses the mechanism of increasing the binding strength of cell-adhesion bonds through dimerization at the single-molecule level, representing a key step toward the understanding of complicated cell-adhesion behaviors. Moreover, our results also highlight a wealth of opportunities to design mechanically stronger bioconjunctions for drug delivery, biolabeling, and surface modification.

  14. The role of photobiomodulation on gene expression of cell adhesion molecules in diabetic wounded fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ayuk, Sandra M; Abrahamse, Heidi; Houreld, Nicolette N

    2016-08-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are cell surface glycoproteins that facilitate cell-cell contacts and adhesion with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cellular adhesion is affected by various disease conditions, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and inflammation. Photobiomodulation (PBM) stimulates biological processes and expression of these cellular molecules. The aim of this experimental work was to demonstrate the role of PBM at 830nm on CAMs in diabetic wounded fibroblast cells. Isolated human skin fibroblast cells were used. Normal (N-) and diabetic wounded (DW-) cells were irradiated with a continuous wave diode laser at 830nm with an energy density of 5J/cm(2). Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the relative gene expression of 39 CAMs 48h post-irradiation. Normalized expression levels from irradiated cells were calculated relative to non-irradiated control cells according to the 2^(-ΔΔCt) method. Thirty-one genes were significantly regulated in N-cells (28 were genes up-regulated and three genes down-regulated), and 22 genes in DW-cells (five genes were up-regulated and 17 genes down-regulated). PBM induced a stimulatory effect on various CAMs namely cadherins, integrins, selectins and immunoglobulins, and hence may be used as a complementary therapy in advancing treatment of non-healing diabetic ulcers. The regulation of CAMs as well as evaluating the role of PBM on the molecular effects of these genes may expand knowledge and prompt further research into the cellular mechanisms in diabetic wound healing that may lead to valuable clinical outcomes.

  15. Simulated microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion to matrix and other molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, K.; Ishii, S.; Ford, R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-01-01

    Microgravity has advantages for the cultivation of tissues with high fidelity; however, tissue formation requires cellular recognition and adhesion. We tested the hypothesis that simulated microgravity does not affect cell adhesion. Human colorectal carcinoma cells were cultured in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) under low shear stress with randomization of the gravity vector that simulates microgravity. After 6 - 7 days, cells were assayed for binding to various substrates and compared to cells grown in standard tissue culture flasks and static suspension cultures. The RWV cultures bound as well to basement membrane proteins and to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), an intercellular adhesion molecule, as control cultures did. Thus, microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion and may be useful for tissue engineering.

  16. Simulated microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion to matrix and other molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, K.; Ishii, S.; Ford, R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-01-01

    Microgravity has advantages for the cultivation of tissues with high fidelity; however, tissue formation requires cellular recognition and adhesion. We tested the hypothesis that simulated microgravity does not affect cell adhesion. Human colorectal carcinoma cells were cultured in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) under low shear stress with randomization of the gravity vector that simulates microgravity. After 6 - 7 days, cells were assayed for binding to various substrates and compared to cells grown in standard tissue culture flasks and static suspension cultures. The RWV cultures bound as well to basement membrane proteins and to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), an intercellular adhesion molecule, as control cultures did. Thus, microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion and may be useful for tissue engineering.

  17. Simulated microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion to matrix and other molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, K.; Ishii, S.; Ford, R.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-08-01

    Microgravity has advantages for the cultivation of tissues with high fidelity; however, tissue formation requires cellular recognition and adhesion. We tested the hypothesis that simulated microgravity does not affect cell adhesion. Human colorectal carcinoma cells were cultured in the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) under low shear stress with randomization of the gravity vector that simulates microgravity. After 6 - 7 days, cells were assayed for binding to various substrates and compared to cells grown in standard tissue culture flasks and static suspension cultures. The RWV cultures bound as well to basement membrane proteins and to CEA, an intercellular adhesion molecule, as control cultures did. Thus, microgravity does not alter epithelial cell adhesion and may be useful for tissue engineering.

  18. Quantification of the interaction of neuronal adhesion molecules by flow cytometry using microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Noehrenberg, Ursel; Schuhmacher, Stephan; Volkmer, Hans-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    Neuronal adhesion molecules expressed during embryogenesis are essential for axonal pathfinding and development of neural connections and can interact by homophilic or heterophilic adhesion. We used and further developed a simple flow cytometric (FCM) microbead method to assess these interactions. This method allows the detection of homo- or heterophilic interactions and gives estimates of the binding affinity. It is possible to determine binding domains of a molecule using site specific antibodies or protein fragments. Adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin-superfamily or the tenascin (TN)-family isolated from chick brain were analyzed. Purified molecules were covalently or non-covalently coupled to microbeads. For investigation of heterophilic interactions different molecules were coupled to beads of different colors. Measurements were done on single laser FCM with UV or 488 nm excitation. From the measured particle numbers the numbers of beads in homo- and/or heterophilic aggregates were determined. From these values the percentage of beads in aggregates and the aggregate size was calculated. Homophilic interaction was found for the molecules NCAM, NgCAM and NrCAM. Heterophilic interaction were detected e.g. for: NrCAM/F11, TN-R/F11 and CALEB/TN-C and CALEB/TN-R. Using fragments of TN-R we found, that the third of 8 fibronectin type III domains bound to F11. The FCM results were confirmed by neurite outgrowth assays. Our data demonstrate that FCM analysis of microbead aggregation is an easy and reliable method to characterize protein interactions.

  19. Differential expression of cell adhesion molecules in an ionizing radiation-induced breast cancer model system.

    PubMed

    Calaf, Gloria M; Roy, Debasish; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Balajee, Adayabalam S

    2013-07-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is mediated by members of the cadherin-catenin system and among them E-cadherin and β-catenin are important adhesion molecules for epithelial cell function and preservation of tissue integrity. To investigate the importance of cell adhesion molecules in breast carcinogenesis, we developed an in vitro breast cancer model system wherein immortalized human breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10F, was malignantly transformed by exposure to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) α particle radiation (150 keV/µm) and subsequent growth in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol. This model consisted of human breast epithelial cells in different stages of transformation: i) parental cell line MCF-10F; ii) MCF-l0F continuously grown with estradiol at 10(-8) (Estrogen); iii) a non-malignant cell line (Alpha3); and iv) a malignant and tumorigenic cell line (Alpha5) and the Tumor2 cell line derived from the nude mouse xenograft of the Alpha5 cell line. Expression levels of important cell adhesion molecules such as α-catenin, β-catenin, γ-catenin, E-cadherin and integrin were found to be higher at the protein level in the Alpha5 and Tumor2 cell lines relative to these levels in the non-tumorigenic MCF-10F, Estrogen and Alpha3 cell lines. In corroboration, cDNA expression analysis revealed elevated levels of genes involved in the cell adhesion function [E-cadherin, integrin β6 and desmocollin3 (DSc3)] in the Alpha5 and Tumor2 cell lines relative to the levels in the MCF-10F, Estrogen and Alpha3 cell lines. Collectively, our results suggest that cell adhesion molecules are expressed at higher levels in malignantly transformed breast epithelial cells relative to levels in non-malignant cells. However, reduced levels of adhesion molecules observed in the mouse xenograft-derived Tumor 2 cell line compared to the pre-tumorigenic Alpha5 cell line suggests that the altered expression levels of adhesion molecules depend on the tumor tissue

  20. RNAi targeting multiple cell adhesion molecules reduces immune cell recruitment and vascular inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Dutta, Partha; Dahlman, James E; Hulsmans, Maarten; Courties, Gabriel; Sun, Yuan; Heidt, Timo; Vinegoni, Claudio; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Tricot, Benoit; Khan, Omar F; Kauffman, Kevin J; Xing, Yiping; Shaw, Taylor E; Libby, Peter; Langer, Robert; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K; Anderson, Daniel G; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-06-08

    Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to a systemic surge of vascular inflammation in mice and humans, resulting in secondary ischemic complications and high mortality. We show that, in ApoE(-/-) mice with coronary ligation, increased sympathetic tone up-regulates not only hematopoietic leukocyte production but also plaque endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. To counteract the resulting arterial leukocyte recruitment, we developed nanoparticle-based RNA interference (RNAi) that effectively silences five key adhesion molecules. Simultaneously encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting intercellular cell adhesion molecules 1 and 2 (Icam1 and Icam2), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1), and E- and P-selectins (Sele and Selp) into polymeric endothelial-avid nanoparticles reduced post-MI neutrophil and monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions and decreased matrix-degrading plaque protease activity. Five-gene combination RNAi also curtailed leukocyte recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Therefore, targeted multigene silencing may prevent complications after acute MI. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Identification of CD9 extracellular domains important in regulation of CHO cell adhesion to fibronectin and fibronectin pericellular matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Cook, George A; Longhurst, Celia M; Grgurevich, Svetozar; Cholera, Shila; Crossno, Joseph T; Jennings, Lisa K

    2002-12-15

    CD9, a 24-kDa member of the tetraspanin family, influences cellular growth and development, activation, adhesion, and motility. Our investigation focuses on the hypothesis that the CD9 second extracellular loop (EC2) is important in modulating cell adhesive events. Using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression system, we previously reported that CD9 expression inhibited cell adhesion to fibronectin and fibronectin matrix assembly. For the first time, a functional epitope on CD9 EC2 that regulates these processes is described. Binding of mAb7, an EC2-specific anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody, reversed the CD9 inhibitory activity on CHO cell adhesion and fibronectin matrix assembly. This reversal of cell phenotype also was observed in CHO cells expressing CD9 EC2 truncations. Furthermore, our data showed that the EC2 sequence (173)LETFTVKSCPDAIKEVFDNK(192) was largely responsible for the CD9-mediated CHO cell phenotype. Two peptides, (135)K-V(172) (peptide 5b) and (168)P-I(185) (peptide 6a), selectively blocked mAb7 binding to soluble CD9 and to CD9 on intact cells. These active peptides reversed the influence of CD9 expression on CHO cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed that CD9 colocalized with the integrin alpha(5)beta(1) and cytoskeletal F-actin in punctate clusters on the cell surface, particularly at the cell margins. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed CD9 association with beta(1) integrin. The cellular distribution and colocalization of focal adhesion kinase and alpha-actinin with cytoskeletal actin was also influenced by CD9 expression. Thus, CD9 may exhibit its effect by modulating the composition of adhesive complexes important in facilitating cell adhesion and matrix assembly.

  2. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule Are Induced by Ionizing Radiation on Lymphatic Endothelium.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, María E; Garasa, Saray; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Solorzano, Jose Luis; Barbes, Benigno; Yanguas, Alba; Teijeira, Alvaro; Etxeberria, Iñaki; Aristu, José Javier; Halin, Cornelia; Melero, Ignacio; Rouzaut, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on the expression of the integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM that control leucocyte transit by lymphatic endothelial cells. Confluent monolayers of primary human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) were irradiated with single dose of 2, 5, 10 or 20 Gy, with 6 MeV-x-rays using a Linear-Accelerator. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was determined by flow cytometry. Human tissue specimens received a single dose of 20 Gy with 15 MeV-x-rays. MC38, B16-OVA or B16-VEGF-C tumors grown in C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with single dose of 20Gy using a Linear-Accelerator fitted with a 10mm Radiosurgery collimator. Clinical samples were obtained from patients previous and 4 weeks after complete standard radiotherapy. ICAM-1 and VCAM expression was detected in all tissue specimens by confocal microscopy. To understand the role of TGFβ in this process anti-TGFβ blocking mAb were injected i.p. 30min before radiotherapy. Cell adhesion to irradiated LEC was analyzed in adhesion experiments performed in the presence or in the absence of anti- TGFβ and /or anti-ICAM1 blocking mAb. We demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells in tumor samples experience induction of surface ICAM-1 and VCAM when exposed to ionizing radiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects can be recapitulated in cultured LEC, and are in part mediated by TGFβ. These data are consistent with increases in ICAM-1 and VCAM expression on LYVE-1+ endothelial cells in freshly explanted human tumor tissue and in mouse transplanted tumors after radiotherapy. Finally, ICAM-1 and VCAM expression accounts for enhanced adherence of human T lymphocytes to irradiated LEC. Our results show induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM on LVs in irradiated lesions and offer a starting point for elucidating the biological and therapeutic implications of targeting leukocyte traffic in combination to immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adhesion of T and B lymphocytes to extracellular matrix and endothelial cells can be regulated through the beta subunit of VLA

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Investigating the regulation of very late antigen (VLA)-mediated functions, we found that TS2/16, a mAb directed against the beta chain of the VLA group of integrins, can induce binding of resting peripheral blood lymphocytes, cloned T lymphocytes, and Epstein Barr virus- transformed B cells to extracellular matrix components, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen, but not to fibrinogen. The antibody stimulates VLA-4-, VLA-5-, and VLA-6-mediated binding. Furthermore, it induces VLA- 4-mediated binding to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressed by rTNF-alpha-stimulated endothelial cells, but it does not stimulate homotypic aggregation of cells as described for a number of anti-VLA-4 alpha antibodies (Bednarczyk, J.L., and B. W. McIntyre. 1990. J. Immunol. 144: 777-784; Campanero, M. R., R. Pulido, M. A. Ursa, M. Rodriguez-Moya, M. O. de Landazuri, and F. Sanchez-Madrid. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110:2157-2165). Therefore, the stimulating activity of this anti-beta 1 antibody clearly contrasts with that of the anti-VLA-4 alpha antibodies, which induce homotypic cell aggregation, but not binding of cells to extracellular matrix components or endothelial cells, indicating that TS2/16 may generate different signals. The observation that also F(ab')2 or Fab fragments of this anti-beta 1 antibody stimulate binding to extracellular matrix components and endothelial cells excludes the possibility that binding requires receptor crosslinking, or is Fc receptor mediated. Induction of this adhesion is cation and energy dependent and requires an intact cytoskeleton. Although changes in the conformation of VLA integrins induced by this antibody may regulate their functional activity, the dependence on metabolic energy indicates that intracellular processes may also play a role. PMID:1560035

  4. Cell adhesion molecules involved in the leukocyte recruitment induced by venom of the snake Bothrops jararaca.

    PubMed Central

    Zamuner, Stella R; Teixeira, Catarina F P

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) induces a significant leukocyte accumulation, mainly neutrophils, at the local of tissue damage. Therefore, the role of the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), LECAM-1, CD18, leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) on the BjV-induced neutrophil accumulation and the correlation with release of LTB4, TXA2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 have been investigated. Anti-mouse LECAM-1, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and PECAM-1 monoclonal antibody injection resulted in a reduction of 42%, 80%, 66% and 67%, respectively, of neutrophil accumulation induced by BjV (250 microg/kg, intraperitoneal) injection in male mice compared with isotype-matched control injected animals. The anti-mouse CD18 monoclonal antibody had no significant effect on venom-induced neutrophil accumulation. Concentrations of LTB(4), TXA(2), IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significant increased in the peritoneal exudates of animals injected with venom, whereas no increment in IL-1 was detected. This results suggest that ICAM-1, LECAM-1, LFA-1 and PECAM-1, but not CD18, adhesion molecules are involved in the recruitment of neutrophils into the inflammatory site induced by BjV. This is the first in vivo evidence that snake venom is able to up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules by both leukocytes and endothelial cells. This venom effect may be indirect, probably through the release of the inflammatory mediators evidenced in the present study. PMID:12581499

  5. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  6. [Effects of endothelial lipase on mRNA expression of adhesion molecule of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-qiang; Huang, Lan; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Yin, Yang-guang; Kang, Hua-li; Deng, Meng-yang

    2007-12-01

    To explore the relationship between human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and endothelial lipase (EL), and the effect of EL on expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ICAM). HUVECs was treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) 10 microg/L and the mRNA of adhesion molecules [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin] were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Then the effect of 50 microg/L anti-endothelial lipase (anti-EL) antibody on the influence of TNF-alpha on these adhesion molecules was observed. After being treated with TNF-alpha, the mRNA of adhesion molecules expressed by HUVECs were significant up-regulated, there was significant difference compared with control group (all P<0.01). These effects of TNF-alpha were significantly abolished by 50 microg/L anti-EL antibody (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EL can affect the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cell adhesion molecule. This effect of EL may play a role in the pathophysiologic process in the pathogenesis progress of atherosclerosis.

  7. Higher serum levels of soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule predict peripheral artery disease in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Hung; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Horng-Rong; Chou, Ming-Chih

    2012-11-01

    Serum levels of soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), are elevated in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, the levels of these cell adhesion molecules in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are unclear. A total of 112 HD patients were included and PAD was diagnosed using the ankle-brachial index and Doppler ultrasound. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and MCP-1 were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Out of 106 HD patients, 31 (27.7%) were diagnosed with PAD. After adjusting for risk factors, higher serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with PAD in HD patients, with an odds ratio of 5.3 (95% CI 3.3-65.5) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-21.8) respectively. Using sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 for diagnosis of PAD in HD patients, sVCAM-1 had a sensitivity of 72.4% and specificity of 62.3% for sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 had a sensitivity of 89.3% and a specificity of 40%. MCP-1 was not associated with PAD in HD patients. In addition, the fistula of HD patients with PAD had a lower A-V access flow. sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 was associated with higher risk of PAD in HD patients. Moreover, HD patients with PAD had a lower blood flow and lower A-V access flow. Our results showed that sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 may be used as screening markers for PAD in HD patients. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. Spatio-Temporally Restricted Expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules during Chicken Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Priti; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2014-01-01

    Differential cell adhesive properties are known to regulate important developmental events like cell sorting and cell migration. Cadherins and protocadherins are known to mediate these cellular properties. Though a large number of such molecules have been predicted, their characterization in terms of interactive properties and cellular roles is far from being comprehensive. To narrow down the tissue context and collect correlative evidence for tissue specific roles of these molecules, we have carried out whole-mount in situ hybridization based RNA expression study for seven cadherins and four protocadherins. In developing chicken embryos (HH stages 18, 22, 26 and 28) cadherins and protocadherins are expressed in tissue restricted manner. This expression study elucidates precise expression domains of cell adhesion molecules in the context of developing embryos. These expression domains provide spatio-temporal context in which the function of these genes can be further explored. PMID:24806091

  9. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B supports lymphocyte rolling and adhesion through interaction with alpha4beta1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Ralf J; Hardt, Katja; Hatting, Max; Bistrian, Roxana; Diehl, Sandra; Radeke, Heinfried H; Podda, Maurizio; Schön, Michael P; Kaufmann, Roland; Henschler, Reinhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Santoso, Sentot; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2009-10-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), JAM-B and JAM-C have been implicated in leucocyte transmigration. As JAM-B binds to very late activation antigen (VLA)-4, a leucocyte integrin that contributes to rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells through binding to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, we hypothesized that JAM-B is also involved in leucocyte rolling and firm adhesion. To test this hypothesis, intravital microscopy of murine skin microvasculature was performed. Rolling interactions of murine leucocytes were significantly affected by blockade of JAM-B [which reduced rolling interactions from 9.1 +/- 2.6% to 3.2 +/- 1.2% (mean +/- standard deviation)]. To identify putative ligands, T lymphocytes were perfused over JAM-B-coated slides in a dynamic flow chamber system. JAM-B-dependent rolling and sticking interactions were observed at low shear stress [0.3 dyn/cm(2): 220 +/- 71 (mean +/- standard deviation) versus 165 +/- 88 rolling (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney rank sum test) and 2.6 +/- 1.3 versus 1.0 +/- 0.7 sticking cells/mm(2)/min (P = 0.026; Mann-Whitney rank sum test) on JAM-B- compared with baseline], but not at higher shear forces (1.0 dyn/cm(2)). As demonstrated by antibody blocking experiments, JAM-B-mediated rolling and sticking of T lymphocytes was dependent on alpha4 and beta1 integrin, but not JAM-C expression. To investigate whether JAM-B-mediated leucocyte-endothelium interactions are involved in a disease-relevant in vivo model, adoptive transfer experiments in 2,4,-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reactions were performed in mice in the absence or in the presence of a function-blocking JAM-B antibody. In this model, JAM-B blockade during the sensitization phase impaired the generation of the immune response to DNFB, which was assessed as the increase in ear swelling in untreated, DNFB-challenged mice, by close to 40% [P = 0.037; analysis of variance (anova)]. Overall, JAM-B appears to

  10. Induction of hyper-adhesion attenuates autoimmune-induced keratinocyte cell-cell detachment and processing of adhesion molecules via mechanisms that involve PKC.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Nicola; Lanza, Alessandro; Prime, Stephen S

    2010-02-15

    In confluent keratinocyte monolayers, desmosomal adhesion gradually becomes calcium-independent and this is associated with an increase in the strength of intercellular adhesion (hyper-adhesion). In this study, we investigated the functional and molecular significance of hyper-adhesion in a system challenged by autoimmune sera from patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV), a disease primarily targeting desmosomal adhesion. The results show that keratinocytes with calcium-independent desmosomes are resistant to disruption of intercellular contacts (acantholysis) in experimental PV. Furthermore, both the desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and Dsg3 and the adherens junction protein E-cadherin were decreased in confluent keratinocytes at Day 1, but not in hyper-adhesive cells (Day 6) after incubation with PV serum. Pharmacological induction of the hyper-adhesive state with the PKC inhibitor Go6976 reduced both the acantholysis rate and the processing of cell adhesion molecules induced by PV serum. When the establishment of the hyper-adhesive state was prevented by cell adhesion recognition (CAR) peptides that perturbed desmosomal interactions, Go6976 could still partially attenuate PV acantholysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that keratinocyte hyper-adhesion decreases the morphological, functional and biochemical dys-cohesive effects of PV serum via mechanisms that involve, at least in part, the function of PKC. This suggests that reinforcing keratinocyte adhesion may be a promising way to inhibit the effects of this most debilitating disorder. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of endogenous Cysteine Protease Inhibitor (ICP) 1 expression in Entamoeba histolytica affects amoebic adhesion to Extracellular Matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans. During tissue invasion, amoebic adhesion to host components is an important event for host cell death leading to successful invasion and infection. Among amoebic virulence factors, Gal/GalNAc lectin is known to be major adhesion factor to host cells. In this study, we investigated the role of amoebic secreted CP (Cysteine Proteases) in amoebic adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) protein using CP inhibitor and E. histolytica strains in which the endogenous inhibitor of cysteine protease (ICP) 1 gene was overexpressed (ICP1(+)) or repressed by antisense small RNA-mediated gene silencing (ICP1(-)). We found that pretreatment of wild-type amoebae with CP inhibitor E64, or thiol-group modifiers such as diamide and N-Ethylmaleimide resulted in a significant decrease in adhesion to laminin and collagen ECM proteins. Furthermore, ICP1(+) strain, with a reduction of secreted CP activity, exhibited reduced ability by 40% to adhere to laminin. In contrast, ICP1(-) strain, with a 1.9-fold increase of secreted CP activity, showed a two-fold increase in amoebic adherence to laminin compared to the control strain. In addition, total amount of secreted CP5 was decreased in ICP1(+) amoeba. Conversely, total amount of secreted CP1 and mature-form CP5 were increased in ICP1(-) amoeba. We also found that ICP1 was secreted into extracellular milieu. These results suggest that secreted CP activity by E. histolytica may be an important factor affecting adhesion to host proteins, and regulation of CP secretion by ICP plays a major role in pathogenesis. This study provides insight into the CP-mediated tissue pathogenesis in amoeba-invaded lesions during human amoebiasis.

  12. Expression of adhesion molecules and chemotactic cytokines in cultured human mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jonjić, N; Peri, G; Bernasconi, S; Sciacca, F L; Colotta, F; Pelicci, P; Lanfrancone, L; Mantovani, A

    1992-10-01

    The mesothelium is a flat epithelial lining of serous cavities that could gate the traffic of molecules and cells between the circulation and these body compartments. The present study was designed to elucidate the capacity of mesothelial cells to express adhesion molecules and chemoattractant cytokines, two fundamental mechanisms of regulation of leukocyte recruitment. Cultured human mesothelial cells express appreciable levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and these were increased by in vitro exposure to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or TNF and IFN-gamma. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) was a less consistent stimulus for adhesion molecule expression in vitro. Unlike endothelial cells, used as a reference cell population, resting or stimulated mesothelial cells did not express E-selectin and ICAM-2, as assessed by flow cytometry. Analysis of VCAM-1 mRNA by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction using appropriate primers revealed that mesothelial cells expressed both the seven- and the six-Ig domain transcripts, with predominance of the longer species. Monocytes bound appreciably to "resting" and, to a greater extent, to stimulated mesothelial cells. Monocytes exposed to IFN-gamma and lipopolysaccharide, used as prototypic activation signals, showed increased capacity to bind mesothelial cells. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody significantly inhibited binding of monocytes to mesothelial cells, and this blocking effect was amplified by anti-very late antigen 4. Mesothelial cells were able to express the chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 at the mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that mesothelial cells can express a set of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) overlapping with, but distinct from, that expressed in vascular endothelium (ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, E-selectin), and that these are functionally relevant for interacting with

  13. Neuronal cell adhesion molecule contactin/F11 binds to tenascin via its immunoglobulin-like domains

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive interactions between neurons and extracellular matrix (ECM) play a key role in neuronal pattern formation. The prominent role played by the extracellular matrix protein tenascin/cytotactin in the development of the nervous system, tied to its abundance, led us to speculate that brain may contain yet unidentified tenascin receptors. Here we show that the neuronal cell adhesion molecule contactin/F11, a member of the immunoglobulin(Ig)-superfamily, is a cell surface ligand for tenascin in the nervous system. Through affinity chromatography of membrane glycoproteins from chick brain on tenascin-Sepharose, we isolated a major cell surface ligand of 135 kD which we identified as contactin/F11 by NH2-terminal sequencing. The binding specificity between contactin/F11 and tenascin was demonstrated in solid-phase assays. Binding of immunopurified 125I-labeled contactin/F11 to immobilized tenascin is completely inhibited by the addition of soluble tenascin or contactin/F11, but not by fibronectin. When the fractionated isoforms of tenascin were used as substrates, contactin/F11 bound preferentially to the 190-kD isoform. This isoform differs in having no alternatively spliced fibronectin type III domains. Our results imply that the introduction of these additional domains in some way disrupts the contactin/F11 binding site on tenascin. To localize the binding site on contactin/F11, proteolytic fragments were generated and characterized by NH2-terminal sequencing. The smallest contactin/F11 fragment which binds tenascin is 45 kD and also begins with the contactin/F11 NH2-terminal sequence. This implies that contactin/F11 binds to tenascin through a site within the first three Ig-domains. PMID:1382076

  14. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesgner, Craig D.; Gundel, Robert H.; Reilly, Patricia; Haynes, Nancy; Letts, L. Gordon; Rothlein, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Airway eosinophilia, epithelial desquamation, and hyperresponsiveness are characteristics of the airway inflammation underlying bronchial asthma. The contribution of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to eosinophil migration and airway responsiveness was studied. ICAM-1 partially mediated eosinophil adhesion to endothelium in vitro and was upregulated on inflamed bronchial endothelium in vivo. ICAM-1 expression was also upregulated on inflamed airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In a primate model of asthma, a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 attenuated airway eosinophilia and hyperresponsiveness. Thus, antagonism of ICAM-1 may provide a therapeutic approach to reducing airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and asthma symptoms.

  15. Lateral patterns of the neural cell adhesion molecule on the surface of hippocampal cells developing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krivko, I M; Rusakov, D A; Savina, S V; Skibo, G G; Berezin, V A

    1993-07-01

    In monolayer cultures of hippocampal neurons from newborn rats, an immunocytochemical quantitative study was carried out to investigate age-dependent arrangement of the neural cell adhesion molecules in different parts of cell membranes. On the fifth and 12th day in vitro, neural cell adhesion molecules were labelled with specific antibodies and protein A conjugated to colloidal gold particles. Samples of randomly selected electron micrographs that displayed labelled membrane fragments of cell bodies, growth cones, and axons were numerically analysed for the five- and 12-day in vitro neurons. Neural cell adhesion molecules surface topography was quantitatively described and compared, using a statistical stereological approach. The mean surface density of labelled neural cell adhesion molecules was found to be approximately 2.5 times higher in growth cone membranes relative to somatic and axonal membranes in five-day in vitro neurons. By the 12th day in vitro, this density decreases in somatic membranes (approximately 18%) and increases in axonal membranes (approximately 60%). Representative spectra of lateral intervals between labels as well as images that show typical topography of label on membrane surfaces were simulated. The results revealed regular patterns of neural cell adhesion molecules on the somatic surface and allowed consideration of neural cell adhesion molecules arrangement in a view of membrane adhesion properties. Participation of cytoskeleton in neural cell adhesion molecules rearrangement is discussed.

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule-4 and CD36 are implicated in the abnormal adhesiveness of sickle cell SAD mouse erythrocytes to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Trang-Tan, Marie-Marcelle; Vilela-Lamego, Camilo; Picot, Julien; Wautier, Marie-Paule; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal adhesiveness of red blood cells to endothelium has been implicated in vaso-occlusive crisis of sickle cell disease. The present study examined whether the SAD mouse model exhibits the same abnormalities of red blood cell adhesion as those found in human sickle cell disease. Design and Methods The repertoire of adhesive molecules on murine erythrocytes and bEnd.3 microvascular endothelial cells was determined by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies or by western blotting. Adhesion was investigated in dynamic conditions and measured at different shear stresses. Results CD36, CD47 and intercellular adhesion molecular-4, but not Lutheran blood group antigen/basal cell adhesion molecule, are present on mouse mature erythrocytes. α4β1 are not expressed on SAD and wild type reticulocytes. Endothelial bEnd.3 cells express αVβ3, α4β1, CD47, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and Lutheran blood group antigen/basal cell adhesion molecule, but not CD36. Adhesion of SAD red cells is: (i) 2- to 3-fold higher than that of wild type red cells; (ii) further increased on platelet activating factor-activated endothelium; (iii) not stimulated by epinephrine; (iv) inhibited after treating the endothelium with a peptide reproducing one of the binding sequences of mouse intercellular adhesion molecular-4, or with mon-oclonal antibody against murine αv integrin; and (v) inhibited after pretreatment of red blood cells with anti-mouse CD36 monoclonal antibodies. The combination of treatments with intercellular adhesion molecular-4 peptide and anti-CD36 monoclonal antibodies eliminates excess adhesion of SAD red cells. The phosphorylation state of intercellular adhesion molecular-4 and CD36 is probably not involved in the over-adhesiveness of SAD erythrocytes. Conclusions Intercellular adhesion molecular-4/αvβ3 and CD36/thrombospondin interactions might contribute to the abnormally high adhesiveness of SAD red cells. The SAD mouse is a valuable animal model

  17. Extracellular signal molecule(s) involved in the carbon starvation response of marine Vibrio sp. strain S14.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Ostling, J; Charlton, T; de Nys, R; Takayama, K; Kjelleberg, S

    1998-01-01

    The role of exogenous metabolites as putative signal molecules mediating and/or regulating the carbon starvation adaptation program in Vibrio sp. strain S14 was investigated. Addition of the stationary-phase supernatant extract (SSE) of Vibrio sp. strain S14 to logarithmic-phase cells resulted in a significant number of carbon starvation-induced proteins being up-regulated. Halogenated furanones, putative antagonists of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), inhibited the synthesis of proteins specifically induced upon carbon starvation. The effect of the furanone was the opposite of that caused by SSE with respect to the up- and down-regulation of protein expression, indicating that both the furanone and the putative signalling molecules were acting on the same regulatory pathway. Culturability was rapidly lost when Vibrio sp. strain S14 was starved in the presence of the furanone at a low concentration. The furanone also had a negative effect on the ability of carbon-starved cells to mount resistance against UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide exposure. The SSE of Vibrio sp. strain S14 had the ability to provide cross-protection against the loss in viability caused by the furanone. We have further demonstrated that the SSE taken from low- as well as high-cell-density cultures of Vibrio sp. strain S14 induced luminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Taken together, the results in this report provide evidence that Vibrio sp. strain S14 produces extracellular signalling metabolites during carbon and energy starvation and that these molecules play an important role in the expression of proteins crucial to the development of starvation- and stress-resistant phenotypes.

  18. Adhesive properties, extracellular protein production, and metabolism in the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain when grown in the presence of mucin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Borja; Saad, Naima; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, Maria C

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and how it reacts to the presence of mucin in its extracellular milieu. Parameters studied included cell clustering, adhesion to mucin, extracellular protein production, and formation of final metabolites. L. rhamnosus GG was found to grow efficiently in the presence of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, or mucin (partially purified or purified) as sole carbon sources. However, it was unable to grow using other mucin constituents, such as fucose or glucuronic acid. Mucin induced noticeable changes in all the parameters studied when compared with growth using glucose, including in the formation of cell clusters, which were easily disorganized with trypsin. Mucin increased adhesion of the bacterium, and modulated the production of extracellular proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that mucin was not degraded during L. rhamnosus GG growth, suggesting that this bacterium is able to partially use the glucidic moiety of glycoprotein. This study goes some way towards developing an understanding of the metabolic and physiological changes that L. rhamnosus GG undergoes within the human gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Adhesion molecules in gonarthrosis and knee prosthesis aseptic loosening follow-up: possible therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Dambra, P; Loria, M P; Moretti, B; D'Oronzio, L; Patella, V; Pannofino, A; Cavallo, E; Pesce, V; Dell'Osso, A; Simone, C

    2003-05-01

    The involvement of the synovium is common in phlogistic processes of various joint diseases. Apart from synoviocytes and the other cells in the synovial tissue, circulating cells recruited from peripheral blood also participate in the phlogistic process. The increased expression of adhesion molecules on both circulating and endothelial cell surface may further this recruitment. We studied 15 patients affected by serious gonarthrosis requiring a prosthetic implant (GPI) and 7 with knee prosthesis aseptic loosening (KPL) to evaluate adhesion molecule expression and phlogistic infiltration in the synovium using immunohistochemistry and microscopic analysis. As control we studied 10 subjects affected by degenerative meniscopathies undergoing a selective arthroscopic surgical meniscectomy. Analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistical significant differences in the expression of CD54, CD11a, CD11b and CD18 in three groups examined. The model of variance analysis (Friedman test), showed that CD54 expression is greater in patients with GPI and KPL in comparison with the other molecules. Adhesion molecules and their functions are important in arthropathies not only because their evaluation can allow us to identify the degree of inflammation and to predict its evolution, but also because pharmacological control of their expression could have important therapeutic implications.

  20. Distribution of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules in human gingiva.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Torlakovic, Hong; Bjerkan, Louise; Schenck, Karl; Blix, Inger J S

    2012-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) are glycoproteins produced in epithelial, endothelial, lymphoid, and myeloid cells. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules mediate cell-cell contact and host-pathogen interactions. The aims of this study were to map the distribution and examine the regulation of CEACAMs in human gingival sites. Quantitative real-time PCR performed on human gingival biopsies from periodontitis sites revealed mRNA coding for CEACAM1, -5, -6, and -7. Immunohistochemistry showed that CEACAMs were not found in oral gingival epithelium, except for CEACAM5 in periodontitis. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecules 1, 5, and 6 were present in the oral sulcular epithelium of periodontitis but not in that of healthy gingiva. In junctional epithelium, all three molecules were present in healthy gingiva, but in periodontitis only CEACAM1 and -6 were detected. Staining for CEACAM1 and -6 was also seen in the inflammatory cell infiltrate in periodontitis. No staining for CEACAM7 was found. Proinflammatory mediators, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), increased the expression of CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 mRNAs in cultured human oral keratinocytes. CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 mRNAs were also strongly up-regulated upon stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid. In conclusion, the distribution of different CEACAMs was related to specific sites in the gingiva. This might reflect different functional roles in this tissue.

  1. Human mesenchymal stem cells target adhesion molecules and receptors involved in T cell extravasation.

    PubMed

    Benvenuto, Federica; Voci, Adriana; Carminati, Enrico; Gualandi, Francesca; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Uccelli, Antonio; Vergani, Laura

    2015-12-10

    Systemic delivery of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seems to be of benefit in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) sustained by migration of T cells across the brain blood barrier (BBB) and subsequent induction of inflammatory lesions into CNS. MSC have been found to modulate several effector functions of T cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of MSC on adhesion molecules and receptors on T cell surface that sustain their transendothelial migration. We used different co-culture methods combined with real-time PCR and flow cytometry to evaluate the expression both at the mRNA and at the plasma-membrane level of α4 integrin, β2 integrin, ICAM-1 and CXCR3. In parallel, we assessed if MSC are able to modulate expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial cells that interact with T cells during their transendothelial migration. Our in vitro analyses revealed that MSC: (i) inhibit proliferation and activation of both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CD3(+)-selected lymphocytes through the release of soluble factors; (ii) exert suppressive effects on those surface molecules highly expressed by activated lymphocytes and involved in transendothelial migration; (iii) inhibit CXCL10-driven chemotaxis of CD3(+) cells; (iv) down-regulated expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the immunosuppressive effect of MSC does not exclusively depends on their anti-proliferative activity on T cells, but also on the impairment of leukocyte migratory potential through the inhibition of the adhesion molecules and receptors that are responsible for T cell trafficking across BBB. This could suggest a new mechanism through which MSC modulate T cell responses.

  2. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and endothelial adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) as predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Oliver; Liebetrau, Christoph; Möllmann, Helge; Gaede, Luise; Troidl, Christian; Rixe, Johannes; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger

    2014-05-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is a treatment option for patients with resistant arterial hypertension, but in some patients it is not successful. Predictive parameters on the success of RSD remain unknown. The angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are known to be associated with endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and hypertension. We evaluated whether sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 are predictive markers for blood pressure reduction after RSD. Consecutive patients (n=55) undergoing renal denervation were included. Venous serum samples for measurement of sFlt-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were collected before and 6 months after RSD. A therapeutic response was defined as an office systolic blood pressure reduction of >10 mm Hg 6 months after RSD. A significant mean office systolic blood pressure reduction of 31.2 mm Hg was observed in 46 patients 6 months after RSD. Nine patients were classified as nonresponders, with a mean systolic blood pressure reduction of 4.6 mm Hg. At baseline, sFLT-1 levels were significantly higher in responders than in nonresponders (P<0.001) as were ICAM-1 (P<0.001) and VCAM-1 levels (P<0.01). The areas under the curve for sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were 0.82 (interquartile range, 0.718-0.921; P<0.001), 0.754 (0.654-0.854; P<0.001), and 0.684 (0.564-804; P=0.01), respectively, demonstrating prediction of an RSD response. Responders showed significantly higher serum levels of sFLT-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 at baseline compared with nonresponders. Thus, this study identified for the first time potential biomarkers with a predictive value indicating a responder or nonresponder before renal denervation.

  3. Novel secreted isoform of adhesion molecule ICAM-4: Potential regulator of membrane-associated ICAM-4 interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Spring, Frances A.; Parons, Stephen F.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Peters, Luanne L.; Koury, Mark J.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2003-02-18

    ICAM-4, a newly characterized adhesion molecule, is expressed early in human erythropoiesis and functions as a ligand for binding a4b1 and aV integrin-expressing cells. Within the bone marrow, erythroblasts surround central macrophages forming erythroblastic islands. Evidence suggests that these islands are highly specialized subcompartments where cell adhesion events, in concert with cytokines, play critical roles in regulating erythropoiesis and apoptosis. Since erythroblasts express a4b1 and ICAM-4 and macrophages exhibit aV, ICAM-4 is an attractive candidate for mediating cellular interactions within erythroblastic islands. To determine whether ICAM-4 binding properties are conserved across species, we first cloned and sequenced the murine homologue. The translated amino acid sequence showed 68 percent overall identity with human ICAM-4. Using recombinant murine ICAM-4 extracellular domains, we discovered that hematopoietic a4b1-expressing HEL cells and non-hematopoietic aV-expressing FLY cells adhered to mouse ICAM-4. Cell adhesion studies showed that FLY and HEL cells bound to mouse and human proteins with similar avidity. These data strongly suggest conservation of integrin-binding properties across species. Importantly, we characterized a novel second splice cDNA that would be predicted to encode an ICAM-4 isoform, lacking the membrane-spanning domain. Erythroblasts express both isoforms of ICAM-4. COS-7 cells transfected with GFP constructs of prototypic or novel ICAM-4 cDNA showed different cellular localization patterns. Moreover, analysis of tissue culture medium revealed that the novel ICAM-4 cDNA encodes a secreted protein. We postulate that secretion of this newly described isoform, ICAM-4S, may modulate binding of membrane-associated ICAM-4 and could thus play a critical regulatory role in erythroblast molecular attachments.

  4. Identification of the binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for its receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, K L; Lu, J; Riddle, L; Kim, K J; Presta, L G; Bodary, S C

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is a member of the Ig superfamily and is a counterreceptor for the beta 2 integrins: lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), complement receptor 1 (MAC-1, CD11b/CD18), and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18). Binding of ICAM-1 to these receptors mediates leukocyte-adhesive functions in immune and inflammatory responses. In this report, we describe a cell-free assay using purified recombinant extracellular domains of LFA-1 and a dimeric immunoadhesin of ICAM-1. The binding of recombinant secreted LFA-1 to ICAM-1 is divalent cation dependent (Mg2+ and Mn2+ promote binding) and sensitive to inhibition by antibodies that block LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, indicating that its conformation mimics that of LFA-1 on activated lymphocytes. We describe six novel anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies, two of which are function blocking. Thirty-five point mutants of the ICAM-1 immunoadhesin were generated and residues important for binding of monoclonal antibodies and purified LFA-1 were identified. Nineteen of these mutants bind recombinant LFA-1 equivalently to wild type. Sixteen mutants show a 66-2500-fold decrease in LFA-1 binding yet, with few exceptions, retain binding to the monoclonal antibodies. These mutants, along with modeling studies, define the LFA-1 binding site on ICAM-1 as residues E34, K39, M64, Y66, N68, and Q73, that are predicted to lie on the CDFG beta-sheet of the Ig fold. The mutant G32A also abrogates binding to LFA-1 while retaining binding to all of the antibodies, possibly indicating a direct interaction of this residue with LFA-1. These data have allowed the generation of a highly refined model of the LFA-1 binding site of ICAM-1. Images PMID:9188101

  5. Junctional adhesion molecule A of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus): a possible immunomodulator and a target for bacterial immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2014-09-15

    Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are a family of type I cell surface receptors with two immunoglobulin (Ig) domains in the extracellular region. The family contains three classical members, i.e., JAM-A, -B, and -C. To date very little is known about the function of JAMs in teleost. In this work, we identified a JAM-A homologue (named SoJAMa) from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and examined its expression and biological property. SoJAMa is composed of 347 amino acid residues and was predicted to be a transmembrane protein with a large extracellular region that contains two Ig domains. SoJAMa expression occurred in multiple tissues, in particular immune relevant organs. SoJAMa expression was downregulated by experimental challenge with an extracellular pathogen but upregulated by challenge with an intracellular pathogen that is known to be capable of immune evasion. Likewise, cellular study showed that infection of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) with intracellular pathogen induced significantly higher expression of SoJAMa. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that SoJAMa was localized on the surface of PBL and recognized by antibodies against recombinant SoJAMa. Blockage of the SoJAMa on PBL with antibodies resulted in augmented respiratory burst activity. Consistently, antibody-treated PBL exhibited enhanced resistance against bacterial infection. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that a teleost JAM-A likely possesses immunoregulatory property in a negative manner, and that this property may be taken advantage of by intracellular pathogens as an invasion strategy.

  6. Cell adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton at immune synapses and kinapses

    PubMed Central

    Dustin, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    The immunological synapse is a stable adhesive junction between a polarized immune effector cell and an antigen-bearing cell. Immunological synapses are often observed to have a striking radial symmetry in the plane of contact with a prominent central cluster of antigen receptors surrounded by concentric rings of adhesion molecules and actin rich projections. There is a striking similarity between the radial zones of the immunological synapse and the dynamic actinomyosin modules employed by migrating cells. Breaking the symmetry of an immunological synapse generates a moving adhesive junction that can be defined as a kinapse, which facilitates signal integration by immune cells while moving over the surface of antigen presenting cells. PMID:17923403

  7. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule-B regulates JAM-C-dependent melanoma cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Frontera, Vincent; Bardin, Florence; Thomassin, Jeanne; Chetaille, Bruno; Adams, Susanne; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel

    2012-11-16

    Metastasis is a major clinical issue and results in poor prognosis for most cancers. The Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) expressed by B16 melanoma and endothelial cells has been involved in metastasis of tumor cells through homophilic JAM-C/JAM-C trans-interactions. Here, we show that JAM-B expressed by endothelial cells contributes to murine B16 melanoma cells metastasis through its interaction with JAM-C on tumor cells. We further show that this adhesion molecular pair mediates melanoma cell adhesion to primary Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells and that it is functional in vivo as demonstrated by the reduced metastasis of B16 cells in Jam-b deficient mice.

  8. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail: hgjeong@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  9. Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri and non-pathogenic Naegleria lovaniensis exhibit differential adhesion to, and invasion of, extracellular matrix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jamerson, Melissa; da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Cabral, Guy A.

    2012-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis are closely related free-living amoebae found in the environment. N. fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system, while N. lovaniensis is non-pathogenic. N. fowleri infection occurs when the amoebae access the nasal passages, attach to the nasal mucosa and its epithelial lining, and migrate to the brain. This process involves interaction with components of the host extracellular matrix (ECM). Since the ability to invade tissues can be a characteristic that distinguishes pathogenic from non-pathogenic amoebae, the objective of this study was to assess adhesion to, and invasion of, the ECM by these two related but distinct Naegleria species. N. fowleri exhibited a higher level of adhesion to the ECM components laminin-1, fibronectin and collagen I. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that N. fowleri attached on ECM substrata exhibited a spread-out appearance that included the presence of focal adhesion-like structures. Western immunoblotting revealed two integrin-like proteins for both species, but one of these, with a molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa, was detected at a higher level in N. fowleri. Confocal microscopy indicated that the integrin-like proteins co-localized to the focal adhesion-like structures. Furthermore, anti-integrin antibody decreased adhesion of N. fowleri to ECM components. Finally, N. fowleri disrupted 3D ECM scaffolds, while N. lovaniensis had a minimal effect. Collectively, these results indicate a distinction in adhesion to, and invasion of, ECM proteins between N. fowleri and N. lovaniensis. PMID:22222499

  10. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression in primary human endothelial cells stimulated with fever-range hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Shah, A; Unger, E; Bain, M D; Bruce, R; Bodkin, J; Ginnetti, J; Wang, W C; Seon, B; Stewart, C C; Evans, S S

    2002-01-01

    Migration of blood-borne lymphocytes into lymphoid tissues and sites of inflammation is initiated by vascular adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Previous in vivo studies have shown that febrile temperatures dynamically stimulate adhesion in differentiated high endothelial venules (HEV), which are portals for lymphocyte extravasation. This report examines the direct effect of fever-range hyperthermia on the expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines by primary cultured endothelial cells. In both macrovascular (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMVEC) endothelial cells, fever-range hyperthermia (40 degrees C for 6-12 h) did not affect expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, E-selectin, VCAM-1, P-selectin, PECAM-1, PNAd, MAdCAM-1), cytokine release (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12, IL-13), or chemokine secretion (IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1beta, MIG). This is in contrast to the stimulatory effects of TNF-alpha or 43 degrees C heat shock. However, a novel role for fever-range hyperthermia was identified in augmenting actin polymerization in cultured endothelial cells and enhancing the ability of endothelial-derived factors to transactivate the alpha4beta7 integrin lymphocyte homing receptor. These findings provide insight into the tightly regulated effects of fever-range hyperthermia that exclude induction of adhesion in non-activated endothelium of normal blood vessels. Through these mechanisms, it is proposed that febrile temperatures associated with infection or clinical hyperthermia avoid the unproductive exodus of lymphocytes to non-involved extralymphoid tissues while simultaneously promoting lymphocyte delivery to sites of immune activation.

  11. Integrin-dependent cell adhesion to neutrophil extracellular traps through engagement of fibronectin in neutrophil-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Marcello; Iommelli, Francesca; De Rosa, Viviana; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Miceli, Roberta; Camerlingo, Rosa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), originally recognized as a host defense mechanism, were reported to promote thrombosis and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we tested the role of integrins α5β1 and ανβ3 in the adhesion of cancer cells to NETs. Neutrophil-like cells stimulated with calcium ionophore (A23187) were used as a stable source of cell-free NETs-enriched suspensions. Using NETs as an adhesion substrate, two human K562 cell lines, differentially expressing α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins, were subjected to adhesion assays in the presence or absence of DNAse 1, blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3, alone or in combination with DNAse 1, and Proteinase K. As expected DNAse 1 treatment strongly inhibited adhesion of both cell lines to NETs. An equivalent significant reduction of cell adhesion to NETs was obtained after treatment of cells with blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3 indicating that both integrins were able to mediate cell adhesion to NETs. Furthermore, the combination of DNAse 1 and anti-integrin antibody treatment almost completely blocked cell adhesion. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments showed a dose-dependent increase of fibronectin levels in samples from stimulated neutrophil-like cells and a direct or indirect interaction of fibronectin with histone H3. Finally, co-immunolocalization studies with confocal microscopy showed that fibronectin and citrullinated histone H3 co-localize inside the web-structure of NETs. In conclusion, our study showed that α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins mediate cell adhesion to NETs by binding to their common substrate fibronectin. Therefore, in addition to mechanical trapping and aspecific adsorption of different cell types driven by DNA/histone complexes, NETs may provide specific binding sites for integrin-mediated cell adhesion of neutrophils, platelets, endothelial and cancer cells thus promoting intimate interactions among these cells. PMID:28166238

  12. Integrin-dependent cell adhesion to neutrophil extracellular traps through engagement of fibronectin in neutrophil-like cells.

    PubMed

    Monti, Marcello; Iommelli, Francesca; De Rosa, Viviana; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Miceli, Roberta; Camerlingo, Rosa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Del Vecchio, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), originally recognized as a host defense mechanism, were reported to promote thrombosis and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we tested the role of integrins α5β1 and ανβ3 in the adhesion of cancer cells to NETs. Neutrophil-like cells stimulated with calcium ionophore (A23187) were used as a stable source of cell-free NETs-enriched suspensions. Using NETs as an adhesion substrate, two human K562 cell lines, differentially expressing α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins, were subjected to adhesion assays in the presence or absence of DNAse 1, blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3, alone or in combination with DNAse 1, and Proteinase K. As expected DNAse 1 treatment strongly inhibited adhesion of both cell lines to NETs. An equivalent significant reduction of cell adhesion to NETs was obtained after treatment of cells with blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3 indicating that both integrins were able to mediate cell adhesion to NETs. Furthermore, the combination of DNAse 1 and anti-integrin antibody treatment almost completely blocked cell adhesion. Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation experiments showed a dose-dependent increase of fibronectin levels in samples from stimulated neutrophil-like cells and a direct or indirect interaction of fibronectin with histone H3. Finally, co-immunolocalization studies with confocal microscopy showed that fibronectin and citrullinated histone H3 co-localize inside the web-structure of NETs. In conclusion, our study showed that α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins mediate cell adhesion to NETs by binding to their common substrate fibronectin. Therefore, in addition to mechanical trapping and aspecific adsorption of different cell types driven by DNA/histone complexes, NETs may provide specific binding sites for integrin-mediated cell adhesion of neutrophils, platelets, endothelial and cancer cells thus promoting intimate interactions among these cells.

  13. Plant-derived micronutrients suppress monocyte adhesion to cultured human aortic endothelial cell layer by modulating its extracellular matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vadim; Ivanova, Svetlana; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2008-07-01

    Monocyte adhesion to endothelium plays an important role in atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of micronutrients on monocyte-binding properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by human aortic endothelial cells (AoEC). Confluent cultures of AoEC were exposed to ascorbic acid, quercetin, gotu kola extract (10% asiatic acid), green tea extract (40% epigallocatechin gallate), or a mixture of these micronutrients for 48 hours. AoEC-produced ECM was exposed by differential treatment. U937 monocyte adhesion was assayed by fluorescence. ECM composition was assayed immunochemically and with radiolabeled metabolic precursors. AoEC exposure to micronutrients reduced ECM capacity to bind monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was accompanied by profound changes in the ECM composition. Correlation analysis revealed that changes in monocyte adhesion to ECM had the strongest positive correlation with ECM content for laminin (CC = 0.9681, P < 0.01), followed by fibronectin, collagens type III, I, and IV, biglycan, heparan sulfate, and elastin. The strongest negative correlation was with chondroitin sulfate (CC = -0.9623, P < 0.01), followed by perlecan and versican. Individual micronutrients had diverse effects on ECM composition and binding properties, and their mixture was the most effective treatment. In conclusion, micronutrient-dependent reduction of monocyte adhesion to endothelium is partly mediated through specific modulation of ECM composition and properties.

  14. Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors inhibit expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES and cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the CNS following a systemic inflammatory challenge.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Joan B; Ryan, Karen M; Harkin, Andrew; Connor, Thomas J

    2010-03-30

    Evidence suggests that noradrenaline has a tonic anti-inflammatory action in the central nervous system (CNS) via its ability to inhibit expression of inflammatory mediators from glial cells. Consequently it is suggested that noradrenaline may play an endogenous neuroprotective role in CNS disorders where inflammatory events contribute to pathology. Infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the brain is driven by increased chemokine and cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression, and is known to exacerbate neuroinflammation and thereby contribute to the disease process in a number of neurodegenerative disease states. Here we demonstrate that treatment of rats with the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) desipramine and atomoxetine, agents that increase extracellular noradrenaline in the CNS, suppressed chemokine and cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression in rat brain following a systemic challenge with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Specifically, these agents reduced expression of the chemokines, interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CXCL-10) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, CCL-5), and the CAMs, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) in cortex and hippocampus. The inhibitory action of NRIs on chemokines and CAM expression was mimicked by in vitro exposure of cultured glial cells to noradrenaline, but not to the NRIs themselves. These data indicate that the suppressive action of NRIs on chemokine and CAM expression that occurs in vivo is due to increased noradrenaline availability at glial cells, as opposed to a direct action of the drugs on glial cells per se. These results support the theory that noradrenaline has anti-inflammatory properties, and agents that increase noradrenaline availability in vivo can play a role in combating brain inflammation by reducing expression of chemokines and CAMs; molecules that facilitate leucocyte influx into the CNS

  15. TM9/Phg1 and SadA proteins control surface expression and stability of SibA adhesion molecules in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Froquet, Romain; le Coadic, Marion; Perrin, Jackie; Cherix, Nathalie; Cornillon, Sophie; Cosson, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    TM9 proteins form a family of conserved proteins with nine transmembrane domains essential for cellular adhesion in many biological systems, but their exact role in this process remains unknown. In this study, we found that genetic inactivation of the TM9 protein Phg1A dramatically decreases the surface levels of the SibA adhesion molecule in Dictyostelium amoebae. This is due to a decrease in sibA mRNA levels, in SibA protein stability, and in SibA targeting to the cell surface. A similar phenotype was observed in cells devoid of SadA, a protein that does not belong to the TM9 family but also exhibits nine transmembrane domains and is essential for cellular adhesion. A contact site A (csA)-SibA chimeric protein comprising only the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of SibA and the extracellular domain of the Dictyostelium surface protein csA also showed reduced stability and relocalization to endocytic compartments in phg1A knockout cells. These results indicate that TM9 proteins participate in cell adhesion by controlling the levels of adhesion proteins present at the cell surface.

  16. [Soluble adhesion molecules (P-selectin, ICAM-1 and ICAM-3) in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Nasonov, E L; Samsonov, M Iu; Tilz, G P; Nikiforova, E L; Chichasova, N V; Imametdinova, G R; Ilich-Stoianovich, O; Baranov, A A; Fuchs, D; Nasonova, V A

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of serum levels and clinical role of soluble intercellular molecules of adhesion (pICAM-1, PICAM-3 and pP-selectin) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Enzyme immunoassay with Bender MedSystem kits (Austria) was employed to measure serum concentration of soluble intercellular molecules of adhesion in 36 RA patients. Elevated levels of serum pICAM-1, pICAM-3 and pP-selectin were registered in 74.2, 28.6 and 25.7% of RA patients, respectively. Content of pP-selectin more strongly correlated with activity and severity indices than that of pICAM-3 (p < 0.001). Content of pICAM-1 and clinical picture of RA were unrelated. Levels of pP-selectine can characterize RA activity.

  17. Comparative study of adhesion molecule expression in nodular lesions of Behçet syndrome and other forms of panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Demirkesen, Cuyan; Tüzüner, Nukhet; Senocak, Mustafa; Türkmen, Iknur; Aki, Hilal; Kepil, Nuray; Mat, Cem; Yazici, Hasan

    2008-07-01

    Adhesion molecules have a role in many vasculitic disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the status of adhesion molecules in nodular lesions of Behçet syndrome (BS) and compare them with results for the 2 most common types of panniculitis, erythema nodosum (EN) and nodular vasculitis (NV). We included the data for 28 patients with nodular lesions of BS, 24 with EN, and 22 with NV. A panel of monoclonal antibodies against E-selectin, P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were applied. The distribution and intensity of adhesion molecules were assessed. There were no statistically significant differences between the BS and control groups in regard to these adhesion molecules except for ICAM-1. The percentage of strongly ICAM-1-stained endothelial cells in subcutaneous fat tissue in relation to the total number of endothelial cells was the lowest in BS (P= .0208). Because many lesions of BS were related to an enhanced inflammatory response, the lower percentage of ICAM-1 expression seems counterintuitive.

  18. Single molecule force measurements delineate salt, pH and surface effects on biopolymer adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzer, T.; Geisler, M.; Scheibel, T.; Hugel, T.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we probe the influence of surface properties, pH and salt on the adhesion of recombinant spider silk proteins onto solid substrates with single molecule force spectroscopy. A single engineered spider silk protein (monomeric C16 or dimeric (QAQ)8NR3) is covalently bound with one end to an AFM tip, which assures long-time measurements for hours with one and the same protein. The tip with the protein is brought into contact with various substrates at various buffer conditions and then retracted to desorb the protein. We observe a linear dependence of the adhesion force on the concentration of three selected salts (NaCl, NaH2PO4 and NaI) and a Hofmeister series both for anions and cations. As expected, the more hydrophobic C16 shows a higher adhesion force than (QAQ)8NR3, and the adhesion force rises with the hydrophobicity of the substrate. Unexpected is the magnitude of the dependences—we never observe a change of more than 30%, suggesting a surprisingly well-regulated balance between dispersive forces, water-structure-induced forces as well as co-solute-induced forces in biopolymer adhesion.

  19. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression by Skeletal Muscle Cells Augments Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. PMID:25281303

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L; Corbett, Jacob T; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte homing receptors define a novel class of adhesion molecules on diverse cell types

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A 90-kD lymphocyte surface glycoprotein, defined by monoclonal antibodies of the Hermes series, is involved in lymphocyte recognition of high endothelial venules (HEV). Lymphocyte gp90Hermes binds in a saturable, reversible fashion to the mucosal vascular addressin (MAd), a tissue-specific endothelial cell adhesion molecule for lymphocytes. We and others have recently shown that the Hermes antigen is identical to or includes CD44 (In[Lu]-related p80), human Pgp-1, and extracellular matrix receptor III-molecules reportedly expressed on diverse cell types. Here, we examine the relationship between lymphoid and nonlymphoid Hermes antigens using serologic, biochemical, and, most importantly, functional assays. Consistent with studies using mAbs to CD44 or Pgp-1, mAbs against five different epitopes on lymphocyte gp90Hermes reacted with a wide variety of nonhematolymphoid cells in diverse normal human tissues, including many types of epithelium, mesenchymal elements such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle, and a subset of glia in the central nervous system. To ask whether these non- lymphoid molecules might also be functionally homologous to lymphocyte homing receptors, we assessed their ability to interact with purified MAd using fluorescence energy transfer techniques. The Hermes antigen isolated from both glial cells and fibroblasts--which express a predominant 90-kD form similar in relative molecular mass, isoelectric point, and protease sensitivity to lymphocyte gp90Hermes--was able to bind purified MAd. In contrast, a 140-160-kD form of the Hermes antigen isolated from squamous epithelial cells lacked this capability. Like lymphocyte binding to mucosal HEV, the interaction between glial gp90Hermes and MAd is inhibited by mAb Hermes-3, but not Hermes-1, suggesting that similar molecular domains are involved in the two binding events. The observation that the Hermes/CD44 molecules derived from several nonlymphoid cell types display binding domains homologous to those

  2. Endothelial adhesion molecules and multiple organ failure in patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Amalakuhan, Bravein; Habib, Sheila A; Mangat, Mandeep; Reyes, Luis F; Rodriguez, Alejandro H; Hinojosa, Cecilia A; Soni, Nilam J; Gilley, Ryan P; Bustamante, Carlos A; Anzueto, Antonio; Levine, Stephanie M; Peters, Jay I; Aliberti, Stefano; Sibila, Oriol; Chalmers, James D; Torres, Antoni; Waterer, Grant W; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Bordon, Jose; Blanquer, Jose; Sanz, Francisco; Marcos, Pedro J; Rello, Jordi; Ramirez, Julio; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Luna, Carlos M; Feldman, Charles; Witzenrath, Martin; Wunderink, Richard G; Stolz, Daiana; Wiemken, Tim L; Shindo, Yuichiro; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Orihuela, Carlos J; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2016-12-01

    To determine if serum levels of endothelial adhesion molecules were associated with the development of multiple organ failure (MOF) and in-hospital mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis. This study was a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study. Patients were admitted to two tertiary intensive care units in San Antonio, TX, between 2007 and 2012. Patients with severe sepsis at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were consistent with previously published criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock in adults. Exclusion criteria included immunosuppressive medications or conditions. None. Baseline serum levels of the following endothelial cell adhesion molecules were measured within the first 72h of ICU admission: Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The primary and secondary outcomes were development of MOF (⩾2 organ dysfunction) and in-hospital mortality, respectively. Forty-eight patients were enrolled in this study, of which 29 (60%) developed MOF. Patients that developed MOF had higher levels of VCAM-1 (p=0.01) and ICAM-1 (p=0.01), but not VEGF (p=0.70) compared with patients without MOF (single organ failure only). The area under the curve (AUC) to predict MOF according to VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VEGF was 0.71, 0.73, and 0.54, respectively. Only increased VCAM-1 levels were associated with in-hospital mortality (p=0.03). These associations were maintained even after adjusting for APACHE and SOFA scores using logistic regression. High levels of serum ICAM-1 was associated with the development of MOF. High levels of VCAM-1 was associated with both MOF and in-hospital mortality. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cytokines, cytokine antagonists, and soluble adhesion molecules in pediatric OMS and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Colliver, Jerry A

    2013-03-15

    To test for hypothesized disease- and treatment-induced changes in cytokines and adhesion molecules in children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). Multiplex bead assay technology was used for simultaneous measurement of 34 soluble cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured by ELISA. In total, there were 388 children (239 OMS, 114 controls, and 35 other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND)). In untreated OMS, mean CSF IL-6 was elevated 2.3-fold, but 67-fold in OIND, without significant differences in other CSF cytokines. Mean serum concentrations of sIL-2Ra (+50%) and CXCL1 (+70%) (p<0.0001) were also raised. CSF CCL5 was more often detected in untreated OMS than controls (p=0.005), as was serum CCL11 and IL-13 in treated OMS. Mean CSF CCL4 and IL-1Ra were selectively higher in IVIg-treated OMS (p≤0.0001). CSF sICAM-1 was elevated only in OIND (3.3-fold); serum sICAM-1 was higher in untreated OMS (+21%); and sVCAM-1 was not affected. No correlations with OMS severity or duration were identified. Novel cytokine, cytokine antagonist, and soluble adhesion molecule abnormalities due to OMS or treatment were found. However, the normality of much of the data strengthens previous findings implicating B cell mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Unfavorable cytokine and adhesion molecule profiles during and after pregnancy, in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Roca-Rodríguez, María Del Mar; López-Tinoco, Cristina; Fernández-Deudero, Álvaro; Murri, Mora; García-Palacios, María Victoria; García-Valero, María Del Amor; Tinahones, Francisco José; Aguilar-Diosdado, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. To assess the relationships between components of the metabolic syndrome and cytokine and adhesion molecule levels in women with GDM during pregnancy and after delivery. A prospective case-control study on a sample of 126 pregnant women (63 with and 63 without gestational diabetes mellitus). In an intra-subject analysis, 41 women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus and 21 controls were re-assessed in the postpartum period. Clinical data and levels of cytokines and adhesion molecules were recorded during weeks 24-29 of pregnancy and 12 months after delivery. In the postpartum period, there were significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in both cases and controls, and of adiponectin in controls. Cases showed higher leptin levels, with no significant differences during and after pregnancy. No significant differences were seen in adhesion molecules and interleukin-6 between cases and controls during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, but levels of both were higher in cases. During pregnancy and after delivery, adiponectin decreased in cases and increased in controls. Significant positive correlations were seen between adiponectin and fasting blood glucose levels and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and also between leptin and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. The results suggest that increased inflammation and transient hyperglycemia during pregnancy would represent a latent form of metabolic syndrome, with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and future cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is only present in mammals, and belongs to a family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs).

    PubMed

    Sessa, Luca; Gatti, Elena; Zeni, Filippo; Antonelli, Antonella; Catucci, Alessandro; Koch, Michael; Pompilio, Giulio; Fritz, Günter; Raucci, Angela; Bianchi, Marco E

    2014-01-01

    The human receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and is involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Most importantly, RAGE is considered a receptor for HMGB1 and several S100 proteins, which are Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) released during tissue damage. In this study we show that the Ager gene coding for RAGE first appeared in mammals, and is closely related to other genes coding for cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as ALCAM, BCAM and MCAM that appeared earlier during metazoan evolution. RAGE is expressed at very low levels in most cells, but when expressed at high levels, it mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and to other cells through homophilic interactions. Our results suggest that RAGE evolved from a family of CAMs, and might still act as an adhesion molecule, in particular in the lung where it is highly expressed or under pathological conditions characterized by an increase of its protein levels.

  6. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Is Only Present in Mammals, and Belongs to a Family of Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Luca; Gatti, Elena; Zeni, Filippo; Antonelli, Antonella; Catucci, Alessandro; Koch, Michael; Pompilio, Giulio; Fritz, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The human receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and is involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Most importantly, RAGE is considered a receptor for HMGB1 and several S100 proteins, which are Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) released during tissue damage. In this study we show that the Ager gene coding for RAGE first appeared in mammals, and is closely related to other genes coding for cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as ALCAM, BCAM and MCAM that appeared earlier during metazoan evolution. RAGE is expressed at very low levels in most cells, but when expressed at high levels, it mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and to other cells through homophilic interactions. Our results suggest that RAGE evolved from a family of CAMs, and might still act as an adhesion molecule, in particular in the lung where it is highly expressed or under pathological conditions characterized by an increase of its protein levels. PMID:24475194

  7. Epimorphin promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis through activation of focal adhesion kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/matrix metalloproteinase-9 axis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ya-Li; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Jun-Nian; Fu, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Feng; Wang, Yun-Fang; Yan, Xin-Long; Xu, Ying-Chen; Zeng, Quan; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2011-11-01

    The high incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly the result of frequent metastasis and tumor recurrence. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving HCC metastasis are still not fully understood. It has been demonstrated that tumor stroma cells contribute to primary tumor growth and metastasis. Within the HCC environment, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) can release a number of molecules and enhance cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in a paracrine manner. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that epimorphin (EPM; also called syntaxin-2), an extracellular protein, is strongly elevated in activated HSCs within tumor stroma. We show that knockdown of EPM expression in HSCs substantially abolishes their effects on cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Ectopic expression of EPM in HCC cancer cells enhances their invasiveness; we demonstrate that the cells expressing EPM have markedly increased metastasis potential. Furthermore, EPM-mediated invasion and metastasis of cancer cells is found to require up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) through the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) axis. Our results show that EPM, secreted by activated HSCs within HCC stroma, promotes invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by activating MMP-9 expression through the FAK-ERK pathway. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Dealcoholised beers reduce atherosclerosis and expression of adhesion molecules in apoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nuria; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Mitjavila, Maria Teresa

    2011-03-01

    Polyphenols exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. The crucial step in atherosclerosis is the recruitment of monocytes to the subendothelial space, induced by endothelial adhesion molecules through the activation of factors such as NF-κB. We studied the effect of a dealcoholised lager beer (DLB) and a dealcoholised dark beer (DDB) on atherosclerotic lesions, and the underlying mechanisms. Dealcoholised beers were administered in the diet (42 ml/kg body weight per d) to 4-week-old male apoE knockout (apoE - / - ) mice for 20 weeks. The atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta were reduced by 44 % (P = 0·003) and 51 % (P < 0·001) in DLB- and DDB-treated mice, respectively. Also, the mRNA expressions of the endothelial adhesion molecules in the total aorta were decreased: P-selectin showed a 17 % (P = 0·004) reduction in DDB-treated mice; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was decreased by 20 % (P = 0·012) and 32 % (P = 0·001) in DLB- and DDB-treated mice, respectively; intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) showed a 14 % (P = 0·014) reduction in DLB-treated mice. The protein expressions of these molecules and NF-κB were studied in the aortic root. P-selectin was decreased by 37 % (P = 0·012) in DDB-treated mice; VCAM-1 was reduced by 48 % (P = 0·001) and 54 % (P < 0·001) in DLB- and DDB-treated mice, respectively; ICAM-1 was decreased by 25 % (P = 0·028) and 30 % (P = 0·018) in DLB- and DDB-treated mice, respectively; NF-κB was reduced by 46 % (P = 0·042) in DDB-treated mice. In conclusion, dealcoholised beers protected apoE - / -  mice against atherosclerosis, through the modulation of endothelial adhesion molecules, possibly induced by NF-κB.

  9. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-25

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  10. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-01

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  11. Adhesion molecules, altered vasoreactivity, and brain atrophy in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Novak, Vera; Zhao, Peng; Manor, Brad; Sejdic, Ervin; Alsop, David; Abduljalil, Amir; Roberson, Paula K; Munshi, Medha; Novak, Peter

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effects of inflammation on perfusion regulation and brain volumes in type 2 diabetes. A total of 147 subjects (71 diabetic and 76 nondiabetic, aged 65.2 ± 8 years) were studied using 3T anatomical and continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Analysis focused on the relationship between serum soluble vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (sVCAM and sICAM, respectively, both markers of endothelial integrity), regional vasoreactivity, and tissue volumes. Diabetic subjects had greater vasoconstriction reactivity, more atrophy, depression, and slower walking. Adhesion molecules were specifically related to gray matter atrophy (P = 0.04) and altered vasoreactivity (P = 0.03) in the diabetic and control groups. Regionally, sVCAM and sICAM were linked to exaggerated vasoconstriction, blunted vasodilatation, and increased cortical atrophy in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes (P = 0.04-0.003). sICAM correlated with worse functionality. Diabetes is associated with cortical atrophy, vasoconstriction, and worse performance. Adhesion molecules, as markers of vascular health, have been indicated to contribute to altered vasoregulation and atrophy.

  12. Experimental Cerebral Malaria Develops Independently of Endothelial Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Theresa N.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Darley, Meghan M.; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM. PMID:23493396

  13. Experimental cerebral malaria develops independently of endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Theresa N; Bullard, Daniel C; Darley, Meghan M; McDonald, Kristin; Crawford, David F; Barnum, Scott R

    2013-04-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe clinical complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and is characterized by a high fatality rate and neurological damage. Sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells in brain microvasculature utilizes host- and parasite-derived adhesion molecules and is an important factor in the development of CM. ICAM-1, an alternatively spliced adhesion molecule, is believed to be critical on endothelial cells for infected red blood cell sequestration in CM. Using ICAM-1 mutant mice, we found that the full-length ICAM-1 isoform is not required for development of murine experimental CM (ECM) and that ECM phenotype varies with the combination of ICAM-1 isoforms expressed. Furthermore, we observed development of ECM in transgenic mice expressing ICAM-1 only on leukocytes, indicating that endothelial cell expression of this adhesion molecule is not required for disease pathogenesis. We propose that ICAM-1-dependent cellular aggregation, independent of ICAM-1 expression on the cerebral microvasculature, contributes to ECM.

  14. Erythroid Adhesion Molecules in Sickle Cell Anaemia Infants: Insights Into Early Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Brousse, Valentine; Colin, Yves; Pereira, Catia; Arnaud, Cecile; Odièvre, Marie Helene; Boutemy, Anne; Guitton, Corinne; de Montalembert, Mariane; Lapouméroulie, Claudine; Picot, Julien; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) results from a single mutation in the β globin gene. It is seldom symptomatic in the first semester of life. We analysed the expression pattern of 9 adhesion molecules on red blood cells, in a cohort of 54 SCA and 17 non-SCA very young infants of comparable age (median 144 days, 81-196). Haemoglobin F (HbF) level was unsurprisingly elevated in SCA infants (41.2% ± 11.2) and 2-4 fold higher than in non-SCA infants, yet SCA infants presented significantly decreased Hb level and increased reticulocytosis. Cytometry analysis evidenced a specific expression profile on reticulocytes of SCA infants, with notably an increased expression of the adhesion molecules Lu/BCAM, ICAM-4 and LFA-3, both in percentage of positive cells and in surface density. No significant difference was found on mature red cells. Our findings demonstrate the very early onset of reticulocyte membrane modifications in SCA asymptomatic infants and allow an insight into the first pathological changes with the release of stress reticulocytes expressing a distinctive profile of adhesion molecules.

  15. Control of islet intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by interferon-alpha and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, D; Huang, X; Beck, J; Henrich, J; McFarland, N; James, R F; Stewart, T A

    1996-10-01

    The ability of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce the adhesion molecules that characterize the islets of patients with type I diabetes has been investigated. We have found that all tested recombinant IFN-as will induce major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on arterial endothelial cells. Some but not all IFN-as will induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). However, there is only a transient and modest increase in VCAM on arterial endothelial cells. IFN-alpha has very little effect on endothelial MHC class II expression but will induce these proteins on monocytes. Thus, there is a close concordance between the biological actions of IFN-alpha and the appearance of those adhesion molecules induced in the islets of patients with type I diabetes. IFN-alpha is also produced in normal human islets during short-term cultures, probably as a result of the ischemia present at the center of the islet. This induction of IFN-alpha by hypoxia may explain the previously reported spontaneous induction of ICAM-1 in human islets and may also be a contributing factor to the failure of islet grafts.

  16. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  17. Correlation between the levels of circulating adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis in hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Serrano, Alberto Maceda; Vargas-Ayala, German; Rodriguez-Lopez, Leticia; Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature in type-2 diabetic patients and in hypertension, and is associated with inflammation, increased levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules, and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and the degree of atherosclerosis in hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients. We studied 30 hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients in whom VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin were measured by ELISA. Additionally, the intimal-medial thickness of both the common and internal carotid arteries was measured (B-mode ultrasound). The levels of circulating adhesion molecules and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thicknesses were correlated using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA. We found significant correlations between ICAM-1 (r = 0.5) levels and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thickness these patients. No correlation was observed with E-selectin and VCAM-1. Our results suggest that ICAM-1 is associated and correlated with the degree of atherosclerosis in type-2 diabetic hypertensive patients.

  18. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina.

  19. Extracellular Signals induce Glycoprotein M6a Clustering of Lipid-rafts and associated Signaling Molecules.

    PubMed

    Honda, Atsuko; Ito, Yasuyuki; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Matsushita, Natsuki; Nozumi, Motohiro; Tabata, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Kosei; Igarashi, Michihiro

    2017-03-08

    Lipid-raft domains, where sphingolipids and cholesterol are enriched, concentrate signaling molecules. To examine how signaling protein complexes are clustered in rafts, we focused on the functions of glycoprotein M6a (GPM6a), which is expressed at a high concentration in developing mouse neurons. Using imaging of lipid-rafts, we found that GPM6a congregated in rafts in a GPM6a palmitoylation-dependent manner, thereby contributing to lipid-raft clustering. Additionally, we found that signaling proteins downstream of GPM6a, i.e., Rufy3, Rap2, and Tiam2/STEF, accumulated in lipid-rafts in a GPM6a-dependent manner, and that they were essential for laminin-dependent polarity during neurite formation in neuronal development. In utero RNAi targeting of GPM6a resulted in abnormally polarized neurons with multiple neurites. These results demonstrate that GPM6a induces the clustering of lipid-rafts, which supports the raft aggregation of its associated downstream molecules for acceleration of neuronal polarity determination. Thus, GPM6a acts as a signal transducer that responds to extracellular signals.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTLipid-raft domains, where sphingolipids and cholesterol are enriched, concentrate signaling molecules. We focused on glycoprotein M6a (GPM6a), which is expressed at a high concentration in developing neurons. Using imaging of lipid-rafts, we found that GPM6a congregated in rafts in a palmitoylation-dependent manner, thereby contributing to lipid-raft clustering. Additionally, we found that signaling proteins downstream of GPM6a accumulated in lipid-rafts in a GPM6a-dependent manner, and that they were essential for laminin-dependent polarity during neurite formation. In utero RNAi targeting of GPM6a resulted in abnormally polarized neurons with multiple neurites. These results demonstrate that GPM6a induces the clustering of lipid-rafts, which supports the raft aggregation of its associated downstream molecules for acceleration of polarity determination

  20. Serum activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with gastric cancer: Can they be used as biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erturk, Kayhan; Tastekin, Didem; Bilgin, Elif; Serilmez, Murat; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Sakar, Burak

    2016-02-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules might be used as markers in diagnosis and prognosis in some types of malignant tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the serum levels of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule-1 (ALCAM) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Fifty-eight GC patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum markers were determined by the solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median age at diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 32-82 years). Tumor localizations of the majority of the patients were antrum (n=42, 72.4%) and tumor histopathologies of the majority of the patients were diffuse (n=43, 74.1%). The majority of the patients had stage IV disease (n=41, 70.7%). Thirty six (62.1%) patients had lymph node involvement. The median follow-up time was 66 months (range 1-97.2 months). At the end of the observation period, 26 patients (44.8%) were dead. The median survival for all patients was 21.4±5 months (%95 CI, 11.5-31.3). The 1-year survival rates were 66.2%. The baseline serum ALCAM levels of the patients were significantly higher than those of the controls (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ICAM-1 between the patients and controls (p=0.232). No significant correlation was detected between the levels of the serum markers and other clinical parameters (p>0.05). Tumor localization (p=0.03), histopathology (p=0.05), and response to chemotherapy (p=0.003) had prognostic factors on survival. Neither serum ALCAM levels nor serum ICAM-1 levels were identified to have a prognostic role on overall survival (ICAM-1 p=0.6, ALCAM p=0.25). In conclusion, serum levels of ALCAM were found to have diagnostic value in GC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of 7F7-antigen, a human adhesion molecule identical to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human carcinomas and their stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Vogetseder, W; Feichtinger, H; Schulz, T F; Schwaeble, W; Tabaczewski, P; Mitterer, M; Böck, G; Marth, C; Dapunt, O; Mikuz, G

    1989-05-15

    The 7F7-antigen is a widespread 85-kDa membrane adherence molecule involved in heterotypic adhesion between PHA-blasts and fibroblasts. Immunofluorescence analysis of COS cells transfected with clone pICAM-I indicated that 7F7-antigen is identical with ICAM-I, the ligand for the contact molecule LFA-I. We have investigated the expression of ICAM-I on several human carcinomas. Tumor cells in most carcinomas, with the exception of squamous-cell carcinomas, expressed very little ICAM-I or none at all. In contrast, marked expression of this molecule was observed on fibrous tissue in the vicinity of carcinoma cells, its intensity correlating with lymphatic infiltration in these tumors. We also examined the expression of ICAM-I on carcinoma cell lines and its induction by treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The inducibility of ICAM-I expression on cultured fibroblasts by several lymphokines suggests that the expression of ICAM-I in the vicinity of carcinoma cells is effected by lymphokines produced by activated lymphocytes/macrophages within the tumor.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Deposition of Adhesive Extracellular Polysaccharide Capsule and Fimbriae by Hyphomonas Strain MHS-3

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Ernesto J.; Busch, Kathryn; Weiner, Ronald M.

    1998-01-01

    Hyphomonas strain MHS-3, a member of a genus of primary colonizers of surfaces immersed in marine water, synthesizes two structures that mediate adhesion to solid substrata, namely, capsular exopolysaccharide and fimbriae. Specific stains, gold-labelled lectins, and monoclonal antibodies, along with transmission electron microscopy of synchronized populations, revealed that both structures are polarly and temporally expressed. The timed synthesis and placement of the fimbriae and capsule correlated with the timing and locus of MHS-3 adhesion. PMID:16349537

  3. Liver-intestine cadherin: molecular cloning and characterization of a novel Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecule expressed in liver and intestine

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A novel member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules has been characterized by cloning from rat liver, sequencing of the corresponding cDNA, and functional analysis after heterologous expression in nonadhesive S2 cells. cDNA clones were isolated using a polyclonal antibody inhibiting Ca(2+)-dependent intercellular adhesion of hepatoma cells. As inferred from the deduced amino acid sequence, the novel molecule has homologies with E-, P-, and N-cadherins, but differs from these classical cadherins in four characteristics. Its extracellular domain is composed of five homologous repeated domains instead of four characteristic for the classical cadherins. Four of the five domains are characterized by the sequence motifs DXNDN and DXD or modifications thereof representing putative Ca(2+)-binding sites of classical cadherins. In its NH2-terminal region, this cadherin lacks both the precursor segment and the endogenous protease cleavage site RXKR found in classical cadherins. In the extracellular EC1 domain, the novel cadherin contains an AAL sequence in place of the HAV sequence motif representing the common cell adhesion recognition sequence of E-, P-, and N-cadherin. In contrast to the conserved cytoplasmic domain of classical cadherins with a length of 150-160 amino acid residues, that of the novel cadherin has only 18 amino acids. Examination of transfected S2 cells showed that despite these structural differences, this cadherin mediates intercellular adhesion in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The novel cadherin is solely expressed in liver and intestine and was, hence, assigned the name LI-cadherin. In these tissues, LI- cadherin is localized to the basolateral domain of hepatocytes and enterocytes. These results suggest that LI-cadherin represents a new cadherin subtype and may have a role in the morphological organization of liver and intestine. PMID:8207063

  4. Micromanipulation of adhesion of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated T lymphocytes to planar membranes containing intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Mackie, L H; Lawrence, M B; Chan, P Y; Dustin, M L; Springer, T A

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental methodology to determine the physical strength of cell adhesion to a planar membrane containing one set of adhesion molecules. In particular, the T lymphocyte adhesion due to the interaction of the lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 on the surface of the cell, with its counter-receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), on the planar membrane, was investigated. A micromanipulation method and mathematical analysis of cell deformation were used to determine (a) the area of conjugation between the cell and the substrate and (b) the energy that must be supplied to detach a unit area of the cell membrane from its substrate. T lymphocytes stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) conjugated strongly with the planar membrane containing purified ICAM-1. The T lymphocytes attached to the planar membrane deviated occasionally from their round configuration by extending pseudopods but without changing the size of the contact area. These adherent cells were dramatically deformed and then detached when pulled away from the planar membrane by a micropipette. Detachment occurred by a gradual decrease in the radius of the contact area. The physical strength of adhesion between a PMA-stimulated T lymphocyte and a planar membrane containing 1,000 ICAM-1 molecules/micron 2 was comparable to the strength of adhesion between a cytotoxic T cell and its target cell. The comparison of the adhesive energy density, measured at constant cell shape, with the model predictions suggests that the physical strength of cell adhesion may increase significantly when the adhesion bonds in the contact area are immobilized by the actin cytoskeleton. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:1358239

  5. The identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) as a synaptic adhesion molecule that promotes synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wei, Mengping; Liu, Mengna; Pan, Yunlong; Yang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chen

    2017-09-04

    The proper formation of synapses-specialized unitary structures formed between two neurons-is critical to mediate the information flow in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are thought to participate in the initiation of the synapse formation process. However, in-vivo functional analysis demonstrates that most well-known synaptic CAMs regulate synaptic maturation and plasticity rather than synapse formation, suggesting that either CAMs work synergistically in the process of forming synapses or more CAMs remain to be found. By screening for unknown CAMs using a co-culture system, we revealed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) is a potent CAM that induces the formation of artificial synapse clusters in co-cultures of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and hippocampal neurons cultured from newborn mice irrespective of gender. PTPRO was enriched in the mouse brain and localized to postsynaptic sites at excitatory synapses. The overexpression of PTPRO in cultured hippocampal neurons increased the number of synapses and the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). The knockdown of PTPRO expression in cultured neurons by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced the number of synapses and the frequencies of the mEPSCs. The effects of shRNA knockdown were rescued by expressing either full-length PTPRO or a truncated PTPRO lacking the cytoplasmic domain. Consistent with these results, the N-terminal extracellular domain of PTPRO was required for its synaptogenic activity in the co-culture assay. Taken together, our data show that PTPRO is a synaptic CAM that serves as a potent initiator of the formation of excitatory synapses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe formation of synapses is critical for the brain to execute its function, and synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play essential roles in initiating the formation of synapses. By screening for unknown CAMs using a co-culture system, we revealed protein tyrosine

  6. Expression of extracellular matrix molecules typical of articular cartilage in the human scapholunate interosseous ligament

    PubMed Central

    Milz, S; Aktas, T; Putz, R; Benjamin, M

    2006-01-01

    The scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) connects the scaphoid and lunate bones and plays a crucial role in carpal kinematics. Its rupture leads to carpal instability and impairment of radiocarpal joint function. As the ligament is one of the first structures affected in rheumatoid arthritis, we conducted an immunohistochemical study of cadaveric tissue to determine whether it contains known autoantigens for rheumatoid arthritis. We immunolabelled the ligament from one hand in 12 cadavers with monoclonal antibodies directed against a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with both fibrous and cartilaginous tissues. The labelling profile has also enabled us to comment on how the molecular composition of the ligament relates to its mechanical function. All regions of the ligament labelled for types I, III and VI collagens, chondroitin 4 and 6 sulphates, keratan sulphate, dermatan sulphate, versican, tenascin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). However, both entheses labelled strongly for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein and were distinctly fibrocartilaginous. In some regions, the ligament attached to bone via a region of hyaline cartilage that was continuous with articular cartilage. Labelling for cartilage molecules in the midsubstance was most evident dorsally. We conclude that the SLIL has an ECM which is typical of other highly fibrocartilaginous ligaments that experience both tensile load and shear. The presence of aggrecan, link protein, COMP and type II collagen could explain why the ligament may be a target for autoantigenic destruction in some forms of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:16761970

  7. Expression of extracellular matrix molecules typical of articular cartilage in the human scapholunate interosseous ligament.

    PubMed

    Milz, S; Aktas, T; Putz, R; Benjamin, M

    2006-06-01

    The scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) connects the scaphoid and lunate bones and plays a crucial role in carpal kinematics. Its rupture leads to carpal instability and impairment of radiocarpal joint function. As the ligament is one of the first structures affected in rheumatoid arthritis, we conducted an immunohistochemical study of cadaveric tissue to determine whether it contains known autoantigens for rheumatoid arthritis. We immunolabelled the ligament from one hand in 12 cadavers with monoclonal antibodies directed against a wide range of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with both fibrous and cartilaginous tissues. The labelling profile has also enabled us to comment on how the molecular composition of the ligament relates to its mechanical function. All regions of the ligament labelled for types I, III and VI collagens, chondroitin 4 and 6 sulphates, keratan sulphate, dermatan sulphate, versican, tenascin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). However, both entheses labelled strongly for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein and were distinctly fibrocartilaginous. In some regions, the ligament attached to bone via a region of hyaline cartilage that was continuous with articular cartilage. Labelling for cartilage molecules in the midsubstance was most evident dorsally. We conclude that the SLIL has an ECM which is typical of other highly fibrocartilaginous ligaments that experience both tensile load and shear. The presence of aggrecan, link protein, COMP and type II collagen could explain why the ligament may be a target for autoantigenic destruction in some forms of rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Interaction with glycosaminoglycans is required for cyclophilin B to trigger integrin-mediated adhesion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes to extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Fabrice; Vanpouille, Christophe; Carpentier, Mathieu; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Durieux, Sandrine; Spik, Geneviève

    2002-01-01

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are cyclosporin A-binding proteins that are involved in inflammatory events. We have reported that CyPB interacts with two types of cell-surface-binding sites. The first site corresponds to a functional receptor and requires interaction with the central core of CyPB. This region is highly conserved in cyclophilins, suggesting that CyPA and CyPB might share biological activities mediated by interaction with this receptor. The second site is identified with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the binding region located in the N terminus of CyPB. The difference in the N-terminal extensions of CyPA and CyPB suggests that a unique interaction with GAGs might account for selective activity of CyPB. To explore this hypothesis, we analyzed the lymphocyte responses triggered by CyPA, CyPB, and CyPBKKK−, a mutant unable to interact with GAGs. The three ligands seemed capable enough to elicit calcium signal and chemotaxis by binding to the same signaling receptor. In contrast, only CyPB enhanced firm adhesion of T cells to the extracellular matrix. This activity depended on the interactions with GAGs and signaling receptor. CyPB-mediated adhesion required CD147 presumably because it was a costimulatory molecule and was related to an activation of α4β1 and α4β7 integrins. Finally, we showed that CyPB was capable mainly to enhance T cell adhesion of the CD4+CD45RO+ subset. The present data indicate that CyPB rather than CyPA is a proinflammatory factor for T lymphocytes and highlight the crucial role of CyPB–GAG interaction in the chemokine-like activity of this protein. PMID:11867726

  9. Nucleation and Growth of Integrin Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Atilgan, Erdinç; Ovryn, Ben

    2009-01-01

    We present a model that provides a mechanistic understanding of the processes that govern the formation of the earliest integrin adhesions ex novo from an approximately planar plasma membrane. Using an analytic analysis of the free energy of a dynamically deformable membrane containing freely diffusing receptors molecules and long repeller molecules that inhibit integrins from binding with ligands on the extracellular matrix, we predict that a coalescence of polymerizing actin filaments can deform the membrane toward the extracellular matrix and facilitate integrin binding. Monte Carlo simulations of this system show that thermally induced membrane fluctuations can either zip-up and increase the radius of a nucleated adhesion or unzip and shrink an adhesion, but the fluctuations cannot bend the ventral membrane to nucleate an adhesion. To distinguish this integrin adhesion from more mature adhesions, we refer to this early adhesion as a nouveau adhesion. PMID:19413961

  10. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  11. Control of density-dependent, cell state-specific signal transduction by the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1, and its influence on cell cycle regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffrahn, Inka; Singer, Bernhard B.; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Lucka, Lothar; Oebrink, Bjoern . E-mail: bjorn.obrink@cmb.ki.se

    2005-07-15

    Growth factor receptors, extracellular matrix receptors, and cell-cell adhesion molecules co-operate in regulating the activities of intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 co-regulates growth-factor-induced DNA synthesis in NBT-II epithelial cells in a cell-density-dependent manner. CEACAM1 exerted its effects by regulating the activity of the Erk 1/2 MAP kinase pathway and the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}. Interestingly, both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were observed. Confluent cells continuously exposed to fetal calf serum showed little Erk activity and DNA synthesis compared with sparse cells. Under these conditions, anti-CEACAM1 antibodies strongly stimulated Erk activation, decreased p27 expression, and induced DNA synthesis. In serum-starved confluent cells, re-addition of 10% fetal calf serum activated the Erk pathway, decreased p27 expression, and stimulated DNA synthesis to the same levels as in sparse cells. Under these conditions anti-CEACAM1 antibodies de-activated Erk, restored the level of p27, and inhibited DNA synthesis. These data indicate that CEACAM1 mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in cells that are constantly exposed to growth factors, but co-activates growth-factor-induced proliferation in cells that have been starved for growth factors; exposure to extracellular CEACAM1 ligands reverts these responses.

  12. Adhesion molecules in primary oral mucosal melanoma: study of claudins, integrins and immunoglobulins in a series of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Bologna, Sheyla Batista; Nico, Marcello Menta S; Hsieh, Ricardo; Coutinho-Camillo, Cláudia Malheiros; Buim, Marcilei E; Fernandes, Juliana Dumet; Sangueza, Martin; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2013-07-01

    Primary oral mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive tumor. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between increased tumor invasion and the metastatic phenotype and altered adhesion molecule expression profiles. The present study analyzed the expression of integrins, claudins, and immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules in oral mucosal melanomas and correlated results with clinical parameters. Immunohistochemical analyses of the expression patterns of these molecules were performed on thirty-five cases of primary oral mucosal melanomas organized in a tissue microarray. The results were correlated with clinical and histological features of the cohort. A number of integrin subunits were negative and this was related with vascular invasion. Positivity of integrin beta-3 and CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule) was statistically associated with extensive vascular invasion (P < 0.05). Lower expression of CD54 (intercellular cell adhesion molecule) was associated with cases with extensive necrosis. Most cases with metastatic disease were negative for CD66 (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule). Several subunits of claudins were negative and, although not statistically significant, this lack of expression was partially associated with histological factors of poor prognosis. Altered patterns of adhesion molecule expression, mainly integrins and immunoglobulin-like proteins, may participate in the pathogenesis and outcome of oral mucosal melanomas.

  13. Active Site Formation, Not Bond Kinetics, Limits Adhesion Rate between Human Neutrophils and Immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, Richard E.; Lomakina, Elena B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The formation of receptor ligand bonds at the interface between different cells and between cells and substrates is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Physical measurements of bond formation rates between cells and substrates have been exploited to increase our understanding of the biophysical mechanisms that regulate bond formation at interfaces. Heretofore, these measurements have been interpreted in terms of simple bimolecular reaction kinetics. Discrepancies between this simple framework and the behavior of neutrophils adhering to surfaces expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) motivated the development of a new kinetic framework in which the explicit formation of active bond formation sites (reaction zones) are a prerequisite for bond formation to occur. Measurements of cells interacting with surfaces having a wide range of VCAM-1 concentrations, and for different durations of contact, enabled the determination of novel kinetic rate constants for the formation of reaction zones and for the intrinsic bond kinetics. Comparison of these rates with rates determined previously for other receptor-ligand pairs points to a predominant role of extrinsic factors such as surface topography and accessibility of active molecules to regions of close contact in determining forward rates of bond formation at cell interfaces. PMID:19134479

  14. Protein zero, a nervous system adhesion molecule, triggers epithelial reversion in host carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Protein zero (P(o)) is the immunoglobulin gene superfamily glycoprotein that mediates the self-adhesion of the Schwann cell plasma membrane that yields compact myelin. HeLa is a poorly differentiated carcinoma cell line that has lost characteristic morphological features of the cervical epithelium from which it originated. Normally, HeLa cells are not self-adherent. However, when P(o) is artificially expressed in this line, cells rapidly aggregate, and P(o) concentrates specifically at cell-cell contact sites. Rows of desmosomes are generated at these interfaces, the plasma membrane localization of cingulin and ZO-1, proteins that have been shown to be associated with tight junctions, is substantially increased, and cytokeratins coalesce into a cohesive intracellular network. Immunofluorescence patterns for the adherens junction proteins N-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and vinculin, and the desmosomal polypeptides desmoplakin, desmocollin, and desmoglein, are also markedly enhanced at the cell surface. Our data demonstrate that obligatory cell-cell adhesion, which in this case is initially brought about by the homophilic association of P(o) molecules across the intercellular cleft, triggers pronounced augmentation of the normally sluggish or sub-basal cell adhesion program in HeLa cells, culminating in suppression of the transformed state and reversion of the monolayer to an epithelioid phenotype. Furthermore, this response is apparently accompanied by an increase in mRNA and protein levels for desmoplakin and N-cadherin which are normally associated with epithelial junctions. Our conclusions are supported by analyses of ten proteins we examined immunochemically (P(o), cingulin, ZO-1, desmoplakin, desmoglein, desmocollin, N-cadherin, alpha-catenin, vinculin, and cytokeratin-18), and by quantitative polymerase chain reactions to measure relative amounts of desmoplakin and N-cadherin mRNAs. P(o) has no known signaling properties; the dramatic phenotypic changes we

  15. Regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and integrin cell substratum adhesion receptors on epithelium during cutaneous human wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, I.; Murphy, G. F.; Yan, H. C.; Herlyn, M.; Albelda, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Although changes in extracellular matrix proteins during wound healing have been well documented, little is known about the regulation of corresponding extracellular matrix adhesion receptors (integrins). To study this process in a human in vivo model, full thickness human skin grafts were transplanted onto severe combined immunodeficient mice and deep excisional wounds involving both the epidermal and dermal layers were then made. The changes in the expression of cell matrix proteins and epithelial integrins over time were analyzed with specific antibodies using immunohistochemistry. Wounding was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix proteins, namely, loss of laminin and type IV collagen in the region of the wound and expression of tenascin and fibronectin. Changes were also noted in the integrins on the migrating keratinocytes. There was marked up-regulation of the alpha v subunit and de novo expression of the fibronectin receptor (alpha 5 beta 1) during the stage of active migration (days 1 to 3 after wounding). In the later stages of wound healing, after epithelial integrity had been established, redistribution of the alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and beta 4 collagen/laminin-binding integrin subunits to suprabasal epidermal layers was noted. Thus, during cutaneous wound healing, keratinocytes up-regulate fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding integrins and redistribute collagen/laminin-binding integrins. This study demonstrates that the human skin/severe combined immunodeficient chimera provides a useful model to study events during human wound repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7694470

  16. Macrosphelide B suppressed metastasis through inhibition of adhesion of sLe(x)/E-selectin molecules.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Akiko; Iijima, Kousuke; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Omura, Satoshi

    2002-03-08

    Macrosphelide B (MSB), a 16-membered macrolide from Microsphaeropsis sp. FO-5050, inhibits adhesion of sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x))-expressing HL-60 cells to LPS-activated (E-selectin-expressing) human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. This study examines MSB effects on metastasis of B16/BL6 mouse melanoma cells (B16/BL6 cells) and L5178Y-ML mouse lymphoma cells in vivo and analyzes the MSB antimetastatic activity mechanism. When administered MSB at 20 mg/kg/day, lung metastatic nodules of B16/BL6 cells were significantly decreased (T/C = 45%). However, no inhibition of metastasis of L5178Y-ML cells to the spleen and liver was observed. Flow cytometry analysis showed that B16/BL6 cells expressed high levels of sLe(x) antigen, whereas expression on L5178Y-ML cells was low. Under in vitro conditions, B16/BL6 cells demonstrated a greater degree of adhesion to LPS-activated HUVECs than L5178Y-ML cells, but adhesion was significantly inhibited by MSB and sLe(x) antibody. Combined therapy of MSB and cisplatin (CDDP) induced remarkable lung metastasis inhibition without adverse effects of CDDP to the host. All these findings suggest that MSB suppresses lung metastasis of B16/BL6 cells by inhibiting cell adhesion to endothelial cells through the sLe(x) molecule.

  17. Identification of a peptide sequence involved in homophilic binding in the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is capable of mediating cell- cell adhesion via homophilic interactions. In this study, three strategies have been combined to identify regions of NCAM that participate directly in NCAM-NCAM binding: analysis of domain deletion mutations, mapping of epitopes of monoclonal antibodies, and use of synthetic peptides to inhibit NCAM activity. Studies on L cells transfected with NCAM mutant cDNAs using cell aggregation and NCAM- covasphere binding assays indicate that the third immunoglobulin-like domain is involved in homophilic binding. The epitopes of four monoclonal antibodies that have been previously shown to affect cell- cell adhesion mediated by NCAM were also mapped to domain 3. Overlapping hexapeptides were synthesized on plastic pins and assayed for binding with these monoclonal antibodies. One of them (PP) reacted specifically with the sequence KYSFNY. Synthetic oligopeptides containing the PP epitope were potent and specific inhibitors of NCAM binding activity. A substratum containing immobilized peptide conjugates also exhibited adhesiveness for neural retinal cells. Cell attachment was specifically inhibited by peptides that contained the PP- epitope and by anti-NCAM univalent antibodies. The shortest active peptide has the sequence KYSFNYDGSE, suggesting that this site is directly involved in NCAM homophilic interaction. PMID:1380002

  18. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Kenneth A.; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben R.; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J.; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell–cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  19. Adhesion of single polyelectrolyte molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces.

    PubMed

    Long, Jun; Xu, Zhenghe; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2006-02-14

    In a recent study (Energy Fuels 2005, 19, 936), a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was used as a process aid to recover bitumen from oil sand ores. It was found that HPAM addition at the bitumen extraction step not only improved bitumen recovery but also enhanced fine solids settling in the tailings stream. To understand the role of HPAM, single-molecule force spectroscopy was employed for the first time to measure the desorption/adhesion forces of single HPAM molecules on silica, mica, and bitumen surfaces using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Silicon wafers with an oxidized surface layer and newly cleaved mica were used, respectively, to represent sand grains and clays in oil sands. The force measurements were carried out in deionized water and in commercial plant process water under equilibrium conditions. The desorption/adhesion forces of HPAM obtained on mica, silica, and bitumen surfaces were approximately 200, 40, and 80 pN in deionized water and approximately 100, 50, and 40 pN in the plant process water, respectively. The measured adhesion forces together with the zeta potential values of these surfaces indicate that the polymer would preferentially adsorb onto clay surfaces rather than onto bitumen surfaces. It is the selective adsorption of HPAM that benefits both bitumen recovery and tailings settling when the polymer was added directly to the bitumen extraction process at an appropriate dosage.

  20. Structure of the gene for the liver cell adhesion molecule, L-CAM.

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, B C; Hemperly, J J; Edelman, G M; Cunningham, B A

    1988-01-01

    The liver cell adhesion molecule, L-CAM, mediates calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion in early embryos and in nonneural epithelia in adult tissues. Earlier studies of cDNAs for chicken L-CAM established the amino acid sequence of the mature protein. The sequence has now been extended in the 5' direction through the precursor and signal sequences and past a consensus translation initiation site. The combined cDNAs were used to isolate genomic clones covering the entire L-CAM coding sequence. The structural gene for chicken L-CAM contains 16 exons ranging in size from 115 to over 1045 base pairs with an average size of 222 base pairs. Single exons do not correspond to known structural elements such as the signal sequence, precursor segment, internal repeats, or membrane-spanning region of L-CAM. Hybridization of restriction digests of chicken genomic DNA with cDNA and genomic probes indicated that there is a single L-CAM gene in the chicken. In contrast to genes for other cell-cell or cell-substrate adhesion molecules, there is no evidence for alternative splicing of exons in this gene. Images PMID:3174655

  1. Nerve growth factor translates stress response and subsequent murine abortion via adhesion molecule-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Tometten, Mareike; Blois, Sandra; Kuhlmei, Arne; Stretz, Anna; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C

    2006-04-01

    Spontaneous abortion is a frequent threat affecting 10%-25% of human pregnancies. Psychosocial stress has been suggested to be attributable for pregnancy losses by challenging the equilibrium of systems mandatory for pregnancy maintenance, including the nervous, endocrine, and immune system. Strong evidence indicates that stress-triggered abortion is mediated by adhesion molecules, i.e., intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and leukocyte function associated molecule 1, now being referred to as integrin alpha L (ITGAL), which facilitate recruitment of inflammatory cells to the feto-maternal interface. The neurotrophin beta-nerve growth factor (NGFB), which has been shown to be upregulated in response to stress in multiple experimental settings including in the uterine lining (decidua) during pregnancy, increases ICAM1 expression on endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether and how NGFB neutralization has a preventive effect on stress-triggered abortion in the murine CBA/J x DBA/2J model. We provide experimental evidence that stress exposure upregulates the frequency of abortion and the expression of uterine NGFB. Further, adhesion molecules ICAM1 and selectin platelet (SELP, formerly P-Selectin) and their ligands ITGAL and SELP ligand (SELPL, formerly P selectin glycoprotein ligand 1) respectively increase in murine deciduas in response to stress. Subsequently, decidual cytokines are biased toward a proinflammatory and abortogenic cytokine profile. Additionally, a decrease of pregnancy protective CD8alpha(+) decidual cells is present. Strikingly, all such uterine stress responses are abrogated by NGFB neutralization. Hence, NGFB acts as a proximal mediator in the hierarchical network of immune rejection by mediating an abortogenic environment comprised of classical signs of neurogenic inflammation.

  2. Differential expression of cell adhesion molecules in the functional compartments of lymph nodes and tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Leite, R P; Carmo-Fonseca, M; Cabeçadas, J; Parreira, A; Parreira, L

    1995-01-01

    Aims—To analyse the topographical distribution of adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte recirculation in human lymph nodes and tonsils. The study focused on the expression of LECAM-1 (CD62L), VLA-α4 (CD49d), VLA-β1 (CD29), LFA-1 αL (CD11a), LFA-β2 (CD18), VCAM-1 (CD106), ICAM-1 (CD54), and H-CAM (CD44). Methods—Reactive lymph nodes and palatine tonsils were studied using immunofluorescence methods with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled monoclonal antibodies directed against cell adhesion molecules. To investigate the expression patterns of these molecules in the T and B cell populations, double labelling experiments were performed using Texas Red labelled antibodies against CD2 or CD19, respectively. The images from each fluorochrome were then simultaneously analysed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results—LECAM-1, VLA-α4 and H-CAM were predominantly expressed by mantle zone B cells, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 by germinal centre cells, most of which exhibited a reticular staining pattern suggestive of follicular dendritic cells, whereas LFA-1 αL and LFA-β2 were mainly found in extrafollicular and germinal centre T cells. All high endothelial venules expressed VLA-β1 and ICAM-1, whereas VCAM-1 was present in only a few, with variable intensity. Conclusions—The data show that all of these adhesion molecules are differentially distributed within the distinct functional microenvironments of both organs. The differences observed in the expression patterns among the B and T cells belonging to different compartments probably depend on the momentum of cell traffic, the stage of maturation/activation, as well as on their functional role in the immune response. Images PMID:16695989

  3. Analyses of Gingival Adhesion Molecules in Periodontitis: Theoretical In Silico, Comparative In Vivo, and Explanatory In Vitro Models.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yilmaz, Dogukan; Özdemir, Vural; Mäki-Petäys, Juho; Neves de Oliveira, Ben-Hur; Firatli, Yigit; Güncü, Güliz N; Caglayan, Feriha; Könönen, Eija

    2016-02-01

    A deeper understanding of periodontitis pathophysiology is central to future development of novel biomarkers and therapeutics. The following is reported here: 1) an in silico network model of interactions among cell adhesion molecules and a network-focused microarray analysis of the corresponding genes in periodontitis; 2) analysis of secretions of adhesion molecules in gingival tissue samples from patients with periodontitis and healthy controls; and 3) effect of the human neutrophilic peptide-1 (HNP-1) on epithelial adhesion molecules. The network model identified 85 nodes in relation to the interactions of adhesion molecules. Subsequently, the relative gene expression was overlaid on the network model. Differential gene expression was analyzed, and false discovery rate control was performed for statistical assessment of the microarray data. Both tissue and cell culture samples were immunostained for desmocollin (DSC)2, occludin (OCLN), desmoglein (DSG)1, tight junction protein 2, and gap junction protein α. The differential gene expression analysis revealed that the epithelial adhesion molecules were significantly lower in abundance in individuals with periodontitis than controls. In contrast, the genes for leukocyte adhesion molecules showed a significant upregulation. Immunostainings revealed elevated secretions of both DSG1 and OCLN in periodontitis. An in vitro model suggested reduced DSC2 and OCLN secretions in the presence of HNP-1. Gene expression of gingival adhesion molecules in periodontitis is regulated by leukocyte transmigration, whereas the neutrophilic antimicrobial peptide HNP-1 is noted as a putative regulator of epithelial adhesion molecules. These observations contribute to the key mechanisms by which future biomarkers might be developed for periodontitis.

  4. Monocyte adhesion to endothelium in simian immunodeficiency virus-induced AIDS encephalitis is mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sasseville, V. G.; Newman, W.; Brodie, S. J.; Hesterberg, P.; Pauley, D.; Ringler, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Because the mechanisms associated with recruitment of monocytes to brain in AIDS encephalitis are unknown, we used tissues from rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to examine the relative contributions of various adhesion pathways in mediating monocyte adhesion to endothelium from encephalitic brain. Using a modified Stamper and Woodruff tissue adhesion assay, we found that the human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and the B cell line, Ramos, preferentially bound to brain vessels from monkeys with AIDS encephalitis. Using a combined tissue adhesion/immunohistochemistry approach, these cells only bound to vessels expressing vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Furthermore, pretreatment of tissues with antibodies to VCAM-1 or cell lines with antibodies to VLA-4 (CD49d) inhibited adhesion by more than 70%. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/beta 2 integrin interactions were not significant in mediating cell adhesion to the vasculature in encephalitic simian brain using a cell line (JY) capable of binding rhesus monkey ICAM-1. In addition, selectin-mediated interactions did not significantly contribute to cell binding to encephalitic brain as there was no immunohistochemical expression of E-selectin and P-selectin in either normal or encephalitic brain, nor was there a demonstrable adhesive effect from L-selectin using L-selectin-transfected 300.19 cells on simian encephalitic brain. These results demonstrate that using the tissue adhesion assay, THP-1, U937, and Ramos cells bind to vessels in brain from animals with AIDS encephalitis using VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin interactions and suggest that VCAM-1 and VLA-4 may be integral for monocyte recruitment to the central nervous system during the development of AIDS encephalitis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507300

  5. Extracellular ATP metabolism on vascular endothelial cells: A pathway with pro-thrombotic and anti-thrombotic molecules.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-12-01

    Vascular endothelial contributes to the metabolism and interconversion of extracellular adenine nucleotides via ecto-ATPase/ADPase (CD39) and ecto-5'nucleotidase (CD73) activities. These enzymes collectively dephosphorylate ATP, ADP, and AMP with the production of additional adenosine. In the vascular system, adenine nucleotides (ATP and ADP) and nucleoside adenosine represent an important class of extracellular molecules involved in modulating the processes linked to vascular thrombosis exerting various effects in platelets. Yet, the mechanisms by which the extracellular ATP metabolism in the local environment trigger pro-thrombotic and anti-thrombotic states are yet to be fully elucidated. In this article, the relative contribution of extracellular ATP metabolism in platelet regulation is explored.

  6. Mitogenic signals and transforming potential of Nyk, a newly identified neural cell adhesion molecule-related receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, L; Kung, H J

    1995-01-01

    Nyk/Mer is a recently identified receptor tyrosine kinase with neural cell adhesion molecule-like structure (two immunoglobulin G-like domains and two fibronectin III-like domains) in its extracellular region and belongs to the Ufo/Axl family of receptors. The ligand for Nyk/Mer is presently unknown, as are the signal transduction pathways mediated by this receptor. We constructed and expressed a chimeric receptor (Fms-Nyk) composed of the extracellular domain of the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (Fms) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of human Nyk/Mer in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts in order to investigate the mitogenic signaling and biochemical properties of Nyk/Mer. Colony-stimulating factor 1 stimulation of the Fms-Nyk chimeric receptor in transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts leads to a transformed phenotype and generates a proliferative response in the absence of other growth factors. We show that phospholipase C gamma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/p70 S6 kinase, Shc, Grb2, Raf-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase are downstream components of the Nyk/Mer signal transduction pathways. In addition, Nyk/Mer weakly activates p90rsk, while stress-activated protein kinase, Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and GAP-associated p62 and p190 proteins are not activated or tyrosine phosphorylated by Nyk/Mer. An analysis comparing the Nyk/Mer signal cascade with that of the epidermal growth factor receptor indicates substrate preferences by these two receptors. Our results provide a detailed description of the Nyk/Mer signaling pathways. Given the structural similarity between the Ufo/Axl family receptors, some of the information may also be applied to other members of this receptor tyrosine kinase family. PMID:8524223

  7. cis Interaction of the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 with integrin beta(3).

    PubMed

    Brümmer, J; Ebrahimnejad, A; Flayeh, R; Schumacher, U; Löning, T; Bamberger, A M; Wagener, C

    2001-08-01

    CEACAM1 is a cell adhesion molecule that has been implicated in a number of physiological processes (eg, tumor suppressor in epithelial tissues, potent angiogenic factor in microvessel formation, microbial receptor in human granulocytes and epithelial cells). The mechanism of CEACAM1 action is still largely unresolved but recent findings demonstrated that the cytoplasmic CEACAM1 domain is linked indirectly to the actin-based cytoskeleton. We have isolated integrin beta(3) as an associated protein using CEACAM1 tail affinity purification. This association depends on phosphorylation of Tyr-488 in the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed in vivo colocalization of both molecules in human granulocytes and epithelial cells. Furthermore, the concentrated colocalization at the tumor-stroma interface of invading melanoma masses suggests a functional role of CEACAM1-integrin beta(3) interaction in melanoma invasion. Moreover, colocalization of the two adhesion molecules is also found at the apical surface of glandular cells of pregnancy endometrium. Colocalization of CEACAM1 and integrin beta(3) at the transitional zone from proliferative to invasive extravillous trophoblast of the maternal-fetal interface supports a role for CEACAM1/integrin beta(3) complexes in cell invasion.

  8. Association between genetic variants in adhesion molecules and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplants.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, B; Jackson, S; Basu, S; Jacobson, P; Gross, M D; Weisdorf, D J; Arora, M

    2013-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Adhesion molecules play an important role in endothelial activation and initiation of inflammatory response. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial molecules may contribute to heterogeneity in HCT outcomes. We evaluated the association of 4 SNPs in ICAM1 (rs5498), PECAM1 (rs668 and rs1131012) and SELL (rs2229569) genes with acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and those experiencing transplant-related mortality (TRM) within 1 year among 425 allogeneic HCT recipient-donor pairs. Using a Fine and Gray proportional hazards model to evaluate the association between genetic variants and clinical outcomes, after adjustment for recipient age, race, diagnosis, disease status, gender mismatch, cytomegalovirus serostatus, gender, donor type, conditioning regimen and year of transplant, only rs5498 in the ICAM1 gene among both recipients and donors was associated with a decreased risk of TRM (P ≤ 0.02). None of the SNPs were associated with acute or chronic GvHD risk. These findings suggest that genetic variants in the vascular adhesion molecules may be used to identify patients at high risk for TRM.

  9. cis Interaction of the Cell Adhesion Molecule CEACAM1 with Integrin β3

    PubMed Central

    Brümmer, Jens; Ebrahimnejad, Alireza; Flayeh, Raid; Schumacher, Udo; Löning, Thomas; Bamberger, Ana-Maria; Wagener, Christoph

    2001-01-01

    CEACAM1 is a cell adhesion molecule that has been implicated in a number of physiological processes (eg, tumor suppressor in epithelial tissues, potent angiogenic factor in microvessel formation, microbial receptor in human granulocytes and epithelial cells). The mechanism of CEACAM1 action is still largely unresolved but recent findings demonstrated that the cytoplasmic CEACAM1 domain is linked indirectly to the actin-based cytoskeleton. We have isolated integrin β3 as an associated protein using CEACAM1 tail affinity purification. This association depends on phosphorylation of Tyr-488 in the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed in vivo colocalization of both molecules in human granulocytes and epithelial cells. Furthermore, the concentrated colocalization at the tumor-stroma interface of invading melanoma masses suggests a functional role of CEACAM1-integrin β3 interaction in melanoma invasion. Moreover, colocalization of the two adhesion molecules is also found at the apical surface of glandular cells of pregnancy endometrium. Colocalization of CEACAM1 and integrin β3 at the transitional zone from proliferative to invasive extravillous trophoblast of the maternal-fetal interface supports a role for CEACAM1/integrin β3 complexes in cell invasion. PMID:11485912

  10. New insight of some extracellular matrix molecules in beef muscles. Relationships with sensory qualities.

    PubMed

    Dubost, A; Micol, D; Lethias, C; Listrat, A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the relationships between decorin, tenascin-X and type XIV collagen, three minor molecules of extracellular matrix (ECM), with some structural parameters of connective tissue and its content in total collagen, its cross-links (CLs) and its proteoglycans (PGs). In addition, we have evaluated impact of these minor molecules on beef quality traits. The relative abundance of these molecules was evaluated by western blot analysis in Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles from Aberdeen Angus and Blond d'Aquitaine beef breeds. Decorin and tenascin-X were more abundant in BF than in LT (1.8 v. 0.5 arbitrary units (AU), respectively, P<0.001, and 1.0 v. 0.6 AU, P<0.05). There was no muscle effect for collagen XIV content. Decorin and tenascin-X relative abundance were positively correlated with perimysium and endomysium areas and with collagen characteristics (total, insoluble and CLs). Decorin was negatively correlated with total PG content and positively with tenascin-X. Collagen XIV was correlated with any of parameters measured. To assess the impact of decorin, tenascin-X and collagen XIV and of their ratios to total collagen and PGs on shear force and quality traits we realized, respectively, a multiple-linear regression analysis and a Pearson's correlation analysis. Decorin and tenascin-X relative abundance were, respectively, negatively and positively involved in juiciness. Decorin relative abundance was also negatively involved in abnormal flavour and positively in overall liking. The ratio of decorin to total collagen and PGs was negatively correlated to juiciness, together with collagen XIV ratio to total PGs. The ratios of decorin, tenascin-X and collagen XIV to total PGs were positively correlated to sensory tenderness, negatively to abnormal beef flavour and positively to overall liking. The ratio of decorin to total collagen was also negatively correlated to abnormal flavour and positively to overall

  11. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines, adhesions can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction . Adhesions inside the uterine cavity, called Asherman syndrome , ... 1. Read More Appendicitis Asherman syndrome Glaucoma Infertility Intestinal obstruction Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina ...

  12. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  13. IgLON Cell Adhesion Molecules Are Shed from the Cell Surface of Cortical Neurons to Promote Neuronal Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ricardo; Ferraro, Gino B.; Fournier, Alyson E.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases and a disintegrin and metalloproteinases are members of the zinc endopeptidases, which cleave components of the extracellular matrix as well as cell surface proteins resulting in degradation or release of biologically active fragments. Surface ectodomain shedding affects numerous biological processes, including survival, axon outgrowth, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the role of metalloproteinases in regulating cortical neurite growth. We found that treatment of mature cortical neurons with pan-metalloproteinase inhibitors or with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-3 reduced neurite outgrowth. Through mass spectrometry, we characterized the metalloproteinase-sensitive cell surface proteome of mature cortical neurons. Members of the IgLON family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neural cell adhesion molecules were identified and validated as proteins that were shed from the surface of mature cortical neurons in a metalloproteinase-dependent manner. Introduction of two members of the IgLON family, neurotrimin and NEGR1, in early embryonic neurons was sufficient to confer sensitivity to metalloproteinase inhibitors in neurite outgrowth assays. Outgrowth experiments on immobilized IgLON proteins revealed a role for all IgLON family members in promoting neurite extension from cortical neurons. Together, our findings support a role for metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of IgLON family members in regulating neurite outgrowth from mature cortical neurons. PMID:25538237

  14. Mechanistic insights into ectodomain shedding: susceptibility of CADM1 adhesion molecule is determined by alternative splicing and O-glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Shirakabe, Kyoko; Omura, Takuya; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Mihara, Emiko; Homma, Keiichi; Kato, Yukinari; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Murakami, Yoshinori; Takagi, Junichi; Hattori, Seisuke; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Ectodomain shedding (shedding) is a post-translational modification, which liberates the extracellular domain of membrane proteins through juxtamembrane processing executed mainly by the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloproteases. Because shedding alters characteristics of cells in a rapid and irreversible manner, it should be strictly regulated. However, the molecular mechanisms determining membrane protein susceptibility to shedding (shedding susceptibility) are largely unknown. Here we report that alternative splicing can give rise to both shedding-susceptible and shedding-resistant CADM1 (cell adhesion molecule 1) variant proteins. We further show that O-glycans adjacent to the shedding cleavage site interfere with CADM1 shedding, and the only 33-bp alternative exon confers shedding susceptibility to CADM1 by inserting five non-glycosylatable amino acids between interfering O-glycans and the shedding cleavage site. These results demonstrate that shedding susceptibility of membrane protein can be determined at two different levels of its biosynthesis pathway, alternative splicing and O-glycosylation. PMID:28393893

  15. Processing of the Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule Neurexin-3β by Alzheimer Disease α- and γ-Secretases*

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Nathalie; Schweizer, Claude; Ben Halima, Saoussen; Fraering, Patrick C.

    2011-01-01

    Neurexins (NRXNs) are synaptic cell adhesion molecules having essential roles in the assembly and maturation of synapses into fully functional units. Immunocytochemical and electrophysiological studies have shown that specific binding across the synaptic cleft of the ectodomains of presynaptic NRXNs and postsynaptic neuroligins have the potential to bidirectionally coordinate and trigger synapse formation. Moreover, in vivo studies as well as genome-wide association studies pointed out implication of NRXNs in the pathogenesis of cognitive disorders including autism spectrum disorders and different types of addictions including opioid and alcohol dependences, suggesting an important role in synaptic function. Despite extensive investigations, the mechanisms by which NRXNs modulate the properties of synapses remain largely unknown. We report here that α- and γ-secretases can sequentially process NRXN3β, leading to the formation of two final products, an ∼80-kDa N-terminal extracellular domain of Neurexin-3β (sNRXN3β) and an ∼12-kDa C-terminal intracellular NRXN3β domain (NRXN3β-ICD), both of them being potentially implicated in the regulation of NRXNs and neuroligins functions at the synapses or in yet unidentified signal transduction pathways. We further report that this processing is altered by several PS1 mutations in the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase that cause early-onset familial Alzheimer disease. PMID:21084300

  16. IgLON cell adhesion molecules are shed from the cell surface of cortical neurons to promote neuronal growth.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ricardo; Ferraro, Gino B; Fournier, Alyson E

    2015-02-13

    Matrix metalloproteinases and a disintegrin and metalloproteinases are members of the zinc endopeptidases, which cleave components of the extracellular matrix as well as cell surface proteins resulting in degradation or release of biologically active fragments. Surface ectodomain shedding affects numerous biological processes, including survival, axon outgrowth, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the role of metalloproteinases in regulating cortical neurite growth. We found that treatment of mature cortical neurons with pan-metalloproteinase inhibitors or with tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-3 reduced neurite outgrowth. Through mass spectrometry, we characterized the metalloproteinase-sensitive cell surface proteome of mature cortical neurons. Members of the IgLON family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored neural cell adhesion molecules were identified and validated as proteins that were shed from the surface of mature cortical neurons in a metalloproteinase-dependent manner. Introduction of two members of the IgLON family, neurotrimin and NEGR1, in early embryonic neurons was sufficient to confer sensitivity to metalloproteinase inhibitors in neurite outgrowth assays. Outgrowth experiments on immobilized IgLON proteins revealed a role for all IgLON family members in promoting neurite extension from cortical neurons. Together, our findings support a role for metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of IgLON family members in regulating neurite outgrowth from mature cortical neurons.

  17. A novel COX-independent mechanism of sulindac sulfide involves cleavage of epithelial cell adhesion molecule protein.

    PubMed

    Liggett, Jason L; Min, Kyung-Won; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Baek, Seung Joon

    2014-08-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are extensively used over the counter to treat headaches and inflammation as well as clinically to prevent cancer among high-risk groups. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity by NSAIDs plays a role in their anti-tumorigenic properties. NSAIDs also have COX-independent activity which is not fully understood. In this study, we report a novel COX-independent mechanism of sulindac sulfide (SS), which facilitates a previously uncharacterized cleavage of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) protein. EpCAM is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein that has been implemented as an over-expressed oncogene in many cancers including colon, breast, pancreas, and prostate. We found EpCAM to be down-regulated by SS in a manner that is independent of COX activity, transcription regulation, de novo protein synthesis, and proteasomal degradation pathway. Our findings clearly demonstrate that SS drives cleavage of the extracellular portion of EpCAM near the N-terminus. This SS driven cleavage is blocked by a deleting amino acids 55-81 as well as simply mutating arginine residues at positions 80 and 81 to alanine of EpCAM. Proteolysis of EpCAM by SS may provide a novel mechanism by which NSAIDs affect anti-tumorigenesis at the post-translational level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relocalization of Junctional Adhesion Molecule A during Inflammatory Stimulation of Brain Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M.; Sladojevic, Nikola; Keep, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is a unique tight junction (TJ) transmembrane protein that under basal conditions maintains endothelial cell-cell interactions but under inflammatory conditions acts as a leukocyte adhesion molecule. This study investigates the fate of JAM-A during inflammatory TJ complex remodeling and paracellular route formation in brain endothelial cells. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) induced JAM-A redistribution from the interendothelial cell area to the apical surface, where JAM-A played a role as a leukocyte adhesion molecule participating in transendothelial cell migration of neutrophils and monocytes. JAM-A redistribution was associated with internalization via macropinocytosis during paracellular route opening. A tracer study with dextran-Texas Red indicated that internalization occurred within a short time period (∼10 min) by dextran-positive vesicles and then became sorted to dextran-positive/Rab34-positive/Rab5-positive vesicles and then Rab4-positive endosomes. By ∼20 min, most internalized JAM-A moved to the brain endothelial cell apical membrane. Treatment with a macropinocytosis inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, or Rab5/Rab4 depletion with small interfering RNA oligonucleotides prevented JAM-A relocalization, suggesting that macropinocytosis and recycling to the membrane surface occur during JAM-A redistribution. Analysis of the signaling pathways indicated involvement of RhoA and Rho kinase in JAM-A relocalization. These data provide new insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier remodeling during inflammation. PMID:22733993

  19. Soluble endothelial adhesion molecules and inflammation markers in patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Kanavaki, Ino; Makrythanasis, Periklis; Lazaropoulou, Christina; Tsironi, Maria; Kattamis, Antonis; Rombos, Ioannis; Papassotiriou, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    The term thalassemia intermedia, indicates a clinical condition of intermediate severity between thalassaemia minor, the asymptomatic carrier, and thalassaemia major, the transfusion-dependent, severe form. Thromboembolic events frequently complicate the outcome of thalassemia intermedia patients, reflecting a hypercoagulable state to which endothelial activation is believed to play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of soluble endothelial adhesion molecules that reflect endothelial activation and dysfunction and levels of chronic inflammation markers in the serum of beta-thalassemia intermedia patients. Thirty-five Greek patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia that have received different types of treatment (Hydroxyurea, splenectomy, untreated), aged 8-63 years, were included in the study. Twenty apparently healthy individuals matched for age and sex, formed the control group. Measurements of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sTM, P-selectin, E-selectin and CRP levels were performed using immunoassays. We found that all endothelial adhesion molecules and CRP were significantly increased in patients (p<0.001) and not influenced by treatment. A negative correlation was observed between levels of sICAM-1 and sTM and this finding agrees with the results of studies, which propose this correlation as a predictive marker of increased risk for vascular damage. No correlation was observed between endothelial adhesion molecules and inflammation markers. These findings support the hypothesis that a serious degree of endothelial activation and damage along with a state of chronic inflammation underlie the pathophysiology of beta-thalassemia intermedia. Furthermore, these findings are of particular importance in patients who can otherwise be characterized by a subtle clinical phenotype and may have an important role in their clinical care.

  20. Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-10-25

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids. The pathology associated with FIP (multifocal granulomatous vasculitis) is considered to be elicited by exaggerated activation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes. As changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes precede their margination and emigration, we reasoned that the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules may be altered in FIP. In present study, the expression of principal adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte transmigration (CD15s, CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD49d, and CD54) on peripheral blood leukocytes from cats with naturally occurring FIP (n=15) and controls (n=12) was quantified by flow cytometry using a formaldehyde-based rapid leukocyte preparation technique. T- and B-lymphocytes from FIP patients exhibit higher expression of both subunits (CD11a and CD18) composing the β2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. In addition, the expression of the α4 subunit (CD49d) of the β1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 was elevated on B-lymphocytes from FIP patients. The expression of CD11b and CD18, that combine to form the β2 integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), was elevated on monocytes, whereas the density of CD49d was reduced on this population in FIP. Granulocytes of FIP cats displayed an increased expression of the α chain of Mac-1 (CD11b). These observations suggest that leukocytes from FIP patients show signs of systemic activation causing them to extravasate into surrounding tissues and ultimately contribute to pyogranuloma formation seen in FIP.

  1. Inhalation of ultrafine particles alters blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules in humans.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Mark W; Stewart, Judith C; Oberdörster, Günter; Morrow, Paul E; Chalupa, David; Pietropaoli, Anthony P; Frasier, Lauren M; Speers, Donna M; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects inhaled filtered air and freshly generated elemental carbon particles (count median diameter approximately 25nm, geometric standard deviation approximately 1.6), for 2 hr, in three separate protocols: 10 microg/m3 at rest, 10 and 25 microg/m3 with exercise, and 50 microg/m3 with exercise. In a fourth protocol, subjects with asthma inhaled air and 10 microg/m3 UFPs with exercise. Peripheral venous blood was obtained before and at intervals after exposure, and leukocyte expression of surface markers was quantitated using multiparameter flow cytometry. In healthy subjects, particle exposure with exercise reduced expression of adhesion molecules CD54 and CD18 on monocytes and CD18 and CD49d on granulocytes. There were also concentration-related reductions in blood monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils and increased lymphocyte expression of the activation marker CD25. In subjects with asthma, exposure with exercise to 10 microg/m3 UFPs reduced expression of CD11b on monocytes and eosinophils and CD54 on granulocytes. Particle exposure also reduced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Inhalation of elemental carbon UFPs alters peripheral blood leukocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules, in a pattern consistent with increased retention of leukocytes in the pulmonary vascular bed.

  2. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich formula reduces adhesion molecules in rats with experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ayman; Aziz, Moutaz; Hassan, Aktham; Mbodji, Khaly; Collasse, Elodie; Coëffier, Moïse; Bounoure, Frédéric; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2012-07-01

    The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in inflammatory bowel disease is focused on the effects on fish oil-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids. We speculated that a vegetal oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) might also inhibit colitis. Therefore, we evaluated whether dietary ALA would decrease the expression of adhesion molecules by inducing the protective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a rat colitis model. Colitis was induced at day 0 by an intrarectal injection of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS), whereas control rats received the vehicle. Rats were fed an ALA-rich formula 450 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, whereas the other colitic group (TNBS) and the control group were fed an isocaloric corn oil formula for 14 d (from day -7 to day 7). The colonic expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), vascular endothelial growth factor A receptor-2 (VEGFR2), and HO-1 were studied by immunohistochemistry. The ALA-rich diet significantly decreased the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGFR-2 compared the TNBS group, but it did not affect the expression of HO-1. A vegetal ALA-rich formula decreases the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and VEGFR-2 and independently of HO-1 in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. Further studies are required to evaluate its therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease as an alternative to fish oil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during cardiopulmonary bypass: a comparative study of roller and centrifugal pumps.

    PubMed

    Macey, M G; McCarthy, D A; Trivedi, U R; Venn, G E; Chambers, D J; Brown, K A

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether adhesion molecules and markers of cell activation were preferentially increased on blood neutrophils during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and whether such effects were influenced by the use of a roller pump or a centrifugal pump. Forty-six patients undergoing open heart surgery were randomly allocated into either the roller or centrifugal groups. Blood (1 ml volumes) was removed from arterial and venous lines immediately before and 1 h after the start of bypass. Whole blood samples were immunolabelled and flow cytometry used to measure the distribution and expression of the adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, CD62L on neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, in addition to CD64 on neutrophils and monocytes, and CD14 on monocytes. The expression of CD11b was significantly enhanced on neutrophils in arterial and venous samples from both the roller pump (mean 84% and 100% increase, respectively; p < 0.001) and centrifugal pump (mean 74% and 73% increase, respectively; p < 0.001) groups. Neutrophil L-selectin expression increased to a small but significant extent in arterial and venous samples from the centrifugal pump group (mean 16% increase; p < 0.001) and in venous samples from the roller pump group (mean 10% increase; p < 0.01). Neither the percentage of neutrophils bearing CD11b/CD18, CD62L and CD64, nor the expression of adhesion molecules on lymphocytes and monocytes were modified by 1 h of bypass. These results suggest that patients subjected to CPB with roller or centrifugal pumps are equally at risk to neutrophil activation that could lead to increased interaction of these cells with blood vessel walls.

  4. Tumor Specific Regulation of C-CAM Cell Adhesion Molecule in Prostate Cancer Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    692 9. Graff, J. R., Herman, J. G., Lapidus, R. G., Chopra, H., Xu , R., Jarrard, D. F., Isaacs, W. B., Pitha, P. M., Davidson, N. E., and Baylin, S. B...2001) 115-123 www.elsevier.com/locate/mce Androgen regulation of the cell-cell adhesion molecule-1 (Ceacam i) gene Dillon Phan a, Xiaomei Sui b, Dung...Nature Medicine, 1: 686-692, 1995. 27 34. Graff, J. R., Herman, J. G., Lapidus, R. G., Chopra, H., Xu , R., Jarrard, D. F., Isaacs, W. B., Pitha, P. M

  5. Differential effects of heme oxygenase isoforms on heme mediation of endothelial intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wagener, F A; da Silva, J L; Farley, T; de Witte, T; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    1999-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), by catabolizing heme to bile pigments, down-regulates cellular hemoprotein, hemoglobin, and heme; the latter generates pro-oxidant products, including free radicals. Two HO isozymes, the products of distinct genes, have been described; HO-1 is the inducible isoform, whereas HO-2 is suggested to be constitutively expressed. We studied the inducing effect of several metal compounds (CoCl(2), stannic mesoporphyrin, and heme) on HO activity. Additionally, we studied HO-1 expression in experimental models of adhesion molecule expression produced by heme in endothelial cells, and the relationship of HO-1 expression to the induced adhesion molecules. Flow cytometry analysis showed that heme induces intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in a concentration (10-100 microM)- and time (1-24 h)-dependent fashion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment with stannic mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO activity, caused a 2-fold increase in heme-induced ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, HO induction by CoCl(2) decreased heme-induced ICAM-1 expression by 33%. To examine the contribution of HO-1 and HO-2 to endothelial HO activity, specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) of each isoform were tested for their specificity to inhibit HO activity in cells exposed to heme. Endothelial cells exposed to heme elicited increased HO activity, which was prevented (70%) by HO-1 antisense ODNs. HO-2 antisense ODN inhibited heme-induced HO activity by 21%. Addition of HO-1 antisense ODNs prevented heme degradation and resulted in elevation of microsomal heme. Western blot analysis showed that HO-1 antisense ODNs selectively inhibited HO-1 protein and failed to inhibit HO-2 protein. Incubation of endothelial cells with HO-1 antisense enhanced heme-dependent increase of ICAM-1. In contrast, addition of HO-2 antisense to endothelial cells failed to increase adhesion molecules. The role of glutathione, an important antioxidant, was examined on heme

  6. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce the expression of early and late receptors for adhesion molecules on monocytes.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Romero, Cristhiam; Hernández-Pérez, Guillermina; Ramos-Godínez, Pilar; Vázquez-López, Inés; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl Omar; Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Stepien, Ewa; López-Marure, Rebeca; Montiel-Dávalos, Angélica; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto

    2016-06-23

    There is growing evidence that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) could be harmful. Previously, we have shown that TiO2 NPs induces endothelial cell dysfunction and damage in glial cells. Considering that inhaled particles can induce systemic effects and the evidence that nanoparticles may translocate out of the lungs, we evaluated whether different types of TiO2 NPs can induce the expression of receptors for adhesion molecules on monocytes (U937 cell line). We evaluated the role of reactive oxygen spices (ROS) on these effects. The expression of receptors for early (sLe(x) and PSGL-1) and late (LFA-1, VLA-4 and αVβ3) adhesion molecules was evaluated in U937 cells on a time course (3-24 h) using a wide range of concentrations (0.001-100 μg/mL) of three types of TiO2 NPs (<25 nm anatase, 50 nm anatase-rutile or < 100 nm anatase). Cells exposed to TNFα were considered positive controls, and unexposed cells, negative controls. In some experiments we added 10 μmolar of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to evaluate the role of ROS. All tested particles, starting at a concentration of 0.03 μg/mL, induced the expression of receptors for early and late adhesion molecules. The largest increases were induced by the different molecules after 3 h of exposure for sLe(x) and PSGL-1 (up to 3-fold of the positive controls) and after 18 h of exposure for LFA-1, VLA-4 and αVβ3 (up to 2.5-fold of the positive controls). Oxidative stress was observed as early as 10 min after exposure, but the maximum peak was found after 4 h of exposure. Adhesion of exposed or unexposed monocytes to unexposed or exposed endothelial cells was tested, and we observed that monocytes cells adhere in similar amounts to endothelial cells if one of the two cell types, or both were exposed. When NAC was added, the expression of the receptors was inhibited. These results show that small concentrations of particles may activate monocytes that attach to endothelial cells. These

  7. The clinical spectrum of mutations in L1, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Fransen, E.; Vits, L.; Van Camp, G.; Willems, P.J.

    1996-07-12

    Mutations in the gene encoding the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 are responsible for several syndromes with clinical overlap, including X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH, HSAS), MASA (mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, adducted thumbs) syndrome, complicated X-linked spastic paraplegia (SP 1), X-linked mental retardation-clasped thumb (MR-CT) syndrome, and some forms of X-linked agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). We review 34 L1 mutations in patients with these phenotypes. 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Overexpression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 predicts poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Aili; Lu, Funian; Chen, Hongxia; Fu, Pin; Zhao, Xianda; Chen, Honglei

    2017-02-01

    Junctional adhesion molecules are important components of tight junctions, and Eph/ephrin proteins constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both junctional adhesion molecules and Eph/ephrin are involved in normal tissue development and cancer progression. However, the expression levels and clinical significances of junctional adhesion molecule-A, a member of junctional adhesion molecules, and EphB2, a member of Eph/ephrin family, in lung adenocarcinoma patients are unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify the expression and prognostic values of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 in lung adenocarcinoma patients' cohort. In our study, 70 (55.6%) showed high expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A protein and 51 (40.5%) showed high expression of EphB2 protein in 126 lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 expressions were both significantly increased in tumor tissues compared with noncancerous lung tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test indicated that low expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 proteins can predict better survival and low mortality rate of lung adenocarcinomas. In univariate analysis, high expression levels of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 were both found to be significantly correlated with poor overall survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.791, 95% confidence interval = 1.041-3.084, p = 0.035; hazard ratio = 1.762, 95% confidence interval = 1.038-2.992, p = 0.036, respectively). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that EphB2 expression is an independent prognosis parameter in lung adenocarcinoma patients (hazard ratio = 1.738, 95% confidence interval = 1.023-2.952, p = 0.016). Taken together, high expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and EphB2 can predict poor overall survival and high mortality rate, and EphB2 is an independent prognostic biomarker in

  9. Therapy with hydroxyurea is associated with reduced adhesion molecule gene and protein expression in sickle red cells with a concomitant reduction in adhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Gambero, Sheley; Canalli, Andreia A; Traina, Fabiola; Albuquerque, Dulcinéia M; Saad, Sara T O; Costa, Fernando F; Conran, Nicola

    2007-02-01

    Propagation of the vaso-occlusive process in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a complex process involving the adhesion of steady-state SCA patients red cells and reticulocytes to the vascular endothelium. The effect of hydroxyurea therapy (HUT) on the adhesive properties of sickle cells and the expression of adhesion molecule genes by erythroid cells of SCA individuals is not yet fully understood. The expressions of the CD36 gene and the VLA-4-integrin subunit genes, CD49d (alpha-subunit) and CD29 (beta-subunit), were compared in the reticulocytes of steady-state SCA patients and patients on HUT using real-time PCR. Basal adhesion of red cells from these subjects was also compared using static adhesion assays, as was surface protein expression, using flow cytometry. Basal sickle red cell adhesion to fibronectin was significantly greater than that of normal cells (P < 0.01); in contrast, HUT was associated with significantly lower levels (P < 0.01) of red cell adhesion that were similar to those of control cells; this decrease could not be justified solely by altered reticulocyte numbers in this population. Accordingly, flow cytometry demonstrated that reticulocytes from patients on HUT had significantly lower CD36 and CD49d surface expressions (P < 0.01) and, importantly, significantly lower expressions of the CD36, CD49d and CD29 genes (P < 0.05) than reticulocytes of SCA patients not on HUT. Taken together, data support the hypothesis that HUT reduces the adhesive properties of sickle cells and that this decrease appears to be mediated, at least in part, by a decrease in the gene and, consequently, surface protein expression of adhesion molecules such as VLA-4 and CD36.

  10. Extracellular matrix protein patterns guide human chondrocytes adhesion and alignment characterized by vimentin and matrilin-3.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Jiang; Ding, Hong-Yan; Dong, Yun-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influences of collagen VI (col-VI) patterns on human chondrocytes behaviors. To this end, col-VI stripes with varying width and interstripe spacing are created on polystyrene (PS) surfaces by microcontact printing (μCP). Human chondrocytes are then seeded on these protein patterns and the cell adhesion and alignment are investigated by staining the vimentin and matrilin-3 secreted by seeded chondrocytes. The results indicate that the cells preferentially attach onto the protein areas, rendering cell patterns and the elongated cell shapes. The pattern dimensions can significantly influence cell adhesion, spreading and orientation. The stripe protein patterns can guide cell adhesion and alignment. The cell morphologies can be controlled by carefully designing the pattern shapes and sizes. Our results suggest that the protein patterns can be used to modify biomaterials' surfaces for selective cell-binding and cell alignment. It could provide some cues for the development of novel implantable biomaterials, such as tissue-engineered scaffolds for cartilage replacement, where specific cell alignment is needed.

  11. Host-derived extracellular RNA promotes adhesion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to endothelial and epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Bergmann, Simone; Didiasova, Miroslava; Giaimo, Benedetto Daniele; Borggrefe, Tilman; Mieth, Maren; Hocke, Andreas C.; Lochnit, Guenter; Schaefer, Liliana; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Preissner, Klaus T.; Wygrecka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The infection process involves bacterial cell surface receptors, which interact with host extracellular matrix components to facilitate colonization and dissemination of bacteria. Here, we investigated the role of host-derived extracellular RNA (eRNA) in the process of pneumococcal alveolar epithelial cell infection. Our study demonstrates that eRNA dose-dependently increased S. pneumoniae invasion of alveolar epithelial cells. Extracellular enolase (Eno), a plasminogen (Plg) receptor, was identified as a novel eRNA-binding protein on S. pneumoniae surface, and six Eno eRNA-binding sites including a C-terminal 15 amino acid motif containing lysine residue 434 were characterized. Although the substitution of lysine 434 for glycine (K434G) markedly diminished the binding of eRNA to Eno, the adherence to and internalization into alveolar epithelial cells of S. pneumoniae strain carrying the C-terminal lysine deletion and the mutation of internal Plg-binding motif were only marginally impaired. Accordingly, using a mass spectrometric approach, we identified seven novel eRNA-binding proteins in pneumococcal cell wall. Given the high number of eRNA-interacting proteins on pneumococci, treatment with RNase1 completely inhibited eRNA-mediated pneumococcal alveolar epithelial cell infection. Our data support further efforts to employ RNAse1 as an antimicrobial agent to combat pneumococcal infectious diseases. PMID:27892961

  12. An ICAM-1 like cell adhesion molecule is responsible for CD34 positive haemopoietic stem cells adhesion to bone-marrow stroma.

    PubMed

    Rao, S G; Chitnis, V S; Deora, A; Tanavde, V; Desai, S S

    1996-04-01

    The microenvironment in the haematopoietic organs plays an important role in regulating and sustaining differentiation and self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Although crucial for stem cell maintenance and homing, the stromal cell-stem cell interactions are poorly understood. Here we show that an ICAM-like molecule is responsible for stem cell adhesion to stromal cells in vitro. The molecule was characterized by a monoclonal antibody 3E10. Immunoblotting results indicated that the molecule had an electrophoretic mobility equal to that of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Binding inhibition assays, however, showed that inhibition of binding of enriched CD34 cells by 3E10 was more prominent in comparison with that of ICAM-1.

  13. Expression of claudins, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 in canine organs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Da-Hye; Lee, Dongoh; Kang, Su-Myung; Seok, Ju-Hyung; Kang, Hee Young; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are classified as transmembrane proteins. These factors form selective permeability barriers between cells, act as paracellular transporters and regulate structural and functional polarity of cells. Although tight junctions have been previously studied, comparison of the transcriptional-translational levels of these molecules in canine organs remains to be investigated. In the present study, organ-specific expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 was examined in the canine duodenum, lung, liver and kidney. Results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the tight junctions were localized in intestinal villi and glands of the duodenum, bronchiolar epithelia and alveolar walls of the lung, endometrium and myometrium of the hepatocytes, and the distal tubules and glomeruli of the kidney. These results suggest that tight junctions are differently expressed in organs, and therefore may be involved in organ-specific functions to maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:27600198

  14. Mouse cells expressing human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 are susceptible to infection by coxsackievirus A21.

    PubMed Central

    Shafren, D R; Dorahy, D J; Greive, S J; Burns, G F; Barry, R D

    1997-01-01

    Competitive viral binding assays have revealed previously that coxsackievirus A21 (CAV21) and human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) share a common cell surface receptor. More recently, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been identified as the cellular receptor for HRV-14. Also, anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) blocked infection by HRV14, CAV13, CAV18, and CAV21, suggesting that these viruses share this receptor; however, this has never been established by more direct methods. In this study we show conclusively that CAV21 binds to ICAM-1 and that MAbs directed against the N-terminal domain of the molecule inhibit this attachment. Furthermore, we show that the specific interaction between ICAM-1 and 160S CAV21 virions induces formation of 135S A particles. Finally, we show transfection of normally nonsusceptible mouse L cells with human ICAM-1 cDNA renders them susceptible to infection by CAV21. PMID:8985417

  15. Diatomic molecules and metallic adhesion, cohesion, and chemisorption - A single binding-energy relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    Potential-energy relations involving a few parameters in simple analytic forms have been found to represent well the energetics of a wide variety of diatomic molecules. However, such two-atom potential functions are not appropriate for metals. It is well known that, in the case of metals, there exist strong volume-dependent forces which can never be expressed as pairwise interactions. The present investigation has the objective to show that, in spite of the observation concerning metals, a single binding-energy relation can be found which accurately describes diatomic molecules as well as adhesion, cohesion, and chemisorption on metals. This universality reveals a commonality between the molecular and metallic bond.

  16. Cocaine hijacks σ1 receptor to initiate induction of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: implication for increased monocyte adhesion and migration in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Yao, Honghong; Kim, Keejun; Duan, Ming; Hayashi, Teruo; Guo, Minglei; Morgello, Susan; Prat, Alexander; Wang, John; Su, Tsung-Ping; Buch, Shilpa

    2011-04-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated increase in monocyte adhesion and trafficking is exacerbated by cocaine abuse. The underlying mechanisms involve cocaine-mediated upregulation of adhesion molecules with subsequent disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recently, a novel activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been implicated in leukocyte transmigration across the endothelium. We now show that upregulation of ALCAM in the brain endothelium seen in HIV(+)/cocaine drug abusers paralleled increased CD68 immunostaining compared with HIV(+)/no cocaine or uninfected controls, suggesting the important role of ALCAM in promoting leukocyte infiltration across the BBB. Furthermore, ALCAM expression was increased in cocaine-treated mice with concomitant increase in monocyte adhesion and transmigration in vivo, which was ameliorated by pretreating with the neutralizing antibody to ALCAM, lending additional support to the role of ALCAM. This new concept was further confirmed by in vitro experiments. Cocaine-mediated induction of ALCAM in human brain microvascular endothelial cells through the translocation of σ receptor to the plasma membrane, followed by phosphorylation of PDGF-β (platelet-derived growth factor-β) receptor. Downstream activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Akt, and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) pathways resulted in induced expression of ALCAM. Functional implication of upregulated ALCAM was confirmed using cell adhesion and transmigration assays. Neutralizing antibody to ALCAM ameliorated this effect. Together, these findings implicate cocaine-mediated induction of ALCAM as a mediator of increased monocyte adhesion/transmigration into the CNS.

  17. Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219

  18. Extracellular Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Components Act as Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Roy, Nairita; Ryan, Lauren N; Stanford, John A; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial debris are found in the brain's extracellular space, and extracellular mitochondrial components can act as damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. To characterize the effects of potential mitochondrial DAMP molecules on neuroinflammation, we injected either isolated mitochondria or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into hippocampi of C57BL/6 mice and seven days later measured markers of inflammation. Brains injected with whole mitochondria showed increased Tnfα and decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation. Some of these effects were also observed in brains injected with mtDNA (decreased Trem2 mRNA, increased GFAP protein, and increased NFκB phosphorylation), and mtDNA injection also caused several unique changes including increased CSF1R protein and AKT phosphorylation. To further establish the potential relevance of this response to Alzheimer's disease (AD), a brain disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation we also measured App mRNA, APP protein, and Aβ1-42 levels. We found mitochondria (but not mtDNA) injections increased these parameters. Our data show that in the mouse brain extracellular mitochondria and its components can induce neuroinflammation, extracellular mtDNA or mtDNA-associated proteins can contribute to this effect, and mitochondria derived-DAMP molecules can influence AD-associated biomarkers.

  19. Ectodomain shedding of the cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4 in ovarian cancer is mediated by ADAM10 and ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Petra C; Boylan, Kristin L M; Walcheck, Bruce; Heinze, Rachel; Geller, Melissa A; Argenta, Peter A; Skubitz, Amy P N

    2017-04-14

    We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecule Nectin-4 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer tumors, and its cleaved extracellular domain can be detected in the serum of ovarian cancer patients. The ADAM (adisintegrin and metalloproteinase) proteases are involved in ectodomain cleavage of transmembrane proteins, and ADAM17 is known to cleave Nectin-4 in breast cancer. However, the mechanism of Nectin-4 cleavage in ovarian cancer has not yet been determined. Analysis of ovarian cancer gene microarray data showed that higher expression of Nectin-4, ADAM10, and ADAM17 is associated with significantly decreased progression-free survival. We quantified Nectin-4 shedding from the surface of ovarian cancer cells after stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid. We report that ADAM17 and ADAM10 cleave Nectin-4 and release soluble Nectin-4 (sN4). Small molecule inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of both ADAM proteases confirmed these results. In matched samples from 11 high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients, we detected 2-20-fold more sN4 in ascites fluid than serum. Co-incubation of ovarian cancer cells with ascites fluid significantly increased sN4 shedding, which could be blocked using a dual inhibitor of ADAM10 and ADAM17. Furthermore, we detected RNA for Nectin-4, ADAM10, and ADAM17 in primary ovarian carcinoma tumors, secondary omental metastases, and ascites cells isolated from serous ovarian cancer patients. In a signaling pathway screen, lysophosphatidic acid increased phosphorylation of AKT, EGF receptor, ERK1/2, JNK1/2/3, and c-Jun. Understanding the function of Nectin-4 shedding in ovarian cancer progression is critical to facilitate its development as both a serum biomarker and a therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Structure of Reovirus σ1 in Complex with Its Receptor Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Eva; Guglielmi, Kristen M.; Strauss, Holger M.; Dermody, Terence S.; Stehle, Thilo

    2008-01-01

    Viral attachment to specific host receptors is the first step in viral infection and serves an essential function in the selection of target cells. Mammalian reoviruses are highly useful experimental models for studies of viral pathogenesis and show promise as vectors for oncolytics and vaccines. Reoviruses engage cells by binding to carbohydrates and the immunoglobulin superfamily member, junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A). JAM-A exists at the cell surface as a homodimer formed by extensive contacts between its N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains. We report the crystal structure of reovirus attachment protein σ1 in complex with a soluble form of JAM-A. The σ1 protein disrupts the JAM-A dimer, engaging a single JAM-A molecule via virtually the same interface that is used for JAM-A homodimerization. Thus, reovirus takes advantage of the adhesive nature of an immunoglobulin-superfamily receptor by usurping the ligand-binding site of this molecule to attach to the cell surface. The dissociation constant (KD) of the interaction between σ1 and JAM-A is 1,000-fold lower than that of the homophilic interaction between JAM-A molecules, indicating that JAM-A strongly prefers σ1 as a ligand. Analysis of reovirus mutants engineered by plasmid-based reverse genetics revealed residues in σ1 required for binding to JAM-A and infectivity of cultured cells. These studies define biophysical mechanisms of reovirus cell attachment and provide a platform for manipulating reovirus tropism to enhance vector targeting. PMID:19079583

  1. The extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-R and its HNK-1 carbohydrate modulate perisomatic inhibition and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Saghatelyan, A K; Gorissen, S; Albert, M; Hertlein, B; Schachner, M; Dityatev, A

    2000-09-01

    Perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal cells regulates efferent signalling from the hippocampus. The striking presence of HNK-1, a carbohydrate expressed by neural adhesion molecules, on perisomatic interneurons and around somata of CA1 pyramidal neurons led us to apply monoclonal HNK-1 antibodies to acute murine hippocampal slices. Injection of these antibodies decreased GABAA receptor-mediated perisomatic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (pIPSCs) but did not affect dendritic IPSCs or excitatory postsynaptic currents. The decrease in the mean amplitude of evoked pIPSCs by HNK-1 antibodies was accompanied by an increase in the coefficient of variation of pIPSC amplitude, number of failures and changes in frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs, suggesting that HNK-1 antibodies reduced efficacy of evoked GABA release. HNK-1 antibodies did not affect pIPSCs in knock-out mice deficient in the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin-R which carries the HNK-1 carbohydrate as analysed by immunoblotting in synaptosomal fractions prepared from the CA1 region of the hippocampus. For control, HNK-1 antibody was applied to acute sections of mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, another potential carrier of HNK-1, and resulted in decrease of pIPSCs as observed in wild-type mice. Reduction in perisomatic inhibition is expected to promote induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) by increasing the level of depolarization during theta-burst stimulation. Indeed, LTP was increased by HNK-1 antibody applied before stimulation. Moreover, LTP was reduced by an HNK-1 peptide mimic, but not control peptide. These results provide first evidence that tenascin-R and its associated HNK-1 carbohydrate modulate perisomatic inhibition and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  2. Multiparametric Analysis of Cell Shape Demonstrates that β-PIX Directly Couples YAP Activation to Extracellular Matrix Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sero, Julia E; Bakal, Chris

    2017-01-25

    Mechanical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular geometry regulate the nuclear translocation of transcriptional regulators such as Yes-associated protein (YAP). Elucidating how physical signals control the activity of mechanosensitive proteins poses a technical challenge, because perturbations that affect cell shape may also affect protein localization indirectly. Here, we present an approach that mitigates confounding effects of cell-shape changes, allowing us to identify direct regulators of YAP localization. This method uses single-cell image analysis and statistical models that exploit the naturally occurring heterogeneity of cellular populations. Through systematic depletion of all human kinases, Rho family GTPases, GEFs, and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), together with targeted chemical perturbations, we found that β-PIX, a Rac1/Ccd42 GEF, and PAK2, a Rac1/Cdc42 effector, drive both YAP activation and cell-ECM adhesion turnover during cell spreading. Our observations suggest that coupling YAP to adhesion dynamics acts as a mechano-timer, allowing cells to rapidly tune gene expression in response to physical signals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of heparin and related molecules upon the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes to vascular endothelium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Rebecca; Hoult, J Robin S; Page, Clive P

    2000-01-01

    The effects of an unfractionated heparin preparation (Multiparin), a low molecular weight heparin preparation (Fragmin) and a selectively O-desulphated derivative of heparin lacking anticoagulant activity, have been investigated for their effects on the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The effect of poly-L-glutamic acid, a large, polyanionic molecule was also studied. Unfractionated heparin (50–1000 U ml−1), the O-desulphated derivative (0.3–6 mg ml−1) and the low molecular weight heparin (50 U–1000 U ml−1) all inhibited significantly the adhesion of 51Cr labelled PMNs to HUVECs stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β; 10 U ml−1), bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5 μg ml−1) or tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 125 U ml−1) for 6 h, whereas poly-L-glutamic acid had no effect. In addition, the three heparin preparations in the same concentration range inhibited significantly the adhesion of f-met-leu-phe-stimulated PMNs to resting HUVECs. The effects of unfractionated heparin upon the expression of adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selection were also investigated, as were the effects of unfractionated heparin upon adhesion of human PMNs to previously stimulated HUVECs. Heparin had little effect upon levels of expression of these adhesion molecules on stimulated HUVECs. However, a profound effect upon PMN adhesion to previously stimulated HUVECs was demonstrated using the same preparation, suggesting that inhibition of adhesion molecule expression is not a major component of the described inhibitory effects of heparin. Pre-incubation of PMNs with heparin followed by washing inhibited their adhesion to HUVECs, under different conditions of cellular activation, implying that heparin can bind to these cells and exert its anti-adhesive effects even when not directly present in the system. These

  4. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Expression on Intracellular Granule Movement in Pancreatic α Cells.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Satoru; Furuno, Tadahide; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Hirashima, Naohide

    2016-09-01

    Although glucagon secreted from pancreatic α cells plays a role in increasing glucose concentrations in serum, the mechanism regulating glucagon secretion from α cells remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), identified as an adhesion molecule in α cells, has been reported not only to communicate among α cells and between nerve fibers, but also to prevent excessive glucagon secretion from α cells. Here, we investigated the effect of CADM1 expression on the movement of intracellular secretory granules in α cells because the granule transport is an important step in secretion. Spinning disk microscopic analysis showed that granules moved at a mean velocity of 0.236 ± 0.010 μm/s in the mouse α cell line αTC6 that expressed CADM1 endogenously. The mean velocity was significantly decreased in CADM1-knockdown (KD) cells (mean velocity: 0.190 ± 0.016 μm/s). The velocity of granule movement decreased greatly in αTC6 cells treated with the microtubule-depolymerizing reagent nocodazole, but not in αTC6 cells treated with the actin-depolymerizing reagent cytochalasin D. No difference in the mean velocity was observed between αTC6 and CADM1-KD cells treated with nocodazole. These results suggest that intracellular granules in pancreatic α cells move along the microtubule network, and that CADM1 influences their velocity.

  5. Regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis by neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Rathjen, Thomas; Yan, Xin; Kononenko, Natalia L; Ku, Min-Chi; Song, Kun; Ferrarese, Leiron; Tarallo, Valentina; Puchkov, Dmytro; Kochlamazashvili, Gaga; Brachs, Sebastian; Varela, Luis; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Yi, Chun-Xia; Schriever, Sonja C; Tattikota, Sudhir Gopal; Carlo, Anne Sophie; Moroni, Mirko; Siemens, Jan; Heuser, Arnd; van der Weyden, Louise; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Niendorf, Thoralf; Poulet, James F A; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias H; Heinig, Matthias; Trajkovski, Mirko; Haucke, Volker; Poy, Matthew N

    2017-08-01

    Susceptibility to obesity is linked to genes regulating neurotransmission, pancreatic beta-cell function and energy homeostasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified associations between body mass index and two loci near cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2), which encode membrane proteins that mediate synaptic assembly. We found that these respective risk variants associate with increased CADM1 and CADM2 expression in the hypothalamus of human subjects. Expression of both genes was elevated in obese mice, and induction of Cadm1 in excitatory neurons facilitated weight gain while exacerbating energy expenditure. Loss of Cadm1 protected mice from obesity, and tract-tracing analysis revealed Cadm1-positive innervation of POMC neurons via afferent projections originating from beyond the arcuate nucleus. Reducing Cadm1 expression in the hypothalamus and hippocampus promoted a negative energy balance and weight loss. These data identify essential roles for Cadm1-mediated neuronal input in weight regulation and provide insight into the central pathways contributing to human obesity.

  6. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, forming trans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft or cis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics. PMID:28255461

  7. HOXA9 Methylation by PRMT5 Is Essential for Endothelial Cell Expression of Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Smarajit; Harris, Daniel P.; Adams, Gregory N.; Lause, Gregory E.; McHugh, Anne; Tillmaand, Emily G.; Money, Angela; Willard, Belinda; Fox, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    The induction of proinflammatory proteins in stimulated endothelial cells (EC) requires activation of multiple transcription programs. The homeobox transcription factor HOXA9 has an important regulatory role in cytokine induction of the EC-leukocyte adhesion molecules (ELAM) E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). However, the mechanism underlying stimulus-dependent activation of HOXA9 is completely unknown. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanism of HOXA9 activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and show an unexpected requirement for arginine methylation by protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). PRMT5 was identified as a TNF-α-dependent binding partner of HOXA9 by mass spectrometry. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of PRMT5 abrogated stimulus-dependent HOXA9 methylation with concomitant loss in E-selectin or VCAM-1 induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that PRMT5 is recruited to the E-selectin promoter following transient HOXA9 binding to its cognate recognition sequence. PRMT5 induces symmetric dimethylation of Arg140 on HOXA9, an event essential for E-selectin induction. In summary, PRMT5 is a critical coactivator component in a newly defined, HOXA9-containing transcription complex. Moreover, stimulus-dependent methylation of HOXA9 is essential for ELAM expression during the EC inflammatory response. PMID:22269951

  8. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, Gabby

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, formingtrans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft orcis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  9. Dynamic Control of Synaptic Adhesion and Organizing Molecules in Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Gabby

    2017-01-01

    Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, forming trans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft or cis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well. SAMs are regulated through a portfolio of different mechanisms that affect their protein levels, precise localization, stability, and the availability of their partners at synapses. Interaction of SAMs with their partners can further be strengthened or weakened through alternative splicing, competing protein partners, ectodomain shedding, or astrocytically secreted factors. Given that numerous SAMs appear altered by synaptic activity, in vivo, these molecules may be used to dynamically scale up or scale down synaptic communication. Many SAMs, including neurexins, neuroligins, cadherins, and contactins, are now implicated in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder and studying their molecular mechanisms holds promise for developing novel therapeutics.

  10. Associations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 with carotid atherosclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Kimito; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Nagai, Yoji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Hougaku, Hidetaka; Hori, Masatsugu

    2005-03-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of carotid atherosclerosis activity. In this study, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules have potential value to predict atherosclerosis progression. The study included 192 outpatients 40-82 years of age who were treated for traditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients underwent repeated ultrasonographic evaluation for 53+/-11 months. Severity of atherosclerosis was evaluated by the maximal intimal-medial thickness (max-IMT), plaque number (PN) and plaque score (PS, the sum of all plaque thicknesses). Blood samples were collected for measurement of hs-CRP, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and sP-selectin at the time of baseline examination. The development of atherosclerosis was estimated by the formula: Deltavalue/year=(last value-baseline value)/number of follow-up years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that sICAM-1 was associated with DeltaIMT/year and DeltaPS/year, which was not the case for sP-selectin. sICAM-1 was closely associated with DeltaIMT/year especially in patients with apparent atheromatous plaque. Our results suggested that levels of sICAM-1 might have predictive value of progression of carotid atherosclerosis independently of traditional risk factors and hs-CRP.

  11. Release activity-dependent control of vesicle endocytosis by the synaptic adhesion molecule N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    van Stegen, Bernd; Dagar, Sushma; Gottmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4–64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging. The synaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 had distinct impacts on exo- and endocytosis at mature cortical synapses. Expression of Neuroligin1 enhanced vesicle release in a N-cadherin-dependent way. Most intriguingly, expression of N-cadherin enhanced both vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Further detailed analysis of N-cadherin knockout neurons revealed that the boosting of endocytosis by N-cadherin was largely dependent on preceding high levels of vesicle release activity. In summary, regulation of vesicle endocytosis was mediated at the molecular level by N-cadherin in a release activity-dependent manner. Because of its endocytosis enhancing function, N-cadherin might play an important role in the coupling of vesicle exo- and endocytosis. PMID:28106089

  12. Association of adipokines and adhesion molecules with indicators of obesity in women undergoing mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The soluble cell adhesion molecules and adipokines are elevated in patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer and atherosclerosis. Objective To investigate the relationship between anthropometric profile, dietary intake, lipid profile and fasting glycemia with serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin and PAI-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in women without breast cancer undergoing routine mammographic screening. Design Transversal study. Subjects One hundred and forty-five women over 40-years old participated in this study. Results In 39.3% of cases the BMI was above 30 kg/m2; 46.9% had hypertension, 14.5% had type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 31.7% had dyslipidemia and 88.3% presented a waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.8. A linear correlation was found between serum levels of PAI-1 and triglycerides, between serum levels of PAI-1 and WHR and between serum levels of VCAM-1 and BMI. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PAI-1 and VCAM-1 levels were correlated with clinical indicators of obesity and overweight. PMID:23113882

  13. Release activity-dependent control of vesicle endocytosis by the synaptic adhesion molecule N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    van Stegen, Bernd; Dagar, Sushma; Gottmann, Kurt

    2017-01-20

    At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4-64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging. The synaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 had distinct impacts on exo- and endocytosis at mature cortical synapses. Expression of Neuroligin1 enhanced vesicle release in a N-cadherin-dependent way. Most intriguingly, expression of N-cadherin enhanced both vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Further detailed analysis of N-cadherin knockout neurons revealed that the boosting of endocytosis by N-cadherin was largely dependent on preceding high levels of vesicle release activity. In summary, regulation of vesicle endocytosis was mediated at the molecular level by N-cadherin in a release activity-dependent manner. Because of its endocytosis enhancing function, N-cadherin might play an important role in the coupling of vesicle exo- and endocytosis.

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  15. [The role od adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of Graves ophthalmopathy].

    PubMed

    Kulig, G; Pilarska, K

    2001-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune condition characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of the extraocular muscles and/or orbital connective tissue. Adhesion molecules play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of the inflammatory immune process. Cellular activation and local expression of adhesion molecules lead to leucocyte recruitment, migration to inflammatory sites and targeting in the extravascular space. Vascular endothelium in retroocular connective tissues of patients with GO is strongly positive for EMAL-1 and VCAM-1, whereas VCAM-1 immunoreactivity is minimal and ELAM-1 immunoreactivity is generally absent in normal retroocular tissue. Interactions between matched activated T lymphocytes and orbital endothelial cells are mediated by integrin dependent ICAM-1/LFA-1 and VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathways and reveal marked differences when comparing GO orbital endothelial cells to normal ones. Higher soluble ICAM-1 volumes in patients with Graves' disease with GO than those in patients with Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy can reflect the degree of inflammatory activity. Increased soluble ELAM-1 concentration only in patients with GO suggests that soluble ELAM-1 could be a specific marker of endothelium activation in GO.

  16. Mutations in PVRL4, encoding cell adhesion molecule nectin-4, cause ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brancati, Francesco; Fortugno, Paola; Bottillo, Irene; Lopez, Marc; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Boudghene-Stambouli, Omar; Agolini, Emanuele; Bernardini, Laura; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Iannicelli, Miriam; Rossi, Alfredo; Dib-Lachachi, Amina; Stuppia, Liborio; Palka, Giandomenico; Mundlos, Stefan; Stricker, Sigmar; Kornak, Uwe; Zambruno, Giovanna; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2010-08-13

    Ectodermal dysplasias form a large disease family with more than 200 members. The combination of hair and tooth abnormalities, alopecia, and cutaneous syndactyly is characteristic of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS). We used a homozygosity mapping approach to map the EDSS locus to 1q23 in a consanguineous Algerian family. By candidate gene analysis, we identified a homozygous mutation in the PVRL4 gene that not only evoked an amino acid change but also led to exon skipping. In an Italian family with two siblings affected by EDSS, we further detected a missense and a frameshift mutation. PVRL4 encodes for nectin-4, a cell adhesion molecule mainly implicated in the formation of cadherin-based adherens junctions. We demonstrated high nectin-4 expression in hair follicle structures, as well as in the separating digits of murine embryos, the tissues mainly affected by the EDSS phenotype. In patient keratinocytes, mutated nectin-4 lost its capability to bind nectin-1. Additionally, in discrete structures of the hair follicle, we found alterations of the membrane localization of nectin-afadin and cadherin-catenin complexes, which are essential for adherens junction formation, and we found reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Together with cleft lip and/or palate ectodermal dysplasia (CLPED1, or Zlotogora-Ogur syndrome) due to an impaired function of nectin-1, EDSS is the second known "nectinopathy" caused by mutations in a nectin adhesion molecule.

  17. Expression of endothelial adhesion molecules in the alveolar ridge mucosa, gingiva and periimplant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, N U; Berglundh, T; Marinello, C P; Lindhe, J

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in the alveolar ridge mucosa, the gingiva and the periimplant mucosa in humans. Twelve partially edentulous subjects were included in the study. In each subject, one soft tissue biopsy was harvested from the edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa, one from a tooth site and one from an implant site. After 3 weeks of undisturbed plaque accumulation, an additional biopsy was obtained from one tooth and one implant site in each subject. The tissue samples were snap frozen and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. In the alveolar ridge mucosa, smaller proportions of endothelial cells expressing ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed than in the gingiva. ELAM-1-positive cells occurred in lower numbers than in periimplant mucosa. After 21 days of plaque accumulation, ELAM-1 was increased in tooth sites, but decreased in periimplant mucosa. The results of the present study indicated that the proportions of activated endothelial cells and the extravasation of leukocytes is larger in gingiva and periimplant mucosa than in alveolar ridge mucosa. This might be due to the less permeable keratinized epithelial layer in the edentulous ridge mucosa, which offers proper protection against microbial pathogens. The greater expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules during experimental gingivitis, compared to periimplant mucositis, may reflect its longer history of repeated antigenic assaults.

  18. Resveratrol abrogates adhesion molecules and protects against TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Dalaal M; Ismael, Naglaa R

    2011-11-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound with anti-inflammatory properties, has been previously evaluated for its beneficial effects in several ulcerative colitis models. However, the current study elucidates the effect of resveratrol on adhesion molecules, as well as its antioxidant efficacy in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ulcerative-colitis model. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of TNBS, followed by daily per os administration of either sulphasalazine (300 mg/kg) or resveratrol (2 and 10 mg/kg) for 7 days. Administration of resveratrol decreased the ulcerative area and colon mass index; these effects were further supported by the reduction in colon inflammation grades, as well as histolopathological changes, and reflected by the stalling of body mass loss. The anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol were indicated by lowered myeloperoxidase activity, and by suppressing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in the colon and serum. In addition, it restored a reduced colonic nitric oxide level and reinstated its redox balance, as evidenced by the suppression of lipid peroxides and prevention of glutathione depletion. The anti-ulcerative effect of the higher dose of resveratrol was comparable with those of sulphasalazine. The study confirms the anti-ulcerative effect of resveratrol in TNBS-induced experimental colitis via reduction of neutrophil infiltration, inhibition of adhesive molecules, and restoration of the nitric oxide level, as well as the redox status.

  19. Cleavage of extracellular matrix in periodontitis: gingipains differentially affect cell adhesion activities of fibronectin and tenascin-C

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Sabrina; Cosgarea, Raluca; Potempa, Jan; Potempa, Barbara; Eick, Sigrun; Chiquet, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Gingipains are cysteine proteases that represent major virulence factors of the periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipains are reported to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) of periodontal tissues, leading to tissue destruction and apoptosis. The exact mechanism is not known, however. Fibronectin and tenascin-C are pericellular ECM glycoproteins present in periodontal tissues. Whereas fibronectin mediates fibroblast adhesion, tenascin-C binds to fibronectin and inhibits its cell-spreading activity. Using purified proteins in vitro, we asked whether fibronectin and tenascin-C are cleaved by gingipains at clinically relevant concentrations, and how fragmentation by the bacterial proteases affects their biological activity in cell adhesion. Fibronectin was cleaved into distinct fragments by all three gingipains; however, only arginine-specific HRgpA and RgpB but not lysine-specific Kgp destroyed its cell-spreading activity. This result was confirmed with recombinant cell-binding domain of fibronectin. Of the two major tenascin-C splice variants, the large but not the small was a substrate for gingipains, indicating that cleavage occurred primarily in the alternatively spliced domain. Surprisingly, cleavage of large tenascin-C variant by all three gingipains generated fragments with increased anti-adhesive activity towards intact fibronectin. Fibronectin and tenascin-C fragments were detected in gingival crevicular fluid of a subset of periodontitis patients. We conclude that cleavage by gingipains directly affects the biological activity of both fibronectin and tenascin-C in a manner that might lead to increased cell detachment and loss during periodontal disease. PMID:23313574

  20. Differential effects of EGF and amphiregulin on adhesion molecule expression and migration of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Solic, N; Davies, D E

    1997-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent morphogen affecting cell shape and motility through regulation of adhesive interactions. We have characterized the morphological effects of EGF on GP2d and GP5d colon carcinoma cell lines and have compared the ability of the heparin-binding EGF receptor ligand amphiregulin (AR) to elicit the same effects. EGF induced a marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition in both cell lines. This effect was evident at 7 pM EGF and was associated with a reduction in cellular adherens junctions and diminished cell-cell contact; it was also associated with an increase in expression of alpha2-integrin as well as enhanced adhesion to the substratum and cell spreading. These changes in adhesion molecule expression were accompanied by enhanced migration on collagen. Blockade of cell growth with mitomycin C did not prevent the EGF-induced morphological change, showing that the mitogenic and morphogenic responses of the GP cells were separable. The phosphatidyl inositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin inhibited basal proliferation but had no effect on the EGF-induced morphological change, further suggesting that the PI 3-kinase pathway was not involved in the morphogenic response of these cells. Amphiregulin stimulated proliferation of both cell lines, but could only elicit a modest morphological change if used at considerably higher doses or if growth was blocked with mitomycin C. In cells treated with 55 nM AR, alpha2-integrin expression was slightly increased; however, unlike the EGF case, adherens junctions remained intact. These differences in the ability of EGF and amphiregulin to affect cellular adhesion and migration may be significant factors influencing normal and tumor cell behavior.

  1. Adiponectin deficiency increases leukocyte-endothelium interactions via upregulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Raogo; Gong, Yulan; Berzins, Brett; Wu, Xiandong; Mahadev, Kalyankar; Hough, Kelly; Chan, Lawrence; Goldstein, Barry J.; Scalia, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on what we believe are novel mechanism(s) of the vascular protective action of adiponectin. We used intravital microscopy to measure leukocyte-endothelium interactions in adiponectin-deficient (Ad–/–) mice and found that adiponectin deficiency was associated with a 2-fold increase in leukocyte rolling and a 5-fold increase in leukocyte adhesion in the microcirculation. Measurement of endothelial NO (eNO) revealed that adiponectin deficiency drastically reduced levels of eNO in the vascular wall. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased expression of E-selectin and VCAM-1 in the vascular endothelium of Ad–/– mice. Systemic administration of the recombinant globular adiponectin domain (gAd) to Ad–/– mice significantly attenuated leukocyte-endothelium interactions and adhesion molecule expression in addition to restoring physiologic levels of eNO. Importantly, prior administration of gAd also protected WT mice against TNF-α–induced leukocyte-endothelium interactions, indicating a pharmacologic action of gAd. Mechanistically, blockade of eNOS with Nω-nitro- l-arginine methyl ester ( l-NAME) abolished the inhibitory effect of gAd on leukocyte adhesion, demonstrating the obligatory role of eNOS signaling in the antiinflammatory action of gAd. We believe this is the first demonstration that gAd protects the vasculature in vivo via increased NO bioavailability with suppression of leukocyte-endothelium interactions. Overall, we provide evidence that loss of adiponectin induces a primary state of endothelial dysfunction with increased leukocyte-endothelium adhesiveness. PMID:17549259

  2. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Lena; Schäfer, Julia; Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H; Imhof, Beat A; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/-) mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/-) mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/-) mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd) ventricle in JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  3. Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-C Deficient C57BL/6 Mice Develop a Severe Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H.; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H.; Imhof, Beat A.; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C−/− mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C−/− mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C−/− mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3rd ventricle in JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C. PMID:23029139

  4. Erythromycin exerts in vivo anti-inflammatory activity downregulating cell adhesion molecule expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, María-Jesús; Nabah, Yafa Naim Abu; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; O'Connor, José-Enrique; Issekutz, Andrew C; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J

    2004-01-01

    Macrolides have long been used as anti-bacterial agents; however, there is some evidence that may exert anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, erythromycin was used to characterize the mechanisms involved in their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Erythromycin pretreatment (30 mg kg−1 day−1 for 1 week) reduced the lipopolysaccharide (LPS; intratracheal, 0.4 mg kg−1)-induced increase in neutrophil count and elastase activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity, but failed to decrease tumor necrosis factor-α and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 augmented levels in BALF. Erythromycin pretreatment also prevented lung P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA upregulation in response to airway challenge with LPS. Mesentery superfusion with LPS (1 μg ml−1) induced a significant increase in leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions at 60 min. Erythromycin pretreatment abolished the increases in these parameters. LPS exposure of the mesentery for 4 h caused a significant increase in leukocyte rolling flux, adhesion and emigration, which were inhibited by erythromycin by 100, 93 and 95%, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that LPS exposure of the mesentery for 4 h caused a significant enhancement in P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression that was downregulated by erythromycin pretreatment. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that erythromycin pretreatment inhibited LPS-induced CD11b augmented expression in rat neutrophils. In conclusion, erythromycin inhibits leukocyte recruitment in the lung and this effect appears mediated through downregulation of CAM expression. Therefore, macrolides may be useful in the control of neutrophilic pulmonary diseases. PMID:15665859

  5. Human cell adhesion molecules: annotated functional subtypes and overrepresentation of addiction-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xiaoming; Drgonova, Jana; Li, Chuan-Yun; Uhl, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Human cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are essential both for a) proper development, modulation and maintenance of interactions between cells and for b) cell-to-cell (and matrix-to-cell) communication about these interactions. CAMs are thus key to proper development and plasticity of organs and tissues that include the brain. Despite recognition of the existence of these dual CAM roles and appreciation of the differential functional significance of these roles, there have been surprisingly few systematic studies that have carefully enumerated the universe of CAMs, identified the preferred roles for specific CAMs in distinct types of cellular connections and communication, or related these issues to specific brain disorders or brain circuits. In this paper, we substantially update and review the set of human genes that are likely to encode CAMs based on searches of databases, literature reviews and annotations. We describe the likely CAMs and the functional CAM subclasses into which they fall. These include “iCAMs”, whose contacts largely mediate cell to cell communication, those involved in focal adhesions, CAM genes whose products are preferentially involved with stereotyped and morphologically-identifiable connections between cells (adherens junctions, gap junctions) and smaller numbers of genes in other classes. We discuss a novel proposed mechanism involving selective anchoring of the constituents of iCAM-containing lipid rafts in zones of close neuronal apposition to membranes expressing binding partners of these iCAMs. CAM data from genetic and genomic studies of addiction in humans and mouse models provide examples of the ways in which CAM variation is likely to contribute to a specific brain-based disorder. We discuss how differences in CAM splicing mediated by differences in the addiction-associated splicing regulator RBFOX1/A2BP1 could enrich this picture. CAM expression in dopamine neurons provides one of the ways in which variations in cell adhesion

  6. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and the regulation of adhesion molecules in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Di Noto, R; Lo Pardo, C; Schiavone, E M; Ferrara, F; Manzo, C; Vacca, C; Del Vecchio, L

    1996-04-01

    A review of recent information on the expression and the ATRA-driven modulation of cell surface adhesion molecules of acute myelogenous leukemia blast cells is presented. Cytofluorometric studies on fresh blast cells have demonstrated that CD11a, CD11b CD11c, CD15, CD45RO and CD54 expression is significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) than is acute myeloid leukemia of other subtypes (AML). In vitro treatment with ATRA dramatically modifies the adhesion phenotype of APL blast cells, promoting a consistently striking up-regulation of CD11b, CD11c, CD15, CD65, CD54, and CD38. Which is in general, poorly demonstrable in AML. The behaviour of CD15s is variable and fully independent from CD15 and CD65 in induction experiments, suggesting a differential enzyme regulation within the selectin ligand system. ATRA is capable, in both APL and AML, of producing a switch from the high- (RA) to the low- (RO) molecular weight isoform of CD54, Moreover, treatment with this retinoid exerts a negative regulation of the membrane expression of CD49e, CD58 and CD11a in APL as well as in AML. Of particular interest is the fact that the negative effect on CD1 1a expression generates an asynchronous phenotype in APL (CD11a-, CD11b+, CD15+), undetectable on normal maturing myeloid cells. In the last part of this review the possible implications of adhesion molecule modulation in the pathogenesis of ATRA syndrome are discussed.

  7. Mechanisms for segregating T cell receptor and adhesion molecules during immunological synapse formation in Jurkat T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaizuka, Yoshihisa; Douglass, Adam D.; Varma, Rajat; Dustin, Michael L.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    T cells interacting with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) form an “immunological synapse” (IS), a bull's-eye pattern composed of a central supramolecular activation cluster enriched with T cell receptors (TCRs) surrounded by a ring of adhesion molecules (a peripheral supramolecular activation cluster). The mechanism responsible for segregating TCR and adhesion molecules remains poorly understood. Here, we show that immortalized Jurkat T cells interacting with a planar lipid bilayer (mimicking an APC) will form an IS, thereby providing an accessible model system for studying the cell biological processes underlying IS formation. We found that an actin-dependent process caused TCR and adhesion proteins to cluster at the cell periphery, but these molecules appeared to segregate from one another at the earliest stages of microdomain formation. The TCR and adhesion microdomains attached to actin and were carried centripetally by retrograde flow. However, only the TCR microdomains penetrated into the actin-depleted cell center, whereas the adhesion microdomains appeared to be unstable without an underlying actin cytoskeleton. Our results reveal that TCR and adhesion molecules spatially partition from one another well before the formation of a mature IS and that differential actin interactions help to shape and maintain the final bull's-eye pattern of the IS. PMID:18077330

  8. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Satoh, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. MapA-binding receptor-like molecules were detected in Caco-2 cell lysates by 2D-PAGE. Two proteins, annexin A13 (ANXA13) and paralemmin (PALM), were identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The results of a pull-down assay showed that MapA bound directly to ANXA13 and PALM. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed that MapA binding to ANXA13 and PALM was colocalized on the Caco-2 cell membrane. To evaluate whether ANXA13 and PALM are important for MapA adhesion, ANXA13 and PALM knockdown cell lines were established. The adhesion of MapA to the abovementioned cell lines was reduced compared with that to wild-type Caco-2 cells. These knockdown experiments established the importance of these receptor-like molecules in MapA adhesion.

  9. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    MATSUO, Yosuke; MIYOSHI, Yukihiro; OKADA, Sanae; SATOH, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. MapA-binding receptor-like molecules were detected in Caco-2 cell lysates by 2D-PAGE. Two proteins, annexin A13 (ANXA13) and paralemmin (PALM), were identified by MALDI TOF-MS. The results of a pull-down assay showed that MapA bound directly to ANXA13 and PALM. Fluorescence microscopy studies confirmed that MapA binding to ANXA13 and PALM was colocalized on the Caco-2 cell membrane. To evaluate whether ANXA13 and PALM are important for MapA adhesion, ANXA13 and PALM knockdown cell lines were established. The adhesion of MapA to the abovementioned cell lines was reduced compared with that to wild-type Caco-2 cells. These knockdown experiments established the importance of these receptor-like molecules in MapA adhesion. PMID:24936355

  10. Redox Capacity of an Extracellular Matrix Protein Associated with Adhesion in Mytilus californianus.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Spahn, Jamie E; Zhou, Hongjun; Gruian, Cristina M; Waite, J Herbert

    2016-04-05

    Adhesive mussel foot proteins (Mfps) rely in part on DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine) side chains to mediate attachment to mineral surfaces underwater. Oxidation of DOPA to Dopaquinone (Q) effectively abolishes the adsorption of Mfps to these surfaces. The thiol-rich mussel foot protein-6 (Mfp-6) rescues adhesion compromised by adventitious DOPA oxidation by reducing Q back to DOPA. The redox chemistry and kinetics of foot-extracted Mfp-6 were investigated by using a nonspecific chromogenic probe to equilibrate with the redox pool. Foot-extracted Mfp-6 has a reducing capacity of ~17 e(-) per protein; half of this comes from the cysteine residues, whereas the other half comes from other constituents, probably a cohort of four or five nonadhesive, redox-active DOPA residues in Mfp-6 with an anodic peak potential ~500 mV lower than that for oxidation of cysteine to cystine. At higher pH, DOPA redox reversibility is lost possibly due to Q scavenging by Cys thiolates. Analysis by one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance identified a pronounced β-sheet structure with a hydrophobic core in foot-extracted Mfp-6 protein. The structure endows redox-active side chains in Mfp-6, i.e., cysteine and DOPA, with significant reducing power over a broad pH range, and this power is measurably diminished in recombinant Mfp-6.

  11. The Enhancement of Metallic Silver Monomer Evaporation by the Adhesion of Polar Molecules to Silver Nanocluster Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-21

    POLAR MOLECULES TO SILVER NANOCLUSTER IONS by Clifton Fagerquist, Dilip K. Sensharma, Angel Rubio, Marvin L. Cohen and M. A. EI-Sayed Prepared for...MOLECULES TO SILVER NANOCLUSTER IONS Clifton K. Fagerquist#, Dilip K. Sensharma and Mostafa A. E1-Sayed* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry...CZVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. .:UNO:NG :.UMBERS Tl1E ENANCDEET OF METALLIC SILVER MONOMER EVAPORATION .- 1 9Y THE ADHESION OF POLAR MOLECULES TO SILVER

  12. Effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on expression of adhesion molecules by human endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pu, F R; Williams, R L; Markkula, T K; Hunt, J A

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of human endothelial cells in response to the systematic variation in materials properties by the ammonia plasma modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). These adhesion molecules act as mediators of cell adhesion, play a role in the modulation of cell adhesion on biomaterials and therefore condition the response of tissues to implants. First and second passage human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on plasma treated and untreated PET and PTFE. HUVECs grown on polystyrene tissue culture coverslips and HUVECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were used as controls. After 1 day and 7 days, the expression of adhesion molecules platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Integrin alphavbeta3, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, P-selectin and L-selectin were evaluated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There was a slight increase in positive cell numbers expressing the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on plasma treated PET and PTFE. A significant increase in E-selectin positive cells on untreated PTFE was demonstrated after 7 days. Stimulation with TNF-alpha demonstrated a significant increase in the proportion of ICAM-1. VCAM-1 and E-selectin positive cells. Almost all cells expressed PECAM-1 and integrin alphavbeta3, on both materials and controls but did not express P- and L-selectin on any surface. When second passage cells were used, the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was markedly increased on all surfaces but not with TNF-alpha. These significant differences were not observed in other adhesion molecules. These results were supported by immunohistochemical studies. The effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on cell adhesion and proliferation was also studied. There was a 1.3-fold

  13. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact. PMID:22801967

  14. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  15. Expression of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells on plasma treated PET and PTFE in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pu, F R; Williams, R L; Markkula, T K; Hunt, J A

    2002-12-01

    We used a coculture model to evaluate the inflammatory potential of ammonia gas plasma modified PET and PTFE by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In these studies, human endothelial cells from umbilical cord (HUVEC) and promonocytic U937 cells were used. HUVECs grown on polystyrene tissue culture coverslips and HUVECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were used as controls. U937 adhesion to endothelium on each surface was evaluated at day 1 and day 7. To further investigate the role of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in cell-to-cell interaction on material surfaces, the expression of the leukocyte-endothelial CAMs: ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, and E-selectin on HUVECs were evaluated after U937 cell adhesion. The results demonstrated that plasma treated PET (T-PET) and treated PTFE (T-PTFE) did not increase U937 cell adhesion compared to the negative control. Maximal adhesion of U937 cells to HUVEC was observed on TNF-alpha stimulated endothelium with significant differences between day 1 and day 7, which is consistent with our prior observation that T-PET and T-PTFE did not cause HUVECs to increase the expression of adhesion molecules. After U937 cell adhesion, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of HUVECs were not different on T-PET and T-PTFE compared with the negative control. However, the expression of E-selectin was reduced on day 1, but not on day 7. The effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on HUVEC adhesion and proliferation were also studied. On day 1 there were slight increases in the growth of HUVECs on both of T-PET and T-PTFE but this was not statistically significant. On day 7, the cell number increased significantly on the surfaces compared to the negative control. The results demonstrate that the plasma treatment of PET and PTFE with ammonia improves the adhesion and growth of endothelial cells and these surfaces do not exhibit a direct inflammatory effect in terms of monocyte adhesion and expression of

  16. Effect of copper on extracellular levels of key pro-inflammatory molecules in hypothalamic GN11 and primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Spisni, Enzo; Valerii, Maria Chiara; Manerba, Marcella; Strillacci, Antonio; Polazzi, Elisabetta; Mattia, Toni; Griffoni, Cristiana; Tomasi, Vittorio

    2009-07-01

    Copper dyshomeostasis is responsible for the neurological symptoms observed in the genetically inherited copper-dependent disorders (e.g., Menkes' and Wilson's diseases), but it has been also shown to have an important role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, prion diseases, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is widely accepted that increased extracellular copper levels contribute to neuronal pathogenic process by increasing the production of dangerous radical oxygen species, but the existence of other molecular mechanisms explaining copper neurotoxicity has not been investigated yet. By using a cellular model based on hypothalamic GN11 cultured neurons exposed to copper supplementation and by analysing the cell conditioned media, we try here to identify new molecular events explaining the association between extracellular copper accumulation and neuronal damages. We show here that increased extracellular copper levels produce a wide complex of alterations in the neuronal extracellular environment. In particular, copper affects the secretion of molecules involved in the protection of neurons against oxidative stress, such as cyclophilin A (CypA), or of molecules capable of shifting neuronal cells towards a pro-inflammatory state, such as IL-1alpha, IL-12, Rantes, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Copper pro-inflammatory properties have been confirmed by using primary neurons.

  17. MicroRNA126 contributes to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization by reducing the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Ombretta; Jiang, Kan; Gasperini, Paola; Maric, Dragan; Zhu, Jinfang; Sakakibara, Shuhei; Espigol-Frigole, Georgina; Wang, Shushang; Tosato, Giovanna

    2012-06-01

    Mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is the primary means to acquire stem cell grafts for hematopoietic cell transplantation. Since hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells represent a minority of all blood cells mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the underlying mechanisms need to be understood in order to develop selective drugs. We analyzed phenotypic, biochemical and genetic changes in bone marrow cell populations from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized and control mice, and linked such changes to effective mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor indirectly reduces expression of surface vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 on bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells by promoting the accumulation of microRNA-126 (miR126)-containing microvescicles in the bone marrow extracellular compartment. We found that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells readily incorporate these miR126-loaded microvescicles, and that miR126 represses vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression on bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells. In line with this, miR126-null mice displayed a reduced mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Our results implicate miR126 in the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell trafficking between the bone marrow and peripheral sites, clarify the role of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mediated mobilization, and have important implications for improved approaches to selective mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

  18. [Serum concentration of soluble adhesive molecules in patients with different forms of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Damnjanović, Goran; Jelić, Marija; Dindić, Boris; Ilić, Stevan

    2009-04-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesive molecules-1 (ICAM-1) play an important role in developing and progression of coronary atherosderosis. The aim of the paper was to compare concentrations of soluble forms of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in patients with different clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD) and patients without CAD. Blood samples were taken from 25 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 25 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP), 25 with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and from 15 control patients without CAD, and concentrations of solubile adhesive molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) were determined. Obesity was more prominent in the NAP than in the SAP and the control patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in gender distribution, age, duration of the CAD and body mass index between the groups. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 were more frequent in the CAD patients than in the controls (p < 0.01). Family history of the CAD was more frequent in the AMI and the UAP group than in the controls (p < 0.05). Serum concentrations of VCAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (955.9 +/- 117.8 ng/mL), UAP (952.4 +/- 139.1 ng/mL) and SAP (931 +/- 169.8 ng/mL), and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (823.4 +/- 97.6; p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively). Serum concentration of ICAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (699.2 +/- 125.6 ng/mL), UAP (727.6 +/- 171.8 ng/mL) and SAP (697.5 +/- 165.6 ng/mL), and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (583.4 +/- 86.6; p < 0.1, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively). Increased concentrations of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, as markers of inflammation, showed the importance of inflammatory processes in development of atherosclerosis and clinical expresion of CAD. Measurement of soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations is a usefull indicator of atherosclerosis presence but not severity of CAD

  19. Histamine H4 receptor mediates eosinophil chemotaxis with cell shape change and adhesion molecule upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ping; Ngo, Karen; Nguyen, Steven; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P; Karlsson, Lars; Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping

    2004-01-01

    During mast cell degranulation, histamine is released in large quantities. Human eosinophils were found to express histamine H4 but not H3 receptors. The possible effects of histamine on eosinophils and the receptor mediating these effects were investigated in our studies. Histamine (0.01–30 μM) induced a rapid and transient cell shape change in human eosinophils, but had no effects on neutrophils. The maximal shape change was at 0.3 μM histamine with EC50 at 19 nM. After 60 min incubation with 1 μM histamine, eosinophils were desensitized and were refractory to shape change response upon histamine restimulation. Histamine (0.01–1 μM) also enhanced the eosinophil shape change induced by other chemokines. Histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was mediated by the H4 receptor. This effect was completely inhibited by H4 receptor-specific antagonist JNJ 7777120 (IC50 0.3 μM) and H3/H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (IC50 1.4 μM), but not by selective H1, H2 or H3 receptor antagonists. H4 receptor agonists imetit (EC50 25 nM) and clobenpropit (EC50 72 nM) could mimic histamine effect in inducing eosinophil shape change. Histamine (0.01–100 μM) induced upregulation of adhesion molecules CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) and CD54 (ICAM-1) on eosinophils. This effect was mediated by the H4 receptor and could be blocked by H4 receptor antagonists JNJ 7777120 and thioperamide. Histamine (0.01–10 μM) induced eosinophil chemotaxis with an EC50 of 83 nM. This effect was mediated by the H4 receptor and could be blocked by H4 receptor antagonists JNJ 7777120 (IC50 86 nM) and thioperamide (IC50 519 nM). Histamine (0.5 μM) also enhanced the eosinophil shape change induced by other chemokines. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a new mechanism of eosinophil recruitment driven by mast cells via the release of histamine. Using specific histamine receptor ligands, we have provided a definitive proof that the H4 receptor mediates eosinophil chemotaxis, cell shape change and

  20. Folic acid reduces adhesion molecules VCAM-1 expession in aortic of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chen, Jian; Li, Yu-Shu; Feng, Yi-Bai; Gu, Xiang; Shi, Chun-Zhi

    2006-01-13

    To investigate effects of supplementation of folic acid on the expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 in the aortas of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Thirty male SD rats (200 +/- 20 g) were invided into 3 groups (n = 10 for each group): control group(Control), high Met group(Met) and Met plus Folate group(Met + Folate), fed. for 45 days. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with the high-methionine diet (140.68 +/- 36.87 micromol/L vs 6.47 +/- 1.10 micromol/L in control rats) an effect which was reduced by folate. Respectively, the aortic expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 at protein and mRNA levels were higher in the Met groups than those in the control groups or the Met + Folate groups. A high methionine diet for 45 days was sufficient to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. Folate supplementation prevented elevation of Hcy levels in the blood, and reduced expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1. Hyperhomocysteinemia is now regarded as one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebralvascular disorders.[Welch GN, Loscalzo J. Homocysteine and atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med 1998; 38(15):1042-50.] Several plausible mechanisms for Hcy-induecd atherosclerosis have been proposed. These include endothelial dysfunction, enhancement of oxidative stress, reduction in NO bioavailability, and augmentation of thrombus formation.[Holven KB, Holm T, Aukrust P, et al. Effect of folic acid treatment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitric oxide-derived end products in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects . Am J Med 2001;110(7):536-42; Guba SC, Fonseca V, Fink LM. Hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999;25(3):291-309.] However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unclear. Recent reports have suggested a role for inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.[Gerard C, Rollins BJ. Chemokines and disease. Nat Immunol 2001;2(2):108-15.] Dysfunction of endothelial cells is the key process promoting inflammatory reactions. On

  1. CD50 (intercellular adhesion molecule 3) stimulation induces calcium mobilization and tyrosine phosphorylation through p59fyn and p56lck in Jurkat T cell line

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The leukocyte differentiation antigen, CD50, has been recently identified as the intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3), the third counter-receptor of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). This molecule seems to be specially involved in the adhesion events of the initial phases of the immune response. To characterize the role of CD50 in leukocyte interactions, the different molecular events induced after cross-linking of CD50 on T cell-derived Jurkat cell line have been analyzed. When cells were incubated with anti-CD50 mAbs and cross- linked with polyclonal goat anti-mouse immunoglobulins, a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was observed. This increase in [Ca2+]i was mainly due to the uptake of extracellular Ca2+. This Ca2+ flux involved tyrosine phosphorylations and was further increased by CD3 costimulation. These data, together with those obtained by phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays, suggested the involvement of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) in CD50 transduction pathways. By using specific antisera, the presence of p56lck and p59fyn protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) was clearly demonstrated in the CD50 immunoprecipitates. These findings suggest that the interaction of CD50 with its natural ligand (LFA-1) may result in T lymphocyte activation events, in which CD50 could play a very active role after antigen triggering. PMID:7515097

  2. Irradiation by pulsed Nd:YAG laser induces the production of extracellular matrix molecules by cells of the connective tissues: a tool for tissue repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monici, Monica; Basile, Venere; Cialdai, Francesca; Romano, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Conti, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Many studies demonstrated that mechanical stress is a key factor for tissue homeostasis, while unloading induce loss of mass and impairment of function. Because of their physiological function, muscle, connective tissue, bone and cartilage dynamically interact with mechanical and gravitational stress, modifying their properties through the continuous modification of their composition. Indeed, it is known that mechanical stress increases the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by cells, but the mechanotransduction mechanisms and the optimal loading conditions required for an optimal tissue homeostasis are still unknown. Considering the importance of cell activation and ECM production in tissue regeneration, a proper use of mechanical stimulation could be a powerful tool in tissue repair and tissue engineering. Studies exploring advanced modalities for supplying mechanical stimuli are needed to increase our knowledge on mechanobiology and to develop effective clinical applications. Here we describe the effect of photomechanical stress, supplied by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser on ECM production by cells of connective tissues. Cell morphology, production of ECM molecules (collagens, fibronectin, mucopolysaccharides), cell adhesion and cell energy metabolism have been studied by using immunofluorescence and autofluorescence microscopy. The results show that photomechanical stress induces cytoskeleton remodelling, redistribution of membrane integrins, increase in production of ECM molecules. These results could be of consequence for developing clinical protocols for the treatment of connective tissue dideases by pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

  3. Optical tweezers for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Magnus; Axner, Ove; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Fällman, Erik

    2006-08-01

    Instrumentation and methodologies for single molecule force spectroscopy on bacterial adhesion organelles by the use of force measuring optical tweezers have been developed. A thorough study of the biomechanical properties of fimbrial adhesion organelles expressed by uropathogenic E. coli, so-called pili, is presented. Steady-state as well as dynamic force measurements on P pili, expressed by E. coli causing pyelonephritis, have revealed, among other things, various unfolding and refolding properties of the helical structure of P pili, the PapA rod. Based on these properties an energy landscape model has been constructed by which specific biophysical properties of the PapA rod have been extracted, e.g. the number of subunits, the length of a single pilus, bond lengths and activation energies for bond opening and closure. Moreover, long time repetitive measurements have shown that the rod can be unfolded and refolded repetitive times without losing its intrinsic properties. These properties are believed to be of importance for the bacteria's ability to maintain close contact with host cells during initial infections. The results presented are considered to be of importance for the field of biopolymers in general and the development of new pharmaceuticals towards urinary tract infections in particular. The results show furthermore that the methodology can be used to gain knowledge of the intrinsic biomechanical function of adhesion organelles. The instrumentation is currently used for characterization of type 1 pili, expressed by E. coli causing cystitis, i.e. infections in the bladder. The first force spectrometry investigations of these pili will be presented.

  4. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) Regulates Claudin Dynamics and Tight Junctions* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuan-Jin; Mannan, Poonam; Lu, Michael; Udey, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (CD326) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by invasive carcinomas and some epithelia. Herein, we report that EpCAM regulates the composition and function of tight junctions (TJ). EpCAM accumulated on the lateral interfaces of human colon carcinoma and normal intestinal epithelial cells but did not co-localize with TJ. Knockdown of EpCAM in T84 and Caco-2 cells using shRNAs led to changes in morphology and adhesiveness. TJ formed readily after EpCAM knockdown; the acquisition of trans-epithelial electroresistance was enhanced, and TJ showed increased resistance to disruption by calcium chelation. Preparative immunoprecipitation demonstrated that EpCAM bound tightly to claudin-7. Co-immunoprecipitation documented associations of EpCAM with claudin-7 and claudin-1 but not claudin-2 or claudin-4. Claudin-1 associated with claudin-7 in co-transfection experiments, and claudin-7 was required for association of claudin-1 with EpCAM. EpCAM knockdown resulted in decreases in claudin-7 and claudin-1 proteins that were reversed with lysosome inhibitors. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that claudin-7 and claudin-1 continually trafficked into lysosomes. Although EpCAM knockdown decreased claudin-1 and claudin-7 protein levels overall, accumulations of claudin-1 and claudin-7 in TJ increased. Physical interactions between EpCAM and claudins were required for claudin stabilization. These findings suggest that EpCAM modulates adhesion and TJ function by regulating intracellular localization and degradation of selected claudins. PMID:23486470

  5. [Expression of adhesion molecule CD44 on subpopulations of lymphocytes in hypertrophied adenoids in children with otitis media with effusion].

    PubMed

    Ratomski, Karol; Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Wysocka, Jolanta; Skotnicka, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    The CD44 on lymphocytes binding to its ligand hyaluronan can mediate primary adhesion (rolling interactions) of lymphocytes on high endothelial venules (HEV). This adhesion molecule plays an important role to maturation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the secondary lymphoid organs. CD44 has a crucial role in migrate of lymphocytes to inflammatory sites. The AIM of this study was evaluation of the percentage and MFI (mean fluorescence intensity) of lymphocytes CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ with expression of surface adhesive molecule CD44 in hypertrophied adenoids in children with otitis media with effusion. 42 children with otitis media with effusion and 30 children with hypertrophied adenoids were tested. Children were also divided into two subgroups: young (below 5 years) and older children (above 5 years old). Expression of adhesion molecule CD28 on lymphocytes of adenoids tissue was estimated by flow cytometry method. This study showed significantly higher percentage of lymphocytes CD19+CD44+ in children with otitis media with effusion (OME 87,83%) than in comparative group with hypertrophied adenoids (AH 85,61%). We did not find difference between OME and AH in mean fluorescence intensity of subpopulations lymphocytes T and B with expression CD44. Adhesion molecule CD44 is important for developing of effectors lymphocytes in hypertrophy adenoid. Increase percentage of lymphocytes CD19 with expression CD28, especially in older children confirms their participation in developing and forming of immunological response in otitis media with effusion.

  6. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    He, Qian-ru; Cong, Meng; Chen, Qing-zhong; Sheng, Ya-feng; Li, Jian; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Fei; Gong, Yan-pei

    2016-01-01

    The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A. Western blot assay results demonstrated that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at the proximal end after injury, but its expression was greater in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks. Semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days and 1 week after injury. Nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 and semaphorin 3A expressions at the distal end were higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days, 1 and 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression at the proximal end was greater in the sensory nerves than in the motor nerves; semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks after injury. Taken together, these results indicated that nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A exhibited different expression patterns at the proximal and distal ends of sensory and motor nerves, and play a coordinating role in neural chemotaxis regeneration. PMID:28197202

  7. NEDD9 stabilizes focal adhesions, increases binding to the extra-cellular matrix and differentially effects 2D versus 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jessie; Baquiran, Jaime B; Bonakdar, Navid; Lees, Justin; Ching, Yu Wooi; Pugacheva, Elena; Fabry, Ben; O'Neill, Geraldine M

    2012-01-01

    The speed of cell migration on 2-dimensional (2D) surfaces is determined by the rate of assembly and disassembly of clustered integrin receptors known as focal adhesions. Different modes of cell migration that have been described in 3D environments are distinguished by their dependence on integrin-mediated interactions with the extra-cellular matrix. In particular, the mesenchymal invasion mode is the most dependent on focal adhesion dynamics. The focal adhesion protein NEDD9 is a key signalling intermediary in mesenchymal cell migration, however whether NEDD9 plays a role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics has not previously been reported. As NEDD9 effects on 2D migration speed appear to depend on the cell type examined, in the present study we have used mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from mice in which the NEDD9 gene has been depleted (NEDD9 -/- MEFs). This allows comparison with effects of other focal adhesion proteins that have previously been demonstrated using MEFs. We show that focal adhesion disassembly rates are increased in the absence of NEDD9 expression and this is correlated with increased paxillin phosphorylation at focal adhesions. NEDD9-/- MEFs have increased rates of migration on 2D surfaces, but conversely, migration of these cells is significantly reduced in 3D collagen gels. Importantly we show that myosin light chain kinase is activated in 3D in the absence of NEDD9 and is conversely inhibited in 2D cultures. Measurement of adhesion strength reveals that NEDD9-/- MEFs have decreased adhesion to fibronectin, despite upregulated α5β1 fibronectin receptor expression. We find that β1 integrin activation is significantly suppressed in the NEDD9-/-, suggesting that in the absence of NEDD9 there is decreased integrin receptor activation. Collectively our data suggest that NEDD9 may promote 3D cell migration by slowing focal adhesion disassembly, promoting integrin receptor activation and increasing adhesion force to the ECM.

  8. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection.

  9. Association of Cell Adhesion Molecules Contactin-6 and Latrophilin-1 Regulates Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuko, Amila; Oguro-Ando, Asami; Post, Harm; Taggenbrock, Renske L. R. E.; van Dijk, Roland E.; Altelaar, A. F. Maarten; Heck, Albert J. R.; Petrenko, Alexander G.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Shimoda, Yasushi; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Burbach, J. Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    In view of important neurobiological functions of the cell adhesion molecule contactin-6 (Cntn6) that have emerged from studies on null-mutant mice and autism spectrum disorders patients, we set out to examine pathways underlying functions of Cntn6 using a proteomics approach. We identified the cell adhesion GPCR latrophilin-1 (Lphn1, a.k.a. CIRL1/CL, ADGRL1) as a binding partner for Cntn6 forming together a heteromeric cis-complex. Lphn1 expression in cultured neurons caused reduction in neurite outgrowth and increase in apoptosis, which was rescued by coexpression of Cntn6. In cultured neurons derived from Cntn6-/- mice, Lphn1 knockdown reduced apoptosis, suggesting that the observed apoptosis was Lphn1-dependent. In line with these data, the number of apoptotic cells was increased in the cortex of Cntn6-/- mice compared to wild-type littermate controls. These results show that Cntn6 can modulate the activity of Lphn1 by direct binding and suggests that Cntn6 may prevent apoptosis thereby impinging on neurodevelopment. PMID:28018171

  10. Developmental role of the cell adhesion molecule Contactin-6 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zuko, Amila; Oguro-Ando, Asami; van Dijk, Roland; Gregorio-Jordan, Sara; van der Zwaag, Bert; Burbach, J Peter H

    2016-07-03

    The gene encoding the neural cell adhesion molecule Contactin-6 (Cntn6 a.k.a. NB-3) has been implicated as an autism risk gene, suggesting that its mutation is deleterious to brain development. Due to its GPI-anchor at Cntn6 may exert cell adhesion/receptor functions in complex with other membrane proteins, or serve as a ligand. We aimed to uncover novel phenotypes related to Cntn6 functions during development in the cerebral cortex of adult Cntn6(-/-) mice. We first determined Cntn6 protein and mRNA expression in the cortex, thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus at P14, which decreased specifically in the cortex at adult stages. Neuroanatomical analysis demonstrated a significant decrease of Cux1+ projection neurons in layers II-IV and an increase of FoxP2+ projection neurons in layer VI in the visual cortex of adult Cntn6(-/-) mice compared to wild-type controls. Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin+ (PV) interneurons was decreased in Cntn6(-/-) mice, while the amount of NPY+ interneurons remained unchanged. In the hippocampus the delineation and outgrowth of mossy fibers remained largely unchanged, except for the observation of a larger suprapyramidal bundle. The observed abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Cntn6(-/-) mice suggests that Cntn6 serves developmental functions involving cell survival, migration and fasciculation. Furthermore, these data suggest that Cntn6 engages in both trans- and cis-interactions and may be involved in larger protein interaction networks.

  11. PRIMING EFFECT OF HOMOCYSTEINE ON INDUCIBLE VASCULAR CELL ADHESION MOLECULE-1 EXPRESSION IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Chantal; Abid, Md. Ruhul; Spokes, Katherine C.; Schoots, Ivo G; Brkovic, Alexandre; Sirois, Martin G.; Aird, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, as well as for arterial and venous thrombosis. However, the mechanisms through which elevated circulating levels of homocysteine cause vascular injury and promote thrombosis remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that homocysteine (Hcy) sensitizes endothelial cells to the effect of inflammatory mediators. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with Hcy 1.0 mM for varying time points, and then treated in the absence or presence of 1.5 U/ml thrombin or 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hcy alone had no effect on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, Hcy enhanced thrombin- and LPS-mediated induction of VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Consistent with these results, pretreatment of HUVEC with Hcy resulted in a two-fold increase in LSP-mediated induction of leukocyte adhesion. The latter effect was significantly inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Together, these findings suggest that Hcy sensitizes HUVEC to the effect of inflammatory mediators thrombin and LPS, at least in part through VCAM-1 expression and function. PMID:18406566

  12. The cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 is critical for normal enamel formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Barron, Martin J; Brookes, Steven J; Draper, Clare E; Garrod, David; Kirkham, Jennifer; Shore, Roger C; Dixon, Michael J

    2008-11-15

    Nectin-1 is a member of a sub-family of immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules and a component of adherens junctions. In the current study, we have shown that mice lacking nectin-1 exhibit defective enamel formation in their incisor teeth. Although the incisors of nectin-1-null mice were hypomineralized, the protein composition of the enamel matrix was unaltered. While strong immunostaining for nectin-1 was observed at the interface between the maturation-stage ameloblasts and the underlying cells of the stratum intermedium (SI), its absence in nectin-1-null mice correlated with separation of the cell layers at this interface. Numerous, large desmosomes were present at this interface in wild-type mice; however, where adhesion persisted in the mutant mice, the desmosomes were smaller and less numerous. Nectins have been shown to regulate tight junction formation; however, this is the first report showing that they may also participate in the regulation of desmosome assembly. Importantly, our results show that integrity of the SI-ameloblast interface is essential for normal enamel mineralization.

  13. Human cell adhesion molecules: annotated functional subtypes and overrepresentation of addiction-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoming; Drgonova, Jana; Li, Chuan-Yun; Uhl, George R

    2015-09-01

    Human cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are essential for proper development, modulation, and maintenance of interactions between cells and cell-to-cell (and matrix-to-cell) communication about these interactions. Despite the differential functional significance of these roles, there have been surprisingly few systematic studies to enumerate the universe of CAMs and identify specific CAMs in distinct functions. In this paper, we update and review the set of human genes likely to encode CAMs with searches of databases, literature reviews, and annotations. We describe likely CAMs and functional subclasses, including CAMs that have a primary function in information exchange (iCAMs), CAMs involved in focal adhesions, CAM gene products that are preferentially involved with stereotyped and morphologically identifiable connections between cells (e.g., adherens junctions, gap junctions), and smaller numbers of CAM genes in other classes. We discuss a novel proposed mechanism involving selective anchoring of the constituents of iCAM-containing lipid rafts in zones of close neuronal apposition to membranes expressing iCAM binding partners. We also discuss data from genetic and genomic studies of addiction in humans and mouse models to highlight the ways in which CAM variation may contribute to a specific brain-based disorder such as addiction. Specific examples include changes in CAM mRNA splicing mediated by differences in the addiction-associated splicing regulator RBFOX1/A2BP1 and CAM expression in dopamine neurons. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. The cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 is critical for normal enamel formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Martin J.; Brookes, Steven J.; Draper, Clare E.; Garrod, David; Kirkham, Jennifer; Shore, Roger C.; Dixon, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Nectin-1 is a member of a sub-family of immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules and a component of adherens junctions. In the current study, we have shown that mice lacking nectin-1 exhibit defective enamel formation in their incisor teeth. Although the incisors of nectin-1-null mice were hypomineralized, the protein composition of the enamel matrix was unaltered. While strong immunostaining for nectin-1 was observed at the interface between the maturation-stage ameloblasts and the underlying cells of the stratum intermedium (SI), its absence in nectin-1-null mice correlated with separation of the cell layers at this interface. Numerous, large desmosomes were present at this interface in wild-type mice; however, where adhesion persisted in the mutant mice, the desmosomes were smaller and less numerous. Nectins have been shown to regulate tight junction formation; however, this is the first report showing that they may also participate in the regulation of desmosome assembly. Importantly, our results show that integrity of the SI–ameloblast interface is essential for normal enamel mineralization. PMID:18703497

  15. N-glycosylation controls the function of junctional adhesion molecule-A

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David W.; Tolbert, Caitlin E.; Graham, David M.; Wittchen, Erika; Bear, James E.; Burridge, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adherens and tight junction protein expressed by endothelial and epithelial cells. JAM-A serves many roles and contributes to barrier function and cell migration and motility, and it also acts as a ligand for the leukocyte receptor LFA-1. JAM-A is reported to contain N-glycans, but the extent of this modification and its contribution to the protein’s functions are unknown. We show that human JAM-A contains a single N-glycan at N185 and that this residue is conserved across multiple mammalian species. A glycomutant lacking all N-glycans, N185Q, is able to reach the cell surface but exhibits decreased protein half-life compared with the wild- type protein. N-glycosylation of JAM-A is required for the protein’s ability to reinforce barrier function and contributes to Rap1 activity. We further show that glycosylation of N185 is required for JAM-A–mediated reduction of cell migration. Finally, we show that N-glycosylation of JAM-A regulates leukocyte adhesion and LFA-1 binding. These findings identify N-glycosylation as critical for JAM-A’s many functions. PMID:26224316

  16. Up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 transcription by hepatitis B virus X protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, K Q; Yu, C H; Vierling, J M

    1992-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a counter-receptor for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 on T cells, is critically important to a wide variety of adhesion-dependent leukocyte functions, including antigen presentation and target cell lysis. ICAM-1 expression by hepatocytes is increased in areas of inflammation and necrosis during chronic hepatitis B. Whether induction of ICAM-1 is due to the effect of inflammatory cytokines or involves a direct effect of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains unknown. In the present study, transfection of the HBV genome into human hepatoma cell lines resulted in enhanced expression of ICAM-1 protein and RNA in the absence of inflammation. Results of subgenomic transfections indicated that the HBV X protein (pX) induced ICAM-1 expression. Nuclear run-on assays showed that pX induced the ICAM-1 gene by increasing its rate of transcription. Although both pX and interferon gamma induced transcription of ICAM-1, addition of interferon gamma to cells expressing pX did not show an additive or synergistic effect. These results indicate that pX can directly regulate expression of ICAM-1 and may participate in the immunopathogenesis of HBV infection. Images PMID:1360668

  17. L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE IS NEUROPROTECTIVE OF ALCOHOL INDUCED CELL DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Gubitosi-Klug, Rose; Larimer, Corena G.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1), a protein critical for appropriate development of the central nervous system, is a target for ethanol teratogenicity. Ethanol inhibits both L1 mediated cell adhesion as well as L1 mediated neurite outgrowth. L1 has been shown to increase cell survival in cerebellar granule cells while ethanol has been shown to increase cell death. We sought to determine if L1 protected cells from ethanol induced cell death. Cerebellar granule cells from postnatal day 6 rat pups were cultured on either poly L-lysine with or without an L1 substratum. Alcohol was added at 2 hours post plating and cell survival was measured at various times. L1 substratum significantly increased cell survival at 72 and 120 hours. Ethanol significantly reduced cell survival at 48 hours, with no effect at 72 or 120 hours, both in the presence and absence of L1. At 48 hours, L1 significantly increased cell survival in the presence of ethanol. We conclude that ethanol interferes with processes other than L1-L1 interactions in causing cell death, and that ethanol effects would be more severe in the absence of L1. PMID:17267039

  18. Chick neural retina adhesion and survival molecule is a retinol-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, D.; LaCorbiere, M.; Esch, F.

    1986-01-01

    A 20,000-D protein called purpurin has recently been isolated from the growth-conditioned medium of cultured embryonic chick neural retina cells. Purpurin is a constituent of adherons and promotes cell-adheron adhesion by interacting with a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It also prolongs the survival of cultured neural retina cells. This paper shows that purpurin is a secretory protein that has sequence homology with a human protein synthesized in the liver that transports retinol in the blood, the serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). Purpurin binds (/sup 3/H)retinol, and both purpurin and chick serum RBP stimulate the adhesion of neural retina cells, although the serum protein is less active than purpurin. Purpurin and the serum RBP are, however, different molecules, for the serum protein is approx.3.000 D larger than purpurin and has different silver-staining characteristics. Finally, purpurin supports the survival of dissociated ciliary ganglion cells, indicating that RBPs can act as ciliary neurotrophic factors.

  19. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) tyrosine phosphorylation state changes during vasculogenesis in the murine conceptus.

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, E.; Barreuther, M.; Lu, T.; Imhof, B. A.; Madri, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the differentiation of mesodermal cells to angioblasts and the subsequent formation of blood islands and blood vessels by angioblasts in the conceptus, is a dynamic process modulated, in part, by cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in the presence of a variety of growth factors and morphogens. In this report we demonstrate differential tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) during the formation of blood islands and vessels from clusters of extraembryonic and embryonic angioblasts in the murine conceptus. In addition, we identify the phosphorylation of a particular tyrosine residue in the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain, Tyr686, which has the potential of mediating binding to Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins, affecting PECAM-1 cellular localization and endothelial cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9137078

  20. Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Chun-Han

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common, high malignant, and metastatic bone cancer. Amphiregulin (AREG) has been associated with cancer cellular activities. However, the effect of AREG on metastasis activity in human osteosarcoma cells has yet to be determined. We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, AREG stimulation increased the association of NF-κB to ICAM-1 promoter which then up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. Finally, we observed that shRNA silencing of AREG decreased osteosarcoma metastasis in vivo. Our findings revealed a relationship between osteosarcoma metastatic potential and AREG expression and the modulating effect of AREG on ICAM-1 expression. PMID:26503469

  1. Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Fang; Tsao, Ya-Ting; Hou, Chun-Han

    2015-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common, high malignant, and metastatic bone cancer. Amphiregulin (AREG) has been associated with cancer cellular activities. However, the effect of AREG on metastasis activity in human osteosarcoma cells has yet to be determined. We determined that AREG increases the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via its interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor, thus resulting in the enhanced cell migration of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, AREG stimulation increased the association of NF-κB to ICAM-1 promoter which then up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. Finally, we observed that shRNA silencing of AREG decreased osteosarcoma metastasis in vivo. Our findings revealed a relationship between osteosarcoma metastatic potential and AREG expression and the modulating effect of AREG on ICAM-1 expression.

  2. The junctional adhesion molecule JAM-C regulates polarized transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vivo.

    PubMed

    Woodfin, Abigail; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Beyrau, Martina; Colom, Bartomeu; Caille, Dorothée; Diapouli, Frantzeska-Maria; Nash, Gerard B; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Albelda, Steven M; Rainger, G Ed; Meda, Paolo; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2011-06-26

    The migration of neutrophils into inflamed tissues is a fundamental component of innate immunity. A decisive step in this process is the polarized migration of blood neutrophils through endothelial cells (ECs) lining the venular lumen (transendothelial migration (TEM)) in a luminal-to-abluminal direction. By real-time confocal imaging, we found that neutrophils had disrupted polarized TEM ('hesitant' and 'reverse') in vivo. We noted these events in inflammation after ischemia-reperfusion injury, characterized by lower expression of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) at EC junctions, and they were enhanced by blockade or genetic deletion of JAM-C in ECs. Our results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarized neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM of neutrophils can contribute to the dissemination of systemic inflammation.

  3. An immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, facilitates cellular interaction through modulation of adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, N; Inoue, H; Totsuka, T; Koike, R; Kino, K; Tsunoo, H

    1992-07-15

    Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8), a novel immunomodulatory protein, markedly enhanced the expression of CD11b, but not CD11a, CD13, CD14, CD18, CD33 or HLA-DR, on the U937 cell line in a dose-dependent fashion. It also induced ICAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells and significantly augmented gamma - interferon-induced cellular binding between vascular endothelial cells and U937. Furthermore, LZ-8 increased the expression of CD2, but not VLA4, VLA5 or LFA3, on MOLT4 and enhanced rosette formation between human T cells and sheep red blood cells. These data suggest that LZ-8 exerts its pharmacological effect by modulating adhesion molecules on immunocompetent cells.

  4. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by myofibers in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Torres-Palsa, Maria J; Koziol, Matthew V; Goh, Qingnian; Cicinelli, Peter A; Peterson, Jennifer M; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the extent to which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a critical protein of the inflammatory response, is expressed in skeletal muscles of mdx mice (a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Muscles were collected from control and mdx mice at 2-24 weeks of age and analyzed for ICAM-1 expression by means of Western blot and immunofluorescence. Western blot revealed higher expression of ICAM-1 in mdx compared with control muscles through 24 weeks of age. In contrast to control muscles, ICAM-1 was expressed on the membrane of damaged, regenerating, and normal myofibers of mdx mice. CD11b+ myeloid cells also expressed ICAM-1 in mdx muscles, and CD11b+ cells were closely associated with the membrane of myofibers expressing ICAM-1. These findings support a paradigm in which ICAM-1 and its localization to myofibers in muscles of mdx mice contributes to the dystrophic pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. EXPRESSION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION MOLECULE-1 BY MYOFIBERS IN mdx MICE

    PubMed Central

    TORRES-PALSA, MARIA J.; KOZIOL, MATTHEW V.; GOH, QINGNIAN; CICINELLI, PETER A.; PETERSON, JENNIFER M.; PIZZA, FRANCIS X.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the extent to which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a critical protein of the inflammatory response, is expressed in skeletal muscles of mdx mice (a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Methods Muscles were collected from control and mdx mice at 2–24 weeks of age and analyzed for ICAM-1 expression by means of Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results Western blot revealed higher expression of ICAM-1 in mdx compared with control muscles through 24 weeks of age. In contrast to control muscles, ICAM-1 was expressed on the membrane of damaged, regenerating, and normal myofibers of mdx mice. CD11b+ myeloid cells also expressed ICAM-1 in mdx muscles, and CD11b+ cells were closely associated with the membrane of myofibers expressing ICAM-1. Conclusions These findings support a paradigm in which ICAM-1 and its localization to myofibers in muscles of mdx mice contributes to the dystrophic pathology. PMID:25728314

  6. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross retinal endothelium assisted by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João M; Bharadwaj, Arpita S; Chipps, Timothy J; Pan, Yuzhen; Ashander, Liam M; Smith, Justine R

    2012-10-01

    Retinal infection is the most common clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. The route by which circulating Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites cross the vascular endothelium to enter the human retina is unknown. Convincing studies using murine encephalitis models have strongly implicated leukocyte taxis as one pathway used by the parasite to access target organs. To establish whether tachyzoites might also interact directly with vascular endothelium, we populated a transwell system with human ocular endothelial cells. Human retinal endothelial monolayers permitted transmigration of tachyzoites of RH and three natural isolate strains. Antibody blockade of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 significantly reduced this migration, but did not impact tachyzoite movement across an endothelial monolayer derived from the choroid, which lies adjacent to the retina within the eye. In demonstrating that tachyzoites are capable of independent migration across human vascular endothelium in vitro, this study carries implications for the development of therapeutics aimed at preventing access of T. gondii to the retina.

  7. Effects of Gravitational Mechanical Unloading in Endothelial Cells: Association between Caveolins, Inflammation and Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Grenon, S. Marlene; Jeanne, Marion; Aguado-Zuniga, Jesus; Conte, Michael S.; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical forces including gravity affect endothelial cell (ECs) function, and have been implicated in vascular disease as well as physiologic changes associated with low gravity environments. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of gravitational mechanical unloading on ECs phenotype as determined by patterns of gene expression. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells were exposed to 1-gravity environment or mechanical unloading (MU) for 24 hours, with or without periods of mechanical loading (ML). MU led to a significant decrease in gene expression of several adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the contrary, eNOS, Caveolin-1 and -2 expression were significantly increased with MU. There was a decrease in the length and width of the cells with MU. Addition of ML during the MU period was sufficient to reverse the changes triggered by MU. Our results suggest that gravitational loading could dramatically affect vascular endothelial cell function. PMID:23511048

  8. Freezing adhesion molecules in a state of high-avidity binding blocks eosinophil migration

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is mediated by multiple interactions of adhesive surface structures with ligands on endothelial cells and matrix components. The functional role of beta 1 (CD29) integrins (or very late antigen [VLA] proteins) in eosinophil migration across polycarbonate filters was examined under several in vitro conditions. Eosinophil migration induced by the chemoattractant C5a or platelet- activating factor was fully inhibited by monoclonal antibody (mAb) 8A2, a recently characterized "activating" CD29 mAb. However, inhibition by mAb 8A2 was observed only under filter conditions that best reflected the in vivo situation, i.e., when the eosinophils migrated over filters preincubated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (FN), or when the filters were covered with confluent monolayers of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). When bare untreated filters were used, mAb 8A2 had no effect, whereas the C5a- directed movement was prevented by CD18 mAb. Studies with alpha-subunit (CD49)-specific mAbs indicated that the integrins VLA-4 and -5 mediated migration across FN-preincubated filters, and VLA-2, -4, -5, and -6 were involved in eosinophil migration through filters covered with HUVEC. In contrast with the activating CD29 mAb 8A2, a combination of blocking CD49 mAbs or the nonactivating but blocking CD29 mAb AIIB2 failed to inhibit completely eosinophil migration over FN-preincubated or HUVEC-covered filters. mAb 8A2 stimulated binding to FN but not to HUVEC. Moreover, eosinophil migration over FN-preincubated or HUVEC- covered filters was significantly inhibited by anti-connecting segment 1 (CS-1) mAbs, as well as the soluble CS-1 peptide (unlike migration across bare untreated filters). Thus, inhibition of eosinophil migration by mAb 8A2 depended upon the presence of ECM proteins and not upon the presence of HUVEC per se. In conclusion, "freezing" adhesion receptors of the beta 1 integrin family into their high

  9. Extracellular matrix assembly in diatoms (Bacillariophyceae). Iii. Organization Of fucoglucuronogalactans within the adhesive stalks of achnanthes longipes

    PubMed

    Wustman; Lind; Wetherbee; Gretz

    1998-04-01

    Achnanthes longipes is a marine, biofouling diatom that adheres to surfaces via adhesive polymers extruded during motility or organized into structures called stalks that contain three distinct regions: the pad, shaft, and collar. Four monoclonal antibodies (AL.C1-AL.C4) and antibodies from two uncloned hybridomas (AL.E1 and AL.E2) were raised against the extracellular adhesives of A. longipes. Antibodies were screened against a hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble-fraction. The hot-water-insoluble/hot-bicarbonate-soluble fraction was fractionated to yield polymers in three size ranges: F1, >/= 20,000, 000 Mr; F2, congruent with100,000 Mr; and F3, <10,000 Mr relative to dextran standards. The congruent with100,000-Mr fraction consisted of highly sulfated (approximately 11%) fucoglucuronogalactans (FGGs) and low-sulfate (approximately 2%) FGGs, whereas F1 was composed of O-linked FGG (F2)-polypeptide (F3) complexes. AL.C1, AL.C2, AL.C4, AL.E1, and AL.E2 recognized carbohydrate complementary regions on FGGs, with antigenicity dependent on fucosyl-containing side chains. AL.C3 was unique in that it had a lower affinity for FGGs and did not label any portion of the shaft. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry indicated that low-sulfate FGGs are expelled from pores surrounding the raphe terminus, creating the cylindrical outer layers of the shaft, and that highly sulfated FGGs are extruded from the raphe, forming the central core. Antibody-labeling patterns and other evidence indicated that the shaft central-core region is related to material exuded from the raphe during cell motility.

  10. A New Two-Component Regulatory System Involved in Adhesion, Autolysis, and Extracellular Proteolytic Activity of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Bénédicte; Hooper, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A transposition mutant of Staphylococcus aureus was selected from the parent strain MT23142, a derivative of strain 8325. The site of transposition was near the 5′ terminus of the gene arlS. ArlS exhibits strong similarities with histidine protein kinases. Sequence analysis suggested that arlS forms an operon with upstream gene arlR. The predicted product of arlR is a member of the OmpR-PhoB family of response regulators. The arlS mutant formed a biofilm on a polystyrene surface unlike the parent strain and the complemented mutant. Biofilm formation was associated with increased primary adherence to polystyrene, whereas cellular adhesion was only slightly decreased. In addition, the arlS mutant exhibited increased autolysis and altered peptidoglycan hydrolase activity compared to the parental strain and to the complemented mutant. As it has been shown for coagulase-negative staphylococci that some autolysins are able to bind polymer surfaces, these data suggest that the two-component regulatory system ArlS-ArlR may control attachment to polymer surfaces by affecting secreted peptidoglycan hydrolase activity. Finally, the arlS mutant showed a dramatic decrease of extracellular proteolytic activity, including serine protease activity, in comparison to the wild-type strain and the complemented mutant, and cells grown in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (a serine protease inhibitor) showed an increased autolysin activity. Since the locus arlR-arlS strikingly modifies extracellular proteolytic activity, this locus might also be involved in the virulence of S. aureus. PMID:10869073

  11. Neutrophil and monocyte adhesion molecules in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and effects of corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Ballabh, P; Simm, M; Kumari, J; Krauss, A; Jain, A; Califano, C; Lesser, M; Cunningham-Rundle..., S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study a longitudinal change in the expression of adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, and CD62L on neutrophils and monocytes in very low birth weight babies who develop respiratory distress syndrome, to compare these levels between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and non-BPD infants, and to assess the effect of corticosteroid treatment on these adhesion molecules. Methods: Of 40 eligible neonates, 11 neonates were oxygen dependent at 36 weeks (BPD 36 weeks), 16 infants were oxygen dependent at 28 days, but not at 36 weeks (BPD d28), and 13 infants did not develop BPD. Seventeen neonates received a six day course of steroid treatment. Expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L was measured on neutrophils and monocytes in arterial blood on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28, and before and 2–3 days after initiation of dexamethasone treatment by flow cytometry. Results: CD18 expression on neutrophils and monocytes and CD62L on neutrophils, measured as mean fluorescent intensity, was significantly decreased in BPD neonates compared to non-BPD neonates on days 1–28. Dexamethasone treatment significantly decreased CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18L expression on monocytes. Conclusions: Decreased CD18 expression on neutrophils and monocytes, and decreased CD62L expression on neutrophils, measured as mean fluorescent intensity during the first four weeks of life in micropremies may be risk factors and early predictors of BPD. Dexamethasone use was associated with decreased expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L. PMID:14711863

  12. The effect of iron treatment on adhesion molecules in patients with iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Arif; Kebapcilar, Levent; Erdur, Erkan; Bozkaya, Giray; Sari, Ismail; Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Kebapcilar, Ayse Gul; Sop, Gulten

    2010-12-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect of iron supplementation on levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In this study, 26 female patients diagnosed with iron deficiency were treated approximately 3 months of oral iron supplementation (99 ± 10 days; ferrous glycine sulfate; 100 mg/day of elemental iron). Levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were assessed prior to treatment and after approximately 3 months of treatment and compared with 26 healthy female subjects. A significant increase in sVCAM levels was found in the patients with iron deficiency at the end of the treatment relative to pretreatment levels compared to controls, whereas no significant differences were determined in sICAM levels. In the posttreatment period, no significant change was observed in sICAM levels compared to the pretreatment levels, whereas sVCAM levels decreased. However, after the treatment period, the sVCAM, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and serum ferritin levels did not return to the normal range compared to the controls. Pretreatment sVCAM-1 levels were inversely correlated with levels of hemoglobin, hemotocrit, MCV, serum iron, and ferritin. After treatment, the sVCAM-1 levels were negatively correlated with ferritin levels. Levels of sVCAM were significantly higher in patients with IDA than controls. After the treatment period, the sVCAM levels were not completely normalized in patients with IDA compared to controls, regardless of the presence of inadequate levels of hemoglobin, MCV, and serum ferritin. Thus, iron supplementation not only ameliorates anemia, but may also reduce the inflammation markers in cases with IDA.

  13. Effects of phytoestrogens derived from soy bean on expression of adhesion molecules on HUVEC.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C M de; Sá, M F Silva de; Toloi, M R Torqueti

    2012-04-01

    The risks of hormone replacement therapy have led to a search for new alternatives such as phytoestrogens, plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Isoflavones are the phytoestrogens most extensively studied and can be found in soybean, red clover and other plants. Due to this estrogen-like activity, phytoestrogens can have some effect on atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) have been extensively used to study the biology and pathobiology of human endothelial cells and most of the knowledge acquired is due to experiments with cultures of these cells. To evaluate the effects of the phytoestrogen extracts from Glycine max soy bean, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as a mixture of these extracts (Mix), on expression of adhesion molecules, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, by endothelial cell HUVEC, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. HUVEC were cultured in medium EBM(2), pretreated with isoflavones for 24 and 48 h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide; in addition, isoflavones were added, after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide, to HUVEC. We evaluated the production of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin on cell surface, by cell-based enzyme immunoassay, and of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin in culture supernatant, by ELISA. Genistein, formononetin, biochanin A and daidzein, as well as the Mix were able to reduce VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin on cell surface and in culture supernatant. Conclusion Isoflavones extracted from Glycine max soy bean, in vitro, presented antiatherogenic effects, reducing the expression of adhesion molecules and acting as preventive agents as well as therapeutic agents.

  14. High soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations predict long-term mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jia-Feng; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2013-12-01

    Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) has a strong association with cardiovascular deaths in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study is to explore the association between sVCAM-1 and cardiovascular mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Eighty-three clinically stable MHD patients (mean age of 59.4 ± 13.7 years) at a single hospital-based dialysis facility were included. sVCAM-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) were determined at study baseline. The study cohort was divided into higher and lower concentration groups by the median value. The all-cause and cardiovascular mortality of this cohort were followed for 7 years. The mean concentrations of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were 1,393.08 ± 300.96, 230.16 ± 84.86, and 60.01 ± 42.00 ng/mL, respectively. The higher concentration groups of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 had higher all-cause mortality by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.030, respectively). Higher sVCAM-1 concentrations had a higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.006 p = 0.046, respectively) in Cox proportional hazards model analysis. In MHD patients, higher sVCAM-1 concentrations independently predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This biomarker may be used as a valid surrogate marker for predicting outcomes.

  15. Soluble Adhesion Molecules in Patients Coinfected with HIV and HCV: A Predictor of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Berenguer, Juan; Miralles, Pilar; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Carrero, Ana; Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Díez, Cristina; Tejerina, Francisco; Pérez-Latorre, Leire; Bellón, José M.; Resino, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher serum levels of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) are associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus. We assessed the relationship between serum levels of adhesion molecules and liver-related events (LRE) or death, in coinfected patients. Methods We studied clinical characteristics and outcomes of 182 coinfected patients with a baseline liver biopsy (58 with advanced fibrosis) and simultaneous plasma samples who were followed for median of 9 years. We used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimized cutoff values (OCV) of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, defined as the values with the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity for LRE. We used multivariate regression analysis to test the association between OCVs of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and outcomes. The variables for adjustment were age, HIV transmission category, liver fibrosis, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts, antiretroviral therapy, and sustained virologic response (SVR). Results During the study period 51 patients had SVR, 19 had LRE, and 16 died. The OCVs for LRE were 5.68 Log pg/mL for sICAM-1 and 6.25 Log pg/mL for sVCAM-1, respectively. The adjusted subhazard ratio (aSHR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of death or LRE, whichever occurred first, for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 > OCV were 3.98 ([1.14; 13.89], P = 0.030) and 2.81 ([1.10; 7.19], respectively (P = 0.030). Conclusions Serum levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 can serve as markers of outcome in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Therapies targeting necroinflammatory damage and fibrogenesis may have a role in the management chronic hepatitis C. PMID:26849641

  16. The Neuroplastin adhesion molecules: key regulators of neuronal plasticity and synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Beesley, Philip W; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Seidenbecher, Constanze

    2014-11-01

    The Neuroplastins Np65 and Np55 are neuronal and synapse-enriched immunoglobulin superfamily molecules that play important roles in a number of key neuronal and synaptic functions including, for Np65, cell adhesion. In this review we focus on the physiological roles of the Neuroplastins in promoting neurite outgrowth, regulating the structure and function of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses in brain, and in neuronal and synaptic plasticity. We discuss the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the Neuroplastins exert their physiological effects and how these are dependent upon the structural features of Np65 and Np55, which enable them to bind to a diverse range of protein partners. In turn this enables the Neuroplastins to interact with a number of key neuronal signalling cascades. These include: binding to and activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor; Np65 trans-homophilic binding leading to activation of p38 MAPK and internalization of glutamate (GluR1) receptor subunits; acting as accessory proteins for monocarboxylate transporters, thus affecting neuronal energy supply, and binding to GABAA α1, 2 and 5 subunits, thus regulating the composition and localization of GABAA receptors. An emerging theme is the role of the Neuroplastins in regulating the trafficking and subcellular localization of specific binding partners. We also discuss the involvement of Neuroplastins in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including ischaemia, schizophrenia and breast cancer and the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the human Neuroplastin (NPTN) gene locus in impairment of cortical development and cognitive functions. Neuroplastins are neuronal cell adhesion molecules, which induce neurite outgrowth and play important roles in synaptic maturation and plasticity. This review summarizes the functional implications of Neuroplastins for correct synaptic membrane protein localization, neuronal energy supply, expression of LTP and LTD

  17. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p< 0.001), ICAM-1 (p=0.028) and E-selectin (p=0.016) were significantly higher in the patients, but only VCAM-1 levels significantly reflected the severity of dementia (p< 0.001). In addition, only VCAM-1 levels showed an association with macro- and micro- white matter changes especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (p< 0.001), posterior thalamic radiation (p=0.002), stria terminalis (p=0.002) and corpus callosum (p=0.009), and were independent of, age and cortical volume. These tracts show significant association with MMSE, short term memory and visuospatial function. Meanwhile, while VCAM-1 level correlated significantly with short-term memory (p=0.026) and drawing (p=0.025) scores in the AD patients after adjusting for age and education, the significance disappeared after adjusting for global FA. Endothelial activation, especially VCAM-1, was of clinical significance in AD that reflects macro- and micro-structural changes and poor short term memory and visuospatial function.

  18. Neural cell adhesion molecule expression in dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with intramyocardial inflammation and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Karsten; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Noutsias, Michel

    2017-08-15

    Chronic intramyocardial inflammation (inflammatory cardiomyopathy/DCMi) is linked to the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in orchestrating cardiac muscle morphogenesis, but is down-regulated after embryogenesis. We investigated NCAM expression in adult DCM hearts, its possible association with DCMi-parameters, and with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (CMH). Endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) from DCM patients (n=85; n=37 females; age: 48±19years; LVEF <40%) and controls from non-cardiac deaths were immunostained for DCMi markers and for NCAM expression, and quantified by digital image analysis (DIA). NCAM expression on the intercalated discs and the sarcolemma was confirmed in n=46 (54%) of the DCM-EMBs. In the 17 controls, NCAM expression was confined to scattered intramyocardial nerves, but was absent on cardiomyocytes. DIA-quantified area fraction (AF) of NCAM was significantly (p=0.0001) higher in the DCM hearts (0.0044±0.017) compared with the controls (0.0006±0.0004). Multivariate analysis of DIA-quantified NCAM-AF revealed significant associations with infiltrates (CD18(+), CD11a/LFA-1(+), CD11b/Mac-1(+), TNFα(+), CD3(+)) and with endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAM; CD54/ICAM-1 and CD29; p<0.05). The mean cardiomyocyte diameter (MCD) correlated highly significantly (p<0.01) with NCAM-AF, ICAM-1-AF, CD29-AF, CD18(+) and TNFa(+) infiltrates, and was associated less significantly (p<0.05) with CD3(+), CD11a/LFA-1(+), and CD11b/Mac-1(+) infiltrates. In conclusion, NCAM-expression in ca. 50% of adult DCM hearts is associated with CMH, and may be induced by inflammatory pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is upregulated in autoimmune murine lupus nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Wuthrich, R. P.; Jevnikar, A. M.; Takei, F.; Glimcher, L. H.; Kelley, V. E.

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell-surface protein regulating interactions among immune cells. To determine whether altered expression of