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Sample records for adhesive bond strengths

  1. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Optibond™ FL, Kerr), G3 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (All-Bond 3®, Bisco), G4 - etch & rinse simplified system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), G5 - self-etching system with one step (Bond Force, Tokuyama), G6 - universal system in moist dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), G7 - universal system in dry dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then all groups received the cementing of a self-adhesive resin cement cylinder (Duo-link, Bisco) made from a polypropylene matrix. In the evaluation of bond strength, the samples were subjected to the microshear test and evaluated according to the fracture pattern by optical microscopy. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test suggests a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,039), and Tukey for multiple comparisons, indicating a statistically significant difference between G3 and G4 (p<0.05). It was verified high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed failure and cohesive in dentin. Conclusions The technique and the system used to dentin hybridization are able to affect the immediate bond strength of resin cement dual adhesive. Key words:Adhesion, adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:28149471

  2. Strength of adhesive-bonded hybrid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschke, L.; Prinz, R.; Schnell, H.

    1979-01-01

    Structures prepared from materials with different thermal and mechanical properties by means of fiber-strengthened binders can fail in a number of ways. The present lecture is focused on failures through debonding at the metal or at the fiber-reinforced plastic. A method for calculating the stress distribution in adhesive layers as a function of the load is outlined, and its usefulness in providing insight into the behavior of bonds in hybrid structures is noted. Means of eliminating the unfavorable effects of temperature, humidity, creep and relaxation on the bonds in the manufacture of hybrid structures are examined, along with test methods developed for such structures.

  3. Failure strength prediction for adhesively bonded single lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Niat Mahmud

    For adhesively bonded joint, failure strength depends on many factors such as material properties (both adhesive and adherend), specimen geometries, test environments, surface preparation procedures, etc. Failure occurs inside constitutive materials or along joint interfaces. Based on location, adhesively bonded failure mode can be classified as adhesive failure mode, cohesive failure mode and adherend failure mode. Failure mode directly affects the failure strength of joint. For last eight decades, researchers have developed analytical, empirical or semi-empirical methods capable of predicting failure strength for adhesively bonded joints generating either cohesive failure or adherend failure. Applicability of most of the methods is limited to particular cases. In this research, different failure modes for single lap joints (SLJs) were generated experimentally using epoxy based paste adhesive. Based on experimental data and analytical study, simplified failure prediction methods were developed for each failure mode. For adhesive failure mode, it is observed that peel stress distributions concur along interface near crack initiation points. All SLJs for this test endured consistent surface treatments. Geometric parameters of the joints were varied to study their effect on failure strength. Peel stress distributions were calculated using finite analysis (FEA). Based on peel stress distribution near crack initiation point, a failure model is proposed. Numerous analytical, empirical and semi-empirical models are available for predicting failure strengths of SLJs generating cohesive failures. However, most of the methods in the literature failed to capture failure behavior of SLJs having thickness of adhesive layer as variable. Cohesive failure mode was generated experimentally using aluminum as adherend and epoxy adhesive considering thickness of adhesive layers as variable within SLJs. Comparative study was performed among various methods. It was observed that

  4. Regional bond strengths of adhesive resins to pulp chamber dentin.

    PubMed

    Belli, S; Zhang, Y; Pereira, P N; Ozer, F; Pashley, D H

    2001-08-01

    Microleakage of oral microorganisms, which can occur due to the lack of sealing ability of permanent restorative materials, may cause failure of root canal treatments. Although a great deal of research has been done on sealing enamel and coronal dentin with resins, little research has been done on the adhesion of resins to the walls of pulp chambers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional bond strengths of two adhesive systems to the walls of pulp chambers. A section was made horizontally through the middle of the pulp chamber of extracted human third molars to divide the chamber into upper and lower halves. The pulp tissue was removed and the tooth segments were then divided into treatment subgroups. The pulp chambers were bonded with C&B Metabond (Parkell) or One-Step (Bisco), with or without 5% NaOCI pretreatment. The microtensile bond strengths of these resins to four different pulp chamber regions (bottom, wall, roof, and pulp horn areas) were then measured using an Instron machine. The data were expressed in MPa and were analyzed by a three-way ANOVA. Statistically significant differences were found among the test groups (p < 0.001). One-Step produced higher bond strengths to all pulp chamber regions except the floor, compared with C&B Metabond. The results indicated that high bond strengths can be achieved between adhesive resins and the various regions of the pulp chamber. This should permit the use of a thick layer of unfilled resin along the floor of the pulp chamber and over the canal orifices as a secondary protective seal after finishing root canal therapy.

  5. Gap measurement and bond strength of five selected adhesive systems bonded to tooth structure.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh, F; Gage, J P; Young, W G; Shahabi, S; Swenson, S M

    1998-06-01

    The ability of a restorative material to bond and seal the interface with tooth structure is perhaps the most significant factor in determining resistance to marginal caries. Thus, the quality and durability of marginal seal and bond strength are major considerations in the selection of restorative materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength and marginal discrepancies of five adhesive systems: All-Bond 2, Clearfil Liner Bond, KB 200, ProBond and AELITE Bond. Twenty-five buccal and 25 lingual cavities were prepared in 25 caries-free extracted molar teeth, giving 10 cavities for each of the 5 adhesive systems. All teeth were restored with the resin composite Pertac Hybrid, or PRISMA Total Performance Hybrid with their appropriate adhesive systems. After restoration, the teeth were thermocycled, were stained with a 1.5% aqueous solution of a procion dye (reactive orange 14) and sectioned coronally with a saw microtome. Three sections of 200 microns thickness were prepared from each restoration which were then examined microscopically to measure marginal gap widths using a confocal tandem microscope. Shear bond strength measurements were carried out on the dentine bond using a universal testing machine. The All-Bond 2 adhesive system was found to have higher shear bond strength and to have the least gap width at the cementodentinal margin.

  6. Proanthocyanidins Alter Adhesive/Dentin Bonding Strengths when Included in a Bonding System

    PubMed Central

    Hechler, Benjamin; Yao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of proanthocyanidins (PA) incorporation into a bonding system on dentin/adhesive bond stability following long-term storage in buffer and collagenase. Methods Human dentin surfaces were bonded with no PA (0-PA), PA incorporated in the primer (PA-primer), or PA incorporated in the adhesive (PA-adhesive), and composite build-ups were created. Following sectioning into beams, bonded specimens were stored in buffer or collagenase for 0, 1, 4, 26, or 52 weeks before being tested for microtensile bond strength (μTBS). ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc were performed. Fractured surfaces were viewed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results Both bonding system and storage time but not storage medium significantly affected μTBS. Initially, 0-PA and PA-primer were superior to PA-adhesive, and after 1 week both PA groups were inferior to 0-PA. However, after 4 weeks PA-adhesive had significantly increased and 0-PA significantly decreased such that all three groups were equal. Thereafter, both PA-primer/adhesive groups trended with an increase (the 0-PA group remaing consistent) such that at 52 weeks PA-primer samples were significantly stronger (p < 0.001) or nearly so (p = 0.08) when compared to 0-PA samples. SEM revealed that initial fractures tended to occur at the middle/bottom of the hybrid layer for 0-PA and PA-primer groups but at the top of the hybrid layer/in the adhesive for PA-adhesive. After 4 weeks, however, all groups fractured similarly at the middle/bottom of the hybrid layer. Clinical Significance PA incorporation into a bonding system significantly alters interfacial bonding strengths, and its incorporation may stabilize the interface and protect degradation over time under clinical conditions. PMID:23243975

  7. Temperature Effects on Adhesive Bond Strengths and Modulus for Commonly Used Spacecraft Structural Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojeda, Cassandra E.; Oakes, Eric J.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Aldi, Dominic; Forsberg, Gustaf A.

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed to observe how changes in temperature and substrate material affected the strength and modulus of an adhesive bondline. Seven different adhesives commonly used in aerospace bonded structures were tested. Aluminum, titanium and Invar adherends were cleaned and primed, then bonded using the manufacturer's recommendations. Following surface preparation, the coupons were bonded with the adhesives. The single lap shear coupons were then pull tested per ASTM D 1002 Standard Test Method for Apparent Shear Strength of Single- Lap-Joint over a temperature range from -150 deg C up to +150 deg C. The ultimate strength was calculated and the resulting data were converted into B-basis design allowables. Average and Bbasis results were compared. Results obtained using aluminum adherends are reported. The effects of using different adherend materials and temperature were also studied and will be reported in a subsequent paper. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study variations in adhesive modulus with temperature. This work resulted in a highly useful database for comparing adhesive performance over a wide range of temperatures, and has facilitated selection of the appropriate adhesive for spacecraft structure applications.

  8. Shear bond strength of new self-adhesive flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Wajdowicz, Michael N; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Means, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new self-adhesive flowable composite resin systems have been introduced to the market. These new composite resin systems reportedly bond to dentin and enamel without the application of an adhesive bonding agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel of two new self-adhesive flowable composites with and without the use of an etch-and-rinse bonding agent. The new self-adhesive flowable composites had significantly lower bond strengths to enamel compared to a traditional adhesively bonded flowable composite. Both self-adhesive flowable composites had a significant increase in bond strength to enamel with the use of a phosphoric acid-etch and adhesive bonding agent.

  9. The effect of adhesive type and thickness on bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Mackay, F

    1992-02-01

    Fine-mesh based brackets were bonded to plastic cylinders using four different adhesives. Adhesive thickness was controlled using a bonding jig. The bond was then tested to failure using a shear force. Each adhesive had its own minimum thickness, probably related to its viscosity. Increasing the thickness of the adhesiveness to 0.26 mm, using a stainless steel spacer had minimal effect on their mean shear bond strength.

  10. A comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhir; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Gyan P; Singh, Alka; Chugh, Vinay K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel (SS) orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives. Materials and Methods: Eighty newly extracted premolars were bonded to 0.022 SS brackets (Ormco, Scafati, Italy) and equally divided into four groups based on adhesive used: (1) Rely-a-Bond (self-cure adhesive, Reliance Orthodontic Product, Inc., Illinois, USA), (2) Transbond XT (light-cure adhesive, 3M Unitek, CA, USA), (3) Transbond Plus (sixth generation self-etch primer, 3M Unitek, CA, USA) with Transbond XT (4) Xeno V (seventh generation self-etch primer, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) with Xeno Ortho (light-cure adhesive, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) adhesive. Brackets were debonded with a universal testing machine (Model No. 3382 Instron Corp., Canton, Mass, USA). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was recordedIn addition, the conditioned enamel surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: Transbond XT (15.49 MPa) attained the highest bond strength. Self-etching adhesives (Xeno V, 13.51 MPa; Transbond Plus, 11.57 MPa) showed clinically acceptable SBS values and almost clean enamel surface after debonding. The analysis of variance (F = 11.85, P < 0.0001) and Chi-square (χ2 = 18.16, P < 0.05) tests revealed significant differences among groups. The ARI score of 3 (i.e., All adhesives left on the tooth) to be the most prevalent in Transbond XT (40%), followed by Rely-a-Bond (30%), Transbond Plus with Transbond XT (15%), and Xeno V with Xeno Ortho (10%). Under SEM, enamel surfaces after debonding of the brackets appeared porous when an acid-etching process was performed on the surfaces of Rely-a-Bond and Transbond XT, whereas with self-etching primers enamel presented smooth and almost clean surfaces (Transbond Plus and Xeno V group). Conclusion: All adhesives yielded SBS values higher than the recommended bond strength (5.9-7–8 MPa), Seventh generation

  11. Shear bond strength of a new polycarbonate bracket--an in vitro study with 14 adhesives.

    PubMed

    Akin-Nergiz, N; Nergiz, I; Behlfelt, K; Platzer, U

    1996-06-01

    Shear bond strength and failure location were used to evaluate the effectiveness of plastic bracket primers for bonding diacrylate adhesives on a new fibre-reinforced polycarbonate bracket. Maxillary incisor polycarbonate and mesh-based brackets as control were bonded to human incisors with 14 different adhesives (four filled diacrylate two-paste, six diacrylate one-step and four power-liquid acrylic adhesives), and after thermo-cycling for 2000 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C, tested in shear. A non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U test) was used to compare the shear bond strength of the polycarbonate brackets with the mesh based brackets and a One-way test (according to Scheffe) to compare the shear bond strength of different adhesives. The following conclusions can be made: 1. Seven of the 14 adhesives used in this study with both types of brackets demonstrated adequate shear bond strength values for the clinical application. The exceptions were: Achieve Mix, No-Mix:30 Silkon, Lee Insta-Bond, Ortho-Loc and Bond-Eze, all with too low a shear bond strength for one or both types of brackets, and finally Quasar, which used with the plastic brackets sometimes caused enamel fractures, due to high bond strength. 2. The adhesives with their own plastic primer demonstrated higher blood strength values than those without plastic primer, and two-paste adhesives used with plastic primer displayed a higher bond strength than the other adhesives. 3. Generally, the shear bond strength values of the one-step adhesives were lower compared with the two-paste adhesives. 4. The liquid-powder adhesives demonstrated very different values for bond strength.

  12. Improved Bond Strength of Cyanoacrylate Adhesives Through Nanostructured Chromium Adhesion Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobble, Kyle; Stark, Amelia; Stagon, Stephen P.

    2016-09-01

    The performance of many consumer products suffers due to weak and inconsistent bonds formed to low surface energy polymer materials, such as polyolefin-based high-density polyethylene (HDPE), with adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate. In this letter, we present an industrially relevant means of increasing bond shear strength and consistency through vacuum metallization of chromium thin films and nanorods, using HDPE as a prototype material and cyanoacrylate as a prototype adhesive. For the as received HDPE surfaces, unmodified bond shear strength is shown to be only 0.20 MPa with a standard deviation of 14 %. When Cr metallization layers are added onto the HDPE at thicknesses of 50 nm or less, nanorod-structured coatings outperform continuous films and have a maximum bond shear strength of 0.96 MPa with a standard deviation of 7 %. When the metallization layer is greater than 50 nm thick, continuous films demonstrate greater performance than nanorod coatings and have a maximum shear strength of 1.03 MPa with a standard deviation of 6 %. Further, when the combination of surface roughening with P400 grit sandpaper and metallization is used, 100-nm-thick nanorod coatings show a tenfold increase in shear strength over the baseline, reaching a maximum of 2.03 MPa with a standard deviation of only 3 %. The substantial increase in shear strength through metallization, and the combination of roughening with metallization, may have wide-reaching implications in consumer products which utilize low surface energy plastics.

  13. Shear bond strength of brackets bonded to amalgam with different intermediate resins and adhesives.

    PubMed

    Germec, Derya; Cakan, Umut; Ozdemir, Fulya Isik; Arun, Tulin; Cakan, Murat

    2009-04-01

    The aims of this study were to compare, in vitro, the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to silver amalgam with the use of three different intermediate resins and two different adhesives, and to evaluate bond failure mode. Forty-five amalgam specimens were divided into three equal groups. In groups 1 and 2, the brackets were bonded with Unite (3M Unitek) using Reliance Metal Primer (RMP; Reliance Orthodontic Products) and Power Bond OLC (PB OLC; Ortho Organizers Inc.) as intermediate resins, respectively. In group 3, Resinomer and One-Step Plus (OS+; Bisco Inc.) were used. Thirty bovine teeth served as the controls to test bracket bonding to acid-etched enamel with Unite and Resinomer-OS+. After thermocycling from 10 to 50 degrees C 1000 times, all samples were tested for SBS. Bond failure sites were classified using a modified adhesive remnant index (ARI) system. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey multiple comparison and chi-square tests. The results showed that the mean SBS to amalgam surfaces were significantly lower than those to etched bovine enamel (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mean SBS between the amalgam bonding groups (P>0.05). For the ARI, significant differences were found between the amalgam- and enamel-bonding groups (P<0.001). The mean SBS of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to amalgam surfaces with RMP, PB OLC, OS+ intermediate resins and Unite and Resinomer adhesives was significantly lower than to etched bovine enamel. Bond failure occurred at the amalgam-adhesive interface regardless of the adhesive system and without damage to the amalgam restoration.

  14. Effect of adhesive layers on microshear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bond strength of adhesive layer can absorb unwanted stresses of polymerization shrinkage in composite resin restorations; increased microshear bond strength can prevent failure of restoration materials, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive layers on microshear bond strength of nanocomposite resin to dentin. Material and Methods Two different types of adhesive systems: universal adhesive (ExciTE) and newly developed adhesive (Nano-Bond), and one type of light-cured resin restorative material (Nanocomposite resin) were used in this study. The occlusal surfaces of extracted human molar teeth were ground perpendicular to the long axis of each tooth to expose a flat dentin surface. The adhesives were applied on dentin surfaces (single application or double application). Nanocomposite resin was then placed and light cured for 40 seconds. After 24 hours of immersion in water at 37°C, then subjected to thermocycling before testing, a microshear bond test was carried out. The data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA. For comparison between groups, Tukey’s post-hoc test was used. Results The mean bond strengths of ExciTE and Nano-Bond adhesives with a single application were 8.8 and 16.6 MPa, respectively. The mean bond strengths of ExciTE and Nano-Bond adhesives with double application were 13.2 and 21.8MPa, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in microshear bond strengths between the single application of Nano-Bond and the double application of ExciTE adhesives. Conclusions Microshear bond strength increased significantly as the applied adhesive layer was doubled. Key words:Adhesive, microshear, bond, strength, nanocomposite. PMID:28210433

  15. Influence of additional adhesive application on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    de Silva, André Luís Faria; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; de Souza, Grace Mendonça Dias; dos Santos, Carlos Tadeu Dias; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microtensile bond strength (pTBS) when an additional adhesive layer was applied to the dentin surface. Thirty-five human third molars were flattened to expose the occlusal dentin surface. The teeth were randomly assigned to 7 experimental groups: G1-Single Bond (SB); G2-additional layer of SB; G3--a layer of Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SMP) adhesive applied over SB; G4-Clearfil SE Bond (CE); G5-additional layer of CE; G6-Adper Prompt (AP) and G7-additional layer of AP. For the G2, G3, G5 and G7 groups, the first adhesive layer was light-cured before application of the additional layer. After bonding procedures, 5-mm high composite crowns were incrementally built up. The samples were sectioned to obtain 0.9 x 0.9 beams, which were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5-mm/minute until failure. The failure mode and adhesive thickness were evaluated under SEM. The pTBS data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Ducan's Test (a=0.05). Mean adhesive thickness was analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test (a=0.05). The results indicated that G3 presented the highest microTBS and the thickest adhesive layer. G6 and G7 presented the lowest microTBS values. When solvent-free adhesives systems were used, microTBS values were not affected by the thicker layer.

  16. Shear bond strength of ceramic and metallic orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer and conventional bonding adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Arash, Valiollah; Naghipour, Fatemeh; Ravadgar, Mehdi; Karkhah, Ahmad; Barati, Mohammad Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adult patients typically require high-quality orthodontic treatment for ceramic brackets, but some clinicians remain concerned about the bond strength of these brackets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the shear bond strength and de-bonding characteristics of metallic and ceramic brackets bonded with two types of bonding agents. Methods In an experimental study done in 2013 in Babol, Iran, 120 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups as follows: HM group: metallic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SM group: metallic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer; HC group: ceramic bracket/conventional bonding agent; SC group: ceramic bracket/Transbond self-etching primer. Twenty-four hours after thermocycling (1000 cycle, 5 °C–55 °C), the shear bond strength values were measured. The amount of resin remaining on the tooth surface (adhesive remnant index: ARI) was determined under a stereomicroscope. Enamel detachment index was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. To perform statistical analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey post-hoc tests were applied. The level of significance was set at p <0.05. Results The mean shear bond strength values (MPa ± SD) were group HM=12.59, group SM=11.15, group HC=7.7, and group SC=7.41. Bond strength differences between groups HM and SM (p=0.063) and between HC and SC (p=0.091) were not statistically significant. There were significant differences between HM and HC and between SM and SC groups (p < 0.05). Insignificant differences were found in ARI among all groups. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the metallic brackets had higher bond strengths in comparison with ceramic brackets. In addition, self-etching primer was able to produce fewer bonds compared with the conventional technique. Many samples showed the bracket-adhesive interface failure or failure inside the adhesive. PMID:28243410

  17. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems applied on occlusal primary enamel.

    PubMed

    Ramires-Romito, Ana Cláudia; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; de Góes, Mario Fernando; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems (OptiBond Solo, Kerr; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) on occlusal surface of primary molars. The adhesives were tested under manufacturers' specifications and after contamination of the bonding site with saliva. Hourglass cylindrical-shaped samples were obtained and subjected to a tensile force. No significant difference was observed among the groups. OptiBond Solo and Prime & Bond NT showed similar values of bond strengths when applied on occlusal enamel of primary molar under either saliva contamination or not.

  18. Improved Bond Strength of Cyanoacrylate Adhesives Through Nanostructured Chromium Adhesion Layers.

    PubMed

    Gobble, Kyle; Stark, Amelia; Stagon, Stephen P

    2016-12-01

    The performance of many consumer products suffers due to weak and inconsistent bonds formed to low surface energy polymer materials, such as polyolefin-based high-density polyethylene (HDPE), with adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate. In this letter, we present an industrially relevant means of increasing bond shear strength and consistency through vacuum metallization of chromium thin films and nanorods, using HDPE as a prototype material and cyanoacrylate as a prototype adhesive. For the as received HDPE surfaces, unmodified bond shear strength is shown to be only 0.20 MPa with a standard deviation of 14 %. When Cr metallization layers are added onto the HDPE at thicknesses of 50 nm or less, nanorod-structured coatings outperform continuous films and have a maximum bond shear strength of 0.96 MPa with a standard deviation of 7 %. When the metallization layer is greater than 50 nm thick, continuous films demonstrate greater performance than nanorod coatings and have a maximum shear strength of 1.03 MPa with a standard deviation of 6 %. Further, when the combination of surface roughening with P400 grit sandpaper and metallization is used, 100-nm-thick nanorod coatings show a tenfold increase in shear strength over the baseline, reaching a maximum of 2.03 MPa with a standard deviation of only 3 %. The substantial increase in shear strength through metallization, and the combination of roughening with metallization, may have wide-reaching implications in consumer products which utilize low surface energy plastics.

  19. Feasibility of Inspecting Adhesive Bonded Structures for Bond Strength Using Ultrasonic Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    sensitivity levels and a correlation to joint strength are desirable, especially in highly stressed rotating parts. In this program, specimens were fabricated...34 specimens. The parameter difference between "dry" and "wet" specimens was not large, especially for thin adhesive bonds. 3.2.2 Fiberglass Epoxy...IF signal amplitude. Tne output of the detector would oe monitoreo with an oscilloscope and connected to the analog to digital converter. 5.1.3

  20. Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 200 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. Four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values were tested both on enamel and on dentin: Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (pH = 0.8-1), Futurabond NR (pH=2), G-aenial Bond (pH = 1.5), Clearfil S3 Bond (pH = 2.7). After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the bonded surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The shear bond strength was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the sample rupture. The shear bond strength values (MPa) of the different groups were compared with analysis of variance after that Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests were applied to assess normality of distributions. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In enamel shear bond strength, the highest shear bond strength values were reported with Futurabond NR (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found with Clearfil S3 Bond. The others adhesive systems showed lower shear bond strength values with significant differences between them (P < 0.05). When comparing the dentin shear bond strength, the lowest shear bond strength values were reported with Clearfil S3 Bond (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other three products (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The pH values of adhesive systems did not influence significantly their shear bond strength to enamel or dentin. PMID:26005459

  1. Strength distributions of adhesive bonded and adhesive/rivet combined joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Makoto; Haraga, Kosuke; Nishikawa, Tetsuya

    1992-11-01

    The tensile and shear strengths of adhesive and adhesive/rivet combined joints are statistically evaluated, and the probability of failure is calculated for these two types of joints. Attention is given to the effects of the adhesive/rivet combination on mean tensile shear strength and coefficient of variation. The adhesive joint's strength distribution was well approximated by Weibull or doubly-exponential distribution function; tensile shear strength is significantly improved by the combination with rivets.

  2. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  3. Effects of endodontic tri-antibiotic paste on bond strengths of dentin adhesives to coronal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mirzakoucheki, Parvin; Walter, Ricardo; Jahromi, Maryam Zare; Mirsattari, Sanaz; Akbarzadeh, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tri-antibiotic paste (TAP) on microtensile bond strengths (MTBS) of dental adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted molars had their occlusal surfaces flattened to expose dentin. They were divided into two groups, i.e., control group with no dentin treatment and experimental group with dentin treatment with TAP. After 10 days, specimens were bonded using self-etch (Filtek P90 adhesive) or etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond Plus) adhesives and restored with composite resin. Teeth were sectioned into beams, and the specimens were subjected to MTBS test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between dentin treatment and adhesive on MTBS to coronal dentin (p = 0.003). Despite a trend towards worse MTBS being noticed in the experimental groups, TAP application showed no significant effect on MTBS (p = 0.064). Conclusions The etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond Plus presented higher mean bond strengths than the self-etch adhesive Filtek P90, irrespective of the group. The superior bond performance for Adper Single Bond when compared to Filtek P90 adhesive was confirmed by a fewer number of adhesive failures. The influence of TAP in bond strength is insignificant. PMID:25984475

  4. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Janaina Barros; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva) and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days). Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM) or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250). Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001). For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  5. Bond Strength of Methacrylate-Based Composite to Dentin using a Silorane Adhesive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-06

    failures using Clearfil SE Bond were mixed or cohesive in nature suggesting a more stable adhesive interface (Al- Salehi and Burke, 1997). However, the...REFERENCES Al- Salehi SK, Burke FJ. Methods used in dentin bonding tests: An analysis of 50 investigations on bond strength. Quint Inter 1997;28:717–723

  6. Dentin bond strength and degree of conversion evaluation of experimental self-etch adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Fatemeh-Maleknejad; Atai, Mohammad; Zeynali, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) monomer in one-step self-etch experimental adhesives on dentinal microshear bond strength (µSBS), their degree of conversion and bonded micro structure. Material and Methods Composite resin cylinders (Clearfil AP-X) were bonded on human sound molar dentinal surfaces by using five experimental one-step self-etching adhesives (1-SEAs) containing 0% (E0), 5% (E5), 10% (E10), 15% (E15), 20% (E20) (by weight) 10-MDP monomer and Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3) as a control. After 24 hours, microshear bond strength was tested. The degree of conversion was also measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Interfacial ultrastructure was observed under a scanning electron microscope in all the groups. Results A higher microshear bond strength was observed with adhesives containing 10% and 15% 10-MDP in comparison to study groups (P<.05). Clearfil S3 Bond and 10% MDP had a significantly greater degree of conversion than other groups (P<.05). Conclusions The amount of functional monomer in 1-SEAs influences both the bonding performance and degree of conversion; 10% 10-MDP showed the best combination of bond strength and degree of conversion. Key words:Self-etch adhesives, 10-MDP, bond strength, degree of conversion. PMID:26155340

  7. The effect of different adhesive system applications on push-out bond strengths of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Deniz Arısu, Hacer; Üçtaşlı, Mine Betül; Okay, Tufan Can

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Over the past years, the adhesion of fiber posts luted with simplified adhesive systems has been a matter of great interest. The aim of this study was to assess the post retentive potential of a self-adhesive resin cement using different adhesive systems to compare the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS The post spaces of 56 mandibular premolar roots were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups and further divided into 2 subgroups according to testing time (n=7). The fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and one of the following adhesive systems: no adhesive, a total-etch adhesive resin (Single Bond), a two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond) and a one-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil S3 Bond). Each root was cut horizontally, and 1.5 mm thick six root segments were prepared. Push-out tests were performed after one week or three months (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis were performed with three-way ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS Cervical root segments showed higher bond strength values than middle segments. Adhesive application increased the bond strength. For one week group, the total-etch adhesive resin Single Bond showed higher bond strength than the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem applied without adhesive resin at middle region. For 3 months group, the two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond showed the highest bond strength for both regions. Regarding the time considered, Clearfil SE Bond 3 months group showed higher bond strength values than one week group. CONCLUSION Using the adhesive resins in combination with the self-adhesive resin cement improves the bond strengths. The bond strength values of two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond improved as time passes. PMID:24049572

  8. Influence of previous acid etching on bond strength of universal adhesives to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Silva, Tatiane Josefa; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acid pretreatment on the bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin with 2 different universal self-etching adhesives. The null hypothesis was that the acid treatment performed prior to adhesive application would not significantly change the bond strength to enamel or dentin for either universal adhesive tested. A sample of 112 bovine incisors were selected and embedded in acrylic resin. Half were ground until a flat enamel surface was obtained, and the other half were polished until a 6 × 6-mm area of dentin was exposed, resulting into 2 groups (n = 56). The enamel and dentin groups were divided into 2 subgroups according to the adhesive system applied: Futurabond U or Scotchbond Universal. Each of these subgroups was divided into 2 additional subgroups (n = 14); 1 subgroup received phosphoric acid pretreatment, and 1 subgroup did not. The bond strength was assessed with a microtensile test. Data from enamel and dentin specimens were analyzed separately using 1-way analysis of variance. The acid pretreatment did not significantly change the bond strength of the adhesives tested, either to enamel (P = 0.4161) or to dentin (P = 0.4857). The acid etching pretreatment did not affect the bond strength to dentin and enamel when the tested universal multipurpose adhesive systems were used.

  9. Bond strength of a fluoride-releasing bracket adhesive. Experimental study.

    PubMed

    Graf, I; Breier, M; Huck, L; Schwarze, C W

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine a new fluoride-releasing light-cured filling composite for its bonding and debonding qualities when used as a bracket adhesive. The material investigated was a hybrid composite containing a chemically modified fluoride apatite, which is claimed to provide the enamel with phosphate, calcium, and fluoride ions in the presence of an acid pH, recharging its resources of these ions through fluoride-containing toothpastes used in daily oral hygiene. Concurrently suitability as an enamel conditioner was tested in a new self-etching primer, which does not require water rinsing but is gently air dried instead. For comparison a conventional light-cure single-component adhesive was used together with 37% orthophosphoric acid. After application of the respective conditioners, mesh-backed metal brackets were bonded to 20 human premolars in each of the 2 adhesive groups and subjected to a shear test. Bond failure location was evaluated using the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Average bond strength of the experimental bracket adhesive and the conventional etchant was 8.96 MPa. Conditioning with the self-etching primer led to a decrease of mean shear bond strength values to 6.55 MPa. Highest bond strength was determined in the control group (12.19 MPa). The bond strength results obtained in the shear test recommend the new material as a bracket adhesive to be used with orthophosphoric acid for etching.

  10. BOND STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF ENAMEL USING SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT ACIDITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Pelizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. Material and methods: Composite resin (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis) and treated (burcut or SiC-paper) enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition): Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP); AdheSe (AD); Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) and Adper Single Bond (SB). After storage in water (24 h/37°C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5), OP (11.3±2.3), AD (11.2±2.8), TY (11.1±3.0), SBMP (21.9±4.0) and SB (24.9±3.0). Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. Conclusion: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed. PMID:19668991

  11. Tensile Bond Strength of Self Adhesive Resin Cement After Various Surface Treatment of Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Sahil; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In self adhesive resin cements adhesion is achieved to dental surface without surface pre-treatment, and requires only single step application. This makes the luting procedure less technique-sensitive and decreases postoperative sensitivity. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of self adhesive resin after surface treatment of enamel for bonding base metal alloy. Materials and Methods On the labial surface of 64 central incisor rectangular base metal block of dimension 6 mm length, 5mm width and 1 mm height was cemented with RelyX U200 and Maxcem Elite self adhesive cements with and without surface treatment of enamel. Surface treatment of enamel was application of etchant, one step bonding agent and both. Tensile bond strength of specimen was measured with universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Results Least tensile bond strength (MPa) was in control group i.e. 1.33 (0.32) & 1.59 (0.299), Highest bond strength observed when enamel treated with both etchant and bonding agent i.e. 2.72 (0.43) & 2.97 (0.19) for Relyx U200 and Elite cement. When alone etchant and bonding agent were applied alone bond strength is 2.19 (0.18) & 2.24 (0.47) for Relyx U200, and 2.38 (0.27) 2.49 (0.16) for Max-cem elite. Mean bond strength was higher in case of Max-cem Elite as compared to RelyX U200 resin cement, although differences were non–significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Surface treatment of enamel increases the bond strength of self adhesive resin cement. PMID:26894165

  12. Comparison of shear bond strength of two self-etch primer/adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Samir E; Ajlouni, Raed; Laffoon, John F; Warren, John J

    2006-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets adhesive systems use three different agents, an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin. A unique characteristic of some new bonding systems is that they combine the conditioning, priming, and adhesive agents into a single application. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of using one-step and two-step self-etch primer/adhesive systems on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. The brackets were bonded to extracted human molars according to one of two protocols. Group I (control): a two-step self-etch acidic primer/adhesive system was used, Transbond Plus was applied to the enamel surface as suggested by the manufacturer. The brackets were bonded with Transbond XT and light cured for 20 seconds. Group II: a one-step self-etch, self-adhesive resin cement system, Maxcem, was applied directly to the bracket. The self-etch primer/adhesive is made of two components that mix automatically during application. The brackets were then light cured for 20 seconds. The mean shear bond strength of the two-step acid-etch primer/adhesive was 5.9 +/- 2.7 Mpa and the mean for the one-step system was 3.1 +/- 1.7 MPa. The in vitro findings of this study indicated that the shear bond strengths (t = 3.79) of the two adhesive systems were significantly different (P = .001). One-step adhesive systems could potentially be advantageous for orthodontic purposes if their bond strength can be improved.

  13. Oxide film microstructure: the link between surface preparation processes and strength/durability of adhesively bonded aluminum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, K. Jimmy; Pearlstein, Arne J.; Scheeline, Alexander; Shang, Jian Ku

    2000-11-30

    Strength and durability of adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys structures are intrinsically determined by the surface microstructures and interfacial failure micromechanisms. The current project presents a multidisciplinary approach to addressing critical issues controlling the strength and durability of adhesive bonds of aluminum alloys. Three main thrust areas have been pursued: surface treatment technology development to achieve desirable surface microstructures; relationship between surface structure and properties of adhesive bonds; and failure mechanisms of adhesively bonded components.

  14. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to composite submitted to different surface pretreatments

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Victor Hugo; Griza, Sandro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extensively destroyed teeth are commonly restored with composite resin before cavity preparation for indirect restorations. The longevity of the restoration can be related to the proper bonding of the resin cement to the composite. This study aimed to evaluate the microshear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements to composite resin. Materials and Methods Composite discs were subject to one of six different surface pretreatments: none (control), 35% phosphoric acid etching for 30 seconds (PA), application of silane (silane), PA + silane, PA + adhesive, or PA + silane + adhesive (n = 6). A silicone mold containing a cylindrical orifice (1 mm2 diameter) was placed over the composite resin. RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) or BisCem (Bisco Inc.) self-adhesive resin cement was inserted into the orifices and light-cured. Self-adhesive cement cylinders were submitted to shear loading. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results Independent of the cement used, the PA + Silane + Adhesive group showed higher microshear bond strength than those of the PA and PA + Silane groups. There was no difference among the other treatments. Unicem presented higher bond strength than BisCem for all experimental conditions. Conclusions Pretreatments of the composite resin surface might have an effect on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to this substrate. PMID:24516824

  15. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Cécile; Abouelleil, Hazem; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL) and a two-steps/self-etch adhesive system (Optibond XTR) were used. Composite buildups were performed with a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XTR). All specimens were submitted to thermocycling ageing (10000 cycles). The specimens were sectioned in 1 mm2 sticks. Microtensile bond strength tests were measured. Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed due to nonnormality of data. Optibond XTR on irradiated and nonirradiated teeth did not show any significant differences. However, Optibond FL bond strength was more effective on nonirradiated teeth than on irradiated teeth. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy had a significant detrimental effect on bond strength to human dentin. However, it seems that adhesive choice could be adapted to the substrata. According to the present study, the two-steps/self-etch (Optibond XTR) adhesive system tested could be more effective on irradiated dentin compared to three-steps/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL). PMID:26783528

  16. Tensile bond strength and SEM evaluation of caries-affected dentin using dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Sano, H; Burrow, M F; Tagami, J; Yoshiyama, M; Ebisu, S; Ciucchi, B; Russell, C M; Pashley, D H

    1995-10-01

    Tensile bond strength measurements are commonly used for the evaluation of dentin adhesive systems. Most tests are performed using extracted non-carious human or bovine dentin. However, the adhesion of resins to caries-affected dentin is still unclear. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin is inferior to bonding to normal dentin, and that the quality of the hybrid layer plays a major role in creating good adhesion. We used a micro-tensile bond strength test to compare test bond strengths made to either caries-affected dentin or normal dentin, using three commercial adhesive systems (All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, and Clearfil Liner Bond II). For scanning electron microscopy, the polished interfaces between the adhesive bond and dentin were subjected to brief exposure to 10% phosphoric acid solution and 5% sodium hypochlorite, so that the quality of the hybrid layers could be observed. Bonding to normal dentin with either All Bond 2 (26.9 +/- 8.8 MPa) or Clearfil Liner Bond II (29.5 +/- 10.9 MPa) showed tensile bond strengths higher than those to caries-affected dentin (13.0 +/- 3.6 MPa and 14.0 +/- 4.3 MPa, respectively). The tensile bond strengths obtained with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose were similar in normal and caries-affected dentin (20.3 +/- 5.5 MPa and 18.5 +/- 4.0 MPa, respectively). The hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in normal dentin and by Clearfil Liner Bond II in normal or caries-affected dentin showed phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite resistance, whereas the hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in caries-affected dentin and those created by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose to normal and caries-affected dentin showed partial susceptibility to the acid and sodium hypochlorite treatment. The results indicate that the strength of adhesion to dentin depends upon both the adhesive system used and the type of dentin. Moreover, the quality of the hybrid layer may not always contribute

  17. Shear Bond Strengths and Morphological Evaluation of Filled and Unfilled Adhesive Interfaces to Enamel and Dentine

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Fathi, Mohammadhosein; Ataei, Ebrahim; Khodaeian, Niloufar; Askari, Navid

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory study shear bond strengths of three filled and one unfilled adhesive systems to enamel and dentine were compared. Forty-eight extracted intact noncarious human mandibular molars were randomly assigned to two groups of 24 one for bonding to enamel and the other for bonding to dentine. Buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth were randomly assigned for application of each one of filled (Prime & Bond NT (PBNT), Optibond Solo Plus (OBSP), and Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB)) and unfilled (Single Bond (SB)) adhesive systems (n = 12). A universal resin composite was placed into the translucent plastic cylinders (3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length) and seated against the enamel and dentine surfaces and polymerized for 40 seconds. Shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine, and the results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Tukey HSD post hoc test with a 5% level of significance.There were no statistically significant differences in bond strength between the adhesive systems in enamel, but CSEB and SB exhibited significantly higher and lower bond strength to dentine, respectively, than the other tested adhesive systems while there were no statistically significant differences between PBNT and OBSP. PMID:23209471

  18. Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Akansha; Sekhar, Anand; Ginjupalli, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent. Material and Methods The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Results There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid. PMID:26330930

  19. Preliminary evaluation of adhesion strength measurement devices for ceramic/titanium matrix composite bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohlchuck, Bobby; Zeller, Mary V.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesive bond between ceramic cement and a titanium matrix composite substrate to be used in the National Aerospace Plane program is evaluated. Two commercially available adhesion testers, the Sebastian Adherence Tester and the CSEM REVETEST Scratch Tester, are evaluated to determine their suitability for quantitatively measuring adhesion strength. Various thicknesses of cements are applied to several substrates, and bond strengths are determined with both testers. The Sabastian Adherence Tester has provided limited data due to an interference from the sample mounting procedure, and has been shown to be incapable of distinguishing adhesion strength from tensile and shear properties of the cement itself. The data from the scratch tester has been found to be difficult to interpret due to the porosity and hardness of the cement. Recommendations are proposed for a more reliable adhesion test method.

  20. Comparison of the shear bond strength of 2 self-etch primer/adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Samir E; Oonsombat, Charuphan; Ajlouni, Raed; Laffoon, John F

    2004-03-01

    Conventional adhesive systems use 3 different agents-an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin for bonding orthodontic brackets to enamel. A unique characteristic of some new bonding systems in operative dentistry is that they combine the conditioning and priming agents into a single application. Combining conditioning and priming saves time and should be more cost-effective to the clinician and indirectly to the patient. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of mix and no-mix self-etch primers/bonding systems on the shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets. The brackets were bonded to extracted human molars according to the following protocols. In group I, a self-etch acidic primer/adhesive system, Transbond Plus (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), was applied on the enamel surface as suggested by the manufacturer; it has 2 components that must be mixed before use. The brackets were then bonded with Transbond XT and light-cured for 20 seconds. In group II, a no-mix self-etch bracket adhesive system, Ideal 1 (GAG International, Islandia, NY), was applied to the teeth as suggested by the manufacturer. The self-etch primer has 1 component that does not need to be mixed before use. The brackets were then bonded with the adhesive and light-cured for 20 seconds. The in vitro findings indicated that the shear bond strength comparisons (t = 0.681) of the 2 adhesive systems were not significantly different (P =.501). The mean shear bond strength of the 2-component acid etch primer was 5.9 +/- 2.7 MPa, and the mean for the 1-component system was 6.6 +/- 3.2 MPa. The clinician should consider the bond strength and the ease of application of the various components of the bracket bonding systems available on the market.

  1. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Shear Bond Strength of Adhesives to Primary Teeth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Farokh Gisovar, Elham; Hedayati, Nassim; Shadman, Niloofar; Shafiee, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: CPP-ACP (Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate) has an important role in caries prevention in pediatric patients. This study was done, because of the great use of CPP-ACP and the need for restoration for teeth treated with CPP-ACP as well as the importance of shear bond strength of adhesives in the success of restorations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel of primary teeth molars. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted on 180 extracted primary molars. They were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was divided into 2 subgroups (treated with CPP-ACP and untreated). In subgroups with CPP-ACP, enamel was treated with CPP-ACP paste 1 h/d for 5 days. Types of adhesives that were evaluated in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE, AdheSE One F, single Bond 2, SE Bond, and Adper Prompt L-Pop. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine and mode of failure was evaluated under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by T test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey and Fisher exact test using SPSS18. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level. Results: Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to enamel of primary teeth treated and untreated with CPP-ACP showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mode of failure in all groups regardless of CPP-ACP administration was mainly adhesive type. Our results indicated that CPP-ACP did not affect shear bond strength of studied adhesives to primary teeth enamel. Conclusions: To have a successful and durable composite restoration, having a high strength bonding is essential. Considering the wide use of CPP-ACP in preventing tooth decay and the role of adhesive shear bond strength (SBS) in success of composite restoration, we conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP on the SBS of adhesives to primary teeth

  2. A mussel-inspired adhesive with stronger bonding strength under underwater conditions than under dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Ailei; Mu, Youbing; Jiang, Wei; Wan, Xiaobo

    2015-06-04

    A mussel-inspired adhesive based on a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) backbone shows a much higher bonding strength under underwater/seawater conditions than under dry conditions. We reasoned that besides catechol moieties, the structure and properties of the backbone also play an important role in the realization of strong underwater bonding.

  3. Effect of acid etching on bond strength of nanoionomer as an orthodontic bonding adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saba; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Maheshwari, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A new Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement known as nanoionomer containing nanofillers of fluoroaluminosilicate glass and nanofiller 'clusters' has been introduced. An in-vitro study aimed at evaluating shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of nanoionomer under etching/unetched condition for use as an orthodontic bonding agent. Material and Methods: A total of 75 extracted premolars were used, which were divided into three equal groups of 25 each: 1-Conventional adhesive (Enlight Light Cure, SDS, Ormco, CA, USA) was used after and etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by Ortho Solo application 2-nanoionomer (Ketac™ N100, 3M, ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was used after etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s 3-nanoionomer was used without etching. The SBS testing was performed using a digital universal testing machine (UTM-G-410B, Shanta Engineering). Evaluation of ARI was done using scanning electron microscopy. The SBS were compared using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons and ARI scores were compared with Chi-square test. Results: ANOVA (SBS, F = 104.75) and Chi-square (ARI, Chi-square = 30.71) tests revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.01). The mean (SD) SBS achieved with conventional light cure adhesive was significantly higher (P < 0.05) (10.59 ± 2.03 Mpa, 95% CI, 9.74-11.41) than the nanoionomer groups (unetched 4.13 ± 0.88 Mpa, 95% CI, 3.79-4.47 and etched 9.32 ± 1.87 Mpa, 95% CI, 8.58-10.06). However, nanoionomer with etching, registered SBS in the clinically acceptable range of 5.9–7.8 MPa, as suggested by Reynolds (1975). The nanoionomer groups gave significantly lower ARI values than the conventional adhesive group. Conclusion: Based on this in-vitro study, nanoionomer with etching can be successfully used as an orthodontic bonding agent leaving less adhesive remnant on enamel surface, making cleaning easier. However, in-vivo studies are needed to confirm the validity

  4. Effect of indirect composite treatment microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, Nuria; Baracco, Bruno; Romero, Martin; Ceballos, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background No specific indications about the pre-treatment of indirect composite restorations is provided by the manufacturers of most self-adhesive resin cements. The potential effect of silane treatment to the bond strength of the complete tooth/indirect restoration complex is not available.The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of composite overlays to dentin using several self-adhesive resin cements and a total-etch one. Material and Methods Composite overlays were fabricated and bonding surfaces were airborne-particle abraded and randomly assigned to two different surface treatments: no treatment or silane application (RelyX Ceramic Primer) followed by an adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT). Composite overlays were luted to flat dentin surfaces using the following self-adhesive resin cements: RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, Speedcem, Maxcem Elite or Smartcem2, and the total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC. After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into sticks 1 mm thick and stressed in tension until failure. Two-way ANOVA and SNK tests were applied at α=0.05. Results Bond strength values were significantly influenced by the resin cement used (p<0.001). However, composite surface treatment and the interaction between the resin cement applied and surface treatment did not significantly affect dentin bond strength (p>0.05). All self-adhesive resin cements showed lower bond strength values than the total-etch RelyX ARC. Among self-adhesive resin cements, RelyX Unicem and G-Cem attained statistically higher bond strength values. Smartcem2 and Maxcem Elite exhibited 80-90% of pre-test failures. Conclusions The silane and adhesive application after indirect resin composite sandblasting did not improve the bond strength of dentin-composite overlay complex. Selection of the resin cement seems to be a more relevant factor when bonding indirect composites to dentin than its surface treatment. Key words:Bond

  5. Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coating with 110 µm Al2O3 particles which modified with silica; and, Group 3, tribochemical treatment - silica coating + silanization. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours before testing shear bond strength. Results Silica coating and tribochemical treatment significantly increased the bond strength of the MA, UN, BR, BI, SE and CL to zirconia compared to #600 polishing. For both #600 polished and silica coating treatments, MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement CL had the highest bond strengths to zirconia. Conclusion Applying silica coating and tribochemical treatment improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia, especially for CL. PMID:20690416

  6. Bond strength evaluation in adhesive joints using NDE and DIC methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Anish

    Adhesive bonding of graphite epoxy composite laminates to itself or traditional metal alloys in modern aerospace and aircraft structural applications offers an excellent opportunity to use the most efficient and intelligent combination of materials available thus providing an attractive package for efficient structural designs. However, one of the major issues of adhesive bonding is the occasional formation of interfacial defects such as kissing or weak bonds in the bondline interface. Also, there are shortcomings of existing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to non-destructively detect/characterize these interfacial defects and reliably predicting the bond shear strength. As a result, adhesive bonding technology is still not solely implemented in primary structures of an aircraft. Therefore, there is a greater demand for a novel NDE tool that can meet the existing aerospace requirement for adhesive bondline characterization. This research implemented a novel Acoustography ultrasonic imaging and digital image correlation (DIC) technique to detect and characterize interfacial defects in the bondline and determine bond shear strength in adhesively bonded composite-metal joints. Adhesively bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) laminate and 2024-T3 Aluminum single lap shear panels subjected to various implanted kissing/weak bond defects were the primary focus of this study. Kissing/weak bonds were prepared by controlled surface contamination in the composite bonding surface and also by improperly mixing the adhesive constituent. SEM analyses were also conducted to understand the surface morphology of substrates and their interaction with the contaminants. Morphological changes were observed in the microscopic scale and the chemical analysis confirmed the stability of the contaminant at or very close to the interface. In addition, it was also demonstrated that contaminants migrated during the curing of the adhesive from CFRP substrate which caused a

  7. The effect of saliva decontamination procedures on dentin bond strength after universal adhesive curing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayang; Hong, Sungok; Choi, Yoorina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of multiple decontamination procedures for salivary contamination after curing of a universal adhesive on dentin bond strength according to its etch modes. Materials and Methods Forty-two extracted bovine incisors were trimmed by exposing the labial dentin surfaces and embedded in cylindrical molds. A universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal, Bisco) was used. The teeth were randomly divided into groups according to etch mode and decontamination procedure. The adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions for a given etch mode. With the exception of the control groups, the cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva for 20 sec. In the self-etch group, the teeth were divided into three groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive. In the etch-and-rinse group, the teeth were divided into four groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive. A composite resin (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) was used for filling and was cured on the treated surfaces. Shear bond strength was measured, and failure modes were evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variation and Tukey's HSD test. Results The etch-and-rinse subgroup that was decontaminated by rinse, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive showed a significantly higher bond strength. Conclusions When salivary contamination occurs after curing of the universal adhesive, additional etching improves the bond strength to dentin. PMID:26587416

  8. Bonding of self-adhesive resin cements to enamel using different surface treatments: bond strength and etching pattern evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strengths and etching patterns of seven self-adhesive resin cements to human enamel specimens which were subjected to one of the following surface treatments: (1) Polishing with #600 polishing paper; (2) Phosphoric acid; (3) G-Bond one-step adhesive; or (4) Phosphoric acid and G-Bond. After surface treatment, the human incisor specimens were bonded to a resin composite using a self-adhesive resin cement [Maxcem (MA), RelyX Unicem (UN), Breeze (BR), BisCem (BI), seT (SE), Clearfil SA Luting (CL)] or a conventional resin cement [ResiCem (RE)]. Representative morphology formed with self-adhesive resin cements showed areas of etched enamel intermingled with areas of featureless enamel. In conclusion, etching efficacy influenced the bonding effectiveness of self-adhesive resin cements to unground enamel, and that a combined use of phosphoric acid and G-Bond for pretreatment of human enamel surfaces improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements.

  9. Does hybridized dentin affect bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement?

    PubMed Central

    do Valle, Accácio-Lins; de Andrade, Gustavo-Henrique-Barbosa; Vidotti, Hugo-Alberto; Só, Marcus-Vinícius-Reis; Pereira, Jefferson-Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluate the influence of different hybridization bonding techniques of a self-adhesive resin cement. Material and Methods 30 human health molars were divided into six groups (n=10). The specimens received three longitudinal sections, allowing insertion of central cuts in PVC matrices. Each group received a different dentin pretreatment according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, except the control group (G1), as follows. G2 - a 3-step total-etch adhesive system (Optibond™ FL, Kerr); G3 - a 3-step total-etch adhesive system (Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE); G4 - a 2-step total-etch adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE); G5 - a single-step self-etching system (Bond Force, Tokuyama); and G6 - universal bonding system (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then, cylinders made of self-adhesive resin cement with polypropylene matrix was cemented in all groups (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). Bond strength was assessed by submitting the specimens to micro-shear test and was characterized according to the fracture pattern observed through optical microscopy. Results The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, which indicated a statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.04), and Tukey’s multiple comparisons, which indicated a statistically significant difference between G1 and G3 (p<0.05). The microscopic analysis revealed a high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed fractures, and cohesive failures in the dentin. Conclusions The use of a previous dentin hybridization protocol is able to increase adhesive bonding resistance of self-adhesive resin cement, especially when used Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose system. Key words:Bonding, self-adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:27703609

  10. Effect of cleaning methods on bond strength of self-etching adhesive to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bronzato, Juliana Delatorre; Cecchin, Doglas; Miyagaki, Daniela Cristina; de Almeida, José Flávio Affonso; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cleaning methods to remove zinc oxide-eugenol-based root canal sealer (Endomethasone) on the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods: Twenty crowns of bovine incisors were cut to expose the pulp chamber. A zinc oxide- and eugenol-based sealer was placed for 10 min in contact with the pulp chamber dentin. Specimens were divided into four groups according to the cleaning method of dentin used: G1, no root canal sealer (control); G2, 0.9% sodium chlorite (NaCl); G3, ethanol; and G4, followed by diamond drill. After cleaning, the teeth were restored with composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond. All specimens were sectioned to produce rectangular sticks and dentin/resin interface was submitted to microtensile bond testing. The mean bond strengths were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey (α = 0.05). Results: G3 and G4 showed bond strengths similar to the G1 (P > 0.05). A significant decrease in the bond strength in the G2 was observed (P < 0.05). G1, G3, and G4, the predominant failure mode was the mixed type. The prevalence of adhesive failure mode was verified in the G2. Conclusion: The cleaning methods affected the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive to dentin differently. PMID:26957789

  11. Effect of collagen removal on shear bond strength of two single-bottle adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Saboia, V P; Rodrigues, A L; Pimenta, L A

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of collagen removal on the shear bond strength for two single-bottle adhesive systems. The ultrastructure of the dentin after treatments and the dentin-resin interface were examined under SEM. The buccal and lingual surfaces of 80 extracted human third molars were ground to expose dentin. Teeth were randomly assigned to four groups and received the following treatments: Group 1(P&B 2.1), Prime & Bond 2.1 adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's directions and Restorative Z100 composite resin was bonded to the dentin surface; Group 2 (P&B 2.1/NaOCl), the same procedures were followed as for Group 1 except that the surfaces were treated with 10% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for one minute after acid conditioning; Group 3 (SB), Single Bond (3M) was applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations; Group 4 (SB/NaOCl), the same procedure was followed for Group 2, using Single Bond. The specimens were stored in humidity at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and tested in a shear mode at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Multiple Comparisons were used for statistical analysis of the data. A one-minute exposure of dentin to 10% NaOCl following acid conditioning resulted in a significant increase of the dentin shear bond strength for Prime & Bond 2.1. The same treatment for Single Bond resulted in a significant reduction in bond strength. Groups 1 and 3 were not statistically different from each other. The presence of a collagen layer resulted in the formation of a hybrid layer and similar values of adhesion for both adhesive systems. The results may suggest that collagen removal improves the bond strength for this acetone-based adhesive system but several such systems would need to be investigated.

  12. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    PubMed Central

    Hattar, Susan; Hatamleh, Muhanad M.; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Rabab’ah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistically significant differences were defined at the α = 0.05 level. Bond failures were categorized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results The SBS values ranged from 3.76 to 6.81 MPa for cements bonded to enamel and from 4.48 to 5.94 MPa for cements bonded to dentin (p > 0.05 between surfaces). There were no statistically significant differences between the SBS values to enamel versus dentin for any given cement type. All cements exhibited adhesive failure at the resin/tooth interface. Conclusions Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution. PMID:26082572

  13. Post-bleaching application of an antioxidant on dentin bond strength of three dental adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Saneie, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Antioxidizing agents have recently been suggested to compensate decreased bond strength of resin materials to bleached tooth tissues. This study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three different adhesives on bleached dentin immediately after bleaching, bleached/delayed for 1 week, and bleached/applied antioxidizing agent. Materials and Methods: The dentinal surfaces of 132 intact extracted molars were prepared and divided into 12 groups. The following adhesives were investigated: Optibond FL (OFL) (three-step etch-and-rinse), Optibond Solo Plus (two-step etch-and-rinse), and Optibond all-in-one (OA) (one-step self-etch) (Kerr, Orange, USA). Unbleached dentin groups (groups 1-3) were prepared as negative controls (NC). The remainder surfaces (groups 4-12) were bleached with 20% Opalescent PF (Ultradent, USA). Specimens were bonded immediately after bleaching (groups 4-6), after 1 week (groups 7-9), or after using 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) gel (groups 10-12). Subsequent to bonding of composite resin, the samples were tested for SBS and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: Regarding control groups, OA showed the highest SBS among the studied adhesives (P<0.05). The SBS decreased for the adhesives after bleaching except for OFL. No statistically significant difference in SBS were noted when the SA and delayed bonding groups were compared with their similar NC groups (P>0.05) except the of delay bonding with OA. Conclusions: The findings suggest that bond strength of resin to bleached dentin may be affected with the adhesive system. Reduced SBS to bleached dentin can be amended by the use of SA as an antioxidizing agent. However, the amount of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant might be related to the kind of dental adhesive. PMID:22363363

  14. Bond strengths of three chemical adhesive cements adhered to a nickel-chromium alloy for direct bonded retainers.

    PubMed

    Atta, M O; Smith, B G; Brown, D

    1990-02-01

    Sandblasted surfaces of a beryllium-free, nickel-chromium alloy were bonded with one of three chemical adhesives. After either immersion in water for up to 6 months or thermal cycling between 5 degrees and 60 degrees C for 500 cycles, the bonded specimens were tested for both shear and tensile strength. The highest values of tensile and shear bond strengths were found with Panavia Ex material, and these values showed no significant changes after thermal cycling. For ABC cement and for Super-Bond C & B material, the strength of the bond was significantly improved with thermal cycling. However, immersion in water for 6 months caused a significant decrease in the strength of the bond of specimens adhered with ABC cement.

  15. Analysis of interfacial structure and bond strength of self-etch adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Watanabe, Larry G; Reis, Andre F; Powers, John M; Marshall, Sally J; Marshall, Grayson W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the bond strength, nanoleakage and interfacial morphology of four self-etch adhesives bonded to superficial dentin. Methods Micro-tensile (MT, n=15) and single plane shear (SP, n=8) bond tests were performed using human dentin polished through 320-grit SiC paper. Clearfil Protect Bond (PB), Clearfil S3 Bond (S3), Prompt L-Pop (PLP) and G-BOND (GB) were used according to manufacturers’ instructions. Composite was applied as cylinders with a thickness of 4 mm with a 1-mm diameter and stored in water at 37° C for 24 hours. Specimens were debonded with a testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Means and standard deviations of bond strength were calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Fisher’s PLSD intervals were calculated at the 0.05 level of significance. Failure modes were determined at 100X. The hybrid layer was revealed by treatment with 5N HCl/5% NaOCl or fractured perpendicular to the interface and sputter coated with gold. Specimens were viewed at 1000X, 2500X, and 5000X in a field emission SEM at 15 kV. Teeth (n=2) sectioned into 0.9-mm thick slabs were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 24 hours, rinsed and immersed in photo-developing solution for 8h. Specimens were sectioned (90-nm thick) and observed under TEM. Results Means ranged from 25.0 to 73.1 MPa for MT and from 15.5 to 56.4 MPa for SP. MT values were greater than SP, but were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99, p= 0.003) and provided the same order for the systems studied. Fisher’s PLSD intervals (p<0.05) for bond strength techniques and adhesives results were 1.7 and 2.3 MPa, respectively. Failures sites were mixed. TEM showed that hybrid layers were ~0.5 µm for PB, GB and S3 and ~5 µm for PLP. SEM showed morphologic differences among adhesives. Silver nitrate deposits were observed within interfaces for all adhesive systems. Clinical significance Simplification of application procedures appears to induce loss of adhesion capabilities. In this

  16. Innovative use of adhesive interface characteristics to nondestructively quantify the strength of bonded joints.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2010-05-01

    Advances in structural adhesives have permitted engineers to contemplate the use of bonded joints in areas that have long been dominated by mechanical fasteners and welds. Although strength, modulus, and toughness have been improved in modern adhesives, the typical concerns with using these polymers still exist. These include concerns over long-term durability and an inability to quantify bond strength (i.e., identify weak bonds) in adhesive joints. Bond deterioration in aging structures and bond strength in original construction are now critical issues that require more than simple flaw detection. Whether the structure involves metallic or composite materials, it is necessary to extend inspections beyond the detection of disbond flaws to include an assessment of the strength of the bond. Use of advanced nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods to measure the mechanical properties of a bonded joint and associated correlations with post-inspection failure tests have provided some clues regarding the key parameters involved in assessing bond strength. Recent advances in ultrasonic- and thermographic-based inspection methods have shown promise for measuring such properties. Specialized noise reduction and signal enhancement schemes have allowed thermographic interrogations to image the subtle differences between bond lines of various strengths. Similarly, specialized ultrasonic (UT) inspection techniques, including laser UT, guided waves, UT spectroscopy, and resonance methods, can be coupled with unique signal analysis algorithms to accurately characterize the properties of weak interfacial bonds. The generation of sufficient energy input levels to derive bond strength variations, the production of sufficient technique sensitivity to measure such minor response variations, and the difficulty in manufacturing repeatable weak bond specimens are all issues that exacerbate these investigations. The key to evaluating the bond strength lies in the ability to exploit the

  17. Effect of digluconate chlorhexidine on bond strength between dental adhesive systems and dentin: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to systematically review the literature for the effect of digluconate chlorhexidine (CHX) on bond strength between dental adhesive systems and dentin of composite restorations. Materials and Methods: The electronic databases that were searched to identify manuscripts for inclusion were Medline via PubMed and Google search engine. The search strategies were computer search of the database and review of reference lists of the related articles. Search words/terms were as follows: (digluconate chlorhexidine*) AND (dentin* OR adhesive system* OR bond strength*). Results: Bond strength reduction after CHX treatments varied among the studies, ranging 0-84.9%. In most of the studies, pretreatment CHX exhibited lower bond strength reduction than the control experimental groups. Researchers who previously investigated the effect of CHX on the bond strength of dental adhesive systems on dentin have reported contrary results, which may be attributed to different experimental methods, different designs of the experiments, and different materials investigated. Conclusions: Further investigations, in particular clinical studies, would be necessary to clarify the effect of CHX on the longevity of dentin bonds. PMID:26957786

  18. Influence of conditioning time on bond strength: evaluation of self-etching adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Borges, Marciano de Freitas; Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Marchiori, Jeferson da Costa; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo; Susin, Alexandre Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems with different dentin conditioning times. Sixty caries-free, extracted third molars were selected, with the occlusal surface removed by a diamond saw disc. The specimens were embedded in epoxy resin and divided randomly into six groups (n = 10), according to the conditioning time and adhesive system used. After restoration, the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours; they then were submitted to the tensile bond strength test. The results were measured in MPa, then submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). The adhesive system used and the length of dentin conditioning time were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The application time of the conditioner before photocuring did not have a significant effect on tensile bond strength. These results indicate that the resting time of adhesive above the dentin does not directly affect the bond strength of the adhesive system.

  19. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  20. Effect of MTAD on the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Khademi, Abbasali; Khosravi, Kazem; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Ebrahimi–Chaharom, Mohammadesmaeil; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Khalighinejad, Navid; Badrian, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the use of different irrigants to eliminate residual debris and smear layer in the field of endodontic is unavoidable, by considering the effect of irrigants on the bond strength of resin composite restorations, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of a mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD) on the shear bond strength of two self-etch adhesives, Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Prompt L- Pop to dentin. Materials and Methods: The crowns of 80 extracted premolars were transversally sectioned to expose dentin. Flat dentin surfaces were wet abraded with 320-grit abrasive paper and randomly assigned to eight groups according to two self-etch adhesive and four dentin surface treatments: direct application over smear layer (no treatment), etching with 35% phosphoric acid for 15s, 1 min 5.25% NaOCl/1 min MTAD and 20min 1.3% NaOCl/5min MTAD. Shear bond strength was tested 24 h after storage in distilled water at 37°C in incubator. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by duncan post-hoc (α=0.05). Results: Phosphoric acid etching prior to SE Bond application significantly decreased the shear bond strength to dentin (P<0.05). Application of MTAD clinical protocol (20min 1.3% NaOCl/5min MTAD) did not significantly decrease the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin (P=0.745) Conclusions: Based on the results of present investigation, it seems that the use of clinical protocol of 1.3% NaOCl as a root canal irrigant and a 5-min application of MTAD as a final rinse to remove the smear layer has no adverse effect on the shear bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin. PMID:22363359

  1. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change.

  2. Bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgílio Vilas Boas; Rodrigues, José Roberto; da Silva, João Maurício Ferraz; Pagani, Clovis; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio Assunção

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of surface treatments and thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of self-adhesive resin cement to human enamel and dentin. Eighty human third molars were selected. The crowns of 40 teeth were transversally sectioned, exposing the mid-coronal dentin. The buccal surfaces of the other 40 teeth were grinded to obtain a 5 mm2 flat enamel area. Eighty resin blocks were produced and cemented to the dental surfaces with RelyX Unicem, then grouped according to the surface treatment (n=10): UnicemC with no conditioning, UnicemP with 37% phosphoric acid/15 s, and UnicemPA with 37% phosphoric acid/15 s plus adhesive bonding (Single Bond 2). There were two control groups, one for enamel and the other for dentin: VR with 37% phosphoric acid/15 s plus adhesive bonding (Single Bond 2) plus Variolink II. The enamel-dentin resin cement blocks were sectioned to produce non-trimmed bar specimens, which were divided into two storage conditions: dry, μTBS immediately after cutting; TC (5,000 x; 5°C/55°C). The samples were submitted to μTBS, and data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The results showed statistical differences between UnicemC and the others. UnicemPA and VR showed better bond strength to dentin during the period before and after thermocycling, respectively. For the enamel, UnicemP showed better bond strength for both situations. Only for UnicemPA did the thermocycling significantly decrease the bond strength values. Within the limits of this study, it could be concluded that the bond strength is influenced by the surface treatments, and that thermocycling decreases the bond strength of all groups, but significantly only for UnicemPA.

  3. Adhesive bond strength evaluation in composite materials by laser-generated high amplitude ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perton, M.; Blouin, A.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of composites laminates is highly efficient but is not used for joining primary aircraft structures, since there is presently no nondestructive inspection technique to ensure the quality of the bond. We are developing a technique based on the propagation of high amplitude ultrasonic waves to evaluate the adhesive bond strength. Large amplitude compression waves are generated by a short pulse powerful laser under water confinement and are converted after reflection by the assembly back surface into tensile waves. The resulting tensile stresses can cause a delamination inside the laminates or at the bond interfaces. The adhesion strength is evaluated by increasing the laser pulse energy until disbond. A good bond is unaffected by a certain level of stress whereas a weaker one is damaged. The method is shown completely non invasive throughout the whole composite assembly. The sample back surface velocity is measured by an optical interferometer and used to estimate stress history inside the sample. The depth and size of the disbonds are revealed by a post-test inspection by the well established laser-ultrasonic technique. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to differentiate weak bond from strong bonds and to estimate quantitatively their bond strength.

  4. Bond strength comparison of color-change adhesives for orthodontic bonding using a self-etching primer

    PubMed Central

    Ekhlassi, Sara; English, Jeryl D; Ontiveros, Joe C; Powers, John M; Bussa, Harry I; Frey, Gary N; Colville, Clark D; Ellis, Randy K

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two color-change adhesives with a commonly used conventional light-cure adhesive while using a self-etching primer, and to compare any changes in shear bond strengths over time. Methods One hundred and eighty extracted bovine incisors were randomly divided into nine groups of 20 teeth each. The teeth were prepared with a self-etching primer (Transbond™ Plus) Metal lower incisor brackets were bonded directly to each tooth with two different color-change adhesives (TransbondPlus and Grēngloo™) and a control (Transbond XT). The teeth were debonded at three different time points (15 minutes, 24 hours, 1 week) using an Instron at 1.0 mm/min. The teeth that were to be debonded at 24 hours and 1 week were stored in distilled water at 37°C to simulate the oral environment. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and with Fisher’s protected least-significant difference multiple comparisons test at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were calculated for each debonded tooth. Results Transbond Plus at 1 week had the highest mean shear bond strength (14.7 mPa). Grēngloo tested at 24 hours had the lowest mean shear bond strength (11.3 mPa). The mean shear bond strengths for the remaining seven groups had a range of 12–14.5 mPa. Grēngloo had >80% samples presenting with an ARI score of 1 at all times. Interestingly, both Transbond groups had ARI scores of 3 in more than 50% of their samples. Conclusion Time had no significant effect on the mean shear bond strength of Transbond XT, Grēngloo, or Transbond Plus adhesive. PMID:23674913

  5. Bond Strength of One-Step Adhesives under Different Substrate Moisture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luís; Fabião, Mayra Melo; Sfalcin, Ravana Angelini; de Souza Meneses, Murilo; Santos-Filho, Paulo César Freitas; Soares, Paulo Vinícius; Martins, Luís Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of one-step adhesive systems to dry or moist dental substrate. Methods Thirty human third molars were sectioned into two halves, in the mesio-distal direction, parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Each half was embedded in a polystyrene resin cylinder so that the buccal/lingual surface remained exposed. This exposed surface was abraded to obtain both flat exposed enamel and dentin. The samples were randomly allocated according to the adhesive system (Xeno III, Adper Prompt and iBond) and moisture condition (dry and moist). The substrates were air-dried for 30 s for dry condition, while the moist substrates were re-wet with 2.5 μl of distilled water after drying. After the adhesive procedures, two resin composite cylinders were build-up on dentin and enamel substrates, totaling four per sample. A shear load was applied to the samples at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Data were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (α=0.05). Results The evaluated one-step adhesives showed higher bond strength to dentin than enamel. The iBond presented better bond performance to moist substrate and Xeno III to dry substrate. The moisture condition did not interfere in the performance of Adper Prompt. The Xeno III and iBond presented higher bond strength than the other adhesives to both dry and moist substrates. Conclusions The moisture condition of substrate interfered in the performance of one-step self-etching adhesives and the best moisture condition was material dependent. PMID:19826601

  6. Effect of laser preparation on bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin.

    PubMed

    Yazici, A Rüya; Agarwal, Ishita; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E; Mang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser treatment on shear bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin composite to human dentin. Eighty extracted sound human molar teeth were used for the study. The teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and embedded in acrylic blocks. The dentin surfaces were ground wet with 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper. They were randomly divided into two preparation groups: laser (Er:YAG laser, with 12 Hz, 350 mJ energy) and control (SiC). Each group was then divided into two subgroups according to the flowable resin composite type (n = 20). A self-adhesive flowable (Vertise Flow) and a conventional flowable resin (Premise Flow) were used. Flowable resin composites were applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations using the Ultradent shear bond Teflon mold system. The bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h. Shear bond strength was tested at 1 mm/min. The data were logarithmically transformed and analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keul's test at a significance level of 0.05. The self-adhesive flowable resin showed significantly higher bond strength values to laser-prepared surfaces than to SiC-prepared surfaces (p < 0.001). The conventional flowable resin did not show such differences (p = 0.224). While there was a significant difference between the two flowable resin composites in SiC-prepared surfaces (p < 0.001), no significant difference was detected in laser-prepared surfaces (p = 0.053). The bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin composite differs according to the type of dentin surface preparation. Laser treatment increased the dentin bonding values of the self-adhesive flowable resin.

  7. In vitro analysis of shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of different metal brackets

    PubMed Central

    Henkin, Fernanda de Souza; de Macêdo, Érika de Oliveira Dias; Santos, Karoline da Silva; Schwarzbach, Marília; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Mundstock, Karina Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There is a great variety of orthodontic brackets in the Brazilian market, and constantly evaluating them is critical for professionals to know their properties, so as to be able to choose which product best suits their clinical practice. Objectives: To evaluate the bond strength and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different brands of metal brackets. Material and Methods: A total of 105 bovine incisors were used, and brackets of different brands were bonded to teeth. Seven different bracket brands were tested (MorelliTM, American OrthodonticsTM, TP OrthodonticsTM, Abzil-3MTM, OrthometricTM, TecnidentTM and UNIDENTM). Twenty-four hours after bonding, shear bond strength test was performed; and after debonding, the ARI was determined by using an optical microscope at a 10-fold increase. Results: Mean shear bond strength values ranged from 3.845 ± 3.997 (MorelliTM) to 9.871 ± 5.106 MPa (TecnidentTM). The majority of the ARI index scores was 0 and 1. Conclusion: Among the evaluated brackets, the one with the lowest mean shear bond strength values was MorelliTM. General evaluation of groups indicated that a greater number of bond failure occurred at the enamel/adhesive interface. PMID:28125142

  8. LONG-TERM BOND STRENGTH OF ADHESIVE SYSTEMS APPLIED TO ETCHED AND DEPROTEINIZED DENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Uceda-Gómez, Ninoshka; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda; Oda, Margareth; Reis, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and 12-month bond strength of two adhesive systems (Single Bond-SB and One Step-OS) applied to demineralized dentin (WH) and demineralized/NaOCl-treated dentin (H). Twenty flat dentin surfaces were exposed, etched, rinsed and slightly dried. For the H groups, a solution of 10% NaOCl was applied for 60 s, rinsed (15 s) and slightly dried. The adhesives were applied according to the manufacturer's instructions and composite resin crowns were incrementally constructed. After 24 h (water-37°C), the specimens was sectioned in order to obtain resin-dentin sticks (0.8 mm2). The specimens were tested in microtensile (0.5 mm/min) immediately (IM) or after 12 months of water storage (12M). The data (MPa) were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Only the main factors adhesive and time were significant (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively). SB (42.3±9.1) showed higher bond strengths than OS (33.6±11.6). The mean bond strength for IM-group (42.5±8.7) was statistically superior to 12M (33.3±11.8). The use of 10% NaOCl, after acid etching, did not improve the immediate and the long-term resin-dentin bond strength. PMID:19089183

  9. The effect of cavity disinfectants on the micro-shear bond strength of dentin adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina Wafik; Fawzi, Elham Mostafa; El Zohairy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the effect of application of four different disinfecting agents on the micro-shear bond strength (μ-SBS) of an etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: One hundred flat dentin surfaces of human molars were produced by wet grinding the buccal surfaces. Specimens were randomly assigned to five groups according to the disinfectant used: Group I: Control (no disinfectant); Group II: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite based; Group III: 2% chlorhexidine based (Consepsis), Group IV: 0.1% benzalkoniumchloride based (Tubulicid red) and Group V: 3% doxycycline based (Biopure, MTAD). Specimens were bonded using either Adper Single Bond 2 or Clearfil S3 Bond, which were employed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Resin composite microcylinders were bonded using Tygon® tubes for μ-SBS testing. The modes of failure were noted after visual examination using a binocular stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Failures were classified as adhesive, or mixed. μ-SBS results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: Dentin disinfectants tested significantly negated the bonding of Adper Single bond 2 and the groups were ranked; Group I > Group V = Group IV > Group II = Group III, meanwhile they enhanced significantly the μ-SBS values upon using Clearfil S3 Bond and were ranked; Group II > Group III = Group IV = Group V > Group I. Most failures were adhesive with the Adper single bond adhesive system. Mixed modes of failure were evident with Clearfil S3 bond. Conclusions: The disinfectants tested should not be used with Adper Single Bond 2 when applied before the etching step, However they could be used safely prior to bonding with Clearfil S3 Bond. PMID:24966768

  10. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  11. Adhesion to tooth structure: a critical review of "micro" bond strength test methods.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Steve; Geraldeli, Saulo; Maia, Rodrigo; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Soares, Carlos José; Yamagawa, Junichiro

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to critically review the literature regarding the mechanics, geometry, load application and other testing parameters of "micro" shear and tensile adhesion tests, and to outline their advantages and limitations. The testing of multiple specimens from a single tooth conserves teeth and allows research designs not possible using conventional 'macro' methods. Specimen fabrication, gripping and load application methods, in addition to material properties of the various components comprising the resin-tooth adhesive bond, will influence the stress distribution and consequently, the nominal bond strength and failure mode. These issues must be understood; as should the limitations inherent to strength-based testing of a complicated adhesive bond joining dissimilar substrates, for proper test selection, conduct and interpretation. Finite element analysis and comprehensive reporting of test conduct and results will further our efforts towards a standardization of test procedures. For the foreseeable future, both "micro" and "macro" bond strength tests will, as well as various morphological and spectroscopic investigative techniques, continue to be important tools for improving resin-tooth adhesion to increase the service life of dental resin-based composite restorations.

  12. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    DOE PAGES

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; ...

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted formore » by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.« less

  13. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted for by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.

  14. [Bond strength to dentin of resin composites associated with filled and unfilled adhesive systems].

    PubMed

    Youssef, J A; Turbino, M L; Youssef, M N; Matson, E

    2001-01-01

    This study analyzed in vitro two brands of one-step adhesive systems of fourth generation (Optisolo--Kerr, filled; and Single Bond--3M, unfilled) and two composite resins (Prodigy--Kerr and Z100--3M), aiming at evaluating their bond strength to dentin. Eighty human extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin and grounded until dentin was exposed in longitudinal direction. The specimens were divided in 4 groups. Composite resin cones were bonded to the specimens using the mentioned adhesive systems, following the instructions of the manufacturers. The test-specimens were submitted to tensile tests using a 4442 Universal Mini-Instron Machine with the speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were converted into MPa, according to the area of adhesion, and submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA. There was significant statistical difference (p < 0.01) between the adhesive systems (F = 7.24). Optisolo (m = 11.03 +/- 4.23) showed better bond strength than Single Bond (m = 8.37 +/- 4.54). There was no significant statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the composites (F = 0.43).

  15. Antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing Galla chinensis extract

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LU-FEI; LUO, FENG; XUE, CHAO-RAN; DENG, MENG; CHEN, CHEN; WU, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE), a naturally-derived agent, has a significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic bacteria. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing GCE. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated GCE at five mass fractions (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) to prepare GCE-containing cement for analysis. For the agar diffusion test, cement specimens were placed on agar disk inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (strain ATCC 25175). Following 48 h incubation, the inhibition halo diameter was measured. To assess bacteria colonization susceptibility, S. mutans adhesion to cement specimens was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following 48 h incubation. To evaluate bond strength, a total of 50 metal brackets were bonded on premolar surfaces by using cement (10 teeth/group). Following immersion in an artificial saliva for 3 days, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. The results demonstrated that GCE-containing samples exhibited a larger bacterial inhibition halo than control, and the inhibition zone increased as the GCE mass fraction increased. SEM analysis demonstrated that S. mutans presented a weaker adherent capacity to all GCE-containing cements compared with control, but the difference between each GCE-containing group was not significant. SBS values of each GCE-containing group exhibited no difference compared with the control. In conclusion, GCE-containing adhesive cement exhibits a promising inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and adhesion. Without compromising bond strength, adding GCE in adhesive cement may be an attractive option for preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27073642

  16. Interaction morphology and bond strength of nanofilled simplified-step adhesives to acid etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Reis, André Figueiredo; Mitra, Sumita B.; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of nanofillers incorporated into adhesives on the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) and interfacial micromorphology to dentin. Methods: The occlusal enamel of 5 human molars was removed and each tooth sectioned into four quarters. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond (SB-unfilled), OptiBond Solo Plus (OS-barium aluminoborosilicate, 400nm Ø), Prime & Bond NT (NT-colloidal silica, 7–40 nm Ø) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2-colloidal silica, 5nm Ø). Cylinders of resin-based composite were constructed on the adhesive layers. After 24-hour storage, the restored tooth-quadrants were sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens (0.8 mm2, cross-sectional area) and submitted to μ-TBS at a cross-speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = .05). Twenty-eight additional teeth were used for interfacial micro-morphologic analysis by SEM (16-teeth) and TEM (12-teeth). The dentin surfaces of 32 discs were treated with the adhesives (8 discs for adhesive) and laminated to form disc-pairs using a flowable resin composite for SEM/EDS analysis. For TEM, 90nm-thick nondemineralized unstained sections were processed. Results: SB2 showed significant higher bond strength than SB, OS and NT. The SEM/EDS and TEM analysis revealed nanofillers infiltrated within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer. Fillers were concentrated around patent tubular orifices and in the adhesive layer for OS and NT. Conclusion: The presence of nanofillers within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer suggests its importance in the improvement of the μ-TBS. PMID:23077413

  17. Effect of bond thickness on fracture and fatigue strength of adhesively bonded composite joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Ramamurthy, G.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental investigation of composite to composite bonded joints was undertaken to study the effect of bond thickness on debond growth rate under cyclic loading and critical strain energy release rate under static loading. Double cantilever beam specimens of graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 were tested under mode I loading. A different behavior of fracture and fatigue strength was observed with variation of bondline thickness.

  18. The Effect of Peel Stress on the Strength of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Metzinger, K.E.

    1998-10-14

    Composite wind turbine blades are often attached to a metallic structure with an adhesive bond. The objective of this investigation is to determine which parameters affect the durability of these adhesively bonded joints. The composite-to-steel joint considered in this study typically fails when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. Previously, this joint was monotonically loaded in either compression or tension. Compressive and tensile axial loads of the same magnitude produce adhesive stresses with very similar magnitudes but opposite signs. (For the joint considered, tensile loads produce compressive peeh stresses in the adhesive at the location where debonding initiates.) The tensile specimens failed at much higher loads, establishing that the sign of the adhesive peel stresses strongly influences the single-cycle strength of these joints. Building on this earlier work, this study demonstrates that the adhesive peel stresses are also critical for fatigue loading. The results of low-cycle (axial) and high- cycle (bending) fatigue tests are presented. To complement the test results, finite element analyses demonstrate the localized nature of the peel stresses that develop in the adhesive. In addition, these analyses are used to investigate some of the causes of these peel stresses.

  19. Hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesive systems according to interaction with dentin

    PubMed Central

    Salvio, Luciana Andrea; Hipólito, Vinicius Di; Martins, Adriano Luis; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hybridization quality and bond strength of adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods: Ten human molars were ground to expose the dentin and then sectioned in four tooth-quarters. They were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the adhesive used: Two single-step self-etch adhesives – Adper Prompt (ADP) and Xeno III (XE), two two-step self-etching primer systems – Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and Adhe SE (ADSE), and one one-step etch-and-rinse system – Adper Single Bond (SB). Resin composite (Filtek Z250) crown buildups were made on the bonded surfaces and incrementally light-cured for 20 s. The restored tooth-quarters were stored in water at 37°C for 24 h and then sectioned into beams (0.8 mm2 in cross-section). Maximal microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) was recorded (0.5 mm/min in crosshead speed). The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Thirty additional teeth were used to investigate the hybridization quality by SEM using silver methenamine or ammoniacal silver nitrate dyes. Results: SE reached significantly higher μ-TBS (P < 0.05); no significance was found between ADSE and XE (P > 0.05), and between SB and ADP (P > 0.05); ADSE and XE were significantly higher than SB and ADP (P < 0.05). The bonding interface of SB showed the most intense silver uptake. SE and ADSE showed more favorable hybridization quality than that observed for ADP and XE. Conclusions: The bond strength and hybridization quality were affected by the interaction form of the adhesives with dentin. The hybridization quality was essential to improve the immediate μ-TBS to dentin. PMID:24926212

  20. In vivo bracket bond strength using two adhesive systems applied under wet and dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Ciola, Elida N; Picco, Alicia M; Sois, Ana M; Lucena, Mercedes H; Alonso, Verónica; Valvo, Maela; García, Luis; Geazzi, Ariel

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in vivo, the bond strength of two adhesive materials: a moisture insensitive primer (MIP)* and a one step self etching primer (SEP)*, both used with Transbond XT* on dry and wet enamel and an adhesion time of 10-15 minutes. First or second upper and/or lower bicuspids (n = 124), to be extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used. A comparison of the materials' behavior was conducted under four different situations: 1) MIP on enamel etched and dry; 2) MIP on a surface etched and wetted with patient's saliva; 3) SEP on a dry field, 4) SEP on a saliva-wet enamel. For statistical analysis, Dunn-Sidak's multiple comparison test was applied with a probability of less than 0.05 (before correction). Stainless steel brackets with mesh-backed pads were bonded to the teeth. Bond strength was tested with modified orthodontic pliers on which a strain-gage was fixed to measure handle deformation while debonding. Moisture insensitive primer tested on wet enamel showed the highest mean bond strength outcomes (8.98 MPa) compared to one step etching primer (5.81 MPa). Statistical difference between these groups was significant (p = 0.000). Standard deviation was lower for the one-step technique, under dry and wet conditions. Since the media bond strength of SEP proved sufficient for clinical purposes and its behavior tended to be more homogeneous, this was considered the best choice.

  1. Dentin bond strength of an adhesive system irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruschel, V. C.; Malta, D. A. M. P.; Monteiro, S., Jr.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of an adhesive system applied to dentin, followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Twenty-two recently extracted third molars were divided into four groups (n  =  5). In the G1 and G2 groups, the adhesive system was applied conventionally, and in groups G3 and G4, the adhesive system was irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser (100 J cm-2). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C, those in groups G1 and G3 for 24 h, and those in groups G2 and G4 for 3 months. Two teeth from groups G1 and G3 were used for observation of the hybrid layer, using a confocal microscope (n  =  1). The teeth were submitted to a microtensile bond strength test. Analysis of the type of fracture was performed using a stereoscope (40×). The results for microtensile bond strength (MPa) and standard deviation (±SD) were: G1—31.68 (5.14); G2—37.88 (±5.04) G3—35.32 (±8.79) G4—31.53 (±9.01). There were no significant differences among the groups (p  >  0.05). Adhesive failure was predominant in all the groups. The Nd:YAG laser irradiation of the adhesives did not influence dentin bond strength during the periods of 24 h or 3 months of storage in distilled water.

  2. Effect of Saliva on the Tensile Bond Strength of Different Generation Adhesive Systems: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Saha, Sonali; Dhinsa, Kavita; Garg, Aarti

    2015-01-01

    Background Newer development of bonding agents have gained a better understanding of factors affecting adhesion of interface between composite and dentin surface to improve longevity of restorations. Objective The present study evaluated the influence of salivary contamination on the tensile bond strength of different generation adhesive systems (two-step etch-and-rinse, two-step self-etch and one-step self-etch) during different bonding stages to dentin where isolation is not maintained. Materials and Methods Superficial dentin surfaces of 90 extracted human molars were randomly divided into three study Groups (Group A: Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system; Group B: Two-step self-etch adhesive system and Group C: One-step self-etch adhesive system) according to the different generation of adhesives used. According to treatment conditions in different bonding steps, each Group was further divided into three Subgroups containing ten teeth in each. After adhesive application, resin composite blocks were built on dentin and light cured subsequently. The teeth were then stored in water for 24 hours before sending for testing of tensile bond strength by Universal Testing Machine. The collected data were then statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Results One-step self-etch adhesive system revealed maximum mean tensile bond strength followed in descending order by Two-step self-etch adhesive system and Two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system both in uncontaminated and saliva contaminated conditions respectively. Conclusion Unlike One-step self-etch adhesive system, saliva contamination could reduce tensile bond strength of the two-step self-etch and two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Furthermore, the step of bonding procedures and the type of adhesive seems to be effective on the bond strength of adhesives contaminated with saliva. PMID:26393214

  3. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  4. Influence of different tooth types on the bond strength of two orthodontic adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Bora; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin; Çatalbaş, Bülent; Özer, Füsun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of different tooth types on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic resin adhesive systems in vitro. Two hundred extracted sound human teeth were used in the study. Ten teeth of each tooth type were the mounted in acrylic resin leaving the buccal surface of the crowns parallel to the base of the moulds. In each experimental group, the adhesives (Transbond XT™ and Light Bond™) were applied to the etched enamel surfaces. The orthodontic composite resins were then applied to the surface in cylindrical-shaped plastic matrices. For SBS testing, a force transducer (Ultradent™) was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute at the interface between the tooth and composite until failure occurred. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA, a Bonferroni adjusted Mann–Whitney U-test, and an independent t-test. Generally, it was found that tooth type had a significant effect on SBS (P < 0.05) with Light Bond™ showing a higher SBS than Transbond XT™ (P < 0.05). The highest bond strengths were observed for the upper central incisor and lower molars with Light Bond™ (P < 0.05) and the lowest mean bond strengths for the upper molars and lower canine with Transbond XT™ (P <0.05). The results demonstrated that enamel SBS was significantly altered by both tooth type and adhesive system. Thus, the findings of this study confirm that enamel bond strength is not uniform for all teeth. These results may also explain the variability in the enamel-bonding efficacy of adhesives. PMID:18678760

  5. The bond strength of different tray adhesives on vinyl polysiloxane to two tray materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ashwini, B L; Manjunath, S; Mathew, K Xavier

    2014-03-01

    There has been no established chemical bonding between custom tray resin and the elastomeric impression materials without the use of manufacturer's recommended specific tray adhesive. The present study was aimed to compare the bond strength of the manufacturer recommended tray adhesives with the universal tray adhesives using the medium body consistency vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) material and custom tray made of autopolymerising resin and visible light cure (VLC) resin. A total 90 cubicle specimens of autopolymerising resin and 90 specimens of VLC resin were tested for its tensile bond strength. Effectiveness of universal tray adhesive was compared with manufactured tray adhesive. Each of these specimens was then subjected to tensile load in hounsefield universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 5 mm/min and the results were compared and evaluated using one way analysis of variance and post hoc Tuckey's test. Analysis of bond strength revealed that the universal tray adhesive showed better strength and was statiscally significant when compared to the manufacture supplied tray adhesive. Comparison between both the groups, VLC resin showed better bond strength as compared to autopolymerizing resin. Universal tray adhesive had better tensile bond strength than the manufacturers recommended tray adhesive with the medium body viscosity VPS impression material for both autopolymerising and VLC tray resin.

  6. Effect of new adhesion promoter and mechanical interlocking on bonding strength in metal-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, A.; Göring, M.; Lindner, T.; Töberling, G.; Puschmann, M.; Riedel, F.; Scharf, I.; Schreiter, K.; Spange, S.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    There are various opportunities to improve the adhesion between polymer and metal in metal-plastic composites. The addition of a bonding agent which reacts with both joining components at the interfaces of the composite can enhance the bonding strength. An alternative method for the adjustment of interfaces in metal-plastic composites is the specific surface structuring of the joining partners in order to exploit the mechanical interlock effect. In this study the potential of using an adhesion promoter based on twin polymerization for metal-plastic composites in combination with different methods of mechanical surface treatment is evaluated by using the tensile shear test. It is shown that the new adhesion promoter has a major effect when applied on smooth metal surfaces. A combination of both mechanical and chemical surface treatment of the metal part is mostly just as effective as the application of only one of these surface treatment methods.

  7. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

  8. Effect of adhesive resin cements and post surface silanization on the bond strengths of adhesively inserted fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Altenburger, Markus Jörg; Schirrmeister, Jörg Fabian; Bitter, Kerstin; Kielbassa, Andrej Michael

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated the tensile bond strengths and the effect of silanization of fiber posts inserted with different adhesive systems. Sixty DT Light Posts (size 1) were used. Thirty posts were pretreated with silane. The posts were cemented into form-congruent artificial root canals (12 mm) of bovine dentine. Six groups were formed: G1, Prime&Bond NT/Calibra; G2, Monobond-S+Prime&Bond NT/Calibra; G3, ED Primer/Panavia 21ex; G4, Monobond-S+ED Primer/Panavia 21ex; G5, RelyX Unicem; and G6, Monobond-S+RelyX Unicem. The mean (standard deviation) tensile bond strengths (megapascals) were 7.69 (0.85) for G1, 7.15 (1.01) for G2, 6.73 (0.85) for G3, 6.78 (0.97) for G4, 4.79 (0.58) for G5, and 4.74 (0.88) for G6. G1 achieved significantly higher bond strengths than G3 and G5; G3 had significantly higher values than G5 (P < .05; Scheffé procedure). Silanization had no significant effect (P > .05, one-way analysis of variance). Tensile bond strengths were significantly influenced by the type of resin cement. Silanization of fiber post surfaces seems to have no clinical relevance.

  9. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  10. Effect of moisture and drying time on the bond strength of the one-step self-etching adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of dentin moisture degree and air-drying time on dentin-bond strength of two different one-step self-etching adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Twenty-four human third molars were used for microtensile bond strength testing of G-Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond. The dentin surface was either blot-dried or air-dried before applying these adhesive agents. After application of the adhesive agent, three different air drying times were evaluated: 1, 5, and 10 sec. Composite resin was build up to 4 mm thickness and light cured for 40 sec with 2 separate layers. Then the tooth was sectioned and trimmed to measure the microtensile bond strength using a universal testing machine. The measured bond strengths were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and regression analysis was done (p = 0.05). Results All three factors, materials, dentin wetness and air drying time, showed significant effect on the microtensile bond strength. Clearfil S3 Bond, dry dentin surface and 10 sec air drying time showed higher bond strength. Conclusions Within the limitation of this experiment, air drying time after the application of the one-step self-etching adhesive agent was the most significant factor affecting the bond strength, followed by the material difference and dentin moisture before applying the adhesive agent. PMID:23429228

  11. Bond Strength and Interfacial Morphology of Different Dentin Adhesives in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A) For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth), with 8 teeth in each group, and (B) For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth), with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software. Results: Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50). The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763) (p<0.001) as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345), Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820) and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925). Conclusion: The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems PMID:24910694

  12. Impact of oxalate desensitizer combined with ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid-conditioning on dentin bond strength of one-bottle adhesives during dry bonding

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elimination of water entrapment in hybrid layer during bonding procedure would increase bonding durability. Aims: This study evaluated the effect of oxalate desensitizer (OX) pretreatment on bond strength of three one-bottle adhesives to ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA)-conditioned dentin under dry bonding. Materials and Methods: Three adhesive systems, One-Step Plus (OS), Optibond Solo Plus (OP) and Adper Single Bond (SB) were bonded on dentin surfaces under four bonding conditions: (1) Wet-bonding on acid-etched dentin, (2) wet bonding on EDTA-conditioned dentin, (3) dry bonding on EDTA-conditioned dentin, (4) dry bonding associated with OX on the EDTA-conditioned dentin. After storage and thermo cycling, shear bond strength test was performed. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Wet bonding with EDTA or acid etching showed similar bond strength for test adhesives. Dry bonding with EDTA significantly decreased the bond strength of OS, but it had no effect on the bonding of OP and SB. OX application in the forth bonding condition, in comparison with the third condition, had a negative effect on the bond strength of OP, but not influence on OS and SB. Conclusions: The use of an OX on EDTA-conditioned dentin compromised the bonding efficacy of OS and OP under dry bonding but compatible for SB. PMID:23833461

  13. Shear bond strengths of self-adhesive luting resins fixing dentine to different restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congxiao; Degrange, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the bond strengths of three self-adhesive resin cements (Rely X Unicem, Maxcem and Multilink Sprint) fixing dentine to four different restorative substrates (Ni-Cr alloy, E-Max glass-ceramic, Y-TZP Zirconia and Adoro micro-filled composite) and to compare their performances with those of two conventional dual-cured luting cements (Variolink II + Total-etch Excite DSC and Multilink Automix + Self-etching Primer A + B). Cylindric specimens (5 x 5 mm) were prepared with the four restorative materials for bonding to human dentine. Three surface treatments were performed depending on the restorative material: (i) Al2O3 50 microm sandblasting (Ni-Cr, Adoro), (ii) #800 SiC polishing (Zirconia, E-Max), (iii) hydrofluoric acid (HF)-etching (E-Max). Twenty-five groups (n = 10) were designed according to luting cements, restorative materials and surface pre-treatments. In some experimental groups, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were coupled with, respectively, a silane primer (Monobond S) and an alloy/zirconia primer (Multilink A/Z primer). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then loaded in shear until failure. Variolink II and Multilink Automix showed the highest bond strengths, regardless of the restorative substrate, when used with dentine bonding systems and primers, while the weakest bonds were with Maxcem. The bond strength recorded with the two other self-adhesive cements depended on the nature of the restorative substrate. Increasing retention at the interfaces (i.e., HF ceramic etching) and using specific primers significantly improves the bond strength of luted restorative materials to dentine.

  14. The Effect of Primer Application Modifications on the Bond Strength of 4th Generation Adhesive Bonding Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-30

    dentin. Methods: The coronal enamel of 120 extracted human third molars was removed with a low-speed saw. The teeth were mounted in PVC pipe with dental...LITERATURE REVIEW A. Background 1. Acid Etching in Dentistry. Buonocore demonstrated in 1955 that the preparation of dental enamel with an...The influence of deviations from the manufacturer’s instructions for the use of six adhesive systems on the bond strengths to enamel and dentin

  15. Effect of bromelain enzyme for dentin deproteinization on bond strength of adhesive system

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Kirti; Basavanna, Revaplar Siddaveerappa; Shivanna, Vasundhara

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To assess the deproteinizing effect of bromelain enzyme and compare it with 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on shear bond strength before application of the adhesive system. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 extracted human premolars were divided into three groups, each one consisted of 10 teeth. The occlusal surface was wet ground to expose superficial dentin. In Group 1, teeth were etched; in Group 2, teeth were etched and deproteinized with bromelain enzyme; in Group 3, teeth were etched and deproteinized with 5% NaOCl. Upon completion of the adhesive procedures, resin composite was inserted into the plastic tube and light-polymerized. All specimens were stored at 37°C in water for 24 h, and the specimens were transferred to the universal testing machine, and then subjected to shear bond strength analysis at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and unpaired t-test at a significance level of 0.05. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The bond strength results were significantly influenced by the application of bromelain enzyme. Statistically significant differences were not demonstrated in control group and NaOCl-treated group. The highest bond strength was seen in bromelain enzyme-treated group. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it was concluded that removal of unsupported collagen fiber with bromelain enzyme after acid etching results in improved bond strength. PMID:26430297

  16. Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Luting Cements to Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Tomoko; Uno, Shigeru; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Yamada, Toshimoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the bond strengths of the self-adhesive luting cements between ceramics and resin cores and examine their relation to the cement thickness. Three self-adhesive luting cements (Smartcem, Maxcem, and G-CEM) and a resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) for control were used in the paper. The thickness of the cements was controlled in approximately 25, 50, 100, or 200 μm. Each 10 specimens were made according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in water at 37°C. After 24 hours, microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was measured. There were significant differences in cements. Three self-adhesive cements showed significantly lower μTBSs than control that required both etching and priming before cementation (Tukey, P < 0.05). The cement thickness of 50 or 100 μm tended to induce the highest μTBSs for each self-adhesive luting cements though no difference was found. PMID:22606202

  17. [Bond strength of a bioresorbable bone adhesive: results of a biomechanical study in a sheep model].

    PubMed

    Heiss, Christian; Schettler, Nicky; Schilke, Peter; Horas, Uwe; Kilian, Olaf; Meyer, Christof; Kraus, Ralf; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bond strength of a new bone adhesive based on ethylene glycol-oligolactide-bismethacrylate on 36 sheep. A 2-cm metaphysial segment was produced on the ulna of each sheep by an oscillating saw and it was not stabilized by any type of additional osteosynthesis. Adhesive was applied to the osteotomy gaps in 18 sheep, the remaining 18 animals served as controls. A total of 6 animals with glue and 6 controls were euthanized after 21, 42 and 84 days. The bond strength after repair of the gaps through bone adhesive compared to a control group was studied by using a four-point bending test. There was a continual increase of bending stiffness from 21 to 84 days in all sheep, with the highest bending stiffness of 102.83 N/mm2 by the glue group after 84 days as opposed to the control group with 58.48 N/mm2 (p = 0.25). Morphological investigations showed more callus formation by the control group than the adhesive group after 84 days (p = 0.04). In addition, an in vitro gluing of the ulna segment was performed with a four-point bending test after 10, 60 and 360 min polymerization time. The in vitro gluing of the ulna segment showed a continual increase of bending stiffness to 17.32 N/mm2 after 360 min (p = 0.59).

  18. Influence of Adhesives and Methods of Enamel Pretreatment on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Jurišić, Sanja; Jurišić, Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of present study was to examine influence of adhesives and methods of enamel pretreatment on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives used were resin-reinforced glass ionomer cements-GIC (Fuji Ortho LC) and composite resin (Transbond XT). Material and Methods The experimental sample consisted of 80 extracted human first premolars. The sample was divided into four equal groups, and the metal brackets were bonded with different enamel pretreatments by using two adhesives: group A-10% polyacrylic acid; Fuji Ortho LC, group B–37% phosphoric acid; Fuji Ortho LC, group C–self etching primer; Transbond XT, group D–37% phosphoric acid, primer; Transbond XT. SBS of brackets was measured. After debonding of brackets, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated. Results After the statistical analysis of the collected data was performed (ANOVA; Sheffe post-hoc test), the results showed that significantly lower SBS of the group B was found in relation to the groups C (p=0.031) and D (p=0.026). The results of ARI were similar in all testing groups and it was not possible to determine any statistically significant difference of the ARI (Chi- square test) between all four experimental groups. Conclusion The conclusion is that the use of composite resins material with appropriate enamel pretreatment according to manufacturer’s recommendation is the “gold standard” for brackets bonding for fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:27688410

  19. Effects of long-term repeated topical fluoride applications and adhesion promoter on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshiya; Ishida, Rieko; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Sanpei, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of long-term repeated topical application of fluoride before bonding and an adhesion promoter on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 bovine incisors were collected and divided equally into four groups. In group 1, the brackets were bonded without topical fluoride application or adhesion promoter. In group 2, before bonding, the adhesion promoter was applied to nonfluoridated enamel. In group 3, the brackets were bonded without the application of the adhesion promoter to enamel, which had undergone long-term repeated topical fluoride treatments. Teeth in group 4 received the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride, and the brackets were bonded using the adhesion promoter. All the brackets were bonded using BeautyOrtho Bond self-etching adhesive. The shear bond strength was measured and the bond failure modes were evaluated with the use of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) after debonding. Results: The mean shear bond strength was significantly lower in group 3 than in groups 1, 2, and 4, and there were no significant differences between the groups except for group 3. There were significant differences in the distribution of ARI scores between groups 2 and 3, and between groups 3 and 4. Conclusions: The adhesion promoter can recover the bond strength reduced by the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride to the prefluoridation level and had a significantly great amount of adhesives left on either fluoridated or nonfluoridated enamel. PMID:25512720

  20. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bond strength of self-etching adhesive system- An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Madhusudhana; Gogala, Dorasani; Mathew, Vinod B; Thangala, Venugopal; Deepthi, Mandava; Sasidhar, Nalluru

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to determine the effect of saliva and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive to enamel and dentin; and, to compare the difference in bond strength due to contamination beforeand after application of the self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods: 40 human mandibular molars were wet ground on both buccal and lingual surfaces to prepare flat superficial enamel and dentin surfaces. They were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40) based on the substrate (enamel and dentin). Each group was further divided into five subgroups (n = 8) based on the type of contamination it was subjected to, and the step in the bonding sequence when the contamination occurred (before or after adhesive application). Fresh saliva and fresh human blood were applied either before or after the application of Xeno III® self-etching adhesive system (SES). Composite resin was applied as inverted, truncated cured cones that were subjected to shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test were used. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the bond strength was shown after both saliva and blood contamination before and after Xeno III® application (P< 0.05). Bond strength is significantly reduced after contamination with blood as compared to saliva. Conclusions: When self-etching adhesive systems are used, saliva and blood contamination significantly decrease the bond strength of the adhesive to enamel and dentin of the tooth. PMID:22876017

  1. Degradation in the Fatigue Strength of Dentin by Cutting, Etching and Adhesive Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H.-H.; Majd, H.; Orrego, S.; Majd, B.; Romberg, E.; Mutluay, M.M.; Arola, D.

    2014-01-01

    The processes involved in placing resin composite restorations may degrade the fatigue strength of dentin and increase the likelihood of fractures in restored teeth. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative changes in strength and fatigue behavior of dentin caused by bur preparation, etching and resin bonding procedures using a 3-step system. Methods Specimens of dentin were prepared from the crowns of unrestored 3rd molars and subjected to either quasi-static or cyclic flexural loading to failure. Four treated groups were prepared including dentin beams subjected to a burr treatment only with a conventional straight-sided bur, or etching treatment only. An additional treated group received both bur and etching treatments, and the last was treated by bur treatment and etching, followed by application of a commercial resin adhesive. The control group consisted of “as sectioned” dentin specimens. Results Under quasi-static loading to failure there was no significant difference between the strength of the control group and treated groups. Dentin beams receiving only etching or bur cutting treatments exhibited fatigue strengths that were significantly lower (p≤0.0001) than the control; there was no significant difference in the fatigue resistance of these two groups. Similarly, the dentin receiving bur and etching treatments exhibited significantly lower (p≤0.0001) fatigue strength than that of the control, regardless of whether an adhesive was applied. Significance The individual steps involved in the placement of bonded resin composite restorations significantly decrease the fatigue strength of dentin, and application of a bonding agent does not increase the fatigue strength of dentin. PMID:24985539

  2. Increasing the Strength of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Tapering the Adherends

    SciTech Connect

    GUESS,TOMMY R.; METZINGER,KURT E.

    1999-09-09

    Wind turbine blades are often fabricated with composite materials. These composite blades are frequently attached to a metallic structure with an adhesive bond. For the baseline composite-to-steel joint considered in this study, failure typically occurs when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. Previous efforts established that the adhesive peel stresses strongly influence the strength of these joints for both single-cycle and fatigue loading. This study focused on reducing the adhesive peel stresses present in these joints by tapering the steel adherends. Several different tapers were evaluated using finite element analysis before arriving at a final design. To confirm that the selected taper was an improvement to the existing design, the baseline joint and the modified joint were tested in both compression and tension. In these axial tests, the compressive strengths of the joints with tapered adherends were greater than those of the baseline joints for both single-cycle and low-cycle fatigue. In addition, only a minor reduction in tensile strength was observed for the joints with tapered adherends when compared to the baseline joints. Thus, the modification would be expected to enhance the overall performance of this joint.

  3. Dentin bond strength of a fluoride-releasing adhesive system submitted to pH-cycling.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Platt, Jeffrey A; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a fluoride-containing adhesive system submitted to a pH-cycling and storage time regimen for primary outcomes. As secondary outcomes the fluoride released amount was evaluated. Twelve dentin surfaces from sound third molar were divided into 2 groups according to adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Protect (PB) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE). Sticks obtained (1.0 mm2) from teeth were randomly divided into 3 subgroups according to storage regimen model: immediate (24h); 5-month deionized water (W); and pH-cycling model (C). All sticks were tested for µTBS in a universal testing machine. Fluoride concentration was obtained from 1-4 days and 30-day in W and 1-4 days in demineralization (DE)/remineralization (RE) solutions from C, using a fluoride-specific electrode. µTBS and fluoride released data were, respectively, submitted to ANOVA in a split plot design and Tukey, and Friedman' tests (a=0.05). There was no significant interaction between adhesive system and storage regimen for µTBS. W showed the lowest µTBS values. There was no significant difference between 24 h and C models for µTBS. There was no significant difference between adhesive systems. Failure mode was predominantly cohesive within composite for the 24 h and W, for the C group it was mixed for SE and cohesive within composite for PB adhesive system. Fluoride concentrations in the DE/RE solutions were less than 0.03125 ppm and not detected in W. In conclusion, the fluoride-containing adhesive system performed similarly to the regular one. Hydrolytic degradation is the main problem with both adhesive systems, regardless of fluoride contents.

  4. Effect of different adhesion strategies on bond strength of resin composite to composite-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Özcan, M; Pekkan, G

    2013-01-01

    Service life of discolored and abraded resin composite restorations could be prolonged by repair or relayering actions. Composite-composite adhesion can be achieved successfully using some surface conditioning methods, but the most effective adhesion protocol for relayering is not known when the composite restorations are surrounded with dentin. This study evaluated the effect of three adhesion strategies on the bond strength of resin composite to the composite-dentin complex. Intact maxillary central incisors (N=72, n=8 per subgroup) were collected and the coronal parts of the teeth were embedded in autopolymerized poly(methyl tfr54methacrylate) surrounded by a polyvinyl chloride cylinder. Cylindrical cavities (diameter: 2.6 mm; depth: 2 mm) were opened in the middle of the labial surfaces of the teeth using a standard diamond bur, and the specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Two types of resin composite, namely microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine; AS) and nanohybrid (Grandio; G), were photo-polymerized incrementally in the cavities according to each manufacturer's recommendations. The composite-enamel surfaces were ground finished to 1200-grit silicone carbide paper until the dentin was exposed. The surfaces of the substrate composites and the surrounding dentin were conditioned according to one of the following adhesion protocols: protocol 1: acid-etching (dentin) + silica coating (composite) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); protocol 2: silica coating (composite) + acid-etching (dentin) + silanization (composite) + primer (dentin) + bonding agent (dentin + composite); and protocol 3: acid-etching (dentin) + primer (dentin) + silanization (composite) + bonding agent (dentin + composite). Applied primer and bonding agents were the corresponding materials of the composite manufacturer. Silica coating (CoJet sand, 30 μm) was achieved using a chairside air-abrasion device (distance: 10 mm; duration

  5. Influence of laser etching on enamel and dentin bond strength of Silorane System Adhesive.

    PubMed

    Ustunkol, Ildem; Yazici, A Ruya; Gorucu, Jale; Dayangac, Berrin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of Silorane System Adhesive to enamel and dentin surfaces that had been etched with different procedures. Ninety freshly extracted human third molars were used for the study. After the teeth were embedded with buccal surfaces facing up, they were randomly divided into two groups. In group I, specimens were polished with a 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper to obtain flat exposed enamel. In group II, the overlying enamel layer was removed and exposed dentin surfaces were polished with a 600-grit SiC paper. Then, the teeth in each group were randomly divided into three subgroups according to etching procedures: etched with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser (a), etched with 35% phosphoric acid (b), and non-etched (c, control). Silorane System Adhesive was used to bond silorane restorative to both enamel and dentin. After 24-h storage in distilled water at room temperature, a SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (p < 0.05). The highest SBS was found after additional phosphoric acid treatment in dentin groups (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the laser-etched and non-etched groups in enamel and dentin (p > 0.05). The SBS of self-etch adhesive to dentin was not statistically different from enamel (p > 0.05). Phosphoric acid treatment seems the most promising surface treatment for increasing the enamel and dentin bond strength of Silorane System Adhesive.

  6. Bond strength evaluation of three self-adhesive luting systems used for cementing composite and porcelain.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Minnoni, A; Vitalone, L M; Carluccio, F; Vadini, M; Paolantonio, M; D'Arcangelo, C

    2011-01-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements were recently introduced with the purpose of simplifying the cementation technique, as they combine the use of adhesive and cement in a single application, eliminating the need for pretreatment of the tooth. In the present study a microtensile bond strength test (μ-TBS) was used to compare three self-adhesives, an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch luting system, in the cementation of resin-based composite (RBC) and ceramic disks to dentin. Freshly extracted molars were transversally sectioned to expose flat, deep dentin surfaces. Cylindrical specimens (5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height), consisting of RBC disks and leucite-based glass ceramic disks, were produced. The RBC disks were sandblasted with 50-μm Al2O3. The ceramic disks were conditioned with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid gel and silane application. All of the disks were then bonded to dentin surfaces employing five different luting agents: iCEM Self Adhesive (Heraeus Kulzer), MaxCem (Kerr Corporation), RelyX UniCem (3M ESPE), EnaCem HF (Micerium), and Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray-Dental). The products were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. The specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce multiple beams measuring approximately 1 mm2 in cross section. For each experimental group 12 beams were tested. The preterm failures were also taken into account. All of the specimen preparations were performed by the same operator. The beams were tested under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Mean μ-TBS values were calculated for each group. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance, and multiple comparisons were performed using a Tukey test (α=0.05). The UniCem group showed the lowest number of preterm failures among the tested self-adhesive systems. When premature debondings were included in the mean value calculation, bond strength values for the UniCem group were statistically equal to or even higher than those

  7. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate and Delayed Bonding on the Bond Strength of Silorane and Two-step Self-etch Adhesive Systems in Bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Abed Kahnemooyi, Mehdi; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Mhammadi Torkani, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Studies have shown decreased bond strength of composite resin to human and bovine bleached enamel. This study evaluated the effect of sodium ascorbate and delayed bonding on the bond strength of two adhesive systems to bleached enamel. Materials and methods. The labial surfaces of 150 sound bovine incisor teeth were abraded with abrasive paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups: A: control; B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; C: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + sodium ascorbate gel; and D: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + delayed bonding. In groups A‒D, silorane adhesive system and Filtek silorane composite resin were used. In groups E‒H, the same preparation methods of groups A-D were used. Two-step self-etch Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems and AP-X composite resin were administered. Shear bond strength of each group was measured. Two samples were prepared for each surface preparation for ultra-structural evaluation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for data analysis at P<0.05. Results. The interaction between the adhesive system type and surface preparation protocol was significant (P=0.014), withsignificant differences in shear bond strengths in terms of the adhesive systems (P<0.01). There were significant differences in shear bond strength in terms of surface preparation techniques irrespective of the adhesive system (P<0.01). Conclusion. The results showed that bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide decreased the shear bond strength values with both adhesive systems, and a one-week delay in bonding and 10% sodium ascorbate for10 minutes restored the bond strength in both adhesive systems. PMID:25587382

  8. An in vitro study of the bond strength of five adhesives used for vinyl polysiloxane impression materials and tray materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surender; Gandhi, Udey Vir; Banerjee, Saurav

    2014-03-01

    Although stock trays often provide mechanical retention for elastomeric impression materials, manufacturers typically recommend the use of an adhesive, whether a stock or custom tray is used. The mention of the bond strength on the adhesive packaging is not available, therefore the clinician has no idea whatsoever of the ideal adhesive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) materials, one with a poly(methyl methacrylate) autopolymerizing (PMMA) specimen and another with a light-polymerizing tray material (VLC), using the adhesive recommended by the manufacturer of the impression material, and two universal adhesives. A total of ninety specimens (15 × 15 × 20 mm) were used, 45 specimens were made in PMMA and rest 45 was made in VLC. Five paint-on adhesives (Coltene, Caulk, 3M, universal Zhermack and universal GC) were applied. Three impression materials, Affinis, Reprosil, and 3M, were mixed and injected into a perforated poly vinyl chloride cylinder. Tray specimens were positioned against the open cylinder end in contact with the VPS material. Tensile strength tests were conducted until adhesive separation failure. Mean values and standard errors of the adhesive strength were recorded in MPa for each material combination. GC paint-on universal adhesive provided significantly higher adhesive strength values.

  9. Effect of quaternary ammonium and silver nanoparticle-containing adhesives on dentin bond strength and dental plaque microcosm biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Antibacterial bonding agents are promising to hinder the residual and invading bacteria at the tooth-restoration interfaces. The objectives of this study were to develop an antibacterial bonding agent by incorporation of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) and nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and to investigate the effect of QADM-NAg adhesive and primer on dentin bond strength and plaque microcosm biofilm response for the first time. Methods Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer were used as control. Experimental adhesive and primer were made by adding QADM and NAg into control adhesive and primer. Human dentin shear bond strengths were measured (n = 10). A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate biofilm metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, lactic acid production, and live/dead staining assay (n = 6). Results Adding QADM and NAg into adhesive and primer did not compromise the dentin shear bond strength which ranged from 30 to 35 MPa (p > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations revealed numerous resin tags, which were similar for the control and the QADM and NAg groups. Adding QADM or NAg markedly reduced the biofilm viability, compared to adhesive control. QADM and NAg together in the adhesive had a much stronger antibacterial effect than using each agent alone (p < 0.05). Adding QADM and NAg in both adhesive and primer had the strongest antibacterial activity, reducing metabolic activity, CFU, and lactic acid by an order of magnitude, compared to control. Significance Without compromising dentin bond strength and resin tag formation, the QADM and NAg containing adhesive and primer achieved strong antibacterial effects against microcosm biofilms for the first time. QADM-NAg adhesive and primer are promising to combat residual bacteria in tooth cavity and invading bacteria at the margins, thereby to inhibit secondary caries. QADM and NAg incorporation may have a

  10. The effect of simplified adhesives on the bond strength to dentin of dual-cure resin cements.

    PubMed

    Shade, A M; Wajdowicz, M N; Bailey, C W; Vandewalle, K S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths to dentin of two dual-cure resin cements, one with a unique initiator, NX3 (Kerr Corp), and the other with a traditional redox-initiator system, Calibra (Dentsply), when used in combination with simplified or nonsimplified adhesive agents. The two dual-cure resin cements, in either self- or dual-cure activation modes, were bonded to human dentin with four dental adhesives to create 16 subgroups of 10 specimens each. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were tested in shear in a universal testing machine. With both NX3 and Calibra, bond strengths significantly increased when the specimens were dual cured. In addition, with either cement in either mode, the nonsimplified adhesives performed significantly better than did the simplified adhesive bonding agents. When used specifically with simplified adhesives in either cure mode, NX3 did not produce significantly higher bond strengths than did Calibra. In general, lower dentin bond strengths were found with simplified adhesives or self-cure activation with either resin cement.

  11. Shear Bond Strengths of Methacrylate- and Silorane-based Composite Resins to Feldspathic Porcelain using Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournagi Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Use of porcelain as inlays, laminates and metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns is common in modern dentistry. The high cost of ceramic restorations, time limitations and difficulty of removing these restorations result in delays in replacing fractured restorations; therefore, their repair is indicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strengths of two types of composite resins (methacrylate-based and silorane-based) to porcelain, using three adhesive types. Materials and methods. A total of 156 samples of feldspathic porcelain surfaces were prepared with air-abrasion and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=26). In groups 1-3, Z250 composite resin was used to repair porcelain samples with Ad-per Single Bond 2 (ASB), Clearfil SE Bond (CSB) and Silorane Adhesive (SA) as the bonding systems, afterapplication of silane, respectively. In groups 4-6, the same adhesives were used in the same manner with Filtek Silorane composite resin. Finally, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were used to compare bond strengths between the groups with different adhesives at P<0.05. Results. There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values in terms of the adhesive type (P<0.001). In addition, the interactive effect of the adhesive type and composite resin type had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.602). Conclusion. The results of the present study showed the highest repair bond strength values to porcelain with both composite resin types with the application of SA and ASB. PMID:26697151

  12. Influence of warm air-drying on enamel bond strength and surface free-energy of self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shiratsuchi, Koji; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Furuichi, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Keishi; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effect of warm air-drying on the enamel bond strengths and the surface free-energy of three single-step self-etch adhesives. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and then wet ground with #600 silicon carbide (SiC) paper. The adhesives were applied according to the instructions of the respective manufacturers and then dried in a stream of normal (23°C) or warm (37°C) air for 5, 10, and 20 s. After visible-light irradiation of the adhesives, resin composites were condensed into a mold and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then the bond strengths were measured. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. The enamel bond strengths varied according to the air-drying time and ranged from 15.8 to 19.1 MPa. The trends for the bond strengths were different among the materials. The value of the γS⁺ component increased slightly when drying was performed with a stream of warm air, whereas that of the γS⁻ component decreased significantly. These data suggest that warm air-drying is essential to obtain adequate enamel bond strengths, although increasing the drying time did not significantly influence the bond strength.

  13. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; CİMİLLİ, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  14. The bond strength of adhesive resins to AH plus contaminated dentin cleaned by various gutta-percha solvents.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Demirbuga, Sezer; Pala, Kansad; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2015-01-01

    The optimal bonding of adhesives to dentin requires the sealer to be completely removed from dentinal walls. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different cleaning procedures using gutta-percha solvents on bond strength of adhesive resins to AH Plus contaminated dentin (APCD). The pulp chamber dentin surfaces were contaminated with AH Plus and cleaned with five different techniques (dry cotton, chloroform, orange oil, eucalyptol, and ethanol). Then, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) (Kuraray), and Tetric N Bond (TNB) (Ivoclar Vivadent) were applied and filled with a composite resin. The serial sticks (1 × 1 mm) were obtained and tested for microtensile bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for analysis of debonded surfaces. Ethanol exhibited the highest bond strength to APCD followed by dry cotton. There was no statistically significant difference between ethanol and dry cotton (p > 0.05). Eucalyptol showed the lowest bond strength to APCD and statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in comparison with other groups. APCD reduced the bond strength of all adhesive resins. Dry cotton, ethanol, and chloroform were the most suitable techniques when used with CSE together, whereas ethanol was best with TNB.

  15. An Ultrasonic Technique to Determine the Residual Strength of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achenbach, J. D.; Tang, Z.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, ultrasonic techniques to nondestructively evaluate adhesive bond degradation have been studied. The key to the present approach is the introduction of an external factor which pulls the adhesive bond in the nonlinear range, simultaneously with the application of an ultrasonic technique. With the aid of an external static tensile loading, a superimposed longitudinal wave has.been used to obtain the slopes of the stress-strain curve of an adhesive bond at a series of load levels. The critical load, at which a reduction of the slope is detected by the superimposed longitudinal wave, is an indication of the onset of nonlinear behavior of the adhesive bond, and therefore of bond degradation. This approach has been applied to the detection of adhesive bond degradation induced by cyclic fatigue loading. Analogously to the longitudinal wave case, a superimposed shear wave has been used to obtain the effective shear modulus of adhesive layers at different shear load levels. The onset of the nonlinear behavior of an adhesive bond under shear loading has been detected by the use of a superimposed shear wave. Experiments show that a longitudinal wave can also detect the nonlinear behavior when an adhesive bond is subjected to shear loading. An optimal combination of ultrasonic testing and mechanical loading methods for the detection of degradation related nonlinear behavior of adhesive bonds has been discussed. For the purpose of a practical application, an ultrasonic technique that uses a temperature increase as an alternative to static loading has also been investigated. A general strain-temperature correspondence principle that relates a mechanical strain to a temperature has been presented. Explicit strain-temperature correspondence relations for both the tension and shear cases have been derived. An important parameter which quantifies the relation between the wave velocity and temperature has been defined. This parameter, which is indicative of adhesive

  16. Evaluation of dental adhesive systems with amalgam and resin composite restorations: comparison of microleakage and bond strength results.

    PubMed

    Neme, A L; Evans, D B; Maxson, B B

    2000-01-01

    A variety of laboratory tests have been developed to assist in predicting the clinical performance of dental restorative materials. Additionally, more than one methodology is in use for many types of tests performed in vitro. This project assessed and compared results derived from two specific laboratory testing methods, one for bond strength and one for microleakage. Seven multi-purpose dental adhesives were tested with the two methodologies in both amalgam and resin composite restorations. Bond strength was determined with a punch-out method in sections of human molar dentin. Microleakage was analyzed with a digital imaging system (Image-Pro Plus, Version 1.3) to determine the extent of dye penetration in Class V preparations centered at the CEJ on both the buccal and lingual surfaces of human molar teeth. There were 32 treatment groups (n = 10); seven experimental (dental adhesives) and one control (copal varnish, 37% phosphoric acid) followed by restoration with either amalgam or resin composite. Specimens were thermocycled 500 times in 5 degrees and 55 degrees C water with a one-minute dwell time. Bond strength and microleakage values were determined for each group. ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests demonstrated an interaction between restorative material and adhesive system with a significant difference among adhesives (p < 0.05). Using a multi-purpose adhesive system resulted in both a statistically significant increase in bond strength and a statistically significant decrease in extent of microleakage (p < 0.05). The effect of the adhesive upon both microleakage and bond strength was greater in the resin composite restorations than in the amalgam restorations. Bond strength testing was more discriminating than microleakage evaluation in identifying differences among materials.

  17. Shear Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate to Composite Resin with Two Different Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Motahhari, Paria; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Immediate restoration after vital pulp therapy is essential in order to create and maintain effective coronal seal. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of recently used pulp capping materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture cement (CEM) to composite resin with the use of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems and compare them with the bond strength of commonly used resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens from each test material were fabricated, measuring 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth. The specimens of each material were divided into 2 groups of 20 specimens according to the adhesive system (Single Bond vs. Clearfil SE Bond) used for bonding of resin composite. The shear bond strength values were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min and fractured surfaces were examined. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: Analysis of data showed a significantly higher bond strength for RMGI compared to MTA and CEM (P<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the bond strength values of MTA and CEM (P=0.9). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in relation to the type of the adhesive system irrespective of the type of the material used (P=0.95) All the failures were of cohesive type in RMGI, MTA and CEM. Conclusion: Bond strength of RMGI cement to composite resin was higher than that of MTA or CEM cement irrespective of the type of the adhesive system. PMID:25628696

  18. Effects of etching and adhesive applications on the bond strength between composite resin and glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PAMIR, Tijen; ŞEN, Bilge Hakan; EVCIN, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study determined the effects of various surface treatment modalities on the bond strength of composite resins to glass-ionomer cements. Material and Methods Conventional (KetacTM Molar Quick ApplicapTM) or resin-modified (PhotacTM Fil Quick AplicapTM) glass-ionomer cements were prepared. Two-step etch-rinse & bond adhesive (AdperTM Single Bond 2) or single-step self-etching adhesive (AdperTM PromptTM L-PopTM) was applied to the set cements. In the etch-rinse & bond group, the sample surfaces were pre-treated as follows: (1) no etching, (2) 15 s of etching with 35% phosphoric acid, (3) 30 s of etching, and (4) 60 s of etching. Following the placement of the composite resin (FiltekTM Z250), the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine and the data obtained were analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's HSD post hoc analysis (p=0.05). Then, the fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results The bond strength of the composite resin to the conventional glass-ionomer cement was significantly lower than that to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (p<0.001). No significant differences were determined between the self-etching and etch-rinse & bond adhesives at any etching time (p>0.05). However, a greater bond strength was obtained with 30 s of phosphoric acid application. Conclusions The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement improved the bond strength of the composite resin to the glass-ionomer cement. Both etch-rinse & bond and self-etching adhesives may be used effectively in the lamination of glass-ionomer cements. However, an etching time of at least 30 s appears to be optimal. PMID:23329245

  19. Micro-tensile bond strength of self-etching primer adhesive systems to human coronal carious dentin.

    PubMed

    Doi, J; Itota, T; Torii, Y; Nakabo, S; Yoshiyama, M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strengths of three self-etching primer adhesive systems to normal dentin (ND), caries-affected dentin (CAD) and caries-infected dentin (CID). Human extracted molars with caries were used, and flat dentin surfaces ground by 600-grit SiC paper were prepared. The surfaces were dyed using Caries-Detector solution, treated with Clearfil SE Bond, Mac-Bond II and UniFil Bond, and then covered with resin composites according to manufacturer's instructions. After immersion in 37 degrees C water for 24 h, the teeth were serially sectioned into multiple slices. Each slice was distinguished into ND, CAD and CID groups by the degree of staining, and the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation was also performed. For statistical analysis, anova and Scheffe's test were used (P < 0.05). The bond strengths of the three adhesive systems to CAD and CID were significantly lower than those to ND. There was significant difference in the bond strength to ND between Clearfil SE Bond and UniFil Bond, but no significant differences to CAD and CID among the three adhesive systems. On SEM, the hybrid layers in CAD and CID showed more porous structures compared with ND. The results indicated that the bond strengths to CAD and CID were not affected by a variety of self-etching primer adhesive systems because of the porous hybrid layer formation in carious dentin.

  20. Shear bond strength of self-adhesive resins compared to resin cements with etch and rinse adhesives to enamel and dentin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lührs, A-K; Guhr, S; Günay, H; Geurtsen, W

    2010-04-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements should ease the placement of dental restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate their shear bond strength to enamel and dentin. Sixty molars were randomly assigned to 12 test groups (each n = 10), and the approximal surfaces were ground flat to get an enamel and dentin surface with a diameter of at least 4 mm. Ceramic specimens were bonded to the surfaces with either Variolink/Syntac Classic (VSC), Panavia F2.0 (PAF), RelyX Unicem (RLX), Maxcem Elite (MCE), iCem (IC), or an experimental self-adhesive resin cement (EXP). The shear bond strength (crosshead speed: 1 mm/min) was measured after 24-h storage in NaCl (37 degrees C). The fracture modes were determined with a stereomicroscope (magnification, 8-50-fold). VSC had the highest shear bond strength within the enamel groups (42.9 +/- 9 MPa) and IC the lowest (10.5 +/- 4.2 MPa, p < 0.001). The highest dentin shear bond strength was determined for VSC (39.2 +/- 8.9 MPa, p < 0.001) and the lowest for EXP (7.8 +/- 3.9 MPa, p < 0.001). Self-adhesive resin cements fractured mainly between resin and enamel or dentin. The shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements was inferior compared to conventional composite resin cements.

  1. Effects of solvent volatilization time on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive to dentin using conventional or deproteinization bonding techniques

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Júnior, José Aginaldo; Carregosa Santana, Márcia Luciana; de Figueiredo, Fabricio Eneas Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study determined the effect of the air-stream application time and the bonding technique on the dentin bond strength of adhesives with different solvents. Furthermore, the content and volatilization rate of the solvents contained in the adhesives were also evaluated. Materials and Methods Three adhesive systems with different solvents (Stae, SDI, acetone; XP Bond, Dentsply De Trey, butanol; Ambar, FGM, ethanol) were evaluated. The concentrations and evaporation rates of each adhesive were measured using an analytical balance. After acid-etching and rinsing, medium occlusal dentin surfaces of human molars were kept moist (conventional) or were treated with 10% sodium hypochlorite for deproteinization. After applying adhesives over the dentin, slight air-stream was applied for 10, 30 or 60 sec. Composite cylinders were built up and submitted to shear testing. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results Stae showed the highest solvent content and Ambar the lowest. Acetone presented the highest evaporation rate, followed by butanol. Shear bond strengths were significantly affected only by the factors of 'adhesive' and 'bonding technique' (p < 0.05), while the factor 'duration of air-stream' was not significant. Deproteinization of dentin increased the bond strength (p < 0.05). Stae showed the lowest bond strength values (p < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed between XP Bond and Ambar. Conclusions Despite the differences in content and evaporation rate of the solvents, the duration of air-stream application did not affect the bond strength to dentin irrespective of the bonding technique. PMID:26295023

  2. Influence of zinc-oxide eugenol, formocresol, and ferric sulfate on bond strength of dentin adhesives to primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Salama, Fouad Saad

    2005-08-15

    This study evaluated in vitro the influence of a temporary filling {zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE)} and two pulpotomy agents {formocresol (FC) and ferric sulfate (FS)} on shear bond strength (SBS) of two dentin adhesives to the dentin of primary molars. A total of 80 dentin surfaces were prepared and randomly allocated into 10 groups of 8 specimens each. Groups were subjected to different treatments, which included covering with a paste of ZOE mixed at different powder:liquid (P:L) ratios, placement on a gauze soaked in FC or FS, or they received no pretreatment and served as a control. XRV Herculite composite cylinders were bonded to dentin surfaces using Prime and Bond NT adhesive resin or Opti Bond Solo Plus adhesive resin. SBSs were determined using the lnstron testing machine running at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The use of ZOE mixed at the lower P:L ratio of 10g:2g significantly decreased the values of SBS of the two adhesives. The use of two pulpotomy agents (FC and FS) significantly decreased the SBS of the two adhesives. The bond strength to dentin of primary teeth was influenced by the pulpotomy agents used and the ZOE P:L ratio but not by the adhesive system used.

  3. Influence of different repair procedures on bond strength of adhesive filling materials to etched enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hahn, Petra; Thiele, Patrick-Philipp; Attin, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of etched enamel with repair bond agents during repair of dental restorations may interfere with the bonding of composite to enamel. This study examined the bond strength of adhesive filling materials to etched bovine enamel after pre-treatment with the repair systems Monobond S, Silibond and Co-Jet. The materials Tetric Ceram, Dyract and Definite and their corresponding bonding agents (Syntac Single Comp, Prime & Bond NT, Etch and Prime) were tested in combination with the repair systems. One hundred and thirty-five enamel specimens were etched (37% phosphoric acid, 60 seconds) and equally distributed among three groups (A-C). In Group A, the repair materials were applied on etched enamel followed by applying the composite materials without using their respective bonding material. In Group B, the composite materials were placed on etched enamel after applying the repair materials and bonding agents. In control Group C, the composite materials and bonding agents were applied on etched enamel without using the repair systems. In each sub-group, every composite material was applied on 15 specimens. Samples were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days and thermocycled 1,000 times (5 degrees C/55 degrees C). The shear bond strength of the samples were then determined in a universal testing machine (ISO 10477). Applying Monobond or Silibond followed by the use of its respective bonding agents resulted in a bond strength that was not statistically different from the controls for all filling materials (Group C). The three composites that used Monobond and Silibond without applying the corresponding bonding agent resulted in bond strengths that were significantly lower than the controls. Utilizing the Co-Jet-System drastically reduced the bond strength of composites on etched enamel. Contamination of etched enamel with the repairing bonding agents Monobond and Silibond does not interfere with bond strength if the application of Monobond and Silibond is

  4. Comparative evaluation of microtensile bond strength of different solvent based one step and two step adhesive systems to dentin. An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Pavithra; Uthappa, Roshan; Shivgange, Vinay; Shivamurthy, GB; Shivanna, Vasundhara

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To compare and evaluate the micro tensile bond strength of different solvent based one step and two step adhesive systems to dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty recently extracted human mandibular premolars were subjected for the study and divided into 4 groups of fifteen each. The adhesive materials Single Bond, Prime and Bond XP, Clearfil S3 Bond and G-Bond were applied to flat dentin surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions. After resin composite build up, teeth were sectioned to obtain beams with an approximate cross sectional area of 2 mm2 and stressed to failure. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA and student Neuman Keuls multiple comparison tests. Results: The study demonstrated that Single Bond has better bond strength to dentin compared to the other adhesive systems. Conclusion: Ethanol and water based two-step adhesive Single Bond exhibited significantly higher microtensile bond strength values to dentin among all the adhesive systems tested. PMID:23956544

  5. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  6. Exposed Dentin: Influence of Cleaning Procedures and Simulated Pulpal Pressure on Bond Strength of a Universal Adhesive System

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare various pre-treatments serving as cleaning procedures of dentin on the bond strength of resin composite promoted by a universal adhesive system applied either in the absence or presence of simulated pulpal pressure. Materials and Methods Prior to application of the adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal) and resin composite (Filtek Z250), ground dentin surfaces were given one of five pre-treatments either without or with simulated pulpal pressure: 1) no pre-treatment, adhesive system in “self-etch” mode, 2) phosphoric acid etching, adhesive system in “total-etch” mode, 3) polishing with pumice on prophylaxis cup, 4) air abrasion with AIR-FLOW PLUS powder, 5) air abrasion with AIR-FLOW PERIO powder; n = 20/group of pre-treatment. After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), micro shear bond strength was measured and data analyzed with parametric ANOVA including Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing followed by Student’s t tests (significance level: α = 0.05). Results The ANOVA found type of pre-treatment and simulated pulpal pressure to have no significant effect on dentin bond strength. The explorative post-hoc tests showed a negative effect of simulated pulpal pressure for phosphoric acid etching (adhesive system in “total-etch” mode; p = 0.020), but not for the other four pre-treatments (all p = 1.000). Conclusion Air abrasion with powders containing either erythritol and chlorhexidine (AIR-FLOW PLUS) or glycine (AIR-FLOW PERIO) yielded dentin bond strengths similar to no pre-treatment, phosphoric acid etching, or polishing with pumice. Simulated pulpal pressure reduced the bond strength only when the self-etch adhesive system was used in total-etch mode. PMID:28081572

  7. Effects of Er:YAG laser on bond strength of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Ozmen, Bilal; Cortcu, Murat; Tokay, Ugur; Tosun, Gul; Erhan Sari, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser may be effective the bond strength of adhesive systems on dentine surfaces, the chemical composition and aggressiveness of adhesive systems in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Er:YAG laser system with the bonding ability of two different self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentine in primary molars. Ninety mid-coronal flat dentine surfaces obtained from sound and caries-affected human primary dentine were treated with an Er:YAG laser or a bur. The prepared surfaces were restored with an adhesive system (Xeno V; Clearfil S³) and a compomer (Dyract Extra). The restored teeth were sectioned with a low-speed saw and 162 samples were obtained. The bond strength of the adhesive systems was tested using the micro-tensile test method. The data were statistically analyzed. A restored tooth in each group was processed for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The values of the highest bond strength were obtained from the Clearfil S³-Er:YAG laser-sound dentine group in all groups. (24.57 ± 7.27 MPa) (P > 0.05). The values of the lowest bond strength were obtained from the Xeno V-Er:YAG laser-sound dentine group in all groups (11.01 ± 3.89 MPa). It was determined that the Clearfil S³ increased the bond strength on the surface applied with Er:YAG laser according to the Xeno V.

  8. Evaluation of self-etching adhesive and Er:YAG laser conditioning on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura E; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia; Olea-Mejía, Oscar F; Alcántara-Galena, María del Carmen Z

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength, the adhesive remnant index scores, and etch surface of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with self-etching primer and Er:YAG laser conditioning. One hundred and twenty bovine incisors were randomly divided into four groups. In Group I (Control), the teeth were conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. In Group II the teeth were conditioned with Transbond Plus SEP (5 sec); III and IV were irradiated with the Er:YAG 150 mJ (11.0 J/cm²), 150 mJ (19.1 J/cm²), respectively, at 7-12 Hz with water spray. After surface preparation, upper central incisor stainless steel brackets were bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change Adhesive. The teeth were stored in water at 37°C for 24 hours and shear bond strengths were measured, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) was determined. The conditioned surface was observed under a scanning electron microscope. One-way ANOVA and chi-square test were used. Group I showed the significantly highest values of bond strength with a mean value of 8.2 megapascals (MPa). The lesser amount of adhesive remnant was found in Group III. The results of this study suggest that Er:YAG laser irradiation could not be an option for enamel conditioning.

  9. The Influence of No-Primer Adhesives and Anchor Pylons Bracket Bases on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Daina, Paola; Tamagnone, Alessandra; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores of no-primer adhesives tested with two different bracket bases. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens. Two brackets (ODP) with different bracket bases (anchor pylons and 80-gauge mesh) were bonded to the teeth using a conventional adhesive (Transbond XT) and two different no-primer adhesive (Ortho Cem; Heliosit) systems. Groups were tested using an instron universal testing machine. SBS values were recorded. ARI scores were measured. SEM microphotographs were taken to evaluate the pattern of bracket bases. Statistical analysis was performed. ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out for SBS values, whereas a chi-squared test was applied for ARI scores. Results. Highest bond strength values were reported with Transbond XT (with both pad designs), Ortho Cem bonded on anchor pylons and Heliosit on 80-gauge mesh. A higher frequency of ARI score of “3” was reported for Transbond XT groups. Other groups showed a higher frequency of ARI score “2” and “1.” Conclusion. Transbond XT showed the highest shear bond strength values with both pad designs. PMID:23984339

  10. Evaluation of Self-Etching Adhesive and Er:YAG Laser Conditioning on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio J.; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura E.; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia; Olea-Mejía, Oscar F.; Alcántara-Galena, María del Carmen Z.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength, the adhesive remnant index scores, and etch surface of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with self-etching primer and Er:YAG laser conditioning. One hundred and twenty bovine incisors were randomly divided into four groups. In Group I (Control), the teeth were conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. In Group II the teeth were conditioned with Transbond Plus SEP (5 sec); III and IV were irradiated with the Er:YAG 150 mJ (11.0 J/cm2), 150 mJ (19.1 J/cm2), respectively, at 7–12 Hz with water spray. After surface preparation, upper central incisor stainless steel brackets were bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change Adhesive. The teeth were stored in water at 37°C for 24 hours and shear bond strengths were measured, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) was determined. The conditioned surface was observed under a scanning electron microscope. One-way ANOVA and chi-square test were used. Group I showed the significantly highest values of bond strength with a mean value of 8.2 megapascals (MPa). The lesser amount of adhesive remnant was found in Group III. The results of this study suggest that Er:YAG laser irradiation could not be an option for enamel conditioning. PMID:24228014

  11. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance.

  12. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. PMID:26380371

  13. Micro-tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems on sound dentin and resin-based composite: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Rashmirekha; Sarangi, Priyanka; Mohanty, Sandhyarani; Behera, Subasish; Nanda, Soumyaranjan; Satapathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the difference in the micro-tensile bond strength of specimens made with two different adhesive systems and compare them with two homogenous substrates. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent mandibular molars were mounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned with exposed dentin surfaces. Samples were then divided into four groups. To Group-I Adper Single Bond 2 and to Group-II Adper Self-Etch plus bonding agents were applied. For Group-I and Group-II beams consisted of resin composite in the upper half and dentin in the lower half. In Group-III beams were made of only dentin. In Group-IV beams were made of only composite. Fifteen specimens of each group were taken for the micro-tensile bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: The results are analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Critical Difference test. Results: The interface bonded with the two adhesive systems had lower micro-tensile bond strength than those of dentin and resin composite and the self-etching adhesive Adper Self-Etch plus had comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesive Adper Single Bond 2. Conclusion: The bond strength values for current adhesive systems cannot be compared to the micro-tensile bond strength of dentin and resin composite, and self-etching adhesives have comparable bond strength with total-etch adhesives. PMID:26430301

  14. In vitro analysis of bond strength of self-etching adhesives applied on superficial and deep dentin.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Eugenio J; Gomes, Osnara M M; Gomes, João C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of three adhesive systems to superficial and deep dentine using the microtensile bond strength test (microTBS). The occlusal enamel of thirty human third molars was removed to expose a flat surface of superficial or deep dentin. For each type of surface, the test specimens were randomly divided into three groups which underwent the application of a conventional two-step adhesive system [Single Bond (SB)] as the control group (n=10), a two-bottle self-etching system [One Coat SE Bond (OCSE)] (n=10) and a one bottle one-step system [Clearfil S3 Bond (CFS3)] (n=10). Adhesives were applied, a 5-mm high "crown" as built-up with resin composite Z250 (3M) and the specimens with a cross-sectional area of 0.7 +/- 0.1 mm2 were tested in tension (0.5 mm/min). Four fractured sticks from each tooth were randomly selected and the dentin side was gently abraded with a 1200-grit SiC paper etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 s and air dried. SEM micrographs at 70X and 2400X magnification were taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to calculate the area of tubular dentin (ATD) and tubular density (TD) with Image Pro Plus 5. Two-way ANOVA (dentin depth-adhesive) showed higher bond strength values for SB. However the values did not depend on dentin depth. Linear regression showed a significant relationship between bond strength and area of intertubular dentin for SB (p = 0.004), and a significant inverse relationship between tubular density and bond strength for CFS3 (p = 0.009). OCSE exhibited a tendency that was similar to SB and opposite to CFS3, but was not statistically significant. The conventional two-step adhesive had higher bond strength values. The use of digital image analysis facilitates the manipulation of data and contributes to the interpretation of the behavior of new adhesive systems.

  15. The effects of two soft drinks on bond strength, bracket microleakage, and adhesive remnant on intact and sealed enamel.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Raúl; Vicente, Ascensión; Ortiz, Antonio J; Bravo, Luis A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and Schweppes Limón on bond strength, adhesive remnant, and microleakage beneath brackets. One hundred and twenty upper central incisor brackets were bonded to bovine incisors and divided into three groups: (1) Control, (2) Coca-Cola, and (3) Schweppes Limón. The teeth were submerged in the drinks three times a day for 15 minutes over a 15 day period. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured with a universal testing machine, and adhesive remnant evaluated using image analysis equipment. Microleakage at the enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces was determined using methylene blue. One hundred and eight teeth were used for scanning electron microscopy to determine the effect of the drinks on intact and sealed enamel. SBS and adhesive remnant data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05) and microleakage using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests applying Bonferroni correction (P < 0.017). No significant differences were found in SBS and adhesive remnant between the groups (P > 0.05). Microleakage at the enamel-adhesive interface for groups 2 and 3 was significantly greater than for group 1 (P < 0.017). At the adhesive-bracket interface, microleakage was significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 (P < 0.017) while microleakage in group 3 did not differ significantly from either group 1 or 2 (P < 0.017). The drinks produced enamel erosion, loss of adhesive and microleakage. Coca-Cola and Schweppes Limón did not affect the SBS of brackets or the adhesive remnant.

  16. Influence of salivary contamination on the dentin bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Taranjeet Kaur; Asrani, Hemant; Banga, Harpreet; Jain, Aditi; Rawlani, Sudhir S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of salivary contamination on the bond strength of two different seventh generation adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Sixty caries-free human premolars with flat dentin surfaces were randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each and bonding was done using seventh-generation bonding agents Adper Easy One (3M ESPE) and Xeno V (Dentsply). Following the bonding procedure, resin composite was bonded to the surfaces using a plastic mould. The prepared specimen with composite cylinders attached were placed in 37°C distilled water for 24 h and then subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) with 0 h universal testing machine and the data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and unpaired t-test. Results: Statistical significant difference between the Groups I, II and III in which Adper Easy One was used and similarly for Groups IV, V, and VI in which Xeno V was used. When an intergroup comparison was made using unpaired t-test Group II and Group V showed the nonsignificant difference. Conclusion: Salivary contamination significantly affects the SBS of both the seventh generation dentin bonding agents. However, 2-hydroxyethyl methacryate based adhesive has higher bond strength. PMID:26752841

  17. Influence of an arginine-containing toothpaste on bond strength of different adhesive systems to eroded dentin.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Ana Cláudia Pietrobom; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different adhesive systems to eroded dentin following toothbrushing with an arginine-containing toothpaste. Sixty standardized 3 × 3 × 2-mm fragments of root dentin (n = 10) were prepared. After all surfaces except the buccal surfaces were impermeabilized, specimens were subjected to an erosive wear protocol and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. The specimens underwent 1000 toothbrushing cycles with an arginine-containing toothpaste, an arginine-free toothpaste (positive control group), or artificial saliva (negative control group). Following application of a self-etching or an etch-and-rinse adhesive to the buccal surfaces of the specimens, 6-mm-high composite resin blocks were built up in 2-mm increments. After 24 hours' storage in 100% relative humidity, microtensile test specimens with an approximate area of 1 mm² were prepared. The test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until specimen fracture, and the failure patterns were evaluated using a stereoscopic loupe. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant difference between the toothpastes, the adhesive systems, or the interactions between toothpaste and adhesive system in terms of the bond strength to eroded dentin (P > 0.05). The predominant failure pattern was adhesive in all groups. It was concluded that a toothpaste containing arginine did not interfere with the bond between either the self-etching or the etch-and-rinse adhesive system and eroded dentin.

  18. Testing Adhesive Bonds to Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive tool simple and inexpensive. Easy-to-use tool nondestructively tests strength of adhesive bond between cloth and straight rigid edge. Developed for testing advanced flexible reusable surface insulation.

  19. Bonding Strength Properties of Adhesively-Timber Joint with Thixotropic and Room Temperature Cured Epoxy Based Adhesive Reinforced with Nano- and Micro-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Ansell, M. P.; Smedley, D.

    2011-02-01

    This research work is concerned with in situ bonded-in timber connection using pultruded rod; where the manufacturing of such joint requires adhesive which can produce thick glue-lines and does not allow any use of pressure and heat. Four types of thixotropic (for ease application) and room temperature cured epoxy based were used namely CB10TSS (regarded as standards adhesive), Nanopox (modification of CB10TSS with addition of nanosilica), Albipox (modification of CB10TSS with addition of liquid rubber) and Timberset (an epoxy-based adhesive with addition of micro-size ceramic particles). The quality of the adhesive bonds was accessed using block shear test in accordance with ASTM D905. The bond strength depends on how good the adhesive wet the timber surface. Therefore the viscosity and contact angle was also measured. The nano- and microfiller additions increased the bond strength significantly. The viscosity correlates well with contact angle measurements where lower viscosities are associated with lower contact angles. However contact angle contradicts with measured strength and wettability.

  20. Effect of three adhesive primers on the bond strengths of four light-activated opaque resins to noble alloy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Kamada, K; Taira, Y; Atsuta, M

    2001-02-01

    The effect of commercial adhesive primers for noble metals on the bond strength of light-activated opaque resin has not been determined. This study evaluated the effect of three adhesive primers on the shear bond strengths of each of the four light-activated opaque resins to silver--palladium--copper--gold (Ag--Pd--Cu--Au) alloy. The adhesive primers Alloy Primer (AP), Metal Primer II (MPII) and Metaltite(MT) were used. Four commercial light-activated opaque resins (Axis (AX), Cesead II (CEII), Dentacolor(DE) and Solidex (SO) were used to bond a light-activated resin-veneered composite to Ag--Pd--Cu--Au alloy. The specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then immersed alternatively in water baths at 4 and 60 degrees C for 1 min each for up to 20,000 thermal cycles before shear mode testing at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). All the primers examined improved the shear bond strength between opaque resin and Ag--Pd--Cu--Au alloy compared with non-primed specimens prior to thermal cycling. After 20,000 thermal cycles, the bond strengths of combined use of AP and DE and that of MT and each of AX, CE or DE were significantly greater than any other groups. Significant difference was observed between the bond strengths at thermal cycles 0 and 20,000, with the combined use of MT and DE. With the combination of appropriate adhesive metal primers and light-activated opaque resins, complicated surface preparations of metal frameworks of resin-veneered prostheses that are composed of casting Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy may be negligible.

  1. Evaluation of the bond strength of different adhesive agents to a resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC).

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammed; Cantekin, Kenan; Gumus, Husniye; Ateş, Sabit Melih; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of different adhesive agents to TheraCal LC and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and examined the morphologic changes of these materials with different surface treatments. A total of 120 specimens, 60 of MTA Angelus (AMTA), and 60 of TheraCal LC, were prepared and divided into six subgroups according to the adhesive agent used; these agents included Scotchbond Multipurpose, Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, Clearfil S(3) Bond, OptiBond All-in-One, and G-aenial Bond. After application of adhesive agents, Filtek Z250 composite resin was placed onto the specimens. Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine, followed by examination of the fractured surfaces. The surface changes of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance. Although no significant differences were found among the bond strengths of different adhesives to AMTA (p = 0.69), a significant difference was found in terms of bond strengths of different adhesives to the TheraCal LC surface (p < 0.001). The total-etch adhesive system more strongly bonded to TheraCal LC compared to the bond with other adhesives. TheraCal LC bonded significantly more strongly than AMTA regardless of the adhesive agents tested. Resin-modified calcium silicate showed higher bond strength than AMTA in terms of the composite bond to these materials with different bonding systems. On the other hand, the highest shear bond-strength values were found for composite bonds with the combination of TheraCal LC and the total-etch adhesive system. SCANNING 38:403-411, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of micro push-out bond strengths of two fiber posts luted using simplified adhesive approaches.

    PubMed

    Mumcu, Emre; Erdemir, Ugur; Topcu, Fulya Toksoy

    2010-05-01

    By means of a micro push-out test, this study compared the bond strengths of two types of fiber-reinforced posts cemented with luting cements based on two currently available adhesive approaches as well as evaluated their failure modes. Sixty extracted single-rooted human maxillary central incisor and canine teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparation, the roots were divided into two fiber post groups and then further into three subgroups of 10 specimens each according to the luting cements. A push-out test was performed to measure regional bond strengths, and the fracture modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. At the root section, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in push-out bond strength among the tested luting cements. Nevertheless, the push-out bond strength values of glass fiber-reinforced posts were higher than those of carbon fiber-reinforced posts, irrespective of the adhesive approach used. On failure mode, the predominant failure mode was adhesive failure between dentin and the luting cement.

  3. Effect of self-etching primer/adhesive and conventional bonding on the shear bond strength in metallic and ceramic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Hydari, Mahboubeh; Shahrbaf, Shirin; Mirzakouchaki-Boroujeni, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Bracket debonding from the tooth surface is a common problem in fixed orthodontics. The aims of the present study were to assess the bond strength and failure sites in two ways of bonding technique, with metallic and ceramic brackets. Material and Methods: One hundred premolars were assigned to 4 groups of 25 each: Group A, metallic brackets/ conventional procedure; Group B, metallic brackets/Transbond XT; Group C, ceramic brackets/conventional procedure; and Group D, ceramic brackets/Transbond XT. Transbond XT composite paste was used for bracket bonding and cured by conventional light-cure device. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling. One week after bonding shearing force was applied to the bracket-tooth interface. Bonding failure site optically examined using a stereomicroscope under 10 × magnifications and scoring was done using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were subjected to analysis of One-way variance, Tukey post hoc, Chi-square and Spearman’s tests. Results: Mean bond strength (in MPa) were: group A=9.2, group B=8.5, group C=6.2 and group D=5.7. Bond strength differences between groups A and B, and between C and D were not significant, (p<0.0005). Insignificant difference found in ARI in all groups. Conclusion: The bond strengths of metallic brackets were significantly higher than ceramic ones and the selfetching primer produce fewer bonds than the conventional method (clinically acceptable). A positive correlation found between changes in shearing bond strength and ARI. Key words: Acid etching, adhesive remnant index, orthodontic brackets, self-etching primer, shearing bond strength. PMID:21743430

  4. Effect of reactive adhesives on the tensile bond strength of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials to methyl methacrylate tray material.

    PubMed

    Ona, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Sato, Masayuki; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2010-05-01

    The effect of new adhesives on the bond strength of elastomeric impression materials to acrylic trays was evaluated. Two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Fusion and Imprinsis) with reactive adhesives and one (Examix) with a conventional adhesive were tested. Flat, double-sided plates of auto-polymerizing methyl methacrylate (10 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared with one of the adhesives. Five specimens were prepared by injecting each impression material into a 2-mm gap between the two plates. Tensile tests were conducted until separation failure occurred. The mean bond strengths of Fusion (1.0 MPa) and Imprinsis (0.8 MPa) were significantly greater than that of Examix (0.2 MPa). On the contrary, one of five Fusion showed adhesive failure mode while all the Imprinsis exhibited mixed failure. The conflicting results were presumably attributed to the mean tear strength of Fusion (0.8 N/mm) being higher than that of Imprinsis (0.5 N/mm).

  5. Influence of methyl mercaptan on the repair bond strength of composites fabricated using self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Miho; Rikuta, Akitomo; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Shibasaki, Syo; Matsuyoshi, Saki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    The influence of methyl mercaptan on the repair bond strength of composites fabricated using self-etch adhesives was investigated. The surface free-energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of test liquids placed on composites that had been immersed in different concentrations of methyl mercaptan (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 M). To determine the repair bond strength, self-etch adhesives were applied to the aged composite, and then newly added composites were condensed. Ten samples of each specimen were subjected to shear testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm min(-1). Samples were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Although the dispersion force of the composites remained relatively constant, their polar force increased slightly as the concentration of methyl mercaptan increased. The hydrogen-bonding forces were significantly higher after immersion in 1.0 M methyl mercaptan, leading to higher surface-free energies. However, the repair bond strengths for the repair restorations prepared from composites immersed in 1.0 M methyl mercaptan were significantly lower than for those immersed in 0.01 and 0.10 M methyl mercaptan. Considering the results of this study, it can be concluded that the repair bond strengths of both the aged and newly added composites were affected by immersion in methyl mercaptan solutions.

  6. Microtensile bond strength of one- and two-step self-etching adhesives on sclerotic dentin: the effects of thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Han, Ying; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Wang, Zhong-Yi; He, Hui-Ming

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of thermocycling on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of one- and two-step self-etch adhesives (SEAs) to sclerotic dentin. Two adhesives, Clearfil S3 Bond (S3), a one-step self-etch adhesive (1-SEA), and Clearfil SE Bond (SE), a two-step self-etch adhesive (2-SEA), were applied on cervical lesions in human premolars with sclerotic or normal dentin. After adhesive application, the lesions were restored and built up using a resin composite (Clearfil AP-X). After 24 hours in water storage, the restored teeth were sectioned into 0.7 x 0.7 mm composite-dentin beams. The beams were then aged with 0, 5,000 or 10,000 thermocycles. The use of two adhesives, two substrate types and three thermocycling regimens yielded 12 experimental groups of 14-19 beams each. The beams were subsequently subjected to microTBS testing at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute and statistical analyses were computed with three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at p < 0.05. Three-way ANOVA showed statistically significant effects on bonding effectiveness by lesion type, adhesive system, thermocycling or combinations of the adhesive system and thermocycling (p < 0.05). With sclerotic dentin, although S3 and SE provided comparable microTBS after 24 hours of water storage, S3 showed significantly lower microTBS than SE after thermocycling (p < 0.05). Regardless of lesion type, the microTBS for S3 decreased significantly after 5,000 or 10,000 thermocycles, while the microTBS for SE showed a significant decrease only after 10,000 thermocycles. Regardless of the extent of thermocycling, the microTBS values for either SE or S3 bonded to sclerotic dentin were significantly lower than to normal dentin (p < 0.05). The results suggested that thermocycling had a significant negative effect on the bond strength of the two SEAs tested. In contrast to 2-SEA, 1-SEA might not be a good choice for sclerotic dentin when seeking durability of the resin-dentin bond.

  7. Single-cycle and fatigue strengths of adhesively bonded lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Metzinger, K.E.; Guess, T.R.

    1998-12-31

    This study considers a composite-to-steel tubular lap joint in which failure typically occurs when the adhesive debonds from the steel adherend. The same basic joint was subjected to compressive and tensile axial loads (single-cycle) as well as bending loads (fatigue). The purpose of these tests was to determine whether failure is more dependent on the plastic strain or the peel stress that develops in the adhesive. For the same joint, compressive and tensile loads of the same magnitude will produce similar plastic strains but peel stresses of opposite signs in the adhesive. In the axial tests, the tensile strengths were much greater than the compressive strengths - indicating that the peel stress is key to predicting the single-cycle strengths. To determine the key parameter(s) for predicting high-cycle fatigue strengths, a test technique capable of subjecting a specimen to several million cycles per day was developed. In these bending tests, the initial adhesive debonding always occurred on the compressive side. This result is consistent with the single-cycle tests, although not as conclusive due to the limited number of tests. Nevertheless, a fatigue test method has been established and future tests are planned.

  8. The shear bond strength of MTA with three different types of adhesive systems: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Nimish; Chaman, Chandrakar; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Udai Pratap; Sharma, Apoorv

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength of MTA with three different types of adhesive systems- self-adhering flowable composite, etch and rinse adhesive system and self etch adhesive system. Methodology: MTA specimens (n = 60) were prepared using cylindrical acrylic blocks, having a central cavity with 4 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. MTA was mixed and placed in the prepared cavity, and was covered with a moist cotton pellet and temporary filling material. The specimens were divided into 3 groups which were further divided into 2 sub-groups (45 Minutes and 24 hours). After the application of bonding agents composite resin was placed over the MTA surface. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength and readings were statically analyzed. Result: After 24 hrs the mean value of etch and rinse group was significantly higher than self etch and the self adhering composite groups. Among the 45 minutes groups there were no significant difference. Conclusion: In single visit after 45 minutes self adhering flowable can be used successfully as a final restorative material in place of conventional flowable composite without using any alternative adhesive system over MTA. PMID:27099417

  9. Do the origins of primary teeth affect the bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to dentin?

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Camilla Regina Galvão; Bengtson, Antonio Lucindo; Bengtson, Nadya Galvão; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to three different dentinal substrates. Primary molar teeth that had been recently exfoliated (RE), with unknown time of exfoliation (UT), and extracted due to prolonged retention (PR) were used for this investigation. Ten primary molar teeth of each group were cut in the middle following the mesio-distal direction, creating a total of twenty specimens per group. The specimens were included in acrylic resin and had a flat dentin surface exposed. The self-etching adhesive system was applied to this surface and a 3-millimeter high cone with diameter of 2 mm in the adhesion area was constructed using composite resin. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours. Fifteen specimens of each substrate were used for the tensile bond test (n = 15) and 5 had the interface analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data was examined by one-way ANOVA and presented no significant differences between groups (p = 0.5787). The mean values obtained for RE, UT and PR were 18.39 ± 9.70, 19.41 ± 7.80, and 23.30 ± 9.37 MPa, respectively. Any dentinal substrates of primary teeth studied are safe for tensile bond strength tests with adhesive systems.

  10. Influence of light intensity on surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Nojiri, Kie; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Shibasaki, Syo; Matsuyoshi, Saki; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of light intensity on the surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step selfetch adhesives. The adhesives were applied to the dentin surfaces of bovine mandibular incisors and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm(2). Surface-free energies were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. Dentin bond strengths of the specimens were also measured. Polymerization with a higher light intensity resulted in a lower surface-free energy of the cured adhesives. The greatest bond strength was achieved when a light intensity of 400 mW/cm(2) or greater was used. Our data suggest that the surface-free energy and dentin bond strength of single-step self-etch adhesives are affected by light intensity of the curing unit.

  11. Multi-step adhesive cementation versus one-step adhesive cementation: push-out bond strength between fiber post and root dentin before and after mechanical cycling.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Rippe, Marilia Pivetta; Bergoli, Cesar Dalmolin; Monaco, Carlo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of mechanical cycling on resin push-out bond strength to root dentin, using two strategies for fiber post cementation. Forty bovine roots were embedded in acrylic resin after root canal preparation using a custom drill of the fiber post system. The fiber posts were cemented into root canals using two different strategies (N = 20): a conventional adhesive approach using a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system combined with a conventional resin cement (ScotchBond Multi Purpose Plus + RelyX ARC ), or a simplified adhesive approach using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100). The core was built up with composite resin and half of the specimens from each cementation strategy were submitted to mechanical cycling (45 degree angle; 37 degrees C; 88 N; 4 Hz; 700,000 cycles). Each specimen was cross-sectioned and the disk specimens were pushed-out. The means from every group (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and a Tukey test (P = 0.05). The cementation strategy affected the push-out results (P < 0.001), while mechanical cycling did not (P = 0.3716). The simplified approach (a self-adhesive resin cement) had better bond performance despite the conditioning. The self-adhesive resin cement appears to be a good option for post cementation. Further trials are needed to confirm these results.

  12. Push-out bond strength of different translucent fiber posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Bazzo, João Fernando; Pedriali, Maria Beatriz Bergonse Pereira; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Moura, Sandra Kiss; de de Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the bond strength of different translucent fiber posts in the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into five groups according to the fiber post used: Reforpost (opaque [control]), exacto, white post, radix, and Macro-Lock Illusion X-RO. The roots were subjected to chemomechanical preparation and cemented with self-adhesive resin cement. The teeth were sectioned into slices of the different root thirds and tested for bond strength (push-out). Two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test were used to verify statistical differences between groups (P < 0.05). Results: No significant difference between the root thirds was detected (P > 0.05). However, the performance of the posts demonstrated a significant difference (P < 0.05). RDX had a lower performance in the apical third (P < 0.05). The other fiber posts had the same performance irrespective of the root third evaluated. The predominant failure pattern was adhesive between resin cement and root dentin. Conclusion: In general, the different translucent fiber posts showed the same performance. Yet, translucent fiber posts did not show superior bond strength compared with the opaque fiber post in any of the root thirds evaluated. PMID:27994324

  13. Effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Pooran; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Shirban, Farinaz; Davoodi, Amin; Khoroushi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dual-cured composite resins are similar to self-cured composite resins in some of their clinical applications due to inadequate irradiation, lack of irradiation, or delayed irradiation. Therefore, incompatibility with self-etch adhesives (SEAs) should be taken into account with their use. On the other, the extent of dentin dehydration has a great role in the quality of adhesion of these resin materials to dentin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dentin dehydration and composite resin polymerization mode on bond strength of two SEAs. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentinal specimens were prepared from extracted intact third molars. Half of the samples were dehydrated in ethanol with increasing concentrations. Then Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP) adhesives were applied in the two groups. Cylindrical composite resin specimens were cured using three polymerization modes: (1) Immediate light-curing, (2) delayed light-curing after 20 min, and (3) self-curing. Bond strength was measured using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Duncan post hoc tests. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for CSEB subgroups with hydrated and dehydrated dentin samples between the three different curing modes (P > 0.05). PLP showed significant differences between subgroups with the lowest bond strength in hydrated dentin with delayed light-curing and self-cured mode of polymerization. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, a delay in composite resin light-curing or using chemically cured composite resin had a deleterious effect on dentin bond strength of single-step SEAs used in the study. PMID:27041894

  14. Strength and Performance Enhancement of Bonded Joints by Spatial Tailoring of Adhesive Compliance via 3D Printing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Wardle, Brian L; Arif, Muhamad F

    2017-01-11

    Adhesive bonding continues to emerge as a preferred route for joining materials with broad applications including advanced structures, microelectronics, biomedical systems, and consumer goods. Here, we study the mechanics of deformation and failure of tensile-loaded single-lap joints with a compliance-tailored adhesive. Tailoring of the adhesive compliance redistributes stresses and strains to reduce both shear and peel concentrations at the ends of the adhesive that determine failure of the joint. Utilizing 3D printing, the modulus of the adhesive is spatially varied along the bondlength. Experimental strength testing, including optical strain mapping, reveals that the strain redistribution results in a greater than 100% increase in strength and toughness concomitant with a 50% increase in strain-to-break while maintaining joint stiffness. The tailoring demonstrated here is immediately realizable in a broad array of 3D printing applications, and the level of performance enhancement suggests that compliance tailoring of the adhesive is a generalizable route for achieving superior performance of joints in other applications, such as advanced structural composites.

  15. Shear bond strength of resin composite bonded with two adhesives: Influence of Er: YAG laser irradiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Farzaneh; Birang, Reza; Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Hourmehr, Zahra; Kazemi, Shantia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental surfaces prepared with different Er:YAG laser distance may have different characteristics compared with those prepared with conventional instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance from enamel and dentin surfaces on the shear bond strength of composite with self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems compared with conventional preparation method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred caries-free human third molars were randomly divided into twenty groups (n = 10). Ten groups were designated for enamel surface (E1-E10) and ten for dentin surface (D1-D10). Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was used on the E1-E8 (240 mJ, 25 Hz) and D1-D8 (140 mJ, 30 Hz) groups at four different distances of 0.5 (standard), 2, 4 and 11 mm. Control groups (E9, E10, D9 and D10) were ground with medium grit diamond bur. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into two subgroups that were bonded with either Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond. Resin composite (Z100) was dispensed on prepared dentin and enamel. The shear bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by SPSS12 statistical software using three way analysis of variance, Tukey and independent t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between enamel and dentin substrates (P < 0.001) and between lased and un-lased groups; the un-lased group had significantly higher bond strength (P < 0.001). Shear bond strength increased significantly with an increase in the laser irradiation distance (P < 0.05) on enamel surfaces (in both bonding agent subgroups) and on dentin surfaces (in the Single Bond subgroup). Conclusion: Laser irradiation decreases shear bond strength. Irradiation distance affects shear bond strength and increasing the distance would decrease the negative effects of laser irradiation. PMID:25540665

  16. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  17. Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; Lima, Felipe Coelho; Saboia, Vicente de Paula Aragão; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M) to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Materials and Methods Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8) according to the filling material, (1) AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH)/Gutta-Percha cone; (2) Epiphany SE (Pentron)/Resilon cone; (3) RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Results Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in bond strength between AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p > 0.05). Conclusions Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials. PMID:25383347

  18. Long-term regional bond strength of three MMA-based adhesive resins in simulated vertical root fracture.

    PubMed

    Nurrohman, Hamid; Nikaido, Toru; Sadr, Alireza; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Kitayama, Shuzo; Ikeda, Masaomi; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Tagami, Junji

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate bond durability of MMA-based adhesives to root dentin in a simulated complete vertical root fracture (CVRF). The fractured fragments of human premolar root were reattached using Super-Bond C&B (SB; Sun Medical), M-Bond or M-Bond II (MB or MB II; Tokuyama Dental). After storage for 1 day, 1 month, 6 months and 1 year, the reattached specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test at cervical and apical regions. Results showed that µTBS was significantly higher to cervical dentin than to apical dentin in MB and MB II, but not SB (p<0.05). Significant decrease in µTBS was found for MB and MB II after 1 year, whereas no significant difference was found for SB (p<0.05). Analysis of failure mode by SEM indicated differences over time. In conclusion, significant differences were found in the regional bond durability among MMA-based adhesives used to restore CVRF, that may lead to different clinical performances.

  19. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Niloofar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi; Sattari, Hasti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P < 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: In comparison between applied and non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there was no significant decrease in the shear bond strength to enamel only in Tetric N-Bond (P > 0.05). In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond. PMID:25878683

  20. Influence of Temporary Cements on the Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Cement to the Metal Coronal Substrate.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; De Aguiar, Caio Rocha; Jacob, Eduardo Santana; Macedo, Ana Paula; De Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Antunes, Rossana Pereira de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluated the influence of temporary cements (eugenol-containing [EC] or eugenol-free [EF]) on the tensile strength of Ni-Cr copings fixed with self-adhesive resin cement to the metal coronal substrate. Thirty-six temporary crowns were divided into 4 groups (n=9) according to the temporary cements: Provy, Dentsply (eugenol-containing), Temp Cem, Vigodent (eugenol-containing), RelyX Temp NE, 3M ESPE (eugenol-free) and Temp Bond NE, Kerr Corp (eugenol-free). After 24 h of temporary cementation, tensile strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and 1 kN (100 kgf) load cell. Afterwards, the cast metal cores were cleaned by scraping with curettes and air jet. Thirty-six Ni-Cr copings were cemented to the cast metal cores with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). Tensile strength tests were performed again. In the temporary cementation, Temp Bond NE (12.91 ± 2.54) and Temp Cem (12.22 ± 2.96) presented the highest values of tensile strength and were statistically similar to each other (p>0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was observed only between Provy (164.44 ± 31.23) and Temp Bond NE (88.48 ± 21.83) after cementation of Ni-Cr copings with self-adhesive resin cement. In addition, Temp Cem (120.68 ± 48.27) and RelyX Temp NE (103.04 ± 26.09) showed intermediate tensile strength values. In conclusion, the Provy eugenol-containing temporary cement was associated with the highest bond strength among the resin cements when Ni-Cr copings were cemented to cast metal cores. However, the eugenol cannot be considered a determining factor in increased bond strength, since the other tested cements (1 eugenol-containing and 2 eugenol-free) were similar.

  1. Microshear Bond Strength of OptiBond All-in-One Self-adhesive Agent to Er:YAG Laser Treated Enamel After Thermocycling and Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Yarmohammadi, Ebrahim; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the microshear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser using a self-etch one step bonding agent. Methods: Seventy-six enamel surfaces were prepared from 38 sound human third molar teeth. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 18. The enamel surface in half the specimens was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. One extra specimen from each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composite micro-cylinders were bonded to the specimen surfaces using OptiBond All-In-One (OB) adhesive agent and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. Half the specimens were thermocycled (2000 cycles) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for three months (TW). The microshear bond strength of composite to enamel was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The fractured surfaces were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification to determine the mode of failure. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. Results: The mean values (±standard deviation) were 17.96 ± 2.92 MPa in OB group, 22.29 ± 4.25 MPa in laser + OB group, 18.11 ± 3.52 MPa in laser + OB + TW group and 9.42 ± 2.47 MPa in OB + TW group. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that laser irradiation increased the microshear bond strength (P < 0.001). Bond strength decreased when the samples were thermocycled and stored for three months (P < 0.001). The interaction effect of water storage and laser treatment on bond strength was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Enamel surface preparation with Er:YAG laser is recommended to enhance the durability of the bond of self-etch bonding systems to enamel. PMID:28144434

  2. Effects of Two Soft Drinks on Shear Bond Strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of Orthodontic Metal Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Soodabeh Sadat; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza; Sajadi, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bond failure of brackets during orthodontic treatment is a common problem; which results in treatment interference, increased treatment time and prolonged clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and a non-alcoholic beer on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic metal brackets in vitro. Materials and Methods: Eighty intact human premolars were divided into two experimental groups of Coca-Cola and non-alcoholic beer (Istak), and a control group of artificial saliva. Over a period of thirty days, the test groups were immersed in the respective soft drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day. For the remainder of the time, they were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The control group was stored in artificial saliva during the experiment. All samples were subjected to shearing forces using Universal Testing Machine. ARI was determined with a stereomicroscope at ×12 magnification. The data of shear bond strength were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s Post-Hoc test and the data of ARI scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: No significant difference was observed in ARIs of the three groups (P≤ 0.552). The shear bond strength of Coke group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups (P≤ 0.035); but there was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of Istak and the control group (P≤ 0.999). Conclusion: Coca-Cola decreased the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25584049

  3. Shear Strength at 75 F to 500 F of Fourteen Adhesives Used to Bond a Glass-fabric-reinforced Phenolic Resin Laminate to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John R

    1956-01-01

    Fourteen adhesives used to bond a glass-fabric-reinforced phenolic resin laminate to steel were tested in order to determine their shear strengths at temperatures from 75 F to 500 F. Fabrication methods were varied to evaluate the effect of placing cloth between the facing surfaces to maintain a uniform bond-line thickness. One glass-fabric supported phenolic adhesive was found to have a shear strength of 3,400 psi at 300 F and over 1,000 psi at 500 F. Strength and fabrication data are tabulated for all adhesives tested.

  4. Shear bond strength and ultrastructural interface analysis of different adhesive systems to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin.

    PubMed

    Guven, Yeliz; Aktoren, Oya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of a microhybrid composite resin bonded with three different adhesive systems to Er:YAG laser- (EL) or bur-prepared dentin surfaces and to analyze the quality and ultrastructure of the adhesive-dentin interfaces by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimens prepared for SBS test and SEM analysis were randomly assigned to eight groups (G1-G8): G1, EL (Fidelis PlusIII, Fotona) + Clearfil S3 Bond (C3S); G2, EL + AdperSE Plus (SE); G3, EL + laser etch + Adper Single Bond2 (SB2); G4, EL + acid etch + SB2; G5, EL + SB2 (no etching); G6, bur + acid etch + SB2; G7, bur + S3; G8, bur + SE. Laser was used in very short pulse mode at a setting of 200 mJ/20 Hz for dentin preparation and at 80 mJ/10 Hz for dentin etching. Bond strength test: 3.5 × 2.0 mm cylindrical molds were placed onto adhesives and filled with the composites. After 24 h in distilled water, SBS was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. SEM analysis: The dentin-adhesive interfaces were evaluated for the ultrastructure of hybrid layer. Data of SBS (MPa) were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD. ER:YAG laser-prepared dentin has demonstrated significantly more SBS (p < 0.01) for SE when compared to bur-prepared dentin. No significancies (p > 0.05) in SBS have been determined between the total-etch adhesive applied groups with regard to etching types. SEM analysis revealed that hybrid layers obtained in Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin exhibited more irregular and non-homogeneous pattern than the conventionally prepared dentin. In conclusion, SE Bond demonstrated superior results in Er:YAG laser-ablated dentin compared to bur-prepared dentin.

  5. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  6. Effect of different adhesive strategies on microtensile bond strength of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing blocks bonded to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damiao; Teich, Sorin; Porto, Thiago Soares

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of ceramic and composite computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks bonded to dentin using different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 30 crowns of sound freshly extracted human molars were sectioned horizontally 3 mm above the cementoenamel junction to produce flat dentin surfaces. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks, size 14, were sectioned into slices of 3 mm thick. Before bonding, CAD/CAM block surfaces were treated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Groups were created based on the adhesive strategy used: Group 1 (GI) - conventional resin cement + total-etch adhesive system, Group 2 (GII) - conventional resin cement + self-etch adhesive system, and Group 3 (GIII) - self-adhesive resin cement with no adhesive. Bonded specimens were stored in 100% humidity for 24h at 37΀C, and then sectioned with a slow-speed diamond saw to obtain 1 mm × 1 mm × 6 mm microsticks. Microtensile testing was then conducted using a microtensile tester. μTBS values were expressed in MPa and analyzed by one-way ANOVA with post hoc (Tukey) test at the 5% significance level. Results: Mean values and standard deviations of μTBS (MPa) were 17.68 (±2.71) for GI/ceramic; 17.62 (±3.99) for GI/composite; 13.61 (±6.92) for GII/composite; 12.22 (±4.24) for GII/ceramic; 7.47 (±2.29) for GIII/composite; and 6.48 (±3.10) for GIII/ceramic; ANOVA indicated significant differences among the adhesive modality and block interaction (P < 0.05), and no significant differences among blocks only, except between GI and GII/ceramic. Bond strength of GIII was consistently lower (P < 0.05) than GI and GII groups, regardless the block used. Conclusion: Cementation of CAD/CAM restorations, either composite or ceramic, can be significantly affected by different adhesive strategies used. PMID:27076825

  7. The effect of formocresol on bond strength of adhesive materials to primary dentine.

    PubMed

    Sari, S; Ozalp, N; Ozer, L

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of formalin cresol on bonding of two compomers (Prime & Bond and Dyract, Futurabond and Glasiosite to primary dentine. Eighteen non-carious primary mandibular molar teeth were used. The two materials were placed onto the tooth surfaces before being sheared with a knife-edged blade with a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1). Two randomly selected teeth from each group were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The statistical analysis (paired t-test and Student's t-test) revealed that shear bond strength was significantly higher in the formocresol-applied group than in the group that was not applied formocresol (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the restorative materials. SEM analyses also supported the results obtained. In conclusion, if compomers are used after endodontic processes which require the application of formocresol in primary teeth, dentinal bonding would not be decreased, but on the contrary, increase.

  8. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    D, Krishnakanth Reddy; V, Kishore M S; Safeena, Safeena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine shear bond strength and the effect on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. Materials & Methods: Group I: Brackets bonded with Ultimate cure-on-light Light-cure composite adhesive system. Group II: Brackets bonded with Ortho-one no-mix. Self-cure composite adhesive system. Group III: Brackets bonded with Light-cure glass ionomer adhesive system. Group IV: Brackets bonded with Transbond plus self etching primer. Results: The results of this study indicated that the shear bond strength when using Transbond plus self etching primer showed the highest bond strength Group- IV(8.69 2.54 MPa) followed by Ultimate cure-on-light Group-I (8.62 1.84 MPa), Ortho-one no-mix (Bisco Inc. USA)Group-II (8.07 1.72 MPa), and least bond strength was seen in G.C. Fuji Ortho L.C. Group-III (6.01 1.6) MPa Conclusion: Use of self etching primer saves chairside time and satisfactory high bond strength was obtained. Care should be taken during debonding of ceramic brackets How to cite this article: Reddy K D, Kishore M S V, Safeena S. Shear Bond Strength of Acidic Primer, Light-Cure Glass Ionomer, Light-Cure and Self Cure Composite Adhesive Systems - An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):73-78. PMID:24155606

  9. The effect of early static loading on the in vitro shear/peel bond strength of a 'no-mix' orthodontic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Ching, E; Cook, P A; Bubb, N L; Wood, D J

    2000-10-01

    This study addressed the question of whether shear and tensile loads applied 15 minutes after bonding metal brackets to enamel affected the shear/peel bond strength of the adhesive. Ninety standard 0.022-inch stainless steel edgewise premolar mesh-backed brackets were bonded using a no-mix chemical-cured adhesive to 90 teeth, which had been prepared in a standardized manner. After 15 minutes three groups of 30 teeth were subjected to the following regimes: no applied load, tensile static load of 0.77 N (78 g), and shear static load of 0.77 N. After 14 days storage in 100 per cent relative humidity at 37 degrees C, the shear/peel strength of the adhesive bond was measured using a purpose built jig mounted on a universal testing machine. Shear/peel bond strengths were analysed using Weibull statistics. The Weibull moduli of the three groups indicated that the adhesive performed consistently despite early static loading. Characteristic strengths were 9.22, 9.27, and 9.05 MPa for the control, tensile, and shear groups, respectively. The findings indicate that static loads (such as tying in of archwires) can be placed on brackets 15 minutes after cementation, without a clinically significant reduction in bond strength of the tested adhesive.

  10. Evaluating the shear bond strength of enamel and dentin with or without etching: A comparative study between dimethacrylate-based and silorane-based adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Hila; Nasseh, Atefeh; Rahmanpour, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Background Silorane-based composites and their specific self-etch adhesive were introduced to conquest the polymerization shrinkage of methacrylate-based composites. It has been shown that additional etching of enamel and dentin can improve the bond strength of self-etch methacrylate-based adhesives but this claim is not apparent about silorane-based adhesives. Our objective was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of enamel and dentin between silorane-based adhesive resin and a methacrylate-based resin with or without additional etching. Material and Methods 40 sound human premolars were prepared and divided into two groups: 1- Filtek P60 composite and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive; 2- Filtek P90 composite and Silorane adhesive. Each group divided into two subgroups: with or without additional etching. For additional etching, 37% acid phosphoric was applied before bonding procedure. A cylinder of the composite was bonded to the surface. After 24 hours storage and 500 thermo cycling between 5-55°C, shear bond strength was assessed with the cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Then, bonded surfaces were observed under stereomicroscope to determine the failure mode. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Fischer exact test. Results Shear bond strength of Filtek P60 composite was significantly higher than Filtek P90 composite both in enamel and dentin surfaces (P<0.05). However, additional etching had no significant effect on shear bond strength in enamel or dentin for each of the composites (P>0.05). There was no interaction between composite type and additional etching (P>0.05). Failure pattern was mainly adhesive and no significant correlation was found between failure and composite type or additional etching (P>0.05). Conclusions Shear bond strength of methacrylate-based composite was significantly higher than silorane-based composite both in enamel and dentin surfaces and additional etching had no significant effect on shear bond strength in enamel or dentin for

  11. Comparative evaluation and influence on shear bond strength of incorporating silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in orthodontic adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aileni Kaladhar; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj B; Patil, Santosh R; Vankhre, Mallikarjun; Khan, Mohammed Yaser Ahmed; Kumar, Thamtam Ramana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on shear bond strength (SBS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted premolars divided into four groups with thirty specimens in each group. Group 1 (control): brackets (American Orthodontics) were bonded with Transbond XT primer. Groups 2, 3, and 4: brackets (American Orthodontics) were bonded with adhesives incorporated with Ag, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles in the concentration of 1.0% nanoparticles of Ag, 1.0% TiO2, and 1.0% ZnO weight/weight, respectively. An Instron universal testing machine AGS-10k NG (SHIMADZU) was used to measure the SBS. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and then, the normal distribution of the data was confirmed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. One-way ANOVA test and Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures were used to compare between groups. In all statistical tests, the significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). Results: A significant difference was observed between control (mean [standard deviation (SD)] 9.43 [3.03], confidence interval [CI]: 8.30–10.56), Ag (mean [SD]: 7.55 [1.29], CI: 7.07–8.03), ZnO (mean [SD]: 6.50 [1.15], CI: 6.07–6.93), and TiO2 (mean [SD]: 6.33 [1.51], CI: 5.77–0.89) with SBS (F = 16.8453, P < 0.05) at 5% level of significance. Conclusion: Incorporation of various nanoparticles into adhesive materials in minimal amounts may decrease SBS and may lead to the failure of bracket or adhesive. The limitation of this study is that it is an in vitro research and these results may not be comparable to what the expected bond strengths observed in vivo. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate biological effects of adding such amounts of nanoparticles and approve such adhesives as clinically sustainable. PMID:27843887

  12. Influence of adhesive systems on bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin cores in a pull-out test design.

    PubMed

    Wrbas, Karl-Thomas; Schirrmeister, Jörg Fabian; Altenburger, Markus Jörg; Agrafioti, Anastasia; Kielbassa, Andrej Michael

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of post surface conditioning with adhesive systems on tensile bond strength between two composite resin core systems and FRP posts (ER DentinPost). Forty-eight posts were trimmed at the coronal part, and the upper part of 3 mm was covered with a standardized composite resin core build-up. Twenty-four posts were treated with the respective adhesive systems. Four groups were formed: G1 - ClearfilCore; G2 - Clearfil New Bond + ClearfilCore; G3 - MultiCore Flow; and G4 - AdheSE + MultiCore Flow. Mean (SD) bond strengths in MPa were 7.53 (0.89) for ClearfilCore and 8.08 (0.93) for New Bond + ClearfilCore; 5.80 (0.39) for MultiCore Flow and 5.92 (0.43) for AdheSE + MultiCore Flow. ClearfilCore achieved significantly higher bond strengths than MultiCore Flow (two-way ANOVA; p<0.0001). In conclusion, composite resin core materials exerted a significant influence on tensile bond strength, while adhesive systems did not significantly affect the results.

  13. Effect of polymerization mode of two adhesive systems on push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shadman, Niloofar; Nasery, Ehsan Baradaran; Sadeghian, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Background: A few studies have investigated the effect of the activation mode of adhesive systems on bond strength of fiber posts to root canal dentin. This study investigated the push-out bond strengths of a glass fiber post to different root canal regions with the use of two adhesives with light- and dual-cure polymerization modes. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 40 maxillary central incisors were decoronated at cement-enamel junction with 15 ± 1 mm root length. After root canal therapy and post space preparations, they were randomly divided into four groups. Post spaces were treated with four different adhesives: Excite, Excite Dual cure Single Component (DSC), self-etch adhesive (AdheSE), and AdheSE dual-cure. Then the fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post, Postec Plus, was cemented with dual-cure resin cement, Variolink II. The roots were cut into three 2-mm-thick slices. Push-out tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mode of failures was determined under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test was conducted to compare post hoc with P < 0.05 as the level of significance. Results: The highest bond strength was obtained for AdheSE dual-cure (15.54 ± 6.90 MPa) and the lowest was obtained for Excite light-cure (10.07 ± 7.45 MPa) and only the bond strength between these two adhesives had significant difference (P = 0.02). Bond strength decreased from the coronal to the apical in all groups and this was significant in Excite (group 1) and AdheSE (group 3) (P < 0.001). In apical regions, bond strength of dual-cure adhesives was significantly higher than light-cure adhesives (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Push-out bond strength of fiber post to different regions of root canal dentin was affected by both adhesive systems and their polymerization modes. PMID:24688557

  14. Bond Strength of a Novel One Bottle Multi-mode Adhesive to Human Dentin After Six Months of Storage

    PubMed Central

    Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Marcondes, Maurem Leitão; Somacal, Deise Caren; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Júnior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of Scotchbond Universal to dentin using the etch-and-rinse or the self-etch technique after 24 h and 6 months of storage. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were obtained in 24 third molars. The teeth were divided into four groups: G1 – Scotchbond Universal applied in the etch-and-rinse mode; G2 – Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode; G3 – Scotchbond Multi-Purpose; G4 – Clearfil SE Bond. A block of composite was built on the adhesive area. The tooth/resin sets were cut parallel to the long axis to obtain 40 beams (~0.8 mm2) for each group. Twenty specimens were immediately submitted to the µTBS test, and the remaining 20 were stored in water for 6 months. Failures and the adhesive interface were analyzed by SEM. Results: According to two-way ANOVA, the interaction between adhesive and storage time was significant (p=0.015).The µTBS (MPa) means were the following: 24 h – G1 (39.37±10.82), G2 (31.02±13.76), G3 (35.09±14.03) and G4 (35.84±11.06); 6 months – G1 (36.99±8.78), G2 (40.58±8.07), G3 (32.44±6.07) and G4 (41.75±8.25). Most failures were mixed. Evidence of hybrid layer and numerous resin tags were noted for Scotchbond Universal applied with the etch-and-rinse mode and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. A thinner hybrid layer and fewer resin tags were noted for Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode and Clearfil SE Bond. Conclusion: The results indicate that the µTBS for Scotchbond Universal is comparable to the gold-standard adhesives. Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode and Clearfil SE Bond revealed higher bond stability compared to the etch-and-rinse mode. PMID:27347230

  15. The Effects of Prophylactic Ozone Pretreatment of Enamel on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Total or Self-Etch Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Guzey, Asli; Arhun, Neslihan; Cetinsahin, Alev; Unver, Bahtiyar

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study is to determine (1) shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded with self-etch and total-etch adhesive after ozone treatment (2) bond failure interface using a modified Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Methods: 52 premolars were randomly assigned into four groups (n=13) and received the following treatments: Group 1: 30 s Ozone (Biozonix, Ozonytron, Vehos Medikal, Ankara, Turkey) application + Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer (SEP) (3M) + Transbond XT (3M), Group 2: Transbond Plus SEP + Transbond XT, Group 3: 30 s Ozone application + 37% orthophosphoric acid + Transbond XT Primer (3M) + Transbond XT, Group 4: 37% orthophosphoric acid + Transbond XT Primer + Transbond XT. All samples were stored in deionised water at 37°C for 24 hours. Shear debonding test was performed by applying a vertical force to the base of the bracket at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Results: The mean SBS results were Group 1: 10.48 MPa; Group 2: 8.89 MPa; Group 3: 9.41 MPa; Group 4: 9.82 MPa. One-Way Variance Test revealed that the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P=0.267). Debonded brackets were examined by an optical microscope at X16 magnification to determine the bond failure interface using a modified ARI. The results were (mean) Group 1: 2.38; Group 2: 1.31; Group 3: 3.00; Group 4: 1.92. Multiple comparisons showed that Groups 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4 were statistically different (P=0.014, P<.001 and P=0.025). Conclusions: Ozone treatment prior to bracket bonding does not affect the shear bond strength. PMID:20922155

  16. In vitro comparative bond strength of contemporary self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion.

    PubMed

    Blatz, Markus B; Phark, Jin-Ho; Ozer, Fusun; Mante, Francis K; Saleh, Najeed; Bergler, Michael; Sadan, Avishai

    2010-04-01

    This study compared shear bond strengths of six self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion. One hundred twenty zirconia samples were air-abraded (group SB; n = 60) or left untreated (group NO). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia samples with either BisCem (BC), Maxcem (MC), G-Cem (GC), RelyX Unicem Clicker (RUC), RelyX Unicem Applicator (RUA), or Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Shear bond strength was tested after thermocycling, and data were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Without abrasion, RUA (8.0 MPa), GC (7.9 MPa), and CSA (7.6 MPa) revealed significantly higher bond strengths than the other cements. Air-particle abrasion increased bond strengths for all test cements (p < 0.001). GC (22.4 MPa) and CSA (18.4 MPa) revealed the highest bond strengths in group SB. Bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements to zirconia were increased by air-particle abrasion. Cements containing adhesive monomers (MDP/4-META) were superior to other compositions.

  17. The effect of moisture on the shear bond strength of gold alloy rods bonded to enamel with a self-adhesive and a hydrophobic resin cement.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Elisabeth; Wiechmann, Dirk; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of enamel moisture on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a hydrophobic resin cement, Maximum Cure (MC), and a self-adhesive resin cement, Multilink Sprint (MLS), after etching of the enamel. Forty cylindrical gold alloy rods were used to simulate the Incognito lingual bracket system. They were bonded to the enamel of 40 human teeth embedded in self-cured acrylic resin. Twenty were bonded with MC (10 on dry and 10 on wet enamel) and 20 with MLS (10 on dry and 10 on wet enamel). The SBS of MC and MLS was determined in a universal testing machine and the site of bond failure was defined by the adhesive remnant index (ARI). A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed followed by Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparison tests on the SBS results (P < 0.05) and a chi-square test was used for the analysis of ARI scores (P < 0.05). On dry enamel, no significant differences between MC (58 +/- 5 MPa) and MLS (64 +/- 13 MPa) were noted. On wet enamel, the adherence of MC (6 +/- 8 MPa) and MLS (37 +/- 13 MPa) significantly decreased but to a lesser extent for MLS. The ARI scores corroborated these results. In conclusion, MC did not tolerate moisture. MLS was also affected but maintained sufficient adherence.

  18. Shear bond strength and microleakage of a self-etching adhesive for fissure sealing after different types of aging.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Christoph; Birlbauer, Sebastian; Pitchika, Vinay; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) and microleakage of a self-etching adhesive (Adper Prompt L-Pop) in comparison to acid etching prior fissure sealing. Each procedure was tested with 3 aging procedures (1-day water storage, 3-month water storage and 1-day water storage/5,000× thermocycling). SBS was determined according to ISO standard 29022. Additional 30 third molars were utilized for the microleakage analyses. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U-Test and multiple linear regression models. The SBS of the self-etching adhesive were significantly lower (14.9, 11.9, and 13.0 MPa) than those of conventional fissure sealing (19.1, 18.2, and 15.6 MPa). Multiple linear regression models predicted that material and alteration significantly influenced SBS. The microleakage revealed no difference between both groups (1.3% vs. 1.2%). It can be concluded that the selfetching adhesive might be a pre-treatment alternative for fissure sealing in terms of the easier and shorter clinical workflow.

  19. Metallic Adhesion and Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Although metallic adhesion has played a central part in much tribological speculation, few quantitative theoretical calculations are available. This is in part because of the difficulties involved in such calculations and in part because the theoretical physics community is not particularly involved with tribology. The calculations currently involved in metallic adhesion are summarized and shown that these can be generalized into a scaled universal relationship. Relationships exist to other types of covalent bonding, such as cohesive, chemisorptive, and molecular bonding. A simple relationship between surface energy and cohesive energy is offered.

  20. Effect of dentin pretreatment and curing mode on the microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim was to evaluate the effect of curing mode and different dentin surface pretreatment on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-adhesive resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six extracted human permanent molars were sectioned horizontally exposing flat dentin surface. The teeth were divided into 12 groups (3 teeth/group) according to the dentin surface pretreatment methods (control, 18% EDTA, 10% Polyacrylic acid) and curing mode (self-curing vs. light-curing) of cement. After pretreatment, composite resin blocks were cemented with the following: (a) G-CEM LinkAce; (b) RelyX U200, followed by either self-curing or light-curing. After storage, the teeth were sectioned and µTBS test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student T-test and Scheffe's post-hoc test at P<.05 level. RESULTS For G-CEM LinkAce cement groups, polyacrylic acid pretreatment showed the highest µTBS in the self-cured group. In the light-cured group, no significant improvements were observed according to the dentin surface pretreatment. There were no significant differences between curing modes. Both dentin surface pretreatment methods helped to increase the µTBS of RelyX U200 resin cement significantly and degree of pretreatment effect was similar. No significant differences were found regarding curing modes except control groups. In the comparisons of two self-adhesive resin cements, all groups within the same pretreatment and curing mode were significantly different excluding self-cured control groups. CONCLUSION Selecting RelyX U200 used in this study and application of dentin surface pretreatment with EDTA and polyacrylic acid might be recommended to enhance the bond strength of cement to dentin. PMID:26330979

  1. Adhesives bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser-irradiated dentin: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength analyses.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Andreia Cristina Bastos; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation on dentinal collagen by transmission electron microscopy and to analyze the resin-dentin interface by scanning electron microscopy. A tensile bond strength test was also applied. Specimens from 69 sound human third molars were randomly divided into three groups: control (no laser), and two irradiated groups, laser 250 (250 mJ/2 Hz) and laser 400 (400 mJ/4 Hz). Then, specimens were restored with two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse or a self-etch system. Although ultrastructural examination showed a modified surface in the irradiated dentin, there was no statistical difference in bond strength values between the laser groups and controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser for ablating human dentin did not alter the main adhesion parameters when compared with those obtained by conventional methods, thus reinforcing its use in restorative dentistry.

  2. The effect of dentin desensitizers and Nd:YAG laser pre-treatment on microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Duygu; Yuzugullu, Bulem; Celik, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate if pre-treatment with desensitizers have a negative effect on microtensile bond strength before cementing a restoration using recently introduced self-adhesive resin cement to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-five human molars' occlusal surfaces were ground to expose dentin; and were randomly grouped as (n=5); 1) Gluma-(Glutaraldehyde/HEMA) 2) Aqua-Prep F-(Fluoride), 3) Bisblock-(Oxalate), 4) Cervitec Plus-(Clorhexidine), 5) Smart protect-(Triclosan), 6) Nd:YAG laser, 7) No treatment (control). After applying the selected agent, RelyX U200 self-adhesive resin cement was used to bond composite resin blocks to dentin. All groups were subjected to thermocycling for 1000 cycles between 5-55℃. Each bonded specimen was sectioned to microbars (6 mm × 1 mm × 1 mm) (n=20). Specimens were submitted to microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Levene's test, Kruskal-Wallis One-way Analysis of Variance, and Conover's nonparametric statistical analysis were used (P<.05). RESULTS Gluma, Smart Protect and Nd:YAG laser treatments showed comparable microtensile bond strengths compared with the control group (P>.05). The microtensile bond strengths of Aqua-Prep F, and Cervitec Plus were similar to each other but significantly lower than the control group (P<.05). Bisblock showed the lowest microtensile bond strength among all groups (P<.001). Most groups showed adhesive failure. CONCLUSION Within the limitation of this study, it is not recommended to use Aqua-prep F, Cervitec Plus and Bisblock on dentin when used with a self-adhesive resin cement due to the decrease they cause in bond strength. Beside, pre-treatment of dentin with Gluma, Smart protect, and Nd:YAG laser do not have a negative effect. PMID:24843392

  3. In vitro bond strength and fatigue stress test evaluation of different adhesive cements used for fixed space maintainer cementation

    PubMed Central

    Cantekin, Kenan; Delikan, Ebru; Cetin, Secil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this research were to (1) compare the shear-peel bond strength (SPBS) of a band of a fixed space maintainer (SM) cemented with five different adhesive cements; and (2) compare the survival time of bands of SM with each cement type after simulating mechanical fatigue stress. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five teeth were used to assess retentive strength and another 50 teeth were used to assess the fatigue survival time. SPBS was determined with a universal testing machine. Fatigue testing was conducted in a ball mill device. Results: The mean survival time of bands cemented with R & D series Nova Glass-LC (6.2 h), Transbond Plus (6.7 h), and R & D series Nova Resin (6.8 h) was significantly longer than for bands cemented with Ketac-Cem (5.4 h) and GC Equia (5.2 h) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although traditional glass ionomer cement (GIC) cement presented higher retentive strength than resin-based cements (resin, resin modified GIC, and compomer cement), resin based cements, especially dual cure resin cement (nova resin cement) and compomer (Transbond Plus), can be expected to have lower failure rates for band cementation than GIC (Ketac-Cem) in the light of the results of the ball mill test. PMID:25202209

  4. The effect of dentin desensitizer on shear bond strength of conventional and self-adhesive resin luting cements after aging.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, B; Hartmann, R; Hartmann, L; Roos, M; Ozcan, M; Sailer, I; Hämmerle, C H F

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the impact of Gluma Desensitizer on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two conventional (RelyX ARC, Panavia 21) and two self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem) resin luting cements after water storage and thermocycling. Human third molars (N=880) were embedded in acrylic resin. The buccal dentin was exposed. Teeth were randomly divided into four main groups, and the following cements were adhered: 1) RelyX ARC, 2) Panavia 21, 3) RelyX Unicem, and 4) G-Cem. In half of the teeth in each group, dentin was treated with Gluma Desensitizer. In the conventional cement groups, the corresponding etchant and adhesive systems were applied. SBS of the cements was tested after 1 hour (initial); at 1, 4, 9, 16, and 25 days of water storage; and at 1, 4, 9, 16, and 25 days of thermocycling. SBS data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); this was followed by the post hoc Scheffé test and a t-test. Overall, the highest mean SBS (MPa) was obtained by RelyX ARC (ranging from 14.6 ± 3.9 to 17.6 ± 5.2) and the lowest by Panavia 21 in combination with Gluma Desensitizer (ranging from 0.0 to 2.9 ± 1.0). All tested groups with and without desensitizer showed no significant decrease after aging conditions compared with baseline values (p>0.05). Only the Panavia 21/Gluma Desensitizer combination showed a significant decrease after 4 days of thermocyling compared with initial values and 1 day thermocycling. Self-adhesive cements with Gluma Desensitizer showed increased SBS after aging conditions (ranging from 7.4 ± 1.4 to 15.2 ± 3) compared with groups without desensitizer (ranging from 2.6 ± 1.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9). No cohesive failures in dentin were observed in any of the test groups. Although self-adhesive cements with and without desensitizer presented mainly adhesive failures after water storage (95.8%) and thermocyling (100%), conventional cement (RelyX ARC) showed mainly mixed failures (90.8% and 89.2%, after water storage and thermocyling, respectively

  5. Effect of increased dwell times for solvent evaporation on the bond strength and degree of conversion of an ethanol-based adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Argolo, Saryta; Oliveira, Denise C; Fontes, Céres M; Lima, Adriano F; de Freitas, Anderson P; Cavalcanti, Andrea N

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the prolonged setting time of an ethanol-based adhesive system on the dentin bond strength and degree of conversion. Labial and lingual surfaces of fifteen human third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and randomly allocated to 3 groups (n = 10), according to the dwell time between the application of two consecutive layers of the adhesive system (Adper Single Bond Plus, 3M ESPE) and light activation: G1--control (no extra dwell time); G2 and G3--dwell time of 30 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. After light curing, two cylinders (1.4 x 1 mm) of composite resin (Filtek Flow, 3M ESPE) were bonded to each surface and submitted to micro-shear testing, 24 hours after light curing. A similar adhesive procedure was used for the degree of conversion evaluation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Significant differences between bond strength values (p = 0.0003) and degrees of conversion (p = 0.0004) were detected. The bond strength of G3 (60-second dwell time) was statistically higher than that of other groups. G1 (control) and G2 (30-second dwell time) presented similar results. Values of degree of conversion indicated that both the 30-second and 60-second dwell times resulted in similar and greater percentages of conversion. The use of a longer dwell time (60 seconds) might provide better solvent volatilization and monomer infiltration; bringing benefits to dentin bonding using simplified etch & rinse adhesive systems.

  6. Effect of adhesive primers on bonding strength of heat cure denture base resin to cast titanium and cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Sung; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The poor chemical bonding of a denture base resin to cast titanium framework often introduces adhesive failure and increases microleakage. PURPOSE This study evaluated the shear bond strengths of a heat cure denture base resin to commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy using two adhesive primers. MATERIAL AND METHODS Disks of commercially pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and a cobalt-chromium alloy were cast. Specimens without the primer were also prepared and used as the controls. The shear bond strengths were measured on a screw-driven universal testing machine. RESULTS The primers significantly (P < .05) improved the shear bond strengths of the heat cure resin to all metals. However, the specimens primed with the Alloy primer® (MDP monomer) showed higher bond strength than those primed with the MR bond® (MAC-10 monomer) on titanium. Only adhesive failure was observed at the metal-resin interface in the non-primed specimens, while the primed specimens showed mixed failure of adhesive and cohesive failure. CONCLUSIONS The use of appropriate adhesive metal primers makes it possible not only to eliminate the need for surface preparation of the metal framework before applying the heat cure resins, but also reduce the need for retentive devices on the metal substructure. In particular, the Alloy primer®, which contains the phosphoric acid monomer, MDP, might be clinically more acceptable for bonding a heat cure resin to titanium than a MR bond®, which contains the carboxylic acid monomer, MAC-10. PMID:21165254

  7. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  8. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aims and objectives: To measure and compare the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of light-cure composite. (Enlight, Ormco.) and dual-cure composite (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho). Materials and methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were divided into two groups: group I (blue): conventional light cure composite resin. (Enlight, Ormco.) and group II (green): dual cure composite resin. (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho.) with 30 teeth in each group. These samples were tested on the universal testing machine to measure the shear bond strength. Results: Student t-test showed that the mean shear bond strength of the conventional light cure group (8.54 MPa - 10.42 MPa) was significantly lower than dual cure group (10.45 MPa -12.17 MPa). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the shear bond strength of dual-cure composite resin (Phase II dual cure, Reliance Ortho) is comparatively higher than conventional light-cure composite resin (Enlight, Ormco). In the majority of the samples, adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were 4 and 5 in both the groups whereas score 1 is attained by the least number of samples in both the groups. How to cite this article: Verma G, Trehan M, Sharma S. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength and Estimation of Adhesive Remnant Index between Light-cure Composite and Dual-cure Composite: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):166-170. PMID:25206216

  9. Shear Bond Strength of MDP-Containing Self-Adhesive Resin Cement and Y-TZP Ceramics: Effect of Phosphate Monomer-Containing Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Lee, Yoon; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different phosphate monomer-containing primers on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods. Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with #600-grit SiC paper and divided into six groups (n = 10). They were treated as follows: untreated (control), Metal/Zirconia Primer, Z-PRIME Plus, air abrasion, Metal/Zirconia Primer with air abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air abrasion. MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement was applied to the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens. After thermocycling, a shear bond strength test was performed. The surfaces of the Y-TZP specimens were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength values were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student–Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test (P < 0.05). Results. The Z-PRIME Plus treatment combined with air abrasion produced the highest bond strength, followed by Z-PRIME Plus application, Metal/Zirconia Primer combined with air abrasion, air abrasion alone, and, lastly, Metal/Zirconia Primer application. The control group yielded the lowest results (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The application of MDP-containing primer resulted in increased bond strength between Y-TZP ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:26539485

  10. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  11. Comparison of tensile bond strengths of four one-bottle self-etching adhesive systems with Er:YAG laser-irradiated dentin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qianzhou; Chen, Minle; Ding, Jiangfeng

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction of current one-bottle self-etching adhesives and Er:YAG laser with dentin using a tensile bond strength (TBS) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in vitro. Two hundred and thirteen dentin discs were randomly distributed to the Control Group using bur cutting and to the Laser Group using an Er:YAG laser (200 mJ, VSP, 20 Hz). The following adhesives were investigated: one two-step total-etch adhesive [Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply)] and four one-step self-etch adhesives [G-Bond plus (GC), XENO V (Dentsply), iBond Self Etch (Heraeus) and Adper Easy One (3 M ESPE)]. Samples were restored with composite resin, and after 24-hour storage in distilled water, subjected to the TBS test. For morphological analysis, 12 dentin specimens were prepared for SEM. No significant differences were found between the control group and laser group (p = 0.899); dentin subjected to Prime & Bond NT, XENOV and Adper Easy One produced higher TBS. In conclusion, this study indicates that Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin can perform as well as bur on TBS, and some of the one-step one-bottle adhesives are comparable to the total-etch adhesives in TBS on dentin.

  12. Shear Bond Strength of Bracket Bases to Adhesives Based on Bracket Base Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-13

    moving in the right direction. And to my wife, Allyson, I’m forever grateful for your patience and support, enabling me to pursue dreams as we begin... intrusion and extrusion in Angle and post Angle eras. As a result, the strength and precision of systems to apply forces through teeth have also

  13. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength to Carious Affected Dentin Using Two Adhesive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bahari, Mahmoud; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pouralibaba, Firoz; Farhadi, Farrokh; Norouzi, Marouf

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to carious affected dentin (CAD) using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 32 human molars with moderate occlusal caries was removed. Infected dentin was removed until reaching CAD and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the Single Bond (SB) and Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) adhesive systems. Before composite resin bonding, each group was subdivided into three subgroups of ND, CAD and CPP-ACP-treated CAD (CAD-CPP) based on the dentin substrate. After dissecting samples to l-mm-thick cross-sections (each subgroup: n = 13), μTBS was measured at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and post-hoc Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results. Bond strength of both adhesive systems to ND was significantly higher than that to CAD (P <0.001) and CAD/CPP (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the μTBS of SB to CAD and CAD-CPP (P > 0.05).μTBS of CSE to CAD-CPP was higher than that to CAD; however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Significant differences were found between SB and CSE systems only with CAD substrate (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Regardless of the adhesive system used, surface treatment of CAD with CPP-ACP did not have a significant effect on bond strength. However, bond strength to CAD was higher with SB rather than with CSE. PMID:25346832

  14. Analysis of Self-Adhesive Resin Cement Microshear Bond Strength on Leucite-Reinforced Glass-Ceramic with/without Pure Silane Primer or Universal Adhesive Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of self-adhesive resin (SA) cement on leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic using silane or universal adhesive. Materials and Methods. Ceramic blocks were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid and divided into three groups (n = 16): (1) negative control (NC) without treatment; (2) Single Bond Universal (SBU); (3) RelyX Ceramic Primer as positive control (PC). RelyX Unicem resin cement was light-cured, and μSBS was evaluated with/without thermocycling. The μSBS was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The fractured surfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results. Without thermocycling, μSBS was highest for PC (30.50 MPa ± 3.40), followed by SBU (27.33 MPa ± 2.81) and NC (20.18 MPa ± 2.01) (P < 0.05). Thermocycling significantly reduced μSBS in SBU (22.49 MPa ± 4.11) (P < 0.05), but not in NC (20.68 MPa ± 4.60) and PC (28.77 MPa ± 3.52) (P > 0.05). PC and NC predominantly fractured by cohesive failure within the ceramic and mixed failure, respectively. Conclusion. SBU treatment improves μSBS between SA cement and glass ceramics, but to a lower value than PC, and the improvement is eradicated by thermocycling. NC exhibited the lowest μSBS, which remained unchanged after thermocycling. PMID:26557660

  15. Effects of surface treatments and storage times on the tensile bond strength of adhesive cements to noble and base metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Burmann, Paulo Afonso; Santos, Jose Fortunato Ferreira; May, Liliana Gressler; Pereira, Joao Eduardo da Silva; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluated two resin cements and a glass-ionomer cement and their bond strength to gold-palladium (Au-Pd), silver-palladium (Ag-Pd), and nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloys, utilizing three surface treatments over a period of six months. Eight hundred ten pieces were cast (in a button shape flat surfaces) in one of three alloys. Each alloy group was assigned to three other groups, based on the surface treatment utilized. Specimens were fabricated by bonding similar buttons in using one of three adhesive cements. The 405 pairs were thermocycled and stored in saline solution (0.9% NaCl) at 37 degrees C. The tensile bond strengths were measured in a universal testing machine after storage times of 2, 90, or 180 days. The highest mean bond strength value was obtained with the base metal alloy (10.9 +/- 8.6 MPa). In terms of surface treatment, oxidation resulted in the highest mean bond strength (13.7 +/- 7.3 MPa), followed by sandblasting (10.3 +/- 5.5 MPa) and polishing (3.0 +/- 6.4 MPa). Panavia Ex (13.2 +/- 9.3 MPa) showed significantly higher bond strengths than the other two cements, although the storage time reduced all bond strengths significantly.

  16. Chitosan Adhesive Films for Photochemical Tissue Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Mawad, Damia; Barton, Matthew; Piller, Sabine C.; Longo, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) is a promising sutureless technique for tissue repair. PTB is often achieved by applying a solution of rose bengal (RB) between two tissue edges, which are irradiated by a green laser to crosslink collagen fibers with minimal heat production. In this study, RB has been incorporated in chitosan films to create a novel tissue adhesive that is laser-activated. Materials and Methods. Adhesive films, based on chitosan and containing ˜0.1wt% RB were manufactured and bonded to calf intestine by a solid state laser (wavelength = 532 nm, Fluence ˜110 J/cm2, spot size ˜5 mm). A single-column tensiometer, interfaced with a personal computer, tested the bonding strength. K-type thermocouples recorded the temperature (T) at the adhesive-tissue interface during laser irradiation. Human fibroblasts were also seeded on the adhesive and cultured for 48 hours to assess cell growth. Results and Conclusion. The RB-chitosan adhesive bonded firmly to the intestine (15±2 kPa, n = 31). The adhesion strength dropped to 0.5±0.1 kPa (n = 8) when the laser was not applied to the adhesive. The average temperature of the adhesive increased from 26 °C to 32 °C during laser exposure. Fibroblasts grew confluent on the adhesive without morphological changes. A new biocompatible chitosan adhesive has been developed that bonds photochemically to tissue with minimal temperature increase.

  17. Influence of Air Abrasion and Sonic Technique on Microtensile Bond Strength of One-Step Self-Etch Adhesive on Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Anja, Baraba; Walter, Dukić; Nicoletta, Chieffi; Marco, Ferrari; Pezelj Ribarić, Sonja; Ivana, Miletić

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesive to human dentin surface modified with air abrasion and sonic technique and to assess the morphological characteristics of the pretreated dentin surface. The occlusal enamel was removed to obtain a flat dentin surface for thirty-six human molar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 12 per group), according to the pretreatment of the dentin: (1) control group, (2) air abrasion group, and (3) sonic preparation group. Microtensile bond strength test was performed on a universal testing machine. Two specimens from each experimental group were subjected to SEM examination. There was no statistically significant difference in bond strength between the three experimental groups (P > 0.05). Mean microtensile bond strength (MPa) values were 35.3 ± 12.8 for control group, 35.8 ± 13.5 for air abrasion group, and 37.7 ± 12.0 for sonic preparation group. The use of air abrasion and sonic preparation with one-step self-etch adhesive does not appear to enhance or impair microtensile bond strength in dentin. PMID:25879053

  18. Rapid adhesive bonding of advanced composites and titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryart, J. R.; Hodgest, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) concepts utilize a toroid induction technique to heat the adhesive bond line directly. This technique was used to bond titanium overlap shear specimens with 3 advanced thermoplastic adhesives and APC-2 (graphite/PEEK) composites with PEEK film. Bond strengths equivalent to standard heated-platen press bonds were produced with large reductions in process time. RAB produced very strong bonds in APC-2 adherend specimens; the APC-2 adherends were highly resistant to delamination. Thermal cycling did not significantly affect the shear strengths of RAB titanium bonds with polyimide adhesives. A simple ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation process was found promising for evaluating bond quality.

  19. The impact of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the shear strength of the bond between dentin and ceramic is dependent on the adhesive material.

    PubMed

    Cvikl, Barbara; Moser, Gundula; Wernisch, Jörg; Raabe, Modesto; Gruber, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The bond joint between dentin and ceramic is a critical determinant in prosthodontic dentistry. The laser is an alternative to the diamond bur for preparing tooth cavities. However, the impact of lasers on the bond between the laser-irradiated dentin and the ceramic remains a matter of controversy. We determined the shear strength of bonds between ceramic blocks and human dentin discs prepared with either an Er,Cr:YSGG laser or a diamond bur. A total of 180 dentin discs were randomly assigned to four groups. Three groups of discs were prepared with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (2 W, 30 Hz, 50% H(2)O, 70% air) and the fourth group was prepared with a diamond bur. In one of the laser groups the discs surfaces were also treated with phosphoric acid and in another with phosphoric acid and mechanical smoothing using a dental excavator. The ceramic blocks were bonded to the dentin discs with Syntac adhesive (together with Variolink II curing system), ExciTE adhesive (together with Variolink II curing system) or RelyX self-adhesive cement. The shear strength of the bond between ceramic and dentin was significantly higher following dentin surface treatment with the laser alone than following treatment with the diamond bur and Variolink II/Syntac (p = 0.021) but not significantly higher than following treatment with the diamond bur and Variolink II/ExciTE (p = 0.138) or RelyX (p = 0.150). A significant difference was not observed when the laser-treated dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid and mechanical smoothing. These findings demonstrate that the bond between dentin and ceramic may be stronger after laser irradiation; however, the selection of the adhesive material is an additional factor that affects the bond strength.

  20. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Ralph Robert

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  1. Effect of Rebonding on the Bond Strength of Orthodontic Tubes: A Comparison of Light Cure Adhesive and Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Aleksiejunaite, Monika; Sidlauskas, Antanas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of different enamel preparation procedures and compare light cure composite (LCC) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) on the bond strength of orthodontic metal tubes rebonded to the enamel. Twenty human molars were divided into two groups (n = 10). Tubes were bonded using LCC (Transbond XT) in group 1 and RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC) in group 2. The tubes in each group were bonded following manufacturers' instructions (experiment I) and then debonded using testing machine. Then, the same brackets were sandblasted and rebonded twice. Before the first rebonding, the enamel was cleaned using carbide bur (experiment II) and before second rebonding, it was cleaned using carbide bur and soda blasted (experiment III). Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests showed no significant difference between RMGI and LCC bond strengths in case of normal bonding and rebonding, when enamel was cleaned using carbide bur before rebonding. Enamel soda blasting before rebonding significantly increased RMGI tensile bond strength value compared to LLC (p < 0.05). LCC and RMGI (especially RMGI) provide sufficient bond strengths for rebonding of molar tubes, when residual adhesive from previous bonding is removed and enamel soda blasted. PMID:28386279

  2. Bond strength of composite to dentin: effect of acid etching and laser irradiation through an uncured self-etch adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, F. L. A.; Carvalho, J. G.; Andrade, M. F.; Saad, J. R. C.; Hebling, J.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µ-TBS) of laser irradiation of etched/unetched dentin through an uncured self-etching adhesive. Dentinal surfaces were treated with Clearfil SE Bond Adhesive (CSE) either according to the manufacturer’s instructions (CSE) or without applying the primer (CSE/NP). The dentin was irradiated through the uncured adhesive, using an Nd:YAG laser at 0.75 or 1 W power settings. The adhesive was cured, composite crowns were built up, and the teeth were sectioned into beams (0.49 mm2) to be stressed under tension. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey statistics (α = 5%). Dentin of the fractured specimens and the interfaces of untested beams were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that non-etched irradiated surfaces presented higher µ-TBS than etched and irradiated surfaces (p < 0.05). Laser irradiation alone did not lead to differences in µ-TBS (p > 0.05). SEM showed solidification globules on the surfaces of the specimens. The interfaces were similar on irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces. Laser irradiation of dentin through the uncured adhesive did not lead to higher µ-TBS when compared to the suggested manufacturer’s technique. However, this treatment brought benefits when performed on unetched dentin, since bond strengths were higher when compared to etched dentin.

  3. Effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive with caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength in total-etch versus self-etch adhesive systems in caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty class II cavities were prepared on extracted proximally carious human mandibular first molars and were divided into two groups: Group I — self-etch adhesive system restorations and Group II — total-etch adhesive system restorations. Group I and II were further divided into sub-groups A (Without thermal and mechanical loading) and B (With thermal and mechanical loading of 5000 cycles, 5 ± 2°C to 55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 seconds, and 150,000 cycles at 60N). The gingival margin of the proximal box was evaluated at 200X magnification for marginal adaptation in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. The restorations were sectioned, perpendicular to the bonded surface, into 0.8 mm thick slabs. All the specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. The marginal adaptation was analyzed using descriptive studies, and the bond strength data was analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results and Conclusions: The total-etch system performed better under thermomechanical loading. PMID:21691507

  4. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  5. Verification of surface preparation for adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Rodney S.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of solid rocket booster (SRB) production operations identified potential contaminants which might adversely affect bonding operations. Lap shear tests quantified these contaminants' effects on adhesive strength. The most potent contaminants were selected for additional studies on SRB thermal protection system (TPS) bonding processes. Test panels were prepared with predetermined levels of contamination, visually inspected using white and black light, then bonded with three different TPS materials over the unremoved contamination. Bond test data showed that white and black light inspections are adequate inspection methods for TPS bonding operations. Extreme levels of contamination (higher than expected on flight hardware) had an insignificant effect on TPS bond strengths because of the apparent insensitivity of the adhesive system to contamination effects, and the comparatively weak cohesive strength of the TPS materials.

  6. High Temperature Adhesives for Bonding Kapton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, A. K.; Slemp, W. S.; Stclair, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental polyimide resins were developed and evaluated as potential high temperature adhesives for bonding Kapton polyimide film. Lap shear strengths of Kapton/Kapton bonds were obtained as a function of test temperature, adherend thickness, and long term aging at 575K (575 F) in vacuum. Glass transition temperatures of the polyimide/Kapton bondlines were monitored by thermomechanical analysis.

  7. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  8. The effects of tooth preparation cleansing protocols on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting cement to contaminated dentin.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabutr, Yada; Kois, John C

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of a self-adhesive luting cement after using four different techniques to remove surface contamination on dentin. Extracted human molars were flattened to expose the dentin surface and prepared for full crown preparation. Acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated and placed using temporary cement. The specimens were stored at room temperature with 100% relative humidity for seven days. Following removal of the temporary crowns, the specimens were randomly divided into four groups, and excess provisional cement was removed with (1) a hand instrument (excavator), (2) prophy with a mixture of flour pumice and water (3) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 27 microm at 40 psi and (4) aluminous oxide abrasion with a particle size of 50 microm at 40 psi. The microstructure morphology of the tooth surface was evaluated and residual materials were detected using SEM and EDS analysis of randomly selected specimens. The ceramics were treated with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid-etch and silanized to the prepared dentin prior to cementing with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE). The shear bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test. Particle abrasion treatment of dentin with an aluminous oxide particle provided the highest values of bond strength, while hand instrument excavation was the lowest (p < 0.05). Aluminous oxide particle size did not significantly influence the bond strength at 40 psi. The use of low pressure and small particle abrasion treated dentin as a mechanical cleansing protocol prior to definitive cementation increased the bond strength of self-adhesive resin-luting cement to dentin following eugenol-containing temporary cement.

  9. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not

  10. Evaluation of bond strength between leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based ceramics to dentin after cementation with conventional and self-adhesive resin agents.

    PubMed

    Rigolin, Fernando J; Miranda, Milton E; Flório, Flávia M; Basting, Roberta T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two heat-pressed ceramics (leucite-based--IPS Empress Esthetic/Ivoclar Vivadent, and lithium disilicate-based --IPS e.max Press/Ivoclar Vivadent) to dentin with the use of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. The occlusal surface of 60 intact human molars was removed and the dentin was exposed. Ceramic blocks were cemented randomly with regard to the cementation systems (n = 10): conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II/Ivoclar Vivadent), conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink/Ivoclar Vivadent), and dual self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100/3M ESPE). The dual cementation systems were photoactivated with a LED light device (Radii Cal, SDI) for 40 seconds. The specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of approximately 1 mm2 for microtensile tests on a universal testing machine (EMIC). The type of fracture was analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05) showed that there was no difference between types of ceramic. Average microtensile bond strength was higher for the conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and the self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U100), despite greater prevalence of premature loss of the sticks with the latter. Average bond strength was lower when the conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink) was used. Leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based cements present similar bond strength to the dentin with conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and a dual self-adhesive cement (RelyX U100).

  11. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to three different liners: TheraCal LC, Biodentine, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using universal adhesive: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Balaji, Tandri S

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To compare and evaluate the bonding ability of resin composite (RC) to three different liners: TheraCal LC™ (TLC), a novel resin-modified (RM) calcium silicate cement, Biodentine™ (BD), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) using an universal silane-containing adhesive and characterizing their failure modes. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted intact human molars with occlusal cavity (6-mm diameter and 2-mm height) were mounted in acrylic blocks and divided into three groups of 10 samples each based on the liner used as Group A (TLC), Group B (BD), and Group C (RMGIC). Composite post of 3 mm diameter and 3 mm height was then bonded to each sample using universal adhesive. Shear bond strength (SBS) analysis was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: No significant difference was observed between group A and group C (P = 0.573) while group B showed the least bond strength values with a highly significant difference (P = 0.000). The modes of failure were predominantly cohesive in Groups A and B (TLC and BD) while RMGIC showed mixed and adhesive failures. Conclusions: Hence, this present study concludes that the bond strength of composite resin to TLC and RMGIC was similar and significantly higher than that of BD following application of universal adhesive. PMID:27099425

  12. Effect of different concentrations of specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Chaharom, Mohammad-Esmaeel; Abed-Kahnamoui, Mehdi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Gharouni, Mahya

    2017-01-01

    Background Considering the probability of chemical and enzymatic reactions between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dentin structure and their specific inhibitors, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of specific inhibitor of MMPs (galardin) on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin. Material and Methods Forty-eight sound human premolars were mounted in self-cured acrylic resin after removal of the enamel on the buccal and lingual surfaces. The dentin surfaces achieved were polished and prepared with 600-grit silicon carbide paper. The samples were divided into 3 groups (n=16) based on the concentration of galardin used (with no galardin, galardin at a high concentration and galardin at a low concentration). In addition, 96 composite resin blocks, measuring 3 mm in height and diameter, were prepared. The composite resin blocks were bonded to the buccal and lingual surface dentin with Rely-X Unicem (RXC) and Speed CEM (SPC) self-adhesive resin cements, respectively, according to manufacturers’ instructions. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37°C, the shear bond strength values were determined in MPa and fracture modes were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni test (α=0.05). Results The shear bond strength of galardin at high concentration was significantly higher than that in the control group and galardin at a low concentrations (P<0.001). In addition, galardin at a low concentration exhibited higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (P=0.005). Furthermore, higher shear bond strength values were reported with the use of RXC compared to SPC (P<0.001). Conclusions Irrigation with galardin increased the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin and this increase had a direct relationship with the concentration of galardin in the solution. Key words:N-(2(R)-2

  13. Evaluation of the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system self-etching in dentin irradiated with Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, Andrea M. D.; Mello, Fabiano A. S.; Matson, Edmir; Mattos, Adriana B.; Mello, Guilerme S.

    2001-04-01

    Since Buonocore, several researchers have been seeking for the best adhesive system and treatment for the enamel and dentin surfaces. The use of the acid has been presented as one of the best techniques of dentin conditioning, because this promotes the removal of the 'smear layer' and exhibition of dentinal structure, for a best penetration and micro-retention of the adhesive system. However, some conditioning methods have been appearing in the literature, for the substitution or interaction with the acid substances, as the laser. The objective of this work is to evaluate the tensile bond strength of the adhesive system 'self-etching' associated to a composed resin, in dentin surfaces conditioned with the Er:YAG laser. For this study, freshly extracted human teeth were used and in each one the dentinal surfaces, which were treated with three sandpapers of different granulations to obtain a standard of the smear layer, before the irradiation of the laser and of the restoring procedure. After these procedures the specimens were storage in distilled water at 37 degrees for 24 hours. Soon after, they were submitted to the tensile strength test. After analyzing the results, we can conclude that the use of the Er:YAG laser can substitute the drill without the need of conditioning, when using the adhesive system 'self etching' in the dentinal surfaces because there was a decline in the strength of adhesion in the groups conditioned with the laser.

  14. In vitro tensile bond strength of reconditioned brackets.

    PubMed

    Wright, W L; Powers, J M

    1985-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of four rebonding procedures on in vitro tensile bond strength of four filled diacrylate adhesives on orthodontic brackets. The four procedures were thermal reconditioning, chemical reconditioning, removal of residual adhesive with a green stone, and grinding the mesh base with a green stone. The mesh-base, stainless steel brackets were bonded to plastic cylinders and the tensile bond force necessary to cause bond failure was recorded. The initial bond strengths for the no-mix adhesive and both two-paste systems were significantly greater than the tensile bond strengths for any rebonding condition. Different rebonding conditions reduced tensile bone strength to differing degrees, using each of these three adhesives. The initial bond strength for the visible, light-cured adhesive was not significantly different from three of the four rebonding conditions and was lower than the initial bond strength of the other three adhesives.

  15. Effect of Non-Thermal Argon Plasma on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Adhesive System to NaOCl-Treated Dentin.

    PubMed

    Abreu, João Luiz Bittencourt de; Prado, Maíra; Simão, Renata Antoun; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Dias, Katia Regina Hostilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been showing a decrease of bond strength in dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-thermal argon plasma on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to dentin exposed to NaOCl. Thirty-two flat dentin surfaces of bovine incisors were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl for 30 min to simulate the irrigation step during endodontic treatment. The specimens were divided into four groups (n=8), according to the surface treatment: Control (without plasma treatment), AR15 (argon plasma for 15 s), AR30 (argon plasma for 30 s) and AR45 (argon plasma for 45 s). For microtensile bond strength test, 5 specimens were used per group. In each group, the specimens were hybridized with a self-etch adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) and resin composite buildups were constructed. After 48 h of water storage, specimens were sectioned into sticks (5 per tooth, 25 per group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) until failure, evaluating failure mode. Three specimens per group were analyzed under FTIR spectroscopy to verify the chemical modifications produced in dentin. μTBS data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tamhane tests (p<0.05). AR30 showed the highest μTBS (20.86±9.0). AR15 (13.81±6.4) and AR45 (11.51±6.8) were statistically similar to control (13.67±8.1). FTIR spectroscopy showed that argon plasma treatment produced chemical modifications in dentin. In conclusion, non-thermal argon plasma treatment for 30 s produced chemical changes in dentin and improved the μTBs of Clearfil SE Bond to NaOCl-treated dentin.

  16. Effect of additive metals, Sn, Ga, and In in Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys on initial bond strength of 4-META adhesive cement to these alloys.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shin-ichi; Churnjitapirom, Pornkiat; Miyagawa, Yukio; Ogura, Hideo

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three additives, Sn, Ga, and In, as well as the main constituents, Pd and Cu, of Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys on the initial bond strength of 4-META adhesive cement to these alloys. The Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys consisted of 20%, 30% or 40% Pd, and 10%, 15% or 20% Cu, 20% Au, and Ag as balance. Besides, additive metals (Sn, Ga, and In) of 2% and 4% were added to these compositions. The addition of three additives, in general, increased the initial bond strength of the cement in comparison to the mother compositions (0% additives), although the degrees of effectiveness of the three additives were different and varied with their contents. Among these additives, a remarkable increase in bond strength was observed with the addition of In. The increase in Cu content, in many cases, resulted in an increase in bond strength at high Pd contents (30% and 40%), but a decrease at low Pd content (20%) in some cases. The positive effects of the three additives and Cu could be due to the formation of a suitable oxide layer for strong bonding with 4-META.

  17. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Total- and Self-etching Adhesive Systems after Application of Chlorhexidine to Dentin Contaminated with a Hemostatic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farhadpour, Hajar

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Hemostatic agents may influence the bond strength of different bonding agents. Also, chlorhexidine has shown positive effects on bond strength values and their combination effect has not been reported yet. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of contamination with a hemostatic agent on shear bond strength (SBS) of total- and self-etching adhesive systems and the effect of chlorhexidine application after removal of the hemostatic agent. Materials and Method In this experimental study, the occlusal enamel of each sixty caries-free mandibular molars was removed and their midcoronal dentin was exposed. The specimens were then mounted in auto-polymerizing resin 1mm apical to CEJ. Then, the specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10) based on contamination with a hemostatic agent (H), application of chlorhexidine (CHX) and the adhesive system used; and then were classified as Group 1: Adper Single Bond (ASB); Group 2: H+ASB; Group 3: H+0.2% CHX+ASB; Group 4: Clearfil SE Bond (CSB); Group 5: H+CSB; Group 6: H+0.2% CHX+CSB. Then, composite resin rods (4×2 mm) were built up on the dentin surfaces and after thermocycling, the SBS (MPa) was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between bond strength values of group 1 (ASB) and group 2 (H+ASB) (p< 0.001) and group 1 (ASB) and group 3 (H+CHX+ASB) (p< 0.001). Similarly, significant differences were seen between group 4 (CSB) and group 5 (H+CSB) (p< 0.001) and between group 4 (CSB) and group 6 (H+CHX+CSB) (p< 0.001). Conclusion Contamination with hemostatic agent reduced the SBS of both total- and self-etching adhesive systems. In addition, application of chlorhexidine after the removal of hemostatic agent had a negative effect on SBS of total- and self-etching adhesive systems. PMID:26331146

  18. Influence of the LED curing source and selective enamel etching on dentin bond strength of self-etch adhesives in class I composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Araújo, Cíntia Tereza Pimenta; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the LED curing unit and selective enamel etching on dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS) for self-etch adhesives in class I composite restorations. On 96 human molars, box-shaped class I cavities were made maintaining enamel margins. Self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE - CSE and Clearfil S(3) - S3) were used to bond a microhybrid composite. Before adhesive application, half of the teeth were enamel acid-etched and the other half was not. Adhesives and composites were cured with the following light curing units (LCUs): one polywave (UltraLume 5 - UL) and two single-peak (FlashLite 1401 - FL and Radii Cal - RD) LEDs. The specimens were then submitted to thermomechanical aging and longitudinally sectioned to obtain bonded sticks (0.9 mm(2)) to be tested in tension at 0.5 mm/min. The failure mode was then recorded. The μTBS data were submitted to a three-way ANOVA and Tukey's (α = 0.05). For S3, the selective enamel-etching provided lower μTBS values (20.7 ± 2.7) compared to the non-etched specimens (26.7 ± 2.2). UL yielded higher μTBS values (24.1 ± 3.2) in comparison to the photoactivation approach with FL (18.8 ±3.9) and RD (19.9 ±1.8) for CSE. The two-step CSE was not influenced by the enamel etching (p ≥ 0.05). Enamel acid etching in class I composite restorations affects the dentin μTBS of the one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S(3), with no alterations for Clearfil SE bond strength. The polywave LED promoted better bond strength for the two-step adhesive compared to the single-peak ones.

  19. Covering of fiber-reinforced composite bars by adhesive materials, is it necessary to improve the bond strength of lingual retainers?

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Kerayechian, Navid; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Shafaee, Hooman; Heravi, Parya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers when bonding them to teeth with and without covering the FRC bars using two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Hundred and twenty extracted human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 15). FRC bars (4 mm length, Everstick Ortho®, Stick Tech, Oy, Turku, Finland) were bonded to the proximal (distal) surfaces of the teeth using two different adhesives (Tetric Flow [TF, Ivoclar Vivadent, Switzerland] and resin-modified glass ionomer cement [RMGIC, ODP, Vista, CA, USA]) with and without covering with the same adhesive. Specimens were exposed to thermocycling (625 cycles per day [5–55°C, intervals: 30 s] for 8 days). The SBS test was then performed using the universal testing machine (Zwick, GMBH, Ulm, Germany). After debonding, the remaining adhesive on the teeth was recorded by the adhesive remnant index (0–3). Results: The lowest mean SBS (standard deviation) was found in the TF group without covering with adhesive (12.6 [2.11] MPa), and the highest bond strength was in the TF group with covering with adhesive (16.01 [1.09] MPa). Overall, the uncovered RMGIC (15.65 [3.57] MPa) provided a higher SBS compared to the uncovered TF. Covering of FRC with TF led to a significant increase in SBS (P = 0.001), but this was not true for RMGIC (P = 0.807). Thermal cycling did not significantly change the SBS values (P = 0.537). Overall, eight groups were statistically different (ANOVA test, F = 3.32, P = 0.034), but no significant differences in bond failure locations were found between the groups (Fisher's exact tests, P = 0.92). Conclusions: The present findings showed no significant differences between SBS of FRC bars with and without covering by RMGIC. However, when using TF, there was a significant difference in SBS measurements between covering and noncovering groups. Therefore, the use of RMGIC without

  20. Effects of the application techniques of self-adhesive resin cements on the interfacial integrity and bond strength of fiber posts to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro do Vale; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Pereira, Patrícia Nóbrega Rodrigues; Chaves, Sasha Braun; Wang, Linda; Hilgert, Leandro; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of an application technique of a glass-fiber post using self-adhesive resin cements on the push-out bond strength and the presence of bubbles in the root thirds. The cements were either applied according to the manufacturer's instruction or using a commercial delivering system (Centrix), at which the cement pastes were collected and applied after manipulation. Material and Methods: Self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX U200/3M ESPE-U200; Maxcem Elite/Kerr-MAX; Clearfil SA Cement/Kuraray-CSA) and a conventional cement (RelyX ARC/3M ESPE-ARC) were used to cement a post and applied either based on the manufacturer's instructions or using a Centrix syringe to deliver the cements directly onto the post of choice, or directly into canal. The roots were scanned with a micro-computed tomography (μCT) and then sectioned into nine 1-mm thick slices for a push-out bond strength test. The μCT images showed the percentage of bubbles in the root thirds (cervical, medium, and apical). Data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA/Tukey (α=0.05). Results: Triple interaction was not significant (p>0.05). The interaction “material” vs “root third” was not significant. A significant interaction was observed between “material” vs “application technique” (p<0.05). For ARC, U200, and MAX, significantly lower percentages of bubbles were observed when the Centrix syringe delivered the cements. Equivalent percentages of voids were observed for CSA, irrespective of the application technique (p>0.05). Significantly higher bond strength was observed when the self-adhesive resin cements were applied using the Centrix delivery system, in comparison with the manufacturer's instructions (p<0.05). Bond strength varied with the root third: cervical>medium>apical (p<0.05). No correlations were found between the bond strength and voids. Conclusions: Bond strength and voids are negatively influenced by the conventional application technique for

  1. Effect of sodium ascorbate on the bond strength of all-in-one adhesive systems to NaOCl-treated dentin

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Chaharom, Mohammad-Esmaeel; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Narmin; Oskoee, Parnian-Alizadeh; Daneshpuy, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid and its salts are low-toxicity products, which are routinely used in food industries as antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on the bond strength of two all-in-one adhesive systems to NaOCl-treated dentin. Material and Methods After exposing the dentin on the facial surface of 90 sound human premolars and mounting in an acrylic resin mold, the exposed dentin surfaces were polished with 600-grit SiC paper under running water. Then the samples were randomly divided into 6 groups of 15. Groups 1 and 4 were the controls, in which no surface preparation was carried out. In groups 2 and 5 the dentin surfaces were treated with 5.25% NaOCl alone for 10 minutes and in groups 3 and 6 with 5.25% NaOCl for 10 minutes followed by 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes. Then composite resin cylinders, measuring 2 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height, were bonded on the dentin surfaces in groups 1, 2 and 3 with Clearfil S3 Bond and in groups 4, 5 and 6 with Adper Easy One adhesive systems according to manufacturers’ instructions. The samples were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C and then thermocycled. Finally, the samples underwent shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine at a strain rate of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at α=0.05. Results The differences between groups 1 and 2 (P=0.01), 1 and 5 (P=0.003). 1 and 6 (P=0.03) and 4 and 5 (P=0.03) were statistically significant. Two-by-two comparisons did not reveal any significant difference between other groups (P>0.05). Conclusions Use of 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes restored the decreased bond strength of the adhesive systems to that of the control groups. Key words:Sodium ascorbate, adhesive systems, all-in-one, bond strength, sodium hypochlorite. PMID:26644835

  2. Bonding Durability of Four Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Tabai, Elaheh; Mohammadi Basir, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the durability of four adhesive systems by assessing their microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and microleakage during six months of water storage. Materials and Methods: A total of 128 human third molars were used. The adhesives tested were Scotch Bond Multipurpose (SBMP), Single Bond (SB), Clearfil-SE bond (CSEB), and All-Bond SE (ABSE). After sample preparation for MTBS testing, the microspecimens were subjected to microtensile tester after one day and six months of water storage. For microleakage evaluation, facial and lingual class V cavities were prepared and restored with composite. After thermocycling, microleakage was evaluated. Bond strength values were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tamhane’s test, and the microleakage data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (P<0.05). Results: Single Bond yielded the highest and ABSE yielded the lowest bond strength at one day and six months. Short-term bond strength of SBMP and CSEB was similar. After six months, a significant decrease in bond strength was observed in ABSE and SBMP groups. At one day, ABSE showed the highest microleakage at the occlusal margin; however, at the gingival margin, there was no significant difference among groups. Long-term microleakage of all groups at the occlusal margins was similar, whilst gingival margins of SBMP and SB showed significantly higher microleakage. Conclusion: The highest MTBS and favorable sealability were obtained by Clearfil SE bond. Water storage had no effect on microleakage of self-etch adhesives at the gingival margin or MTBS of CSEB and SB. PMID:27123015

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile – Bond Strength of An Orthodontic Adhesive with and without Fluoride Application, After Acid Etching -An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Yugandhar, G; Ramana, I Venkata; Srinivas, K; Yadav, S. Sarjeev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Fixed appliances hinder the effective control of plaque accumulation and white spot lesions may develop under the ill fitting bands or adjacent to the stainless steel brackets during orthodontic treatment particularly the etching process. Aims and Objectives Comparative study of tensile bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive with and without fluoride application after acid etching to know the effect of fluoride on bond strength. Materials and Methods This study is carried out on 90 non carious human premolar teeth, and divided in 6 groups with each group of 15 specimens. In those Groups I and IV were control group acid etch treatment, Group II and V is 1.23% APF gel (acid etch plus APF gel treatment,) and group III and VI is 8% SnF2 (acid etch plus SnF2 treatment). Samples of Group I, II and III bond strength were tested after 24 h and groups IV, V and VI after one month on microtechtensometer machine. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation was carried out for the 2 specimens for the control group after acid etch and 4 specimens after acid etch with fluoride application for fluoride groups. Results Control and SnF2 treated groups was found to be nearly similar to the control group whereas APF treated group showed less focal holes than the other 2 groups. Conclusion Fluoride application after acid etching without having an adverse effect on bond strength but we can prevent the white spot lesions and caries. PMID:26023648

  4. Durability of Adhesively Bonded Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-11

    frequently. Significant technology improvements have occurred In surface treatment, primers, joint analyses, adhesives and process controls. These have...clearly established the Initial cost savings potential for adhesive bonding. While this approach addresses the adequacy of joints early in service, there...processes with those changes which occur as a result of residual stress or cyclic loading in the adhesive joint 074-2R-bh 1 To fill a small part of this

  5. Initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives with silane coupling agent to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation.

    PubMed

    Mamanee, Teerapong; Takahashi, Masahiro; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding silane coupling agent on initial and long-term bond strengths of one-step self-etch adhesives to enamel-dentin-composite in combined situation. Cervical cavities were prepared on extracted molars and filled with Clearfil AP-X. After water-storage for one-week, the filled teeth were sectioned in halves to expose enamel, dentin and composite surfaces and then enamel-dentin-composite surface was totally applied with one of adhesive treatments (Clearfil SE One, Clearfil SE One with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Beautibond Multi, Beautibond Multi with Beautibond Multi PR Plus and Scotchbond Universal). After designed period, micro-shear bond strengths (µSBSs) to each substrate were determined. For each period of water-storage, additive silane treatments significantly increased µSBS to composite (p<0.001). On the other hand, they significantly decreased µSBS to dentin (p<0.001), although did not have adverse effect on µSBS to enamel (p>0.05). Moreover, the stability of µSBS was depended on materials and substrates used.

  6. Effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution conditioning on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempts to improve bond strength of self-etch adhesives can enhance the durability of composite restorations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of collagen and smear layer removal with sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) and EDTA on micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of self-etch adhesives to dentin. Settings and Design: It was an in-vitro study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were divided into eight groups and their crowns were ground perpendicular to their long axis to expose dentin. The teeth were polished with silicon-carbide papers. The groups were treated as follows: No conditioning, 0.5-M EDTA conditioning, 2.5% NaOCl conditioning, NaOCl + EDTA conditioning. The surfaces were rinsed and blot-dried. Clearfil S3 and I-Bond were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and restored with Z100 composite. After 500 cycles of thermo-cycling between 5°C and 55°C, the samples were sectioned and tested for μTBS. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. Results: The highest μTBS was recorded with Clearfil S3 + NaOCl + EDTA, and the lowest was recorded with I-Bond without conditioning. μTBS in EDTA-and EDTA + NaOCl-treated groups was significantly higher than the control and NaOCl-conditioned groups. Conclusions: Application of EDTA or EDTA + NaOCl before one-step self-etch adhesives increased μTBS. PMID:23833459

  7. Pull-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to NaOCl-treated root dentin: effect of antioxidizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Kachuei, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three antioxidizing agents on pull-out bond strengths of dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite. Materials and Methods Root canals of 75 single-rooted human teeth were prepared. Fifteen teeth were irrigated with normal saline for a negative control group, and the remaining 60 teeth (groups 2 - 5) with 2.5% NaOCl. The teeth in group 2 served as a positive control. Prior to post cementation, the root canals in groups 3 - 5 were irrigated with three antioxidizing agents including 10% rosmarinic acid (RA, Baridge essence), 10% hesperidin (HPN, Sigma), and 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel (SA, AppliChem). Seventy-five spreaders (#55, taper .02, Produits Dentaires S.A) were coated with silica and silanized with the Rocatec system and ceramic bond. All the prepared spreaders were cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement (Bifix SE, Voco Gmbh) in the prepared canals. After storage in distilled water (24 h/37℃), the spreaders were pulled out in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Pull-out strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test (α = 0.05). Results There were significant differences between study groups (p = 0.016). The highest pull-out strength was related to the SA group. The lowest strength was obtained in the positive control group. Conclusions Irrigation with NaOCl during canal preparation decreased bond strength of resin cement to root dentin. Amongst the antioxidants tested, SA had superior results in reversing the diminishing effect of NaOCl irrigation on the bond strength to root dentin. PMID:24790921

  8. Environmental durability of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkus, Lawrence Michael

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the environmental durability of adhesively bonded aircraft joints using fracture mechanics. Three aerospace adhesives, two epoxies and one polyimide, were investigated. Adhesive specimens were tested for tensile and toughness behavior. Bonded joint specimens were subject to Mode I, Mode II, and mixed mode fracture and fatigue tests. Prior to testing, selected specimens were exposed for up to 10,000 hours to isothermal and thermally cyclic conditions similar to aircraft service environments. Analysis was accomplished using finite element programs and closed-form solutions. Environmental exposure caused reductions in the failure strain, strength, and toughness, of the adhesive specimens and in the toughness and fatigue threshold of the bonded joint specimens. Specimens exposed to high temperature and humidity prior to testing and those tested at low temperatures indicative of high altitude operations experienced the most significant toughness losses. Results are discussed in terms of their relationship to bonded joint design and should prove valuable to efforts aimed at extending the lives of aging aircraft using bonded repairs as well as to efforts focused on using adhesive bonding for future aerospace structures.

  9. Influence of Er:YAG and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength of several adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Moreno, P; García, A; Montero, J; Ceballos, L; Fuentes, M V; Albaladejo, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of three different adhesive systems to dentin. Flat dentin surfaces from 27 molars were divided into three groups according to laser irradiation: control, Er:YAG (2,940 nm, 100 μs, 2.7 W, 9 Hz) and Ti:sapphire laser (795 nm, 120 fs, 1 W, 1 kHz). Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the adhesive system used: two-step total-etching adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, from now on XT), two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, from now on CSE), and all-in-one self-etching adhesive (Optibond All-in-One, from now on OAO). After 24 h of water storage, beams of section at 1 mm(2) were longitudinally cut from the samples. Each beam underwent traction test in an Instron machine. Fifteen polished dentin specimens were used for the surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Failure modes of representative debonded microbars were SEM-assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression (p < 0.05). In the control group, XT obtained higher MTBS than that of laser groups that performed equally. CSE showed higher MTBS without laser than that with laser groups, where Er:YAG attained higher MTBS than ultrashort laser. When OAO was used, MTBS values were equal in the three treatments. CSE obtained the highest MTBS regardless of the surface treatment applied. The Er:YAG and ultrashort laser irradiation reduce the bonding effectiveness when a two-step total-etching adhesive or a two-step self-etching adhesive are used and do not affect their effectiveness when an all-in-one self-etching adhesive is applied.

  10. Adhesive Bonding for Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    weru uvaluated, the type of etch bath " sweetener " and the type of rinse\\water used. The type of etch bath " sweetener " was found to have a dramatic effect...EA9601NW Adhesives on 50521134 Bare Adherenas 39 13 Stress-Durability Behavior Sun-mary 40 14 Effect of Ltch Bath Sweetening Alloy on Interracial Durability...34"’ -,,• , •’• •"• " ,,,,, 9 Adhesive/Primer/Adherend Alloy/Surface Preparation Combinations Adherend OFPL Sweetening Rinse Adhesive:Primer Alloy Alloy

  11. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  12. Bond strength of direct and indirect bonded brackets after thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Daub, Jacob; Berzins, David W; Linn, Brandon James; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 +/- 2.9, 12.3 +/- 3.0, and 11.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P < .05) higher percentage of bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.

  13. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear

  14. Surface pH and bond strength of a self-etching primer/adhesive system to intracoronal dentin after application of hydrogen peroxide bleach with sodium perborate.

    PubMed

    Elkhatib, Hanadi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Hiraishi, Noriko; Kitasako, Yuichi; Tagami, Junji; Nomura, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the dentin bond strength of a self-etching primer/adhesive system with dentin surface pH with or without bleaching and observed the morphological changes in bleached dentin treated with a self-etching primer. Dentin disks were prepared from the coronal-labial region of 32 human anterior teeth. The pulpal surfaces of the dentin disks were polished with 600-grit SiC paper under running water. The dentin surfaces on all specimens were bleached with a mixture of 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C for one week. The bleaching agent was then rinsed off with water for 5, 15 or 30 seconds. All specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C. Half of the five-second rinsing specimens were stored in water for an additional week. Dentin surface pH with or without bleaching was examined using a pH-imaging microscope (SCHEM-100). A self-etching primer/adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) was applied to bleached or unbleached dentin according to the manufacturer's instructions. After 24-hour water storage, the bonded specimens were prepared for microtensile testing. Microtensile bond strength (microTBS) to dentin was measured using a universal-testing machine (EZ test, Shimadzu, Japan) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe's test (alpha=0.05). The pH values of the dentin surfaces of the 5 and 15 second rinsing groups were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05), while the 30-second rinsing and one-week water storage groups had similar surface pH values to the control group (p<0.05). The microTBS of 5, 15 and 30 second rinsing specimens after bleaching were significantly lower than the control specimens (p<0.05). However, after one-week of water storage, the microTBS returned to the control group. The application of a bleaching agent increased the pH value of the dentin surface and decreased the bond strength of the self-etching primer/adhesive system. One

  15. Urethane/Silicone Adhesives for Bonding Flexing Metal Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives that are blends of commercially available urethane and silicone adhesives have been found to be useful for bonding metal parts that flex somewhat during use. These urethane/silicone adhesives are formulated for the specific metal parts to be bonded. The bonds formed by these adhesives have peel and shear strengths greater than those of bonds formed by double-sided tapes and by other adhesives, including epoxies and neat silicones. In addition, unlike the bonds formed by epoxies, the bonds formed by these adhesives retain flexibility. In the initial application for which the urethane/silicone adhesives were devised, there was a need to bond spring rings, which provide longitudinal rigidity for inflatable satellite booms, with the blades that provide the booms axial strength. The problem was to make the bonds withstand the stresses, associated with differences in curvature between the bonded parts, that arose when the booms were deflated and the springs were compressed. In experiments using single adhesives (that is, not the urethane/ silicone blends), the bonds were broken and, in each experiment, it was found that the adhesive bonded well with either the ring or with the blade, but not both. After numerous experiments, the adhesive that bonded best with the rings and the adhesive that bonded best with the blades were identified. These adhesives were then blended and, as expected, the blend bonded well with both the rings and the blades. The two adhesives are Kalex (or equivalent) high-shear-strength urethane and Dow Corning 732 (or equivalent) silicone. The nominal mixture ratio is 5 volume parts of the urethane per 1 volume part of the silicone. Increasing the proportion of silicone makes the bond weaker but more flexible, and decreasing the proportion of silicone makes the bond stronger but more brittle. The urethane/silicone blend must be prepared and used quickly because of the limited working time of the urethane: The precursor of the urethane

  16. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied.

  17. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  18. Adhesion of an endodontic sealer to dentin and gutta-percha: shear and push-out bond strength measurements and SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Cleonice Silveira; Alfredo, Edson; Thomé, Luis Henrique de Camargo; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo; Silva-Sousa, Yara T Correa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2009-01-01

    The use of an adequate method for evaluation of the adhesion of root canal filling materials provides more reliable results to allow comparison of the materials and substantiate their clinical choice. The aims of this study were to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) test and push-out test for evaluation of the adhesion of an epoxy-based endodontic sealer (AH Plus) to dentin and gutta-percha, and to assess the failure modes on the debonded surfaces by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three groups were established (n=7): in group 1, root cylinders obtained from human canines were embedded in acrylic resin and had their canals prepared and filled with sealer; in group 2, longitudinal sections of dentin cylinders were embedded in resin with the canal surface smoothed and turned upwards; in group 3, gutta-percha cylinders were embedded in resin. Polyethylene tubes filled with sealer were positioned on the polished surface of the specimens (groups 2 and 3). The push-out test (group 1) and the SBS test (groups 2 and 3) were performed in an Instron universal testing machine running at crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Means (+/-SD) in MPa were: G1 (8.8+/-1.13), G2 (5.9+/-1.05) and G3 (3.8+/-0.55). Statistical analysis by ANOVA and Student's t-test (alpha=0.05) revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.01) among the groups. SEM analysis showed a predominance of adhesive and mixed failures of AH Plus sealer. The tested surface affected significantly the results with the sealer reaching higher bond strength to dentin than to gutta-percha with the SBS test. The comparison of the employed methodologies showed that the SBS test produced significantly lower bond strength values than the push-out test, was skillful in determining the adhesion of AH Plus sealer to dentin and gutta-percha, and required specimens that could be easily prepared for SEM, presenting as a viable alternative for further experiments.

  19. Shear Bond Strength of an Etch-and-rinse Adhesive to Er:YAG Laser- and/or Phosphoric Acid-treated Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhshi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Er:YAG laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin; therefore, it has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the shear bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to dentin surfaces following Er:YAG laser and/or phosphoric acid etching. Materials and methods. The roots of 75 sound maxillary premolars were sectioned below the CEJ and the crowns were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin with the buccal surfaces facing up. The buccal surfaces were ground using a diamond bur and polished until the dentin was exposed; the samples were randomly divided into five groups (n=15) according to the surface treatment: (1) acid etching; (2) laser etching; (3) laser etching followed by acid etching; (4) acid etching followed by laser etching and (5) no acid etching and no laser etching (control group). Composite resin rods (Point 4, Kerr Co) were bonded to treated dentin surfaces with an etch-and-rise adhesive system (Optibond FL, Kerr Co) and light-cured.After storage for two weeks at 37°C and 100% humidity and then thermocycling, bond strength was measured with a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests (P<0.05). Results. Mean shear bond strength for acid etching (20.1±1.8 MPa) and acid+laser (15.6±3.5 MPa) groups were significantly higher than those for laser+acid (15.6±3.5 MPa), laser etching (14.1±3.4 MPa) and control (8.1±2.1 MPa) groups. However, there were no significant differences between acid etching and acid+laser groups, and between laser+acid and laser groups. Conclusion. When the cavity is prepared by bur, it is not necessary to etch the dentin surface by Er:YAG laser following acid etching and acid etching after laser etching. PMID:23875083

  20. Comparison of Bond in Roll-bonded and Adhesively Bonded Aluminums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwensfeir, R. J., Jr.; Trenkler, G.; Delagi, R. G.; Forster, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Lap-shear and peel test measurements of bond strength have been carried out as part of an investigation of roll bonding of 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys. Shear strengths of the bonded material in the F temper are in the range of 14 to 16 ksi. Corresponding peel strengths are 120 to 130 lb/inch. These values, which are three to five times those reported in the literature for adhesively bonded 2024 and 7075, are a result of the true metallurgical bond achieved. The effects of heat-treating the bonded material are described and the improvements in bond strength discussed relative to the shear strength of the parent material. The significance of the findings for aerospace applications is discussed.

  1. Improved primer for bonding polyurethane adhesives to metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constanza, L. J.

    1969-01-01

    Primer ensures effective bonding integrity of polyurethane adhesives on metal surfaces at temperatures ranging from minus 423 degrees to plus 120 degrees F. It provides greater metal surface protection and bond strengths over this temperature range than could be attained with other adhesive systems.

  2. Water interaction and bond strength to dentin of dye-labelled adhesive as a function of the addition of rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Linda; BIM, Odair; LOPES, Adolfo Coelho de Oliveira; FRANCISCONI-DOS-RIOS, Luciana Fávaro; MAENOSONO, Rafael Massunari; D’ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; ATTA, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface. PMID:27556201

  3. Micromorphology and bond strength evaluation of adhesive interface of a self-adhering flowable composite resin-dentin: Effect of surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Saadat, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin surface treatment on the micromorphology and shear bond strength (SBS) of a self-adhering flowable composite, Vertis Flow (VF). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from sixty extracted human molars were divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the following surface treatments: (G1) control, no treatment; (G2) self-etching adhesive, Optibond All-in-One; (G3) phosphoric acid etching for 15 s; (G4) polyacrylic acid for 10 s; (G5) EDTA for 60 s; and G6) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 15 s. After restoration using VF, SBS was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test (α = 0.05). Six additional specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. SBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (P < 0.001). SBS of six groups from the highest to the lowest were as follows: (G3) 13.5(A); (G5) 8.98(AB); (G2) 8.85(AB); (G4) 8.21(AB); (G1) 7.53(BC); and (G6) 4.49(C) (groups with the same superscript letter were statistically similar). Morphological analysis revealed numerous long resin tags at the adhesive interface for acid-etched group, with a few short resin tags for the control group and small gap formation for NaOCl-treated group. In conclusion, dentin surface treatments tested differently affected bonding performance of VF; only acid-etching effectively improved this.

  4. Evaluation of composite adhesive bonds using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Shashi Shekhar

    Advanced composite materials are widely used for many structural applications in the aerospace/aircraft industries today. Joining of composite structures using adhesive bonding offers several advantages over traditional fastening methods. However, this technique is not yet employed for fastening the primary structures of aircrafts or space vehicles. There are several reasons for this: There are not any reliable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can quantify the strength of the bonds, and there are no certifications of quality assurance for inspecting the bond quality. Therefore, there is a significant need for an effective, reliable, easy to use NDE method for the analysis of composite adhesive joints. This research aimed to investigate an adhesively bonded composite-aluminum joints of variable bond strength using digital image correlation (DIC). There are many future possibilities in continuing this research work. As the application of composite materials and adhesive bond are increasing rapidly, the reliability of the composite structures using adhesive bond should quantified. Hence a lot of similar research using various adhesive bonds and materials can be conducted for characterizing the behavior of adhesive bond. The results obtained from this research will set the foundation for the development of ultrasonic DIC as a nondestructive approach for the evaluation of adhesive bond line.

  5. Use of an adhesive resin for bonding orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Ireland, A J; Sherriff, M

    1994-02-01

    To date, most successful bonding agents used in orthodontics rely on mechanical retention to both the enamel and bracket base. Chemical adhesion to enamel as seen with glass ionomer cements, and to the silanated base of ceramic brackets have been tried. Recent developments in resin formulation have led to the production of adhesive diacrylate resins capable of forming adhesive bonds to certain metals including stainless steel. The aim of this experiment was to compare such a resin, Panavia EX, with a more conventional 'no-mix' orthodontic bonding resin. Two different base retention mechanisms were used, and the effect of rebonding and differing environmental conditions were also investigated. The results indicated that Panavia EX could produce greater bond strengths than the more conventional bonding resin. Of the two base retention systems tested, braised mesh bases gave consistently greater bond strengths than the cast base, although no base/resin specificity could be detected. Re-using the same brackets showed rebound strengths to be significantly lower than initial bond strength although the results indicated the adhesive resin was still able to bond more effectively to these used brackets than the conventional resin. Environment had the greatest effect on bond strength, such that following environmental exposure there was no significant difference between the two resins. This latter factor, and in particular the more complex bonding technique required for the adhesive resin, means that Panavia EX cannot be recommended for orthodontic use in its present form.

  6. Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on Bond Strength of a Self-Etch Primer and an Etch and Rinse Adhesive to Surface and Deep Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Salehi, Raha; Feizi, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Composite bond to dentin is crucial in many clinical conditions particularly in deep cavities without enamel margins due to insufficient penetration of adhesive into demineralized dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) of a methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin to surface and deep dentin after pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Materials and Method: Eighty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two groups of flat occlusal dentin with different cuts as A: surface group (sections just below the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and B: deep group (2 mm below DEJ). Each group was randomly assigned to 4 subgroups and their samples were restored with Adper Single bond (ASB) and Filtek Z350 or Silorane system Adhesive (SA) and Filtek P90 composite resins, using a 3×3mm cylindrical plastic mold. following these steps , the subgroups were assigned as SubgroupA1: surface dentin+ Silorane System Primer (SSP)+ Silorane System Bonding (SSB)+ P90; Subgroup A2: surface dentin+ 37% etchant (E37%) + Adper Single Bond (ASB)+ Z350; Subgroup A3: surface dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup A4: surface dentin+ E37%+ DMSO+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B1: deep dentin+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B2: deep dentin+ E37%+ ASB+ Z350; Subgroup B3: deep dentin+ DMSO+ SSP+ SSB+ P90; Subgroup B4:dentin +E37% +DMSO +ASB +Z350. The specimens were thermocycled at 5± 2/55± 2°C for 1000 cycles and then tested for SBS. Results: Using DMSO as dentin conditioner increased SBS of ASB to deep dentin (p< 0.001) and SBS of SA to surface dentin (p= 0.003) but had no effect on SBS of SA to deep dentin (p= 1.00). Conclusion: The ability of DMSO to increase SBS of ASB to deep dentin provides a basis for improving bonding of this composite resin in deep cavities. PMID:27840836

  7. Bonding of adhesive resin luting agents to metal and amalgam.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; McCabe, John F; Walls, Angus W G

    2008-12-01

    The shear bond strength of three adhesives, Panavia 21, Superbond, All Bond C&B Cement, and a dual cure resin (Variolink), to Ni-Cr-Be (Rexillium III), Midigold (Type III gold) and Amalgam (Sybraloy) were determined. Fifteen samples were prepared using 800 grit abrasive papers for Ni-Cr and Midi-Gold, and 100 grit papers for amalgam. Ni-Cr-Be and Midi-Gold samples were sandblasted for 30 s and steam cleaned for 10 s. The adhesives were bonded to the samples using gelatine capsules and were matured for 24 h in water at 37 degrees C. The samples were debonded in shear using an Instron at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data was analysed using ANOVA and a Tukey test. The bond strength of Superbond to both metal alloys was significantly higher (P<0.05) than any of the materials tested, with the exception Panavia 21 to gold. The bond strength of All Bond C&B cement had shown to be not significant difference from those of Panavia 21 and Variolink, when bonded to Rexillium and Midi-Gold, respectively. The bond strength of All Bond C&B Cement to amalgam was significantly greater (P<0.05) than those of the other materials tested. The shear bond strength to gold showed lower bonding for all adhesives when compared with Rexillium (P<.001). The ranking of bond strength to both alloys was as follows: Superbond>Panavia 21>All Bond C&B>Variolink. The nature of substrate to be used for bonding and the adhesive material itself are important factors in bonding which can be achieved between cast metals and prepared teeth with amalgam filling. Superbond should be successful as an adhesive for the attachment of all substrates tested, with the possible exception of amalgam, for which All Bond C&B Cement gives the best result.

  8. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Javadi, Fatemeh; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad) and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding). Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa). The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa). The statistical difference between this two groups was significant (P value = 0/0038). The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = 16/427 ± 1/79) and without laser preparation (mean = 12/85 ± 1/90) were statistically significant too (P value = 0/01). Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength. PMID:27493829

  9. Evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Effect on Microshear Bond Strength of a Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite in the Dentin of Permanent Molar: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, Masoumeh; Fotouhi Ardakani, Faezeh; Javadi, Fatemeh; Khalili Sadrabad, Zahra; Shadkar, Zahra; Shadkar, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background. Recently, new restorative materials such as self-adhesive flowable composites, because of their simple use and no need to bonding and etching, are considered important, particularly in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on microshear bond strength of self-adhesive flowable composite on permanent teeth dentin in vitro. Material and Methods. In this experimental study, 40 dentin sections were prepared from healthy third molars and divided into two groups according to their surface preparation by Er,Cr:YSGG laser or without laser, only with silicon carbide paper. In each group, two groups of 10 teeth were treated with self-adhesive flowable composite (Dyad) and conventional flowable composite (acid etch and bonding). Samples were stored in normal saline and after 48 hours their bond strength was measured. The failure mode of samples was observed on stereomicroscope. In order to analyse the results, the one way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons were used. Result. The maximum bond strength was related to conventional flowable composite with laser preparation group (24/21 Mpa). The lowest one was seen in Dyad composite without laser emitting (9/89 Mpa). The statistical difference between this two groups was significant (P value = 0/0038). The microshear bond strength differences between Dyad composite groups with laser preparation (mean = 16/427 ± 1/79) and without laser preparation (mean = 12/85 ± 1/90) were statistically significant too (P value = 0/01). Conclusion. Self-adhesive flowable composite has lower microshear bond strength than conventional flowable composite. Moreover, the laser irradiation as a surface treatment can improve this bond strength.

  10. Comparison of the effect of shear bond strength with silane and other three chemical presurface treatments of a glass fiber-reinforced post on adhesion with a resin-based luting agent: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Belwalkar, Vaibhavi Ramkrishna; Gade, Jaykumar; Mankar, Nikhil Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Loss of retention has been cited to be the most common cause of the failure of postretained restoration with irreversible consequences when materials with different compositions are in intimate contact at the post/adhesive interface. With this background, a study was conducted to improve the adhesion at the resin phase of fiber posts using silane and other chemical pretreatments. Materials and Methods: Hundred glass fiber-reinforced posts were tested with 4 different protocols (n = 25) using silane as a control (Group A) and other three experimental groups, namely, Group B-20% potassium permanganate, Group C-4% hydrofluoric acid, and Group D-10% hydrogen peroxide were pretreated on the postsurface followed by silanization. These specimens were bonded with dual-polymerizing resin-based luting agent, which were then loaded at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min to record the shear bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test for multiple group comparisons and the post hoc Bonferroni test for pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05). Results: Group B showed more influence on the shear bond strength when compared to other protocols, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Alone silanization as a surface treatment did not improve the bond strength. Combination of chemical presurface treatments followed by silanization significantly enhanced the bond strength at the post/adhesive interface. PMID:27307666

  11. Effect of adherend steel strength on static and fatigue strength of adhesive/rivet combined joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Makoto; Haraga, Kosuke; Nishikawa, Tetsuya

    1992-02-01

    Adhesive/rivet combined bonding has attracted special interest recently as a joining technique of high-strength steel because of its high joint efficiency. In this study, the effects of steel strength on the tensile and fatigue strength of adhesive/rivet combined and adhesive joints were investigated. In addition, the stress distributions of these joints were analyzed by finite-element methods, taking into consideration the plastic deformation of adherend steels. With the increase of steel strength, the tensile strength of combined and adhesive joints increased and tensile strength was improved by the combination with the rivet. However, irrespective of the steel strength, the fatigue strength of combined and adhesive joints was constant and the fatigue strength of the combined joint was similar to that of the adhesive joint. These findings could be explained from the difference of stress distribution between static and fatigue load conditions.

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Bonds via Ultrasonic Phase Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldren, Harold A.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Gupta, Mool C.

    2016-01-01

    The use of advanced composites utilizing adhesively bonded structures offers advantages in weight and cost for both the aerospace and automotive industries. Conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved unable to reliably detect weak bonds or bond deterioration during service life conditions. A new nondestructive technique for quantitatively measuring adhesive bond strength is demonstrated. In this paper, an ultrasonic technique employing constant frequency pulsed phased-locked loop (CFPPLL) circuitry to monitor the phase response of a bonded structure from change in thermal stress is discussed. Theoretical research suggests that the thermal response of a bonded interface relates well with the quality of the adhesive bond. In particular, the effective stiffness of the adhesive-adherent interface may be extracted from the thermal phase response of the structure. The sensitivity of the CFPPLL instrument allows detection of bond pathologies that have been previously difficult-to-detect. Theoretical results with this ultrasonic technique on single epoxy lap joint (SLJ) specimens are presented and discussed. This technique has the potential to advance the use of adhesive bonds - and by association, advanced composite structures - by providing a reliable method to measure adhesive bond strength, thus permitting more complex, lightweight, and safe designs.

  14. Shear bond strength of partial coverage restorations to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Alonso-Pérez-Barquero, Jorge; Fons-Font, Antonio; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background When partial coverage restorations (veneers, inlays, onlays…) must be cemented to dentin, bond strength may not reach the same predictable values as to enamel. The purpose of this study was: 1. To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesive requiring acid etching, and Clearfil SE Bond® (Kuraray), two-bottle self-etching adhesive. The vestibular, lingual, distal and mesial surfaces of ten molars (n=10) were ground to remove all enamel and 40 ceramic samples were cemented with Variolink II® (Ivoclar Vivadent). Half the molar surfaces were treated to create round microretention (pits) to determine whether these could influence bond strength to dentin. The 40 molar surfaces were divided into four groups (n=10): Optibond FL (O); Clearfil SE (C); Optibond FL + microretention (OM); Clearfil SE + micro retention (CM). A shear bond test was performed and the bond failures provoked examined under an optical microscope. Results O=35.27±8.02 MPa; C=36.23±11.23 MPa; OM=28.61±6.27 MPa; CM=27.01±7.57 MPa. No statistically significant differences were found between the adhesives. Optibond FL showed less statistical dispersion than Clearfil SE. The presence of microretentions reduced bond strength values regardless of the adhesive used. Conclusions 1. Clearfil SE self-etching adhesive and Optibond FL acid-etch showed adequate bond strengths and can be recommended for bonding ceramic restorations to dentin. 2. The creation of round microretention pits compromises these adhesives’ bond strength to dentin. Key words:Adhesion to dentin, bonding agent, Optibond FL, Clearfil SE, microretention, shear bond test. PMID:26330937

  15. Evaluation of bond strength of orthodontic brackets without enamel etching

    PubMed Central

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Motaghi, Shiva; Moghaddas, Mohmmadjavad

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare the shear bond strength of brackets with and without enamel etching. Material and Methods In this study, 60 sound premolars were randomly divided into four different groups: 1- TXE group: Enamel etching+Transbond XT adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 2- TXS group: Transbond plus self-etch adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 3- PQ1E group: Enamel etching+ PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. 4- PQ1 group: PQ1 adhesive+ Transbond XT composite. The shear bond strengths of brackets were evaluated using universal testing machine at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also measured. One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Witney U test were used for data analysis. Results There was a significant difference between etched and unetched groups respect to SBS and ARI (p<0.05), however; no significant difference was observed between unetched group and self-etch adhesive group (p>> 0.05). The shear bond strength of PQ1 group was the least but in acceptable range and its ARI was less than other groups. Conclusions PQ1 adhesive can be used for bracket bonding without enamel etching with adequate bond strength and minimal ARI. Key words:Bracket, shear bond strength, filled-adhesive, self-etch adhesive. PMID:26535100

  16. Correlation between the strength of glass ionomer cements and their bond strength to bovine teeth.

    PubMed

    Hibino, Yasushi; Kuramochi, Ken-ichi; Harashima, Atsushi; Honda, Muneaki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Yuko; Yamaga, Taniichiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the possible correlation between the strength of glass ionomers and their adhesive strength to bovine teeth. The shear bond strengths of three different brands of glass ionomer mixed at four different P/L ratios to bovine teeth were measured 24 hours after the cement specimens were prepared. The correlation between shear bond strength and mechanical strength reported in our previous study was also examined. No significant (p > 0.05) increases in the bond strength to bovine teeth were found in any of the cements when the mixing ratio increased. The present study showed no significant (p > 0.05) correlation between mechanical strength of cement and its bond strength to bovine teeth. Rather than trying to increase the strength of the cement, it would be more effective to enhance the adhesive bond strength through procedures such as surface conditioning or cleaning of the tooth structure when glass ionomers are used as luting agents.

  17. Effects of Resin Hydrophilicity on Dentin Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Nishitani, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Donnelly, A.M.; Agee, K.A.; Sword, J.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrophobic resins can be coaxed into dentin wet with ethanol instead of water. The test hypothesis was that dentin wet with ethanol would produce higher bond strengths for hydrophobic resins than would dentin wet with water. This study examined the microtensile bond strength of 5 experimental adhesives (50 wt% ethanol/50% comonomers) of various degrees of hydrophilicity to acid-etched dentin that was left moist with water, moist with ethanol, or air-dried. Following composite buildups, hourglass-shaped slabs were prepared from the bonded teeth for microtensile testing. For all 3 types of dentin surfaces, higher bond strengths were achieved with increased resin hydrophilicity. The lowest bond strengths were obtained on dried dentin, while the highest bond strengths were achieved when dentin was bonded moist with ethanol. Wet-bonding with ethanol achieved higher bond strengths with hydrophobic resins than were possible with water-saturated matrices. PMID:17062742

  18. Primary Adhesively Bonded Structure Technology (PABST). Design Handbook for Adhesive Bonding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    47 EFFECT OF MOISTURE IN ADHESIVE ON BOND STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS 95 The use of adhesive to fill up the gaps where parts don’t fit is incompatible with...cap and web and chamfer tht base as shown in Figure 72? If the longeron ends adjacent to another member, which is often the case, the gap between the... to2 ) EVALUATE X4 AT TEMPERATURE GIVING LEAST VALUE - AGAIN, THE HOTTEST OPTIMUM OVERLAP = Rp + I’uY(NO GREATER OVERLAP CAN INCREASE JOINT STRENGTH

  19. Machine Gun Liner Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    investigation does not constitute a complete analysis of liner failures in the M2 machine gun. The fact that two different liner-failure modes were...An order-of-magnitude estimate can be made of the bond strength in this case using a standard elastic analysis and some reasonable assumptions... analysis of the forces on the machine gun bullet, it was found that the measured bond strength was adequate to resist the reaction forces produced when

  20. Validity of bond strength tests: A critical review: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Sirisha, Kantheti; Rambabu, Tankonda; Shankar, Yalavarthi Ravi; Ravikumar, Pabbati

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive systems are selected based on their bond strengths achieved while testing in laboratories. These bond strengths can predict the longevity of a restoration to some extent. There were several discrepancies in the reported bond strengths. To critically review the reliability of macro-bond strength tests used to evaluate resin-tooth interface. Relevant literature published between January 1983 and May 2013 was collected from PubMed database, Google scholar, and hand-searched journals of Conservative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental materials. Variables that influence the test outcome are categorized into substrate-related factors, factors related to specimen properties, preparation of specimens, and test methodology. Impact of these variables on the test outcome is critically analyzed. There is lack of a standard format for reporting the bond strength tests, which could lead to misinterpretation of the data and bonding abilities of adhesives. PMID:25125840

  1. Push-out bond strengths of two fiber post types bonded with different dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Erdemir, Ugur; Sahinkesen, Gunes; Mumcu, Emre; Yildiz, Esra; Uslan, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional push-out bond strengths for two fiber-reinforced post types using three different dentin bonding agents. Sixty single-rooted extracted human first premolar teeth were sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparations, the roots were divided into two fiber-post groups (Glassix and Carbopost), and further divided into three subgroups of 10 specimens each for the bonding systems self-etching dentin bonding agents (Clearfil SE Bond and Optibond all-in-one), and total-etching dentin bonding agent (XP Bond). A dual-cure resin luting cement (Maxcem) was then placed in the post spaces and posts were then seated into the root canals polymerized through the cervical portion. The roots were then cut into 3-mm thick sections. Push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with multivariate ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The morphology of interface between different dentin bonding agents from the cervical sections were analyzed with SEM. Glass fiber-reinforced posts demonstrated significantly higher push-out bond strengths than carbon fiber-reinforced posts (p < 0.001). Bond strength values decreased significantly from the cervical to the apical root canal regions (p < 0.001). Self-etching dentin adhesive Clearfil SE Bond and total-etching dentin adhesive XP Bond demonstrated similar bond strengths values and this was significantly higher compared with the Optibond all-in-one in cervical root canal region. In conclusion, in all root segments, the glass fiber-reinforced posts provided significantly increased post retention than the carbon fiber-reinforced posts, regardless of the adhesive used.

  2. Adhesive strength of autologous fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Hirozane, K; Kamiya, A

    2000-03-01

    To establish an easy and rapid method for measuring the adhesive strength of fibrin glue and to clarify the factor(s) most affecting the strength, a study was made on the effect of the concentration of plasma components on the strength of cryoprecipitate (Cryo) prepared from a subject's own autologous plasma to be used as fibrin glue. The adhesive strength of the Cryo was measured with various supporting materials instead of animal skin using a tester of tension and compression. The results were as follows: (1) the strength of Cryo applied to ground flat glass (4 cm2) was significantly greater than that applied to clear glass, clear plastic, or smooth and flat wood chips; (2) the adhesive strength of Cryo depended on the concentration of thrombin with the optimal concentration being 50 units/ml; (3) the concentration of CaCl2 did not affect the adhesive strength of Cryo; (4) the adhesive reaction was dependent on the temperature and the adhesive strength more quickly reached a steady state at 37 degrees C than at lower temperature; (5) the adhesive strength was correlated well with the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. These results indicate that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be easily and quickly evaluated using a tester and ground glass with thrombin at 50 units/ml, and that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be predicted from the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin.

  3. Bonding of crown and bridge adhesive resins to dentine.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; McCabe, John F; Walls, Angus W G

    2008-12-01

    The shear bond strength of three adhesives, Panavia 21, Superbond, All Bond C&B Cement, and Variolink (a dual cure resin) to various dentine depths were determined. Fifteen human fully erupted permanent first and second molars were wet ground using 500 and then 800 grit abrasive papers to expose the superficial, middle and the deep dentine, for each adhesive tested. Five samples were prepared for each dentine depth. The adhesives were bonded to the samples using gelatine capsules and were matured for 24 h in water at 37 degrees C. The samples were debonded in shear using tensile testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey test. The fracture surfaces were examined by optical microscopy. The bond strength of Superbond to dentine was significantly higher (P<0.05) than any of the materials tested. The bond strength of all materials tested was shown to be affected by dentine depth, except for Superbond. Fractured dentine specimens showed that the samples of Superbond are almost cohesive (>90%), and the samples of other adhesives are mostly adhesive (>70%). These results confirm that Superbond is capable of forming a bond at various dentine depths.

  4. Evaluation of adhesive and compressive strength of glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Ramashanker; Singh, Raghuwar D; Chand, Pooran; Jurel, Sunit Km; Tripathi, Shuchi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy. (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II (GC Corporation, Tokyo), Chem Flex (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), Glass ionomer FX (Shofu-11, Japan), MR dental (MR dental suppliers Pvt Ltd, England). (B) Ceramometal alloy (Ni-Cr: Wiron 99; Bego, Bremen, Germany). (C) Cold cure acrylic resin. (E) Temperature cum humidity control chamber. (F) Instron Universal Testing Machine. Four different types of Glass ionomer cements were used in the study. From each type of the Glass ionomer cements, 15 specimens for each were made to evaluate the compressive strength and adhesive strength, respectively. The 15 specimens were further divided into three subgroups of five specimens. For compressive strength, specimens were tested at 2, 4 and 12 h by using Instron Universal Testing Machine. To evaluate the adhesive strength, specimens were surface treated with diamond bur, silicone carbide bur and sandblasting and tested under Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was concluded from the study that the compressive strength as well as the adhesive bond strength of MR dental glass ionomer cement with a ceramometal alloy was found to be maximum compare to other glass ionomer cements. Sandblasting surface treatment of ceramometal alloy was found to be comparatively more effective for adhesive bond strength between alloy and glass ionomer cement.

  5. Bond strength testing--what does it mean?

    PubMed

    Oilo, G

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, bond strength and various important factors in bond strength testing are discussed as well as the limitations in the interpretation and clinical relevance of such tests. Standardisation of bond strength testing is needed, and the solutions found in the new ISO document, ISO CD TR 11405 Dental Materials--Guidance on testing of adhesion to tooth structure, are referred to. Tensile and shear test methods are discussed and the bond strength values obtained with these methods compared. The influence of dentine substrate variations, such as remaining dentine thickness and surface treatment or removal of smear layer, are discussed as well as the storage conditions of specimens for in vitro tests, that is, short term, long term and thermocycling, and their relevance to the clinical situation. The information obtained from microscopical studies of fractured surfaces indicates that some adhesives may, under optimal conditions, obtain a bond strength sufficient to fracture the dentine.

  6. Thermoplastic polymeric adhesive for structural bonding applications for orthopaedic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, D.; King, R.; Swarts, D.; Lin, S.; Ramani, K.; Tagle, J.

    1994-12-31

    The orthopaedics industry has witnessed tremendous growth in recent years primarily due to the introduction of high performance, porous coated implants. These devices have eliminated the need for the use of bone cement for in vivo implant fixation, replacing it with the ingrowth of bone into the porous surfaces. The metallurgical bonding processes used for attaching the porous to the implant body introduce some undesirable effect i.e., the reduction of the fatigue strength of the implant due to the ``notches`` created and also due to the high temperature exposure during the sintering operations. This paper describes the development of a thermoplastic polymeric adhesive based structural bonding technique. The high performance polymeric adhesive is fully characterized with respect to its intended application. The design of the porous layer is optimized to achieve a reliable bond to the implant. A thermal heating/cooling process was developed to control the final polymer morphology. Static and fatigue tests were conducted to fully characterize the adhesive bond strength. A ring shear test method was developed to determine the shear strength of the bond interface. Besides the characterization of the adhesive bond, the joints will be analyzed using finite element models. The correlation between the analytical models and the

  7. Analysis of tensile bond strengths using Weibull statistics.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Michael F; Thomas, David; Swain, Mike V; Tyas, Martin J

    2004-09-01

    Tensile strength tests of restorative resins bonded to dentin, and the resultant strengths of interfaces between the two, exhibit wide variability. Many variables can affect test results, including specimen preparation and storage, test rig design and experimental technique. However, the more fundamental source of variability, that associated with the brittle nature of the materials, has received little attention. This paper analyzes results from micro-tensile tests on unfilled resins and adhesive bonds between restorative resin composite and dentin in terms of reliability using the Weibull probability of failure method. Results for the tensile strengths of Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive (3M) and Clearfil LB Bond (Kuraray) bonding resins showed Weibull moduli (m) of 6.17 (95% confidence interval, 5.25-7.19) and 5.01 (95% confidence interval, 4.23-5.8). Analysis of results for micro-tensile tests on bond strengths to dentin gave moduli between 1.81 (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V) and 4.99 (Gluma One Bond, Kulzer). Material systems with m in this range do not have a well-defined strength. The Weibull approach also enables the size dependence of the strength to be estimated. An example where the bonding area was changed from 3.1 to 1.1 mm diameter is shown. Weibull analysis provides a method for determining the reliability of strength measurements in the analysis of data from bond strength and tensile tests on dental restorative materials.

  8. Moisture contamination detection in adhesive bond using embedded FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents an application of embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for moisture contamination detection in an adhesive bond between two composite elements. FBG sensors are a great tool to Structural Health Monitoring of composite structures due to their high corrosion resistance as well as their small size and weight. Adhesive bonds are very popular in many industrial branches. One of the major problem limits the use of an adhesive joints is they sensitivity on water form ambient. Even the 1% of moisture affects an adhesive bond layer strength. FBG sensors can be use for detection of even a small amount of moisture concentration (1-3% of sample weight). It can be also used for determination of moisture concentration changes during both soaking and drying processes.

  9. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative measurements of adhesion or binding forces can be accomplished, for example, by using the reflection coefficient of an ultrasound or by using thermal waves (Light and Kwun, 1989, Achenbach and Parikh, 1991, and Bostrom and wickham, 1991). However, a quantitative determination of binding forces is rather difficult. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasound passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such non-linearity can be effectively used to characterize the bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect (Adler and Nagy, 1991; Achenbach and Parikh, 1991; Parikh and Achenbach, 1992; and Hirose and Kitahara, 1992; Anastasi and Roberts, 1992). Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented by Pangraz and Arnold (1994). Recently, Tang, Cheng and Achenbach (1997) made a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on this theoretical model. A water immersion mode-converted shear wave through-transmission setup was used by Berndt and Green (1997) to analyze the nonlinear acoustic behavior of the adhesive bond. In this project, the nonlinear responses of an adhesive joint was investigated through transmission tests of ultrasonic wave and analyzed by the finite element simulations. The higher order harmonics were obtained in the tests. It is found that the amplitude of higher harmonics increases as the aging increases, especially the 3dorder harmonics. Results from the numerical simulation show that the material nonlinearity does indeed generate higher order harmonics. In particular, the elastic-perfect plastic behavior generates significant 3rd and 5th order harmonics.

  10. A comparison of bond strength between direct- and indirect-bonding methods.

    PubMed

    Linn, Brandon James; Berzins, David W; Dhuru, Virendra B; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength and the sites of bond failure for brackets bonded to teeth, using two indirect-bonding material protocols and a direct-bonding technique. Sixty extracted human premolars were collected and randomly divided into three groups. The direct-bonded group (group 1) used a light-cured adhesive and primer (Transbond XT). One indirect-bonded group (group 2) consisted of a chemical-cured primer (Sondhi Rapid Set) and light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT), whereas the other group (group 3) used a light-cured primer (Orthosolo) and adhesive (Enlight LV). Forty hours after bonding, the samples were debonded. Mean shear bond strengths were 16.27, 13.83, and 14.76 MPa for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significant difference in mean bond strength between groups (P = .21). Furthermore, a Weibull analysis showed all three groups tested provided over a 90% survival rate at normal masticatory and orthodontic force levels. For each tooth, an Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was determined. Group 2 was found to have a significantly lower ARI score (P < .05) compared with groups 1 and 3. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficients indicated no strong correlation between bond strength and ARI score within or across all groups.

  11. Development of a Nonchromate Structural Adhesive Bond Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Prevent corrosion of base metal • Applied to porous anodized surface • Overcoated with non-inhibited epoxy adhesive • High adhesive bond strength...primers •Long-running surveillance of chromate-free alternatives by UTC companies shows weak corrosion inhibition • (A) strontium chromate...solubility of multiple inhibitors 7705 Al / EcoTuff™ After corrosion test Bright deposits: 50 wt% W + Zn mixed oxide 3M Commercial EW5000AS(P) 3M Lab

  12. Effects of the addition of fluoride to a 4-META/MMA-TBB-based resin adhesive on fluoride release, acid resistance of enamel and shear bond strength in vitro.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Ito, Shuichi; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kohda, Naohisa; Saito, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated fluoride release, acid resistance and shear bond strength (SBS) of new 4-META/MMA-TBB-based fluoride-containing resin adhesive (Super-Bond/F3). Super-Bond, Transbond Plus and Fuji Ortho LC were selected for comparison. Fluoride release into distilled water during 6-month period was measured using disk-shaped specimens. Brackets were bonded to human premolars with each material and then the specimens for the nanoindentation test were subjected to alternating immersion (demineralizing and remineralizing solutions); the hardness and elastic modulus of the enamel around bracket were determined. Rest of the specimens was subjected to examine the SBS. Super-Bond/F3 and Fuji Ortho LC showed significantly greater fluoride release compared with the other materials. The reductions in hardness and the elastic modulus for Super-Bond/F3 and Fuji Ortho LC were lower than those for the other materilas. Super-Bond and Super-Bond/F3 showed significantly greater SBS than Fuji Ortho FC. In conclusion, Super-Bond/F3 showed high fluoride-release, cariostatic potential and equivalent SBS.

  13. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  14. Influence of silane and solvated bonding agents on the bond strength to glass-fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline S; Ramalho, Elisa S; Spazzin, Aloísio O; Naves, Lucas Z; Moraes, Rafael R

    2013-12-01

    The combined use of silane and solvated bonding agents on the bond strength to glass-fibre posts was investigated. A model Bis-GMA/HEMA adhesive was formulated with no solvent, 30% of ethanol or 80% of acetone. The surfaces of rectangular-shaped posts were silanated or not and one of the agents was applied, except for the control group. Cylinders of resin cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, Saint Paul, MN, USA) were built-up on the surfaces (n = 20) and submitted to shear testing. All groups showed higher bond strengths when the surfaces were silanated. When no silanization was carried out, the use of bonding agents, either solvated or non-solvated, increased the bond strengths. All groups treated with both silane and bonding agent showed higher bond strengths than the group that was only silanated. Control and ethanol-based adhesives were similar, whereas the acetone-based agent yielded higher bond strengths. Adhesive failures were predominant. Combination of silane and adhesive enhanced the bond to fibre posts.

  15. Inhibition of enamel demineralization and bond-strength properties of bioactive glass containing 4-META/MMA-TBB-based resin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kohda, Naohisa; Iijima, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Kyotaro; Toshima, Hirokazu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the enamel demineralization-prevention ability and shear bond strength (SBS) properties of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tri-n-butyl borane (4-META/MMA-TBB)-based resin containing various amounts (0-50%) of bioactive glass (BG). Disk-shaped specimens were immersed in distilled water and ions released were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy. Samples were also immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.6) to estimate acid-neutralizing ability. Brackets were bonded to human premolars with BG-containing resins and the bonded teeth were alternately immersed in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 d. The enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation testing at twenty equidistant distances from the external surface. The SBS for each sample was examined. The amounts of ions released [calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), silicon (Si), and boron (B)] and the acid-neutralizing ability increased with increasing BG content. After alternating immersion, the specimens bonded with the BG-containing resin with high BG content were harder than those in the other groups in some locations 1-18.5 μm from the enamel surface. Bioactive glass-containing (10-40%) resin had bond strength equivalent to the control specimen. Thus, the SBS obtained for BG-containing resin (6.5-9.2 MPa) was clinically acceptable, suggesting that this material has the ability to prevent enamel demineralization.

  16. Polyimide adhesives for titanium and composite bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    Approach results in synthesis of addition polyimide adhesives with exceptional high temperature capabilities that show excellent potential for bonding titanium metal, polyimide/graphite composites, and combinations of these materials. Adhesives compatible with materials used in high performance aircraft and spacecraft structures also prove highly desirable in many other applications involving similar adherents.

  17. Hydrolytic stability of self-etch adhesives bonded to dentin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Koshiro, K; Yoshida, Y; De Munck, J; Nagakane, K; Suzuki, K; Sano, H; Van Meerbeek, B

    2005-12-01

    Functional monomers chemically interact with hydroxyapatite that remains within submicron hybrid layers produced by mild self-etch adhesives. The functional monomer 10-MDP interacts most intensively with hydroxyapatite, and its calcium salt appeared most hydrolytically stable, as compared with 4-MET and phenyl-P. We investigated the hypothesis that additional chemical interaction of self-etch adhesives improves bond stability. The micro-tensile bond strength (muTBS) of the 10-MDP-based adhesive did not decrease significantly after 100,000 cycles, but did after 50,000 and 30,000 cycles, respectively, for the 4-MET-based and the phenyl-P-based adhesives. Likewise, the interfacial ultrastructure was unchanged after 100,000 thermocycles for the 10-MDP-based adhesive, while that of both the 4-MET- and phenyl-P-based adhesives contained voids and less-defined collagen. The findings of this study support the concept that long-term durability of adhesive-dentin bonds depends on the chemical bonding potential of the functional monomer.

  18. Improved stress prediction in adhesive bonded optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vreugd, J.; te Voert, M. J. A.; Nijenhuis, J. R.; Pijnenburg, J. A. C. M.; Tabak, E.

    2012-09-01

    Adhesives are widely used in optomechanical structures for bonding optical components to their mounts. The main advantage of using adhesives is the excellent strength to weight ratio. Adhesive bonding is seen as a desirable joining technique as it allows for greater flexibility in design. A disadvantage of adhesives however is the limited dimensional stability and loadability. To design stable optical mounts, accurate prediction of stresses and deformation is therefore needed. Adhesives show strong temperature and loading history dependent behavior. Viscoelastic material models are needed for accurate prediction of stresses and strains in bonded joints. However, representative material data for adhesives is difficult to find. In this research, an experimental framework is build up to determine relevant mechanical properties of adhesives for improving stress and deformation prediction. This paper shows the results of the characterization experiments and modeling techniques. Also the implementation of material models in finite element code is briefly discussed. The obtained models are used in the mount design in the EUCLID and TROPOMI programs as described in “Ultra stable isostatic bonded optical mount design for harsh environments, J.A.C.M Pijnenburg et al” (this conference).

  19. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  20. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  1. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  2. The effect of saliva on shear bond strengths of hydrophilic bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Webster, M J; Nanda, R S; Duncanson, M G; Khajotia, S S; Sinha, P K

    2001-01-01

    Failure of orthodontic bonded attachments and brackets is mostly attributed to contamination of the enamel surface. To overcome this problem, materials have been developed that purportedly overcome the moisture and contaminants present in the oral environment. This study compared the shear bond strengths of 2 lightcured hydrophilic bonding systems, Transbond XT with MIP (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and Assure (Reliance Orthodontics, Itasca, Ill) with a hydrophobic bonding system, Transbond XT with XT primer (3M/Unitek). Comparison tests were conducted under 4 enamel surface conditions: (1) etched and dried; (2) etched and moistened with artificial saliva; (3) etched, primed, and moistened with artificial saliva; and (4) etched, primed, moistened with artificial saliva, and reprimed. In addition, an adhesive remnant index score was used to determine the amount of adhesive remaining on the tooth. Stainless steel brackets with mesh-backed pads (n = 144) were bonded to bovine teeth. Bond strength was then tested in shear using an Instron mechanical testing instrument. There were significant differences in the bond strengths among the products (P <.05), within surface treatments (P <.05), and among the different bonding materials in combination with various surface treatments (P <.05). Treatments 1 and 4 showed the highest mean bond strengths adhesive remnant index scores, whereas treatments 2 and 3 showed the lowest mean bond strengths and scores.

  3. Optimizing ultrasonic imaging for adhesively bonded plates

    SciTech Connect

    Conboy, Mike; Hart, Scot; Harris-Weiel, David; Meyer, R. L.; Claytor, T. N.

    2004-01-01

    Bonded materials are used in many critical applications, making it important to determine the state of the adhesive during service or aging. It is also of importance, in many cases, to determine if the adhesive has uniformly and completely covered the area to be joined. Through dual transducer scanning, focused and unfocused transducers, and immersion scanning, the uniformity and adherence of a visco-elastic material can be evaluated. In this report, ultrasonic scanning parameters will be optimized experimentally with guidance from simulation tools including Wave 2000 pro and Imagine 3D. We explored optimizing the contrast ratio by varying the interrogation frequency and also by adjusting the distance between the transducer and bond line. An improvement in contrast should also increase the ability to detect differences in compositions and viscosity of the bonded layer. By maximizing the contrast the quality of the visco-elastic bond can be determined, and imperfections detected before adhesive failure.

  4. Laser ablation assisted adhesive bonding of automotive structural composites

    SciTech Connect

    Boeman, R.G.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Laser ablation has been evaluated as a surface pretreatment prior to adhesive bonding. In prior experimental work, it was observed that when adhesively bonded, composite, single lap shear samples fail, the fracture often occurs at either the adhesive/adherend interface or in the resin rich surface layer of the composite. These two areas represent the weakest portion of the joint. Laser ablation pretreatment generates areas where the resin on the composite surface is selectively removed leaving behind exposed reinforcing fibers which are the major load bearing members of the composite. In a subsequent adhesive bonding operation, this allows portions of the fibers to be encapsulated in the adhesive while other portions of the fiber remain in the composite resin. This type of pretreatment permits fibers to bridge and reinforce the interface between adhesive and adherend. A secondary benefit is the removal of surface contaminantes by pyrolysis. Microscopic observation of laser ablated surfaces indicates a prominent, fiber rich area. Results of the mechanical evaluation indicated that the lap shear strength for laser ablated samples was significantly higher than specimens with no pretreatment or with solvent cleaning only, but were slightly lower than specimens that were mechanically roughened and cleaned with solvents prior to bonding.

  5. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  6. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  7. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  8. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  9. 49 CFR 587.16 - Adhesive bonding procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adhesive bonding procedure. 587.16 Section 587.16... Adhesive bonding procedure. Immediately before bonding, aluminum sheet surfaces to be bonded are thoroughly... the abrading process are removed, as these can adversely affect bonding. The adhesive is applied...

  10. Adhesive bonding of noble metal alloys with a triazine dithiol derivative primer and an adhesive resin.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Taira, Y; Atsuta, M

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength and durability of a metal adhesive system bonded to noble metal alloys. Disc specimens were cast from type IV gold (type IV, Casting Gold M. C., metal-ceramic gold (Au-Pt-Pd, Degudent Universal, metal-ceramic palladium (Pd-Ga-Co, PTM 88 silver-indium (Ag-In-Zn, Salivan Hard and silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu, S12) alloys and pure silver (pure Ag). The specimens were air-abraded with 50 micron alumina, conditioned with a thiol-based primer designed for noble alloys (V-Primer), and then bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond Opaque Ivory). Shear bond strengths were determined after repeated thermocycling (4-60 degrees C, 1 min each, 100 000 cycles). The average bond strengths in MPa (n=8) were 30.9 for the type IV alloy, 29.0 for the Ag-Pd-Cu alloy, 28.0 for the Au-Pt-Pd alloy, 26.3 for the pure Ag, 26.0 for the Pd-Ga-Co alloy and 9.3 for the Ag-In-Zn alloy. The Ag-In-Zn alloy exhibited significantly lower bond strength than the other alloys, whereas the bond strengths of the other four alloys and pure Ag were comparable (P<0.05). It is concluded that the combined use of the thiol derivative primer and the adhesive resin is effective for bonding the noble metal alloys examined, with the exception of the Ag-In-Zn alloy.

  11. Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

  12. Viscoelastic study of an adhesively bonded joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The plane strain problem of two dissimilar orthotropic plates bonded with an isotropic, linearly viscoelastic adhesive is considered. Both the shear and the normal stresses in the adhesive are calculated for various geometries and loading conditions. Transverse shear deformations of the adherends are taken into account, and their effect on the solution is shown in the results. All three inplane strains of the adhesive are included. Attention is given to the effect of temperature, both in the adhesive joint problem and to the heat generation in a viscoelastic material under cyclic loading. This separate study is included because heat generation and or spatially varying temperature are at present too difficult to account for in the analytical solution of the bonded joint, but whose effect can not be ignored in design.

  13. Surface Contamination of Adhesive Bonding Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    test is illustrated in Figure 19. The specimen is then exposed to some environment such as high temperature and humidity and monitored for crack growth...bonded and subsequently failed at high humidity and elevated temperatures indicate early crack propagation at the adhesive-oxide interface. Large...Adhesive Tape (A) and a Point Not Exposed to the Tape (B) 21 Positive Secondary Ion Mass Spectra from 44 6AI-4V-Ti at Room Temperature (156-1) and after

  14. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  15. Influence of Water Storage and Bonding Material on Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets to Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Consani, Simonides; Giorgi, Maria Cecília Caldas; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Vedovello Filho, Mário; Santos, Eduardo Cesar Almada; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of water storage (24 h and 6 months), and Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC bonding materials on the bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to feldspathic ceramic. Four cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s. Each cylinder received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT or Fuji Ortho LC. Light-activation was carried out with 40 s total exposure time using Bluephase G2. Half the specimens for each bonding materials (n=20) were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h and the other half for 6 months. Shear bond strength testing was performed after storage times at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Transbond XT showed significantly higher bond strength (p<0.05) than Fuji Ortho LC. Significant differences in bond strength (p<0.05) were found when 24 h and 6 months storage times were compared between materials. ARI showed a predominance of score 0 for all groups, and higher scores at 1, 2 and 3 for 24 h storage time. In conclusion, storage time and bonding materials showed significant influence on the bond strength of brackets to ceramic.

  16. Durability of bonds and clinical success of adhesive restorations

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Manso, Adriana P.; Geraldeli, Saulo; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Resin-dentin bond strength durability testing has been extensively used to evaluate the effectiveness of adhesive systems and the applicability of new strategies to improve that property. Clinical effectiveness is determined by the survival rates of restorations placed in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). While there is evidence that the bond strength data generated in laboratory studies somehow correlates with the clinical outcome of NCCL restorations, it is questionable whether the knowledge of bonding mechanisms obtained from laboratory testing can be used to justify clinical performance of resin-dentin bonds. There are significant morphological and structural differences between the bonding substrate used in in vitro testing versus the substrate encountered in NCCL. These differences qualify NCCL as a hostile substrate for bonding, yielding bond strengths that are usually lower than those obtained in normal dentin. However, clinical survival time of NCCL restorations often surpass the durability of normal dentin tested in the laboratory. Likewise, clinical reports on the long-term survival rates of posterior composite restorations defy the relatively rapid rate of degradation of adhesive interfaces reported in laboratory studies. This article critically analyzes how the effectiveness of adhesive systems is currently measured, to identify gaps in knowledge where new research could be encouraged. The morphological and chemical analysis of bonded interfaces of resin composite restorations in teeth that had been in clinical service for many years, but were extracted for periodontal reasons, could be a useful tool to observe the ultrastructural characteristics of restorations that are regarded as clinically acceptable. This could help determine how much degradation is acceptable for clinical success. PMID:22192252

  17. In vitro evaluation of a moisture-active adhesive for indirect bonding.

    PubMed

    Klocke, Arndt; Shi, Jianmin; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro investigation was to evaluate bond strength for a cyanoacrylate adhesive in combination with an indirect bonding technique. Eighty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into four groups of 20 teeth each. The influence of two factors on shear bond strength was investigated: (1) type of adhesive (Smartbond cyanoacrylate, Sondhi Rapid Set composite sealant) and (2) time of debonding (30 minutes and 24 hours after bonding). Stainless steel mesh-based brackets were used. Although, bond strength was not significantly different for the two debonding time periods, significantly lower bond strength measurements were found for the cyanoacrylate adhesive (P < .001). The mean bond strength for the cyanoacrylate adhesive group was 5.44 +/- 1.65 MPa for debonding 30 minutes and 6.92 +/- 1.48 MPa for debonding 24 hours after the bonding procedure vs 16.16 +/- 5.25 MPa and 14.98 +/- 2.85 MPa for the composite adhesive groups debonded at 30 minutes and 24 hours, respectively. The Weibull analysis indicated that there was an increased risk of bond failure at clinically relevant levels of stress for indirect bonding with the cyanoacrylate adhesive.

  18. Effect of Sonic Vibrations on Bond Strength of Fiberglass Posts Bonded to Root Dentin.

    PubMed

    Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Amaral, Rodrigo Otavio Jatahy Ferreira do; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; Filho, Flares Baratto; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2017-01-01

    Sonic vibrations may improve the bond strength and durability of fiberglass posts by improving adhesive penetration into dentin as well as the cement flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sonic vibrations on the bond strength between fiberglass posts and root dentin using the pull-out test. Bovine roots were endodontically treated and divided randomly into four groups (n=12): Group C - conventional cementation (control); Group SA - sonic vibration (Smart Sonic Device, FGM) of the adhesive system and conventional post accommodation; SP group - conventional adhesive application and sonic vibration of the post during accommodation; and SASP - sonic vibration of the system adhesive and the post during accommodation. The posts were cleaned, treated with a silane and adhesive system (Ambar, FGM), and cemented with a dual-cured resin cement (Allcem Core, FGM). After 24 h, the specimens were subjected to mechanical tests and failure analyses. Representative specimens were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope to observe the cementation line. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=5%). The bond strengths were as follows: SASP (90.9±27.1 N), C (121.4±60.6 N), SA (127.6±31.8 N) and SP (156.4±41.3 N). The use of sonic vibrations during the application of adhesive or post cementation separately did not affect the bond strength but had a negative effect when used for both procedures.

  19. Adhesive Bonding Characterization of Composite Joints for Cryogenic Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Schieleit, Gregory F.; Biggs, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite cryogenic tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future reusable launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW). This weight reduction is possible due to the large reduction in weight that composite materials can provide over current aluminum technology. In addition to composite technology, adhesively bonded joints potentially have several benefits over mechanically fastened joints, such as weight savings and cryogenic fluid containment. Adhesively bonded joints may be used in several areas of these cryogenic tanks, such as in lobe-to-lobe joints (in a multi-lobe concept), skirt-to-tank joint, strut-to-tank joint, and for attaching stringers and ring frames. The bonds, and the tanks themselves, must be able to withstand liquid cryogenic fuel temperatures that they contain. However, the use of adhesively bonded composite joints at liquid oxygen and hydrogen temperatures is largely unknown and must be characterized. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Michoud Operations performed coupon-level tests to determine effects of material selection, cure process parameters, substrate surface preparation, and other factors on the strength of these composite joints at cryogenic temperatures. This led to the selection of a material and process that would be suitable for a cryogenic tank. KEY WORDS: Composites, Adhesive Bonding, Cryogenics

  20. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products.

  1. Bond strengths of lingual orthodontic brackets bonded with light-cured composite resins cured by transillumination.

    PubMed

    King, L; Smith, R T; Wendt, S L; Behrents, R G

    1987-04-01

    A method of curing light-cured composite resins by transillumination to cement acid-etched fixed partial dentures was adapted to bond solid mesh-backed lingual orthodontic brackets. Results of this investigation showed that the bond strengths of the orthodontic brackets bonded with light-cured composite resins were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than the bond strengths of the orthodontic brackets cemented with traditional adhesives and orthodontic composite resins. Notwithstanding, the bond strengths achieved with the transilluminated light-cured composite resins should be adequate to withstand the forces of mastication and orthodontic movements. There was no correlation of bond strengths of the brackets cemented with the transilluminated light-cured composite resins when compared to the faciolingual widths of the teeth.

  2. Develop, demonstrate, and verify large area composite structural bonding with polyimide adhesives. [adhesively bonding graphite-polyimide structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhombal, B. D.; Wykes, D. H.; Hong, K. C.; Stenersen, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The technology required to produce graphite-polyimide structural components with operational capability at 598 K (600 F) is considered. A series of polyimide adhesives was screened for mechanical and physical properties and processibility in fabricating large midplane bonded panels and honeycomb sandwich panels in an effort to fabricate a structural test component of the space shuttle aft body flap. From 41 formulations, LaRC-13, FM34B-18, and a modified LaRC-13 adhesive were selected for further evaluation. The LaRC-13 adhesive was rated as the best of the three adhesives in terms of availability, cost, processibility, properties, and ability to produce void fee large area (12" x 12") midplane bonds. Surface treatments and primers for the adhesives were evaluated and processes were developed for the fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels of very good quality which was evidenced by rupture in the honeycomb core rather than in the facesheet bands on flatwise tensile strength testing. The fabrication of the adhesively bonded honeycomb sandwich cover panels, ribs, and leading edge covers of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide laminates is described.

  3. An evaluation and comparison of shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin, using newer dentin bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Mithra N; Bhandary, Shruti

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the shear bond strength of Total etch Prime and Bond NT and self etch newer dentin bonding agents Clearfil S3, Xeno III Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond and G Bond used to bond composite resin to dentin, and to compare the difference in the shear bond strengths of the self etch newer dentin bonding agents. Hundred freshly extracted noncarious human maxillary premolar teeth were selected. The occlusal surfaces of each tooth were ground to prepare flat dentin surfaces at a depth of 1.5 mm and were randomly grouped, with twenty specimens in each: Group I - Prime and Bond NT, Group II - Clearfil Protect Bond, Group III - Xeno III Bond, Group IV - Clearfil S3 Bond, Group V - G Bond. Each group was treated with its respective bonding agents, as per the manufacturers' instructions Clearfill – Kuraray, Japan, G bond – GC Tokyo, Japan, Xeno- De Trey Densply, Germany. Blocks or Cylinders of composite resin were built up using Teflon mold and cured. Shear bond strengths were tested using Instron Universal testing machine and recorded in Mpa. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way anova and Tukeys HSD test. The total etch adhesive showed higher shear bond strength than self etching adhesives (P < 0.001). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that all the adhesive agents evaluated showed optimal shear bond strength 17-20 Mpa, except G bond. However, shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin is better with one bottle total etch adhesive than with the newer self etching bonding agents. PMID:20142888

  4. Investigation of adhesive bond cure conditions using nonlinear ultrasonic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Tobias Paul

    2000-09-01

    Various linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling have been used to study aluminum-adhesive- aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible nondestructive bond strength determination. Although our improperly cured adhesive bonds are expected to exhibit a reduced adhesion strength, ultrasonic characterization of all samples using small-amplitude techniques did not reveal differences between the various samples. The ill-cured bonds appear to differ from the well-cured ones only in their acoustic velocities in the adhesive. Thus, the ill-cured adhesives exhibit longitudinal and shear wave velocities that are several percent higher than in the normal-cured adhesives. Therefore, in the course of a larger research effort, we have investigated a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods for the acquisition of data that would possibly allow to differentiate the various cure conditions as well as the degree of adhesion. For example, we have explored numerous normal and oblique incidence approaches, that are based on nonlinear harmonic generation, and we have explored several non- collinear two-wave interaction approaches. In this dissertation, we report on theoretical aspects and experimental results obtained so far using different normal incidence setups. First, we discuss an approach in which the sample is mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer that is operated at one frequency and one excitation level. Subsequently, we discuss several variable excitation frequency and variable excitation level setups. Due to a combination of complicating factors, even if powerful sample-related resonances via a frequency scanning approach are exploited, it is extremely difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of an adhesive bond. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach has been quite successful in acquiring nonlinear ultrasonic data that appears to be

  5. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, S; Bahman, S; Arghavan, A B; Fatemeh, M

    2008-06-01

    Amalgam's non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior teeth with intact buccal or lingual surfaces were grounded to expose dentin and wet-polished with 400-grit silicone carbide paper. Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus adhesive system was applied to the dentin surfaces and light cured. Amalgam was condensed onto the treated dentin through a plastic mold.shear bond strength testing was done using an Instron Universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test The difference among the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05) Bonded amalgam showed the same level of bond strength to primary and permanent dentin; so, application of amalgam bonding agents in pediatric dentistry can be recommended.

  6. Effect of Different Bonding Strategies on Adhesion to Deep and Superficial Permanent Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Pegado, Rafael Eduardo Fernandes; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different bonding strategies on the microtensile bond strength to deep and superficial permanent dentin. Methods: Forty-eight teeth were randomly flattened according to the dentin depth: superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Subsequently, three adhesive systems were applied (n=8): an etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2 - SB), a “mild” two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond - SE) and a one-step self-etching adhesive system (Futurabond – FB). Each specimen was restored with a composite resin and sectioned into 1.0-mm2 thick slabs. After 24 hours, resin-dentin sticks were submitted to tensile stress in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test at a level of 0.05%. Results: Superficial dentin showed the highest microtensile bond strength values, which differed statistically from those obtained in the deep dentin, irrespective of the adhesive system used. FB yielded the highest bond strength values, which were statistically similar to the bond strength values of SE, but statistically different from those obtained when the SB adhesive was used. Conclusions: Bond strength obtained in superficial dentin was significantly higher than in deep dentin, for all adhesive systems tested. Adhesion was affected by the different bonding strategies: the one-step, low pH, acetone-based self-etching adhesive promoted the higher bond strength values, which were statistically similar to those obtained with the two-step, water-based self-etching adhesive. PMID:20396440

  7. Improvement in Adhesive Strength of PTFE using Nitrogen Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    The adhesive strength doesn't improve so much even if the surface is activated. It is known that PTFE (polytetra fluoroethylene) is one of the collapse type polymer since the binding energy of main chain is smaller than that of side chain. Accordingly, it is assumed that adhesive strength may improve by suppressing the collapse of structure. It is also expected that introduction of cross-linking structure may suppress the collapse of structure. It was confirmed that a lot of polar radicals were introduced at the surface by nitrogen ion irradiation around 30 eV. Thus, to introduce the cross-linking structure several 100 eV nitrogen ions were irradiated after irradiation of nitrogen with 30 eV ion. As a result, adhesive strength irradiated by 300 eV improved more than that of 1000 eV. From the result of XPS (X-ray-Photoelectron-Spectroscopy) analysis, many C-N-C bonds contributing cross-linking structure was detected at a shallow layer by irradiation of ions with 300 eV. From these results, it is concluded that the depth of cross-link formation is important to improve the adhesive strength.

  8. Curli mediate bacterial adhesion to fibronectin via tensile multiple bonds

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Gruber, Hermann J.; Cui, Yidan; Traxler, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Park, Sungsu; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many enteric bacteria including pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains produce curli fibers that bind to host surfaces, leading to bacterial internalization into host cells. By using a nanomechanical force-sensing approach, we obtained real-time information about the distribution of molecular bonds involved in the adhesion of curliated bacteria to fibronectin. We found that curliated E. coli and fibronectin formed dense quantized and multiple specific bonds with high tensile strength, resulting in tight bacterial binding. Nanomechanical recognition measurements revealed that approximately 10 bonds were disrupted either sequentially or simultaneously under force load. Thus the curli formation of bacterial surfaces leads to multi-bond structural components of fibrous nature, which may explain the strong mechanical binding of curliated bacteria to host cells and unveil the functions of these proteins in bacterial internalization and invasion. PMID:27652888

  9. Curli mediate bacterial adhesion to fibronectin via tensile multiple bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yoo Jin; Hubauer-Brenner, Michael; Gruber, Hermann J.; Cui, Yidan; Traxler, Lukas; Siligan, Christine; Park, Sungsu; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Many enteric bacteria including pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains produce curli fibers that bind to host surfaces, leading to bacterial internalization into host cells. By using a nanomechanical force-sensing approach, we obtained real-time information about the distribution of molecular bonds involved in the adhesion of curliated bacteria to fibronectin. We found that curliated E. coli and fibronectin formed dense quantized and multiple specific bonds with high tensile strength, resulting in tight bacterial binding. Nanomechanical recognition measurements revealed that approximately 10 bonds were disrupted either sequentially or simultaneously under force load. Thus the curli formation of bacterial surfaces leads to multi-bond structural components of fibrous nature, which may explain the strong mechanical binding of curliated bacteria to host cells and unveil the functions of these proteins in bacterial internalization and invasion.

  10. Tensile bond strength between custom tray and elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Oka, Morihiko; Minagi, Shogo; Irie, Masao; Suzuki, Kazuomi

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how to achieve sufficient and stable adhesive strength between impression material and tray. Impression materials were molded between autopolymerizing resin columns, and tensile strength was measured as a function of these factors: tray storage time (1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days), adhesive drying time (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes), and tray surface roughness (air abrasion, bur-produced roughness, and no treatment). Tensile bond strength was not affected by tray storage time throughout the entire evaluation period of 10 days. As for tray adhesive drying time, Reprosil and Exaimplant yielded extremely low values for drying times of 10 minutes or less (P<0.05), while Imprint II and Impregum were not influenced by drying time. Vinyl polysiloxane achieved the highest adhesive strength with bur-produced roughness, which was significantly higher than with air abrasion or no treatment (P<0.05), whereas polyether achieved the lowest value with bur-produced roughness (P<0.05). It was concluded that surface treatment of custom tray should be adapted to the type of impression material used to achieve optimum bond strength.

  11. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  12. Shear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel and Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Jennifer; Schauseil, Michael; Stein, Steffen; Roggendorf, Matthias; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond™ and Scotchbond™) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT™. Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, n = 30) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with Transbond XT primer. In the experimental groups iBond adhesive (group 2) and Scotchbond Universal adhesive (group 3) were used. The SBS was measured using a Zwicki 1120™ testing machine. The ARI and SBS were compared statistically using the Kruskal–Wallis test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Significant differences in SBS and ARI were found between the control group and experimental groups. Conclusions. Transbond XT showed the highest SBS on human enamel. Scotchbond Universal on average provides the best bonding on all other types of surface (metal, composite, and porcelain), with no need for additional primers. It might therefore be helpful for simplifying bonding in orthodontic procedures on restorative materials in patients. If metal brackets have to be bonded to a metal surface, the use of a dual-curing resin is recommended. PMID:27738633

  13. Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Ceramics Using an Asymmetric Wedge Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Kern, M.; Wegner, S. M. Bonding to Zirconia Ceramic: Adhesion Methods and Their Durability. Dental Materials 1998, 14 (1), 64. 18. Newman, S. M...moisture durability of adhesive bonding of ceramics is dental applications (12–14). The adhesive bonding of ceramic orthodontic inserts presents unique...removal and repair (15, 18). Determining fracture mechanics–based strain energy release rates across the interface of dental bonds has been

  14. Tissue repair strength using chitosan adhesives with different physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthew J; Morley, John W; Mahns, David A; Mawad, Damia; Wuhrer, Richard; Fania, David; Frost, Samuel J; Loebbe, Christian; Lauto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    A range of chitosan-based biomaterials have recently been used to perform sutureless, laser-activated tissue repair. Laser-activation has the advantage of bonding to tissue through a non-contact, aseptic mechanism. Chitosan adhesive films have also been shown to adhere to sheep intestine strongly without any chemical modification to chitosan. In this study, we continue to investigate chitosan adhesive films and explore the impact on the tissue repair strength and tensile strength characteristics of four types of adhesive film based on chitosan with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Results showed that adhesives based on chitosan with medium molecular weight achieved the highest bonding strength, tensile strength and E-modulus when compared to the other adhesives.

  15. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite Resin for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Yassaei, Soghra; Davari, Abdolrahim; Goldani Moghadam, Mahjobeh; Kamaei, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin for bonding metal and ceramic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into 4 groups (n=22). In groups 1 and 2, 22 metal and ceramic brackets were bonded using composite resin (Transbond XT), respectively. Twenty-two metal and ceramic brackets in groups 3 and 4, respectively were bonded using RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, Japan). After photo polymerization, the teeth were stored in water and thermocycled (500 cycles between 5° and 55°). The SBS value of each sample was determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The amount of residual adhesive remaining on each tooth was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analyses were done using two-way ANOVA. Results: RMGI bonded brackets had significantly lower SBS value compared to composite resin bonded groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between metal and ceramic brackets bonded with either the RMGI or composite resin. The comparison of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores between the groups indicated that the bracket failure mode was significantly different among groups (P<0.001) with more adhesive remaining on the teeth bonded with composite resin. Conclusion: RMGIs have significantly lower SBS compared to composite resin for orthodontic bonding purposes; however the provided SBS is still within the clinically acceptable range. PMID:25628663

  16. The effect of surface treatments and bonding regimens on microtensile bond strengths of repaired composite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Gouri Smita; Manjunath, MK

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the microtensile bond strength of repaired composite resin that was surface treated by diamond point or silicon carbide followed by bonding using either only total- etch bonding regimen or silane coupling agent with adhesive resin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen composite blocks were aged under deionized water for 14 days. The bonding surface was prepared with coarse diamond point or silicon carbide. Two blocks with no surface treatment were used as control groups. The bonding regimen was either total-etch bonding regimen or silane coupling agent and bonding agent. The aged samples were then bonded to new composite. Five sections per block (each 1mm thick) were prepared; cut to obtain an adhesive zone of approximately 1mm2 and subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. Results: The highest bond strength was obtained by surface treatment by coarse diamond point and total etch bonding regimen and least by silicon carbide and silane. A statistically significant difference was seen in all the four groups. Conclusions: Surface treatment by a coarse diamond point and total-etch bonding regimen provides highest bond strength. Thus, a simpler treatment regimen can contribute to a better bond strength in repaired composites. PMID:23112489

  17. Study of the Influence of Particle Velocity on Adhesive Strength of Cold Spray Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, R.; Fukanuma, H.

    2012-06-01

    The adhesion mechanism of deposit/substrate interface prepared by the cold spray method is not fully understood at present. It seems that the adhesion strength is mainly determined by the mechanical (including the plastic deformation of particle and substrate) and thermal interaction between particle and substrate when the particles impact onto the substrate with a high velocity. In order to understand the adhesion mechanism, a novel adhesive strength test was developed to measure the higher bonding strength of cold sprayed coatings in this study. The method breaks through the limits imposed by glue strength in the conventional adhesive strength test, and it can be used to measure the coatings with a higher adhesive strength. The particle velocity was obtained with DPV-2000 measurement and CFD simulation. The relationships between the adhesion strength of deposits/substrate interface and particle velocity were discussed. The results show that stronger adhesion strength can be obtained with the increase of particle velocity. There are two available ways to improve the adhesion strength. One is to increase the temperature of working gas, and another is to employ helium gas as the working gas instead of nitrogen gas.

  18. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Thermal Degradation in Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Mal, Ajit K.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1994-01-01

    The critical role played by adhesive bonds in lap joints is well known. A good knowledge of the mechanical properties of adhesive bonds in lap joints is a prerequisite to the design and reliable prediction of the performance of these bonded structures. Furthermore, the lap joint may be subject to high-temperature environments in service. Early detection of the degree of thermal degradation in adhesive bonds is required under these circumstances. A variety of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques can be used to determine the thickness and the elastic moduli of adhesively bonded joints. In this paper we apply a previously developed technique based on the leaky Lamb wave (LLW) experiment to investigate the possibility of characterizing the thermal degradation of adhesive bonds in lap joints. The degradation of the adhesive bonds is determined through comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations.

  19. Fracture strength and adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite-filled polycaprolactone.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shing-Chung; Baji, Avinash

    2008-02-01

    Fracture toughness and tear strength of hydroxyapatite (HAP)-filled poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) with increasing HAP concentration were studied. The toughness was assessed in terms of essential work of fracture (EWF). Adhesive strength between HAP and PCL interfaces was evaluated using T-peel testing. The adhesion between the two components was found to be relatively strong. Double edge notched tension (DENT) and trousers test specimens were used for the EWF tests. The effect of HAP phase in PCL on the fracture and tearing toughness was investigated. The results obtained from the EWF tests for the HAP-filled PCL complied with the validity criteria of the EWF concept, namely, (1) geometric similarity for all ligament lengths; (2) fully yielded ligament and (3) plane-stress fracture condition. Values for specific essential work of fracture (w ( e )) and specific plastic work of fracture (betaw ( p )) were found to decrease with increase in HAP concentration. The testing procedure showed promise in quantifying the tearing resistance and rising R-curve behavior common in natural materials and it can be extended to other biomaterials that exhibit post-yield deformation. A quantitative assessment based on fracture mechanics of the adhesive strength between the bioactive interfaces plays an important role for continued development of tissue replacement and tissue regeneration materials.

  20. Adhesive bonding of a lithium disilicate ceramic material with resin-based luting agents.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Kawamoto, Y; Kakehashi, Y; Matsumura, H

    2005-08-01

    This study evaluates the bonding characteristics of a lithium disilicate-based ceramic material (IPS Empress 2). Two sizes of disk specimens of the material were made, and three groups of disk pairs were separately surface-prepared using three techniques; etching with phosphoric acid, etching with hydrofluoric acid, and air-abrasion with alumina. Each group was further divided into four sub-groups; group (i) was bonded with the Variolink II composite, (ii) was treated with the Monobond-S silane primer and bonded with the Variolink II composite, (iii) was bonded with the Super-Bond acrylic adhesive and (iv) was treated with the Porcelain Liner M silane primer and bonded with the Super-Bond acrylic adhesive. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 100 000 thermocycles. Bond strength varied from 10.6 to 71.5 MPa before thermocycling, whereas post-thermocycling bond strength ranged from 0 to 61.2 MPa. Among the three surface preparations, hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) was most effective in enhancing bond strength of both luting materials, especially for unsilanized specimens. Application of the silane primer elevated bond strength of both luting agents regardless of surface preparation method. It can be concluded, for both luting agents, that durable bond to the Empress 2 ceramic material can be achieved through the combined application of HF and the proprietary silane primer.

  1. Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds from Guided Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mal, A. K.; Lih, S-S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The critical role played by adhesive bonds in the fracture and failure of composites and other bonded materials is well known. A good knowledge of the mechanical properties of these adhesion joints is a prerequisite to reliable design and reliable prediction of the performance of these bonded structures.

  2. Influence of Etching Mode on Enamel Bond Durability of Universal Adhesive Systems.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Endo, H; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the enamel bond durability of three universal adhesives in different etching modes through fatigue testing. The three universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Prime&Bond Elect universal dental adhesive, and All-Bond Universal light-cured dental adhesive. A single-step self-etch adhesive, Clearfil S(3) Bond Plus was used as a control. The shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) to human enamel were evaluated in total-etch mode and self-etch mode. A stainless steel metal ring with an internal diameter of 2.4 mm was used to bond the resin composite to the flat-ground (4000-grit) tooth surfaces for determination of both SBS and SFS. For each enamel surface treatment, 15 specimens were prepared for SBS and 30 specimens for SFS. The staircase method for fatigue testing was then used to determine the SFS of the resin composite bonded to the enamel using 10-Hz frequencies for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe representative debonded specimen surfaces and the resin-enamel interfaces. A two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used for analysis of the SBS data, whereas a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for the SFS data. All adhesives in total-etch mode showed significantly higher SBS and SFS values than those in self-etch mode. Although All-Bond Universal in self-etch mode showed a significantly lower SBS value than the other adhesives, there was no significant difference in SFS values among the adhesives in this mode. All adhesives showed higher SFS:SBS ratios in total-etch mode than in self-etch mode. With regard to the adhesive systems used in this study, universal adhesives showed higher enamel bond strengths in total-etch mode. Although the influence of different etching modes on the enamel-bonding performance of universal adhesives was found to be dependent on the adhesive material, total-etch mode

  3. Evaluation of micro-shear bond strength of resin modified glass-ionomer to composite resins using various bonding systems

    PubMed Central

    Kasraie, Shahin; Shokripour, Mohadese; Safari, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare the micro-shear bond strength between composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) by different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 discs of RMGI with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 2 mm were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4). Four cylinders of composite resin (z250) were bonded to the RMGI discs with Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond in Groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group was the control. Samples were tested by a mechanical testing machine with a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Failure mode was assessed under a stereo-microscope. Results: The means of micro-shear bond strength values for Groups 1-4 were 14.45, 23.49, 16.23 and 5.46 MPa, respectively. Using a bonding agent significantly increased micro-shear bond strength (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Micro-shear bond strength of RMGI to composite increased significantly with the use of adhesive resin. The bond strength of RMGI to composite resin could vary depending upon the type of adhesive system used. PMID:24347892

  4. Effects of dentin depth and cavity configuration on bond strength.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Sano, H; Burrow, M F; Tagami, J; Pashley, D H

    1999-04-01

    During polymerization of resin composites, shrinkage stresses compete with resin-dentin bonds in a manner that can cause failure of the bond, depending upon the configuration of the cavity, its depth, and the restorative technique. The hypothesis tested in this study was that the effect of cavity configuration (C) and remaining dentin thickness (RDT) influence resin bond strength to the dentin of Class I cavity floors. The occlusal enamel was ground to expose a flat superficial dentin surface as a control (superficial dentin, C-factor = 1) in human extracted third molars. Cavities 3 mm long x 4 mm wide were prepared to a depth 2 mm below the ground dentin surfaces (deep dentin within cavity floor, C-factor = 3). To assess the relationship between C-factor and RDT, we removed the walls of cavities, making a deep flat surface for bonding (deep dentin, C-factor = 1). The teeth were restored with either Clearfil Liner Bond II (LB II), One-Step (OS), or Super-Bond D Liner (DL), followed by Clearfil Photo Posterior resin composite. After 24 hrs' storage in water, the teeth were sectioned vertically into 3 or 4 slabs (0.7 mm thick) and trimmed for the micro-tensile bond test so that we could determine the strength of the resin bonds to the pulpal floor. All groups gave high bond strengths to superficial dentin, but OS and DL gave significantly lower bond strengths to flat deep dentin when the C-factor was 1. When the C-factor was increased to 3 by the creation of a three-dimensional cavity preparation, the bond strengths of all materials fell (range, 21 to 35%), but the difference was significant (p < 0.05) only with DL. SEM observations of failure patterns showed that specimens with high bond strengths tended to exhibit cohesive failures within the hybrid layer, while specimens exhibiting low bond strengths showed failures at the top of the hybrid layer. Some adhesives do not bond well to deep dentin, making them more susceptible to polymerization shrinkage stress that

  5. Bonded amalgam restorations: using a glass-ionomer as an adhesive liner.

    PubMed

    Chen, R S; Liu, C C; Cheng, M R; Lin, C P

    2000-01-01

    Due to the lack of adhesiveness of amalgam to tooth structure, several adhesive cements have been utilized in bonded amalgam restorations. This study evaluated whether Fuji-II glass-ionomer cement is an appropriate adhesive liner in bonded amalgam restorations. Two adhesive composite luting cements (Amalgambond Plus and Panavia-21) and Copalite cavity liner were compared. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first part, we quantitatively assessed the tensile bond strengths as well as the failure modes of amalgam bonded to human dentin, using different adhesive liners. In each group, the flat dentin surface was treated with the assigned adhesive cement with a Teflon mold, followed by condensation of amalgam (Valiant PhD) onto it. Each group's mean tensile bond strengths were recorded and the statistical analysis by one way ANOVA showed no significant differences among groups (p > 0.05). Similar to the fracture patterns of the Amalgambond Plus and Panavia-21 groups, the failure mode of Fuji-II group was predominantly adhesive fracture. In the second part, the fracture strengths of amalgam restored teeth were measured using different adhesive liners. Standard MOD cavities were prepared in each tooth except for the intact tooth group. After treatment with the assigned adhesives or varnish, the cavities were restored with amalgam. Fracture strengths were then measured and the fractured interfaces examined using a scanning electron microscope. The fracture strengths of the intact tooth, Amalgambond Plus, Panavia-21 and Fuji-II groups were significantly higher than those of the Copalite and prepared cavity without restoration groups (p < 0.01). Accordingly, Fuji-II glass-ionomer cement, when used as an adhesive liner of amalgam restoration, may effectively reinforce the remaining tooth structure and, therefore, enhance the fracture resistance of the amalgam-restored teeth.

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Nanocomposites to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Vinay Kumar; Shetty, Vikram K; Kushwah, Sudhanshu; Goyal, Geeta; Chandra, S.M. Sharath

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare the shear bond strength of nanocomposites to dentin using three different types of adhesive systems; and to test few specimens under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for analysing whether the bond failure is adhesive or cohesive. Materials and Methods: Sixty human premolar teeth were selected and were randomly grouped, with 20 specimens in each group: group 1 - fluoride releasing dentin bonding agent; group 2 - antibacterial containing dentin bonding agent; and group 3 - one step conventional self etch adhesive. Each group was treated with its respective bonding agents, composite resin build up was done, and shear bond strengths were tested using Instron Universal testing machine. Few of the specimens were tested under SEM. Results: The results were statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA and paired t-test. It was observed that group 3 has the highest shear bond strength followed by group 2, and then group 1. Adhesive failures and mixed failures were most frequent types of failures as seen under SEM. Conclusion: Addition of antimicrobial agent decreases the bond strength of dentin bonding agent and addition of fluoride further decreases the bond strength. From SEM results it can be concluded that the zone of failure could not be defined and also that the failure mode was independent of the dentin bonding agent used. PMID:25738077

  7. Transcripts of the Presentations at the Workshop on NDE of Adhesive Bond Strength Held in Orlando, Florida on 13-14 April 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    case all the time. One system, for 5 example, is bullet resistant glass in which the bullet resistant glass is glass plates with a plastic in between...going on there. Figure 1 is a cross-section of the blade, this is the glass epoxy understructure here, on top of that is an electroactive coating that is...there for enhancing certain electrical characteristics of the blade. There is on top of that an epoxy primer, an adhesive carried by a glass scrim

  8. Effects of Type I Collagen Degradation on the Durability of Three Adhesive Systems in the Early Phase of Dentin Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin; Xiao, Yu-hong; Fang, Ming; Gao, Yu; Huang, Li; Jia, An-qi; Chen, Ji-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding. Methods Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by calculating their Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Aging induced time-dependent reduction in micro-tensile bond strengths for all the tested adhesive systems, although such reduction for the single-step self-etching adhesive G-Bond (GB) was not statistically significant. The bond strength of the two-step self-etching primer adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond (SEB) was similar to that of the two-step etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesive system Single Bond 2 (SB), and they were both significantly reduced after one or four months of aging. A negative correlation was found between the degree of collagen degradation and magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength (r = - 0.65, p = 0.003). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.426, indicating that 42.6% of the aging-induced reduction in bond strength can be explained by the degradation of collagen. Conclusions In the early phase of dentin bonding, there was a negative correlation between the degree of collagen degradation and the magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength. The reduction of bond strength was accompanied by the degradation of collagen. These results provide evidence for the causative relationship between the degradation of collagen and the deterioration of dentin-adhesive interface. PMID:25689141

  9. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  10. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with Er-YAG laser etching

    PubMed Central

    Raji, S. Hamid; Birang, Reza; Majdzade, Fateme; Ghorbanipour, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Based on contradictory findings concerning the use of lasers for enamel etching, the purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of teeth prepared for bonding with Er-YAG laser etching and compare them with phosphoric acid etching. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study forty – eight premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes were randomly divided in to three groups. Thirty-two teeth were exposed to laser energy for 25 s: 16 teeth at 100 mj setting and 16 teeth at 150 mj setting. Sixteen teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. The shear bond strength of bonded brackets with the Transbond XT adhesive system was measured with the Zwick testing machine. Descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, of homogeneity of variances, one- way analysis of variances and Tukey's test and Kruskal Wallis were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean shear bond strength of the teeth lased with 150 mj was 12.26 ± 4.76 MPa, which was not significantly different from the group with acid etching (15.26 ± 4.16 MPa). Irradiation with 100 mj resulted in mean bond strengths of 9.05 ± 3.16 MPa, which was significantly different from that of acid etching (P < 0.001). Conclusions: laser etching at 150 and 100 mj was adequate for bond strength but the failure pattern of brackets bonded with laser etching is dominantly at adhesive – enamel interface and is not safe for enamel during debonding. PMID:23087733

  11. Effect of bonding material, etching time and silane on the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to ceramic.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Vedovello Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to feldspathic ceramic with different etching times, bonding materials and with or without silane application. Cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 or 60 s. For each etching time, half of the cylinders received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) or Fuji Ortho LC (GC). Light-activation was carried out with total exposure time of 40 s using UltraLume 5. Shear bond strength testing was performed after 24 h storage. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Specimens etched for 60 s had significantly higher bond strength compared with 20 s. The application of silane was efficient in increasing the shear bond strength between ceramic and both fixed materials. Transbond XT showed significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than Fuji Orth LC. There was a predominance of ARI score 0 (clean ceramic failure surface) for all groups, with an increase in scores 1, 2 and 3 (adhesive material increasingly present on ceramic failure aspect) for the 60-s etching time. In conclusion, 60-s etching time, silane and Transbond XT improved significantly the shear bond strength of brackets to ceramic.

  12. System integration and demonstration of adhesive bonded high temperature aluminum alloys for aerospace structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Laakso, John H.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive bonding materials and processes were evaluated for assembly of future high-temperature aluminum alloy structural components such as may be used in high-speed civil transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. A number of candidate high-temperature adhesives were selected and screening tests were conducted using single lap shear specimens. The selected adhesives were then used to bond sandwich (titanium core) test specimens, adhesive toughness test specimens, and isothermally aged lap shear specimens. Moderate-to-high lap shear strengths were obtained from bonded high-temperature aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced (SiC(sub p)) aluminum specimens. Shear strengths typically exceeded 3500 to 4000 lb/in(sup 2) and flatwise tensile strengths exceeded 750 lb/in(sup 2) even at elevated temperatures (300 F) using a bismaleimide adhesive. All faceskin-to-core bonds displayed excellent tear strength. The existing production phosphoric acid anodize surface preparation process developed at Boeing was used, and gave good performance with all of the aluminum and silicon carbide particulate-reinforced aluminum alloys investigated. The results of this program support using bonded assemblies of high-temperature aluminum components in applications where bonding is often used (e.g., secondary structures and tear stoppers).

  13. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  14. Evaluation of bonding behavior of silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy to adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Kawaguchi, T; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2010-12-01

    The bond strengths of a silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy used with adhesive luting cements were investigated. The metal surfaces were primed with two metal conditioners designed for noble metal alloys or base metal alloys, or prepared using a Rocatec tribochemical coating unit. Two adhesive luting cements (Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F 2.0) were applied. It can be concluded that airborne-particle abrasion with alumina was effective, but the effects on the bond durability of both the metal conditioners and the tribochemical silica coating method were not clear Such bonding behavior seems to be particular to this kind of silver-rich dental casting alloy.

  15. Adhesive Bonding of Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites for Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerny, Jennifer; Morscher, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    High temperature adhesives with good thermal conductivity, mechanical performance, and long term durability are crucial for the assembly of heat rejection system components for space exploration missions. In the present study, commercially available adhesives were used to bond high conductivity carbon-carbon composites to titanium sheets. Bonded pieces were also exposed to high (530 to 600 Kelvin for 24 hours) and low (liquid nitrogen 77K for 15 minutes) temperatures to evaluate the integrity of the bonds. Results of the microstructural characterization and tensile shear strengths of bonded specimens will be reported. The effect of titanium surface roughness on the interface microstructure will also be discussed.

  16. Bond strength of composite resin to pulp capping biomaterials after application of three different bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Jaberi-Ansari, Zahra; Mahdilou, Maryam; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Bonding of composite resin filling materials to pulp protecting agents produces an adhesive joint which is important for the quality of filling as well as success of restoration. We aimed to assess the bond strength of composite resin to three pulp capping biomaterials: Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate (PMTA), Root MTA (RMTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, using three bonding systems [a total-etch (Single Bond) and two self-etch systems (Protect bond and SE Bond)]. Materials and methods. Ninety acrylic molds, each containing a 6×2-mm hole, were divided into 3 groups and filled with PMTA, RMTA and CEM cements. The samples in each experimental group were then randomly divided into 3 sub-groups; Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond bonding systems were applied to the tested materials. Cylindrical forms of composite resin (Z100, 2×2 mm) were placed onto the samples and cured. Shear bond strength values were measured for 9 subgroups using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. The average shear bond strengths of Z100 composite resin after application of Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond systems were as follows; PMTA: 5.1±2.42, 4.56±1.96 and 4.52±1.7; RMTA: 4.71±1.77, 4.31±0.56 and 4.79±1.88; and CEM cement: 4.75±1.1, 4.54±1.59 and 4.64±1.78 MPa, respectively. The type of pulp capping material, bonding system and their interacting effects did not have a significant effect on the bond strengths of composite resin to pulp capping biomaterials. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this in vitrostudy, bond strength of composite resin to two types of MTA as well as CEM cement were similar following application of the total-etch or self-etch bonding systems.

  17. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Pulp Capping Biomaterials after Application of Three Different Bonding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi-Ansari, Zahra; Mahdilou, Maryam; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Asgary, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Bonding of composite resin filling materials to pulp protecting agents produces an adhesive joint which is important for the quality of filling as well as success of restoration. We aimed to assess the bond strength of composite resin to three pulp capping biomaterials: Pro Root mineral trioxide aggregate (PMTA), Root MTA (RMTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, using three bonding systems [a total-etch (Single Bond) and two self-etch systems (Protect bond and SE Bond)]. Materials and methods. Ninety acrylic molds, each containing a 6×2-mm hole, were divided into 3 groups and filled with PMTA, RMTA and CEM cements. The samples in each experimental group were then randomly divided into 3 sub-groups; Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond bonding systems were applied to the tested materials. Cylindrical forms of composite resin (Z100, 2×2 mm) were placed onto the samples and cured. Shear bond strength values were measured for 9 subgroups using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. The average shear bond strengths of Z100 composite resin after application of Single Bond, Protect Bond and SE Bond systems were as follows; PMTA: 5.1±2.42, 4.56±1.96 and 4.52±1.7; RMTA: 4.71±1.77, 4.31±0.56 and 4.79±1.88; and CEM cement: 4.75±1.1, 4.54±1.59 and 4.64±1.78 MPa, respectively. The type of pulp capping material, bonding system and their interacting effects did not have a significant effect on the bond strengths of composite resin to pulp capping biomaterials. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this in vitrostudy, bond strength of composite resin to two types of MTA as well as CEM cement were similar following application of the total-etch or self-etch bonding systems. PMID:24082986

  18. Adhesive-bonded scarf and stepped-lap joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Continuum mechanics solutions are derived for the static load-carrying capacity of scarf and stepped-lap adhesive-bonded joints. The analyses account for adhesive plasticity and adherend stiffness imbalance and thermal mismatch. The scarf joint solutions include a simple algebraic formula which serves as a close lower bound, within a small fraction of a per cent of the true answer for most practical geometries and materials. Digital computer programs were developed and, for the stepped-lap joints, the critical adherend and adhesive stresses are computed for each step. The scarf joint solutions exhibit grossly different behavior from that for double-lap joints for long overlaps inasmuch as that the potential bond shear strength continues to increase with indefinitely long overlaps on the scarf joints. The stepped-lap joint solutions exhibit some characteristics of both the scarf and double-lap joints. The stepped-lap computer program handles arbitrary (different) step lengths and thickness and the solutions obtained have clarified potentially weak design details and the remedies. The program has been used effectively to optimize the joint proportions.

  19. [The application of universal adhesives in dental bonding].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingmei; Lei, Wenlong; Yang, Hongye; Huang, Cui

    2016-03-01

    The bonding restoration has become an important clinical technique for the development of dental bonding technology. Because of its easy operation and the maximum preservation of tooth tissues, bonding repair is widely used in dental restoration. The recent multi-mode universal adhesives have brought new progress in dental bonding restoration. In this article the universal adhesives were reviewed according to its definition, development, improvement, application features and possible problems.

  20. Retentive shear strengths of various bonding attachment bases.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J I

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the commercially available attachment bases had significantly better retentive properties. This was determined by their shear strengths after all were bonded to bovine incisors with Auto-Tach. The mean shear strengths of sixteen bases were statistically compared to each other at 24 hours and at 30 days. In addition, the data were converted to pounds per square inch to ascertain if the size of the base significantly influenced the mean shear strength. It was concluded that (1). one of the foil mesh bases tested for shear strength was significantly superior to the two other base designs (indents with undercuts and solid bases with perforations); (2). mechanical retention of the attachment bases to the adhesive was not significantly affected after being placed in distilled water at 37 degrees C. either for 24 hours or for 30 days; (3). smaller foil mesh bases could be used without sacrificing significant shear strength.

  1. Evaluation of enamel damages following orthodontic bracket debonding in fluorosed teeth bonded with adhesion promoter

    PubMed Central

    Baherimoghadam, Tahreh; Akbarian, Sahar; Rasouli, Reza; Naseri, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) of the orthodontic brackets bonded to fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth using Light Bond with and without adhesion promoters and compare their enamel damages following debonding. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 fluorosed (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index = 4–5) and 30 nonfluorosed teeth were randomly distributed between two subgroups according to the bonding materials: Group 1, fluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 2, fluorosed teeth bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond; Group 3, nonfluorosed teeth bonded with Light Bond; Group 4, nonfluorosed bonded with adhesion promoters and Light Bond. After bonding, the SBS of the brackets was tested with a universal testing machine. Stereomicroscopic evaluation was performed by unbiased stereology in all teeth to determine the amount of adhesive remnants and the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding and after debonding. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, Kruskal–Wallis, Wilcoxon Signed Rank, and Mann–Whitney test. Results: While fluorosis reduced the SBS of orthodontic bracket (P = 0.017), Enhance Locus Ceruleus LC significantly increased the SBS of the orthodontic bracket in fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth (P = 0.039). Significant increasing in the number and length of enamel crack after debonding was found in all four groups. There were no significant differences in the length of enamel crack increased after debonding among four groups (P = 0.768) while increasing in the number of enamel cracks after debonding was significantly different among the four groups (P = 0.023). Teeth in Group 2 showed the highest enamel damages among four groups following debonding. Conclusion: Adhesion promoters could improve the bond strength of orthodontic brackets, but conservative debonding methods for decreasing enamel damages would be necessary. PMID:27095895

  2. Strength of Multiple Parallel Biological Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Noy, A

    2005-12-07

    Multivalent interactions play a critical role in a variety of biological processes on both molecular and cellular levels. We have used molecular force spectroscopy to investigate the strength of multiple parallel peptide-antibody bonds using a system that allowed us to determine the rupture forces and the number of ruptured bonds independently. In our experiments the interacting molecules were attached to the surfaces of the probe and sample of the atomic force microscope with flexible polymer tethers, and unique mechanical signature of the tethers determined the number of ruptured bonds. We show that the rupture forces increase with the number of interacting molecules and that the measured forces obey the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple parallel bonds. We also discuss the implications of our results to the interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements in multiple bond systems.

  3. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Bond Strength of 6th, 7th and 8th Generation Dentin Bonding Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, Suresh S; Kandasamy, Baburajan; Thillaigovindan, Ranjani; Goyal, Nitin Kumar; Talukdar, Pratim; Seal, Mukut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Newer dentin bonding agents were developed to improve the quality of composite restoration and to reduce time consumption in its application. The aim of the present study was to evaluate tensile bond strength of 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents by in vitro method. Materials and Methods: Selected 60 permanent teeth were assigned into 20 in each group (Group I: 6th generation bonding agent-Adper SE plus 3M ESPE, Group II: 7th generation bonding agent-G-Bond GC Corp Japan and Group III: 8th generation dentin adhesives-FuturaBond, DC, Voco, Germany). With high-speed diamond disc, coronal dentin was exposed, and selected dentin bonding agents were applied, followed by composite restoration. All samples were saved in saline for 24 h and tensile bond strength testing was done using a universal testing machine. The obtained data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The tensile bond strength readings for 6th generation bonding agent was 32.2465, for 7th generation was 31.6734, and for 8th-generation dentine bonding agent was 34.74431. The highest tensile bond strength was seen in 8th generation bonding agent compared to 6th and 7th generation bonding agents. Conclusion: From the present study it can be conclude that 8th generation dentine adhesive (Futura DC, Voco, Germany) resulted in highest tensile bond strength compared to 6th (Adper SE plus, 3M ESPE) and 7th generation (G-Bond) dentin bonding agents. PMID:26028901

  4. The Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on the Dentin Bond Durability of Two Self-etch Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Khamverdi, Zahra; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Rostamzadeh, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Self-etch adhesives can activate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which hydrolyzes organic matrix of demineralized dentin. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), especially found in green tea, could inhibit the activation of MMP. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) into two types of adhesives on dentin bond strength. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 64 extracted third molars were randomly divided into 16 groups. Clearfil SE Bond and Filtek Silorane System with 0 µM, 25µM, 50µM, and 100µM concentration of 95% EGCG were used for bonding. Following the bonding and fabrication of beams (1±0.1 mm2) and storage in distilled water, the specimens were subjected to thermal cycles. Microtensile bond strengths of 8 groups were examined after 24 hours and others were tested after 6 months. The fracture modes of specimens were evaluated by stereomicroscope and SEM. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t-test (α = 0.05). Results The results of the three- way ANOVA test showed that types of bonding, storage time and interactive effect of EGCG concentration and bonding influenced the bond strength of specimens significantly (p<0.05). The results of the t-test indicated that storage time only had significant effect on bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond with no EGCG (p= 0.017). The most common failure modes in Filtek Silorane System groups and Clearfil SE Bond groups were adhesive and mixed/cohesive, respectively. The results of SEM at different magnifications showed that most fractures have occurred in the hybrid layer. Conclusion Although adding 100 µM volume of EGCG to Clearfil SE Bond can preserve the dentin bond, incorporation of EGCG in the silorane system, especially in high concentrations, decreases the bond strength after 6 months. PMID:26046100

  5. Effects of silver nanoparticles on the bonding of three adhesive systems to fluorotic enamel.

    PubMed

    Torres-Méndez, Fernando; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel-Alejandro; Torres-Gallegos, Iranzihuatl; Zavala-Alonso, Norma-Verónica; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Niño-Martínez, Nereyda; Ruiz, Facundo

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of adding silver nanoparticles into three commercial adhesive systems (Excite™, Adper Prompt L-Pop™ and AdheSE™). Nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical method then mixed with the commercial adhesive systems. This was later applied to the fluorotic enamel, and then micro-tensile bond strength, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations were conducted. The commercial adhesive systems achieved the lowest micro-tensile bond strength (Excite™: 11.0±2.1, Adper Prompt L-Pop™: 14.0±5.4 and AdheSE™: 16.0±3.0 MPa) with the highest adhesive failure mode related with the highest contact angle (46.0±0.6º, 30.0±0.5º and 28.0±0.4º respectively). The bond strength achieved in all the experimental adhesive systems (19.0±5.4, 20.0±4.0 and 19.0±3.5 MPa respectively) was statistically higher (p<0.05) than the control and showed the highest cohesive failures related to the lowest contact angle. Adding silver nanoparticles in order to decrease the contact angle improve the adhesive system wetting and its bond strength.

  6. Fatigue strength of a single lap joint SPR-bonded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Franco, G.; Fratini, L.; Pasta, A.

    2011-05-01

    In the last years, hybrid joints, meaning with this the joints which consist in combining a traditional mechanical joint to a layer of adhesive, are gradually attracting the attention of various sectors of the construction of vehicles and transportation industries, for their better performance compared to just mechanical joints (self-piercing riveting SPR, riveting, and so on) or just to bonded joints. The paper investigates the fatigue behavior of a single lap joint self-piercing riveted (SPR) and bonded throughout fatigue tests. The considered geometric configuration allowed the use of two rivets placed longitudinally; an epoxy resin was used as adhesive. In the first part of the work static characterization of the joints was carried out through tensile tests. Then fatigue tests were made with the application of different levels of load. The fatigue curves were also obtained at the varying the distance between the two rivets in order to better assess the joint strength for a given length of overlap.

  7. Strength of a bifurcated H bond.

    PubMed

    Feldblum, Esther S; Arkin, Isaiah T

    2014-03-18

    Macromolecules are characterized by their particular arrangement of H bonds. Many of these interactions involve a single donor and acceptor pair, such as the regular H-bonding pattern between carbonyl oxygens and amide H(+)s four residues apart in α-helices. The H-bonding potential of some acceptors, however, leads to the phenomenon of overcoordination between two donors and one acceptor. Herein, using isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we measured the strength of such bifurcated H bonds in a transmembrane α-helix. Frequency shifts of the (13)C=(18)O amide I mode were used as a reporter of the strength of the bifurcated H bond from a thiol and hydroxyl H(+) at residue i + 4. DFT calculations yielded very similar frequency shifts and an energy of -2.6 and -3.4 kcal/mol for the thiol and hydroxyl bifurcated H bonds, respectively. The strength of the intrahelical bifurcated H bond is consistent with its prevalence in hydrophobic environments and is shown to significantly impact side-chain rotamer distribution.

  8. Bond Assembly FOD Zones - A Procedure for Assuring Acceptable Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Kurt; Wurth, Laura; Mitchell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Rocket motor components are primarily assembled by adhesion. a) For example, the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - part of the Space Shuttle Boosters) system contains 10,000 sq ft of bondline area. b) Rocket motors contain a variety of adhesive/substrate bond systems c) Bond system performance requirements also vary. To assemble reliable components, ATK Space Systems and customers invest substantial resources to the study of bond assembly processes. a) Surface and adhesion science; b) Adhesive chemistry; c) Process parameters; d) Contamination effects.

  9. Effect of dentin location and long-term water storage on bonding effectiveness of dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    De Munck, Jan; Mine, Atsushi; Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; De Almeida Neves, Aline; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Dentin is a variable substrate with properties that change considerable in a single surface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness to these different dentin locations and evaluate these differences over time. After bonding procedures with five different adhesives, small micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) beams were prepared and dichotomously divided in 'center' and 'periphery' dentin specimens. After 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months of water storage the µTBS of specimens of each group was determined, enabling a paired study design. The bond strengths of both etch&rinse adhesives were insensitive to regional variability. For the two-step self-etch adhesives, a marked increase in bond strengths was observed with increasing amount of intertubular dentin. Regional variability did not affect the long-term bonding effectiveness for any of the adhesives tested. In conclusion, only for the mild self-etch adhesives, µTBS to 'periphery' dentin was higher than for the 'center' specimens.

  10. Bond strength of thermally recycled metal brackets.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J J; Ackerman, R J

    1983-03-01

    Bracket recycling has emerged concurrently with the practice of direct bonding. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of recycling on the retention of mesh-backed stainless steel brackets. Mesh strand diameter was measured on forty new brackets. These brackets were bonded to recently extracted human premolar teeth, and the tensile force required to fracture each bond was recorded. The brackets were then reconditioned by a thermal process. The mesh strand size was remeasured and the tensile test was repeated. It was found that (1) mesh strand diameter decreased 7 percent during the reconditioning process (93.89 microns +/- 3.17 S.D. compared to 87.07 microns +/- 4.76 S.D., z = 17.62, P less than 1 X 10(-5) ), (2) new bracket bonds were 6 percent stronger than recycled bracket bonds (43.88 pounds +/- 7.98 S.D. bond strength), and (3) reduction in mesh strand diameter during the reconditioning process did not correlate with changes in bond strength between initial and recycled bonding (Pearson r = 0.038).

  11. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michal, Mathias; Keuser, Manfred; Solomos, George; Peroni, Marco; Larcher, Martin; Esteban, Beatriz

    2015-09-01

    The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  12. Influence of composition on the adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-min; Hong, Guang; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maeda, Takeshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of composition on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength between denture adhesives and the denture base. Two types of water-soluble polymers (methoxy ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer [PVM-MA] and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC]) were used. Samples were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained only PVM-MA; Group 2 contained only CMC; and Group 3 contained PVM-MA and CMC. The initial viscosity and adhesive strength were measured. For Group 1, the initial viscosity increased significantly as PVM-MA content increased. The adhesive strength of Group 1 lasted longer than Group 2. The adhesive strength of Group 3 varied greatly. The ratio of CMC and PVM-MA has a significant effect on the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of denture adhesives. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve the durability of a denture adhesive by combining different water-soluble polymers.

  13. Do the microshear test variables affect the bond strength values?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Andrea M; Garcia, Eugenio; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro; Silva, Luciana Mendonça; Pimentel, Gustavo H D; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of specimen preparation and testing protocols on the micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) results. To evaluate whether variations in polyethylene rod use affect (μSBS)). Human dentin disks were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 5): polyethylene tube (3 levels) and adhesive system (2 levels). In Group 1, polyethylene tubes filled with polymerized composite) were placed on adhesive covered surfaces. Tubes were removed 24 h after water storage, leaving the rods only. In Group 2, the same procedure was performed; however, tubes were kept in place during testing. In Group 3, composite rods without tubes were placed on adhesive covered dentin. In all groups, adhesives were photoactivated after positioning filled tubes/rods on adhesive covered surfaces. Specimens were tested under shear mode and the data subjected to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Groups 1 and 2 resulted in statistically similar mean μSBS (P > 0.05); however, a greater number of pretest failures were observed for Group 1. Higher μSBS values were detected for Group 3, irrespective of adhesive system used (P < 0.05). Removing the polyethylene tube before composite rod is placed on dentin affects μSBS values.

  14. Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel: Assessment of Two Ethanol Wet-Bonding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Rafizadeh, Mojgan; Samimi, Pouran

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ethanol wet-bonding (EWB) technique has been stated to decrease degradation of resin-dentin bond. This study evaluated the effect of two EWB techniques on composite resin-to-enamel bond strength. Materials and Methods: Silicon carbide papers were used to produce flat enamel surfaces on the buccal faces of forty-five molars. OptiBond FL (OFL) adhesive was applied on enamel surfaces in three groups of 15 namely: Enamel surface and OFL (control);Protocol 1 of the EWB technique: absolute ethanol was applied to water-saturated acid-etched enamel surfaces for 1 minute before the application of ethanol-solvated hydrophobic adhesive resin of OFL 3 times;Protocol 2: progressive ethanol replacement; water was gradually removed from the enamel matrix using ascending ethanol concentrations before OFL application. Composite build-ups were made and the specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Fracture patterns were evaluated microscopically. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05). Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (P=0.73). However, regarding failure patterns, the highest cohesive enamel fractures were recorded in groups 2 and 3. Conclusion: In this study, although both methods of EWB did not influence immediate bond strength of composite resin to enamel, the majority of failure patterns occurred cohesively in enamel. PMID:24910690

  15. Microtensile bond strength and micromorphologic analysis of surface-treated resin nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to resin nanoceramic (RNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS RNC onlays (Lava Ultimate) (n=30) were treated using air abrasion with and without a universal adhesive, or HF etching followed by a universal adhesive with and without a silane coupling agent, or tribological silica coating with and without a universal adhesive, and divided into 6 groups. Onlays were luted with resin cement to dentin surfaces. A microtensile bond strength test was performed and evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). A nanoscratch test, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used for micromorphologic analysis (α=.05). The roughness and elemental proportion were evaluated by Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U test. RESULTS Tribological silica coating showed the highest roughness, followed by air abrasion and HF etching. After HF etching, the RNC surface presented a decrease in oxygen, silicon, and zirconium ratio with increasing carbon ratio. Air abrasion with universal adhesive showed the highest bond strength followed by tribological silica coating with universal adhesive. HF etching with universal adhesive showed the lowest bond strength. CONCLUSION An improved understanding of the effect of surface treatment of RNC could enhance the durability of resin bonding when used for indirect restorations. When using RNC for restoration, effective and systemic surface roughening methods and an appropriate adhesive are required. PMID:27555896

  16. Silver Adhesive Layer for Enhanced Pressure-Free Bonding Using Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Toshikazu; Ishizaki, Toshitaka; Akedo, Kunio

    2017-02-01

    Pressure-free Cu nanoparticle bonding between two Cu plates with an Ag adhesive layer was examined. Insertion of the Ag adhesive layer considerably enhanced the bonding strength at firing temperatures between 523 K and 673 K. The bonding strength generally increased with the firing temperature. The strength enhancement of the Ag adhesive layer was observed even for a very thin (3 nm) Ag layer, and there was no obvious dependence of the thickness of the Ag layer on the bonding strength for Ag layers of thickness up to 200 nm. Ag atoms from the adhesive layer diffused away to the bonding layer with an increase in the firing temperature. The elemental mapping images showed that the Ag had two morphologies: thin Ag layers existing between particulate Cu grains, and fine Ag particles dispersed in coarse Cu crystals. The microstructure near the interface between the Cu nanoparticle bonding layer and Cu plate used as the substrate suggests that the enhancement effect of the Ag layer originates in the active migration of the Ag layer itself.

  17. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2014-01-18

    A power law regression equation, = 1.46(<ρ(rc)>/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, <ρ(rc)>, between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(ρ(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ρ(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Pauling’s simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, σ, power law expression σ = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, <ρ(rc)> = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M

  18. Factors associated with shear bond strength of composite resin to human enamel.

    PubMed

    Gray, G B; MacMillan, S; Payne, A P; McGadey, J

    1996-12-01

    The preparation of enamel surfaces before etching by removing 0.5 mm of surface tooth structure is common-place in modern restorative dentistry. This study was designed to measure and compare the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to prepared and unprepared enamel using various proprietary bonding systems. The analysed results failed to show significant differences between the shear bond strengths of the prepared and unprepared enamel specimens. Conditioning enamel surfaces for 60 seconds using 2.5% nitric acid where the solution was allowed to desiccate, resulted in significantly lower bond strengths compared to the other regimes. A correlation of the etchant pH with the mean shear bond strength of the adhesive systems to enamel was observed. The surface topography of the etched enamel surfaces correlated moderately well with the bond strengths obtained.

  19. Bonding and nondestructive evaluation of graphite/PEEK composite and titanium adherends with thermoplastic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Berry, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bonded single overlap shear specimens were fabricated from Graphite/PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) composite adherends and titanium adherends. Six advanced thermoplastic adhesives were used for the bonding. The specimens were bonded by an electromagnetic induction technique producing high heating rates and high-strength bonds in a few minutes. This contrasts with conventionally heated presses or autoclaves that take hours to process comparable quality bonds. The Graphite/PEEK composites were highly resistant to delamination during the testing. This allowed the specimen to fail exclusively through the bondline, even at very high shear loads. Nondestructive evaluation of bonded specimens was performed ultrasonically by energizing the entire thickness of the material through the bondline and measuring acoustic impedance parameters. Destructive testing confirmed the unique ultrasonic profiles of strong and weak bonds, establishing a standard for predicting relative bond strength in subsequent specimens.

  20. Rapid adhesive bonding and field repair of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process are often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid Adhesive Bonding concepts are developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens can be cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press or autoclave bonding. The development of Rapid Adhesive Bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1002 and D3163), for aerospace panel or component bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric-matrix composite structures is reviewed. Equipment and procedures are described for bonding and repairing thin sheets, simple geometries, and honeycomb core panels.

  1. In vitro study of 24-hour and 30-day shear bond strengths of three resin-glass ionomer cements used to bond orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lippitz, S J; Staley, R N; Jakobsen, J R

    1998-06-01

    Interest in using composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid cements as orthodontic bracket adhesives has grown because of their potential for fluoride release. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare shear bond strengths of three resin-glass ionomer cements (Advance, Fuji Duet, Fuji Ortho LC) used as bracket adhesives with a composite resin 24 hours and 30 days after bonding. The amount of adhesive remaining on the debonded enamel surface was scored for each adhesive. Mesh-backed stainless-steel brackets were bonded to 100 extracted human premolars, which were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C until being tested to failure in a testing machine. The hybrid cements, with one exception, had bond strengths similar to those of the composite resin at 24 hours and 30 days. Fuji Ortho LC had significantly lower bond strengths (ANOVA p < or = 0.05) than the other adhesives at 24 hours and 30 days when it was bonded to unetched, water-moistened enamel. Adhesive-remnant scores were similar for all cements, except for cement Fuji Ortho LC when it was bonded to unetched enamel. The resin-glass ionomer cements we tested appear to have bond strengths suitable for routine use as orthodontic bracket-bonding adhesives.

  2. The use of fluoroepoxy compounds as adhesives to bond fluoroplastics without any surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1988-01-01

    The use of fluoroepoxy compounds as adhesives to bond fluoroplastics was investigated. Fluoroepoxy compounds with a F-content higher than 46 percent were able to bond a highly fluorinated plastic such as Teflon PTFE (76 percent F) to give a respectable bond strength without any surface treatment. The advantage of the fluoroepoxy adhesive vanished when applied to a less fluorinated plastic such as Tefzel which contains 55 percent fluorine. Among the curing agents explored, octafluorooctamethylenediamine showed its potential as a cocuring agent for improving both the viscosity of the compound and the flexibility of the cured product.

  3. Evaluation of a sugar-based edible adhesive using a tensile strength tester.

    PubMed

    Doll, Kenneth M; Erhan, Sevim Z

    2011-04-01

    A method to evaluate adhesives has been developed and used to reformulate a recently patented adhesive which is based on sugar and citric acid. Factors affecting adhesive performance were uncovered, such as an optimal curing temperature of 60°C. The addition of maltodextrin and soy protein at optimized levels was shown to nearly double the bonding strength of the adhesive, from 0.46 ± 0.076 to 0.74 ± 0.26 kN, under our test conditions. Also discussed is the potential for this method to be automated using commercially available equipment.

  4. Blood contamination effect on shear bond strength of an orthodontic hydrophilic resin

    PubMed Central

    da CUNHA, Taís de Morais Alves; BEHRENS, Bruna Ariela; NASCIMENTO, Denise; RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; LON, Luís Filipe Siu; TANAKA, Orlando; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact of blood contamination on shear bond strength (SBS) and bond failure pattern of metallic brackets bonded using a new hydrophilic resin. Material and Methods Eighty human premolars were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=20) according to the bonding material and contamination pattern. GI: brackets bonded with the Transbond XT conventional system without contamination; GII: brackets bonded with the Transbond XT conventional system with blood contamination; GIII: brackets bonded with the Transbond Self Etching Primer and Transbond Plus Color without contamination; GIV: brackets bonded with the Transbond Self Etching Primer and Transbond Plus Color with blood contamination. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h and then submitted to SBS test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. Results Blood contamination decreased (P<0.05) shear bond strength when both the hydrophobic (GII) and the hydrophilic resin (GIV) were used. However, the bond strength of Transbond Color Change group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the Transbond XT conventional system group under blood contamination condition. Under dry conditions no difference was observed between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic resin groups. Regarding the bond failure pattern, when blood contaminated the enamel, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) showed predominance of scores 0 and 1, which indicates low adhesion to enamel. Conclusions Although there was a significant decrease in the shear bond strength for both adhesive systems under blood contamination, the hydrophilic system showed significantly higher bond strength than the hydrophobic resin adhesive. Therefore, it is advisable to use the hydrophilic resin under risk of blood contamination. PMID:22437684

  5. [Bonding agent influence on shear bond strength of titanium/polyglass interface].

    PubMed

    Oyafuso, Denise Kanashiro; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Itinoche, Marcos Koiti; Nasraui, Anna Paula; Costa, Elza Maria Valadares da

    2003-09-01

    There is little information regarding bond strengths of polyglass to metal alloys. This study evaluated the influence of bonding system on shear bond strength of a composite resin (Artglass/Heraeus Kulzer) to cast titanium (Ti). Twenty metallic structures (4mm in diameter, 5mm thick) of titanium grade I were cast shaped and abraded with 250mm aluminum oxide and separated into two groups. For each group was applied one bonding system (Siloc or Retention Flow) before opaque and dentin polymer superposition. This procedure was managed using teflon matrices. They were manipulated and polymerized according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The samples were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37º and thermocycled (5º and 55ºC/500 cycles). Shear bond strength tests were performed by using an Instron Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5mm/min. Results were analyzed statistically with one-way ANOVA (a=0,5) and they indicated that the Retention Flow system was statistically better than Siloc (20.74 MPa and 11.65 MPa , respectively). It was possible to conclude that the bonding agent influenced the adhesion between polymer and cast titanium.

  6. Effect of EDTA Conditioning and Carbodiimide Pretreatment on the Bonding Performance of All-in-One Self-Etch Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Manuja, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning and carbodiimide (EDC) pretreatment on the shear bond strength of two all-in-one self-etch adhesives to dentin. Methods. Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared on one hundred and sixty extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into eight groups according to two different self-etch adhesives used [G-Bond and OptiBond-All-In-One] and four different surface pretreatments: (a) adhesive applied following manufacturer's instructions; (b) dentin conditioning with 24% EDTA gel prior to application of adhesive; (c) EDC pretreatment followed by application of adhesive; (d) application of EDC on EDTA conditioned dentin surface followed by application of adhesive. Composite restorations were placed in all the samples. Ten samples from each group were subjected to immediate and delayed (6-month storage in artificial saliva) shear bond strength evaluation. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test at a significance level of p < 0.05.  Results and Conclusion. EDTA preconditioning as well as EDC pretreatment alone had no significant effect on the immediate and delayed bond strengths of either of the adhesives. However, EDC pretreatment on EDTA conditioned dentin surface resulted in preservation of resin-dentin bond strength of both adhesives with no significant fall over six months. PMID:26557850

  7. Theoretical adhesion strength of diamond coating with metallic interlayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haibo; Qi, Yue; Li, Xiaodong

    2009-03-01

    Metallic interlayers are often needed to enhance the adhesion of diamond coatings to substrates and to promote diamond nucleation and growth. The interfaces between diamond coatings and metallic interlayer materials with different carbide formation enthalpies, Cu, Al, and Ti, are studied using density functional theory. The ideal interface strength or the work of separation is found to decrease with the carbide formation enthalpy. Analysis to the electronic structure shows that covalent metal-carbon bonds form at the interface, and the perturbation from the interface weakens nearby metal phase. Comparing the work of separation at the interface with the fracture energy of the metal, a fracture is likely to initiate in the metal phase near the interface, therefore a tough metal with a large surface energy is needed to achieve a higher overall toughness. In addition, when the surface energy is larger than the interface energy, a wetted diamond/metal interface is formed during diamond nucleation, which also contributes to good adhesion. The interface energy, which is an energy barrier to diamond nucleation, is found to decrease with the carbide formation enthalpy. These results indicate strong carbide formability and a large surface energy of the interlayer enhance the adhesion and the fracture resistance of the interface, and also conduce to the diamond nucleation on the interlayer.

  8. Effect of water storage on ultimate tensile strength and mass changes of universal adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololumi, Nazanin; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Sadr, Alireza; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh-Mahsa; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of water storage on micro tensile strength (µTS) and mass changes (MC) of two universal adhesives. Material and Methods 10 disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each adhesive; Scotchbond Universal (SCU) All-Bond Universal (ABU) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2). At the baseline and after 1 day and 28 days of water storage, their mass were measured and compared to estimate water sorption and solubility. For µTS test, 20 dumbbell shaped specimens were also prepared for each adhesive in two subgroups of 1 day and 28 days water storage. Results MC was significantly lower for SCU and ABU than SB2 (P < 0.05) at both time intervals. In all three adhesives, the MC was significantly lower at 28 days compared to that at 1 day (P < 0.05). Similarly, µTS was significantly higher for SCU and ABU than SB2 at both storage intervals (P < 0.05). After 28 days, µTS increased significantly for universal adhesives (P < 0.05). Conclusions MC and µTS of adhesives were both material and time dependent when stored in water; both universal adhesives showed less water sorption and higher values of µTS than the control group. Key words:Absorption, dental adhesives, dentin-bonding agents, solubility, tensile strength. PMID:28149468

  9. Microleakage under orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Alkis, Huseyin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Adanir, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study aimed to compare the microleakage of orthodontic brackets between enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces at the occlusal and gingival margins bonded with different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 human maxillary premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons was randomly divided into four groups. Each group was then further divided into three sub-groups. Three total-etching bonding systems (Transbond XT, Greengloo and Kurasper F), three one-step self-etching bonding systems (Transbond Plus SEP, Bond Force and Clearfil S3), three two-step self-etching bonding systems (Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protectbond and Clearfil Liner Bond), and three self-adhesive resin cements (Maxcem Elite, Relyx U 100 and Clearfil SA Cement) were used to bond the brackets to the teeth. After bonding, all teeth were sealed with nail varnish and stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 h. All samples were sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope to score for microleakage at the adhesive–enamel and adhesive–bracket interfaces from both occlusal and gingival margins. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were performed with Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results: The results indicate no statistically significant differences between the microleakage scores of the adhesives; microleakage was detected in all groups. Comparison of the average values of the microleakage scores in the enamel–adhesive and adhesive–bracket interfaces indicated statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The amount of the microleakage was higher at the enamel–adhesive interface than at the bracket-adhesive interface. Conclusions: All of the brackets exhibited some amount of microleakage. This result means that microleakage does not depend on the type of adhesive used. PMID:25713494

  10. Lap shear strength and healing capability of self-healing adhesive containing epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Habibah; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ming-Qiu

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a self-healing polymeric adhesive formulation with epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules. Epoxy/mercaptan microcapsules were dispersed into a commercialize two-part epoxy adhesive for developing self-healing epoxy adhesive. The influence of different content of microcapsules on the shear strength and healing capability of epoxy adhesive were investigated using single-lap-joints with average thickness of adhesive layer of about 180 µm. This self-healing adhesive was used in bonding of 5000 series aluminum alloys adherents after mechanical and alkaline cleaning surface treatment. The adhesion strength was measured and presented as function of microcapsules loading. The results indicated that the virgin lap shear strength was increased by about 26% with addition of 3 wt% of self-healing microcapsules. 12% to 28% recovery of the shear strength is achieved after self-healing depending on the microcapsules content. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study fracture surface of the joints. The self-healing adhesives exhibit recovery of both cohesion and adhesion properties with room temperature healing.

  11. Bonding of adhesives to Er:YAG laser-treated dentin

    PubMed Central

    Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Kouros, Pantelis; Zafiriadis, Lazaros; Koumpia, Effimia; Dionysopoulos, Pavlos; Karagiannis, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The shear bond strength of adhesives applied to dentin was investigated after irradiation with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Methods: Superficial and deep dentin specimens from human molars were treated either with carbide bur or an Er:YAG laser. Two etch and rinse adhesives (Single Bond and XP Bond) and two self-etch adhesives (Prompt L-Pop and Xeno III) were employed to bond the composite. Shear bond strength (SBS) was determined after storage in water for 24 h using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure patterns and modes were analyzed and evaluated using a stereomicroscope. In addition, samples were processed for Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM evaluation. A linear mixed model was used, and pairwise comparisons were made using the Bonferroni test. Results: Results showed significant differences between the levels of dentin treatment (p=.01) in carbide bur-cut dentin and lased dentin, as well as significant interaction effects due to the depth of dentin and the bonding system used. The etch and rinse adhesives bonded less effectively with lased dentin than with carbide bur-cut dentin, while self-etch adhesives bonded equally well with lased and bur-cut superficial dentin but much less effectively with lased deep dentin than with bur-cut deep dentin. SEM revealed a predominantly adhesive failure mode in laser-ablated fractured specimens, while a mixed failure mode was apparent in the bur-cut fractured specimens. Conclusions: Cavities prepared by laser seem less receptive to adhesive procedures than conventional bur-cut cavities. PMID:22229003

  12. The tensile bond strength of new and rebonded stainless steel orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Regan, D; LeMasney, B; van Noort, R

    1993-04-01

    The study investigated the effect on the tensile/peel bond strength of the variables associated with the bracket base, the enamel surface, and the type of adhesive when both new and used brackets were rebonded to a previously bonded enamel surface. The tensile/peel bond strength was firstly evaluated for three different types of stainless steel orthodontic bracket/base combinations. The cast integral base gave a significantly lower bond strength than the foil-mesh and photo-etched bases. Following debonding, a group of new brackets were bonded to the teeth using a chemically-activated or a light-cured adhesive. The old adhesive had been removed from the enamel by either a hand scaler or a tungsten-carbide bur. The rebonded new brackets demonstrated a small, but statistically significant fall in bond strength. No differences were found between the enamel preparations or the adhesives. A further group of previously debonded brackets were rebonded to the same teeth. The bracket bases were prepared by either smoothing with a green stone or heating in a bunsen flame followed by sandblasting and electropolishing. Highly significant falls in bond strength were obtained with all the bases. No significant differences were found between the two methods of bracket preparation.

  13. Evaluation of various concentrations of alkaline surface treatment on interfacial bond strengths of amalgam bonded to amalgam.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Asaad Javaid; Ahmad, Asif; Mohammad, Taqi; Khan, Zahid Akhter

    2013-09-01

    This study was done to assess the influence of alkaline surface modification on interfacial bond strength of existing fractured (old) amalgam restoration bonded to fresh amalgam. Old and Fresh amalgam interfaced samples were prepared by applying a 4-methacryloyloxyethy trimellitate anhydride (4-META) containing adhesive. The adhesive used was Amalgabond (Parkell, Farmingdale, NY 11735, USA). Four concentrations of calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 solutions were used as a surface modifiers for old amalgam to increase the pH of the amalgam surfaces. The concentrations used were 2.5, 5, 10 and 15%. Direct measurement of the interfacial bond strength was carried out using an electromechanical universal tensile testing machine at crosshead speed of 10mm per minute. Results show that all the calcium hydroxide modified samples produced the increased tensile bond strength (TBS) as compared to their control group. The highest values of bond strength were achieved using 15% Ca(OH)2 solution as surface modifier. Pretreatment of fractured amalgam with calcium hydroxide improves the bond strength of 4-META adhesives. Its use in repair of amalgam may therefore be considered.

  14. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Mohammadipour, Hamideh Sadat; Ghavamnasiri, Marjaneh; Alizadeh, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. PMID:26839550

  15. Adhesive-bonded double-lap joints. [analytical solutions for static load carrying capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Explicit analytical solutions are derived for the static load carrying capacity of double-lap adhesive-bonded joints. The analyses extend the elastic solution Volkersen and cover adhesive plasticity, adherend stiffness imbalance and thermal mismatch between the adherends. Both elastic-plastic and bi-elastic adhesive representations lead to the explicit result that the influence of the adhesive on the maximum potential bond strength is defined uniquely by the strain energy in shear per unit area of bond. Failures induced by peel stresses at the ends of the joint are examined. This failure mode is particularly important for composite adherends. The explicit solutions are sufficiently simple to be used for design purposes

  16. Effects of adhesion promoter on orthodontic bonding in fluorosed teeth: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Tariq, Mohd.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the present study were to elucidate the effects of fluorosis in orthodontic bonding and to evaluate the efficiency of an adhesion promoter (Assure Universal Bonding Resin) in bonding to fluorosed teeth. Materials and Methods: Extracted premolars were divided into two groups on the basis of Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index. Ten samples from each group were etched and evaluated for etching patterns using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The remaining samples were subdivided into four groups of 20 each on the basis of adhesives used: IA, IIA - Transbond XT and IB, IIB - Transbond XT plus Assure Universal Bonding Resin. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after 24 h using the universal testing machine. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were recorded using SEM. Statistical analysis was conducted using a two-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's post hoc test was performed on SBS and ARI scores. Results: Similar etching patterns were observed in both fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth. No significant differences were found in the SBS values observed in both groups (8.66 ± 3.19 vs. 8.53 ± 3.44, P = 1.000). Increase in SBS was observed when Assure Universal Bonding Resin was used. Higher ARI scores were observed when adhesion promoter was used for bonding. Conclusions: Mild-moderately fluorosed teeth etch in a manner similar to the nonfluorosed teeth. Similar bond strengths were achieved in fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth when conventional composite was used. Use of adhesion promoter increases the bond strengths in both groups of teeth. PMID:27556020

  17. Void-free wafer-level adhesive bonding utilizing modified poly (diallyl phthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Fang; Dong, Tao; Yong, He; Yan, Su; Wang, Kaiying

    2013-12-01

    A new thermosetting polymer, modified poly (diallyl phthalate) (PDAP), is used as intermediate layer to realize a void-free wafer-level transfer bonding, in which the bonding interface contains patterned metal. Through glass-silicon bonding experiments, bonding defects are easily recognized with light microscopy. Three typical defect types are identified as: uneven flow defect, particle defect and bubble defect. The processing parameters, such as bonding pressure, pre-baking temperature, polymer thickness and coating conditions, have been optimized based on analysis of the defect formation. The optimized conditions have yielded a void-free wafer-level adhesive bonding. Then, the die shearing test indicates a good bonding strength. Additionally, the transfer bonding process is applied in SOI-silicon bonding as a practical example of MEMS fabrication.

  18. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonics, microwaves, optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), and computational chemistry approaches have shown relevance to bond strength determination. Nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods, however, have shown the most effectiveness over other methods on adhesive bond analysis. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown related to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been measured. This paper reviews bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1998.

  19. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  20. Bonding performance of universal adhesives to er,cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel.

    PubMed

    Ayar, Muhammet Kerim; Erdemir, Fatih

    2016-11-23

    Universal adhesives have been recently introduced for use as self-etch or etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the dental substrate and clinical condition. However, their bonding effectiveness to laser-irradiated enamel is still not well-known. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of universal adhesives (Single Bond Universal; Nova Compo-B Plus) applied to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel with SBS of the same adhesives applied in self-etch and acid-etching modes, respectively. Crown segments of sixty bovine incisors were embedded into standardized acrylic blocks. Flattened enamel surfaces were prepared. Specimens were divided into six groups according to universal adhesives and application modes randomly (n = 10), as follows: Single Bond Universal/acid-etching mode; Nova Compo-B Plus/acid-etching mode; Single Bond Universal/self-etching mode; Nova Compo-B Plus/self-etching mode; and Single Bond Universal/Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-etching mode; Nova Compo-B Plus/Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-etching mode. After surface treatments, universal adhesives were applied onto surfaces. SBS was determined after storage in water for 24 h using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1) . Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed using two-way of analyses of variances (ANOVA) (p = 0.05). Two-way ANOVA revealed that adhesive had no effect on SBS (p = 0.88), but application mode significantly influenced SBS (p = 0.00). Acid-etching significantly increased SBS, whereas there are no significant differences between self-etch mode and laser-etching for both adhesives. The bond strength of universal adhesives may depend on application mode. Acid etching may significantly increase bond strength, while laser etching may provide similar bond strength when compared to self-etch mode.

  1. Effects of modifying the bonding protocol on the shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Thais Maria Friere; Janson, Guilherme; Somensi, Joyce; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Sathler, Renata; Henriques, Jose Fernando Castanha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro shear bond strength and failure site of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets with modified bonding protocols. Sixty bovine mandibular incisors with similar anatomy were selected and divided into six groups (n = 10). In the first protocol, metallic and ceramic brackets were bonded according to the manufacturers' directions (controls); in the second protocol, the step of photocuring with the primer agent was eliminated; and in the third protocol, the primer agent was applied on the tooth and on the bracket base, followed by application of the composite adhesive on the bracket base, with one-step photocure. The same orthodontic adhesive was used for all groups. Shear bond strengths were measured and adhesive remnant index scores (ARI) were determined after bracket failure. The results demonstrated similar shear bond strengths in the protocols but presented significantly greater values for the metallic groups (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). ARI scores were compared with chi-square tests, and the ceramic brackets had significantly greater ARI scores compared to the metallic brackets. Based on these results, the manufacturer's bonding protocol can be modified to save clinical time without compromising adhesion of the brackets.

  2. The Evaluation of High Temperature Adhesive Bonding Processes for Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey; Rice, Brian; Blohowiak, Kay; Anderson, Robert; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda; Sutter, James

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is currently evaluating the possibility of using high- temperature polymer matrix composites to reinforce the combustion chamber of a rocket engine. One potential design utilizes a honeycomb structure composed of a PMR-II- 50/M40J 4HS composite facesheet and titanium honeycomb core to reinforce a stainless steel shell. In order to properly fabricate this structure, adhesive bond PMR-II-50 composite. Proper prebond surface preparation is critical in order to obtain an acceptable adhesive bond. Improperly treated surfaces will exhibit decreased bond strength and durability, especially in metallic bonds where interface are susceptible to degradation due to heat and moisture. Most treatments for titanium and stainless steel alloys require the use of strong chemicals to etch and clean the surface. This processes are difficult to perform due to limited processing facilities as well as safety and environmental risks and they do not consistently yield optimum bond durability. Boeing Phantom Works previously developed sol-gel surface preparations for titanium alloys using a PETI-5 based polyimide adhesive. In support of part of NASA Glenn Research Center, UDRI and Boeing Phantom Works evaluated variations of this high temperature sol-gel surface preparation, primer type, and primer cure conditions on the adhesion performance of titanium and stainless steel using Cytec FM 680-1 polyimide adhesive. It was also found that a modified cure cycle of the FM 680-1 adhesive, i.e., 4 hrs at 370 F in vacuum + post cure, significantly increased the adhesion strength compared to the manufacturer's suggested cure cycle. In addition, the surface preparation of the PMR-II-50 composite was evaluated in terms of surface cleanness and roughness. This presentation will discuss the results of strength and durability testing conducted on titanium, stainless steel, and PMR-II-50 composite adherends to evaluate possible bonding processes.

  3. Plasma treatment of dentin surfaces for improving self-etching adhesive/dentin interface bonding

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Hao; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate plasma treatment effects on dentin surfaces for improving self-etching adhesive and dentin interface bonding. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used after crown removal to expose dentin. One half of each dentin surface was treated with atmospheric non-thermal argon plasmas, while another half was untreated and used as the same tooth control. Self-etching adhesive and universal resin composite was applied to the dentin surfaces as directed. After restoration, the adhesive-dentin bonding strength was evaluated by micro-tensile bonding strength (μTBS) test. Bonding strength data was analyzed using histograms and Welch’s t-test based on unequal variances. μTBS test results showed that, with plasma treatment, the average μTBS value increased to 69.7±11.5 MPa as compared with the 57.1±17.5 MPa obtained from the untreated controls. After 2 months immersion of the restored teeth in 37 °C phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the adhesive-dentin bonding strengths of the plasma-treated specimens slightly decreased from 69.7±11.5 MPa to 63.9±14.4 MPa, while the strengths of the untreated specimens reduced from 57.1±17.5 MPa to 48.9±14.6 MPa. Water contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination verified that plasma treatment followed by water rewetting could partially open dentin tubules, which could enhance adhesive penetration to form thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tags and consequently improve the adhesive/dentin interface quality. PMID:26273561

  4. Self-etch bonding agent beneath sealant: Bond strength for laser-irradiated enamel

    PubMed Central

    Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Giuntini, Jackelline de Lemes; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Gomes-Silva, Jaciara Miranda; Torres, Carolina Paes; Galo, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Fluroshield [F], Dentsply/Caulk) associated with either an etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M/ESPE) or a two-step self-etch adhesive system (Adper SE Plus [SE], 3M/ESPE) on Er: YAG laser-irradiated enamel. Materials and Methods: Seventeen sound third molar crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, and the mesial–distal enamel surfaces were flattened. The enamel sites were irradiated with a 2.94-μm wavelength Er: YAG laser (120 mJ, 4 Hz, noncontact mode/17 mm, 20 s). The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups according to the bonding technique: I - 37% phosphoric acid etching + SB + F; II - SE + F and III - F applied to acid-etched enamel, without an intermediate layer of bonding agent. In all of the groups, a 3-mm diameter enamel-bonding site was demarcated and the sealant cylinders were bonded. After 24 hours in distilled water, the shear bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope to assess the failure modes. Results: The mean SBS values in MPa were I = 6.39 (±1.44); II = 9.50 (±2.79); and III = 5.26 (±1.82). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups I and III; SE/F presented a significantly higher SBS than that of the other groups (P = 0.001). With regard to the failure mode, groups I (65%) and II (75%) presented adhesive failures, while group III showed 50% adhesive failure. Cohesive failure did not occur. Conclusion: The application of the two-step self-etch bonding agent (Adper SE Plus) beneath the resin pit-and-fissure sealant placement resulted in a significantly higher bond strength for the Er:YAG laser-irradiated enamel. PMID:24926208

  5. Effect of panel alignment and surface finish on bond strength

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.; Baker, W.E.

    1991-10-01

    The flexural strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of panel alignment and bond surface finish. Bond strength was shown to be highly dependent on both parameters with only a narrow range of values yielding a high strength bond. This study was performed for the heavy water-containing acrylic vessel for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector.

  6. New surface-active comonomer for adhesive bonding.

    PubMed

    Bowen, R L; Bennett, P S; Groh, R J; Farahani, M; Eichmiller, F C

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that chemical and physical characteristics of aromatic amines can be influenced by the nature of their substituents. The experimental question examined in the present study relates to the effects of replacing specific hydrogen atoms with methyl groups in a surface-active comonomer utilized in adhesive bonding protocols. N-2-propionic acid-N-3-(2-hydroxy-1-methacryloxy)propyl-3,5-dimethylaniline sodium salt (N35A) was synthesized by an addition reaction of glycidyl methacrylate with the sodium salt of N-reaction of glycidyl methacrylate with the sodium salt of N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)alanine, which was formed by alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl-N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)alanate that was prepared by condensation of ethyl-2-bromopropionate with 3,5-dimethylaniline. 1H and 13C NMR spectra and analysis by mass spectroscopy were consistent with N35A after it had been recrystallized from acetone. Color stability and adhesion-promoting capability of N35A were compared with those of N-2-acetic acid-N-3-(2-hydroxy-1-methacryloxy)propyl-4-methylanaline sodium salt (Na-NTG-GMA), the latter being widely used in commercial bonding formulations. Both N35A and Na-NTG-GMA polymerized within a few minutes at 23 degrees C when dissolved in aliquots from a stock solution containing benzene 85 wt%, ethanol 14 wt%, and benzoyl peroxide 1.0 wt%; but with each at 0.018 molal concentration, the N35A suspension was more color-stable than that of the Na-NTG-GMA. In the protocol used, shear bond strengths of a hybrid composite to human dentin with N35A were 30.2 MPa, SD = 7.5 MPa, and with Na-NTG-GMA, 29.7 MPa, SD = 11.8 MPa(n = 7 each; t test, p = 0.93).

  7. Failure analysis of adhesively bonded composite joint: an elasto-plastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. C.; Kishore, N. N.; Iyengar, N. G. R.

    1993-09-01

    Joints are important load transferring members in large assembled structures. In joining similar and dissimilar materials, the use of adhesives offers many advantages when compared to other conventional methods. Most commonly used adhesives are the polymers, which exhibit nonlinear behavior. Finite element analysis with paired nodes along the crack path is employed to predict the crack initiation and growth leading to failure. The bond strength is predicted by investigating the possibility of propagation of a crack at the interface of adherend and adhesive. Paired nodes are opened in a sequence, modelling the crack growth. The adhesive is treated to be elasto-plastic for its response. Effect of the parameters such as, stacking sequences in composite adherend, crack growth locations, bond length, bond thicknesses and adhesive stiffnesses on the failure load is studied. The growth of plastic zone as the crack propagates is also examined. On the basis of this study optimal geometrical and material parameters are suggested. The elasto-plastic analysis predicts higher failure loads as compared to linear elastic analysis. The computed bond strength assuming elastic behavior for the adhesive shows satisfactory comparison with experimental results.

  8. Automation Tools for Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This article presents two new automation creation tools that obtain stresses and strains (Shear and peel) in adhesively bonded joints. For a given adhesively bonded joint Finite Element model, in which the adhesive is characterised using springs, these automation tools read the corresponding input and output files, use the spring forces and deformations to obtain the adhesive stresses and strains, sort the stresses and strains in descending order, and generate plot files for 3D visualisation of the stress and strain fields. Grids (nodes) and elements can be numbered in any order that is convenient for the user. Using the automation tools, trade-off studies, which are needed for design of adhesively bonded joints, can be performed very quickly.

  9. Resolving fundamental limits of adhesive bonding in microfabrication.

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Jessica S.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Emerson, John Allen; Adkins, Douglas Ray; Kent, Michael Stuart; Read, Douglas H.; Giunta, Rachel Knudsen; Lamppa, Kerry P.; Kawaguchi, Stacie; Holmes, Melissa A.

    2004-04-01

    As electronic and optical components reach the micro- and nanoscales, efficient assembly and packaging require the use of adhesive bonds. This work focuses on resolving several fundamental issues in the transition from macro- to micro- to nanobonding. A primary issue is that, as bondline thicknesses decrease, knowledge of the stability and dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films is important to obtain robust, void-free adhesive bonds. While researchers have studied dewetting dynamics of thin films of model, non-polar polymers, little experimental work has been done regarding dewetting dynamics of thin adhesive films, which exhibit much more complex behaviors. In this work, the areas of dispensing small volumes of viscous materials, capillary fluid flow, surface energetics, and wetting have all been investigated. By resolving these adhesive-bonding issues, we are allowing significantly smaller devices to be designed and fabricated. Simultaneously, we are increasing the manufacturability and reliability of these devices.

  10. Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative adhesive bond strength measurement has been an issue for over thirty years. Utilization of nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods has shown more effectiveness than linear methods on adhesive bond analysis, resulting in an increased sensitivity to changes in bondline conditions. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown and could relate to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. This increased sensitivity will assist in getting closer to quantitative measurement of adhesive bond strength. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been successfully measured. This paper reviews nonlinear bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1997.

  11. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P < 0.05). X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that nickel was attached to the debonded resin surface of the resin-to-nickel bonded specimen, indicating that corrosion of high-purity nickel occurred at the resin-nickel interface. Durable bonding to super-elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

  12. Investigation of Adhesive Bond Cure Conditions using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Tobias P.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to investigate various cure conditions of adhesive bonds using nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling. Several samples were used to obtain normal incidence, oblique incidence, and wave mixing.

  13. Relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between mechanical properties and bond durability of short fiber-reinforced resin composite with universal adhesive. As controls, micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites were tested. The universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Adhese Universal, and G-Premio Bond. The fracture toughness and flexural properties of resin composites, and shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength of universal adhesive with resin composite using both total-etch and self-etch modes were determined. In the results, short fiber-reinforced resin composite showed significantly higher fracture toughness than did micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The flexural strength and modulus of short fiber-reinforced and nano-hybrid resin composites were significantly lower than were those of micro-hybrid resin composites. Regardless of etching mode, the shear bond strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite did not show any significant differences from micro-hybrid and nano-hybrid resin composites. The shear fatigue strength of universal adhesives with short fiber-reinforced resin composite and micro-hybrid resin composites were significantly higher than that of nano-hybrid resin composites. The results of this study suggest that the mechanical properties of short fiber-reinforced resin composite improve their bond durability with universal adhesive.

  14. Effect of prior acid etching on bonding durability of single-step adhesives.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Tsubota, Keishi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu; Rikuta, Akitomo; Ando, Susumu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of prior phosphoric acid etching on the enamel bond strength of five single-step self-etch adhesive systems: Absolute, Clearfil tri-S Bond, Fluoro Bond Shake One, G-Bond and One-Up Bond F Plus. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin, and the facial surfaces were wet ground with #600 silicon carbide paper. Adhesives were applied to the enamel surfaces with or without prior phosphoric-acid etching and light irradiated. The resin composites were condensed into a mold and light irradiated. In total, 40 specimens were tested per adhesive system with and without prior acid etching and were further divided into two groups: those stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours without cycling and those stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours followed by thermal cycling between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with 10,000 repeats. After storage under each set of conditions, the specimens were tested in shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. Two-way analysis of variance, the Student's t-test and the Tukey HSD test were used to analyze the data at a significance level of 0.05. For the specimens without prior acid etching, the mean bond strengths to enamel ranged from 11.0 to 14.6 MPa after 24-hour storage in water, while the corresponding values for specimens with prior acid etching ranged from 15.2 to 19.3 MPa. When these specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, the mean bond strengths ranged from 11.3 to 17.0 MPa without prior acid etching and from 12.3 to 23.2 MPa with prior acid etching. The changes in enamel bond strengths differed among the adhesive systems tested. After 24-hour storage in water, the most common failure modes were adhesive failure and mixed failure for specimens with and without prior acid etching, respectively. Thus, through a careful choice of adhesive system, prior acid etching can increase the bond strengths of single-step self-etch adhesive systems.

  15. Effect of Mucoprotein on the Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Powers, John M; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the bond strength and analyze the morphology of the dentin-adhesive interface of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesive systems with two kinds of artificial saliva (with and without 450 mg/L mucin) contamination under different conditions of decontaminating the interface. Bonded specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the bonded surface in 1-mm thick slabs. These 1-mm thick slabs were remounted in acrylic blocks and sectioned in sticks perpendicular to the bonding interfaces with a 1-mm2 area. Nine specimens from each condition were tested after 24 hours on a testing machine (Instron) at a speed of 0.5 mm/min for a total of 360 specimens. Means and standard deviations of bond strength (MPa) were calculated. ANOVA showed significant differences as well as Fisher's PLSD intervals (p<0.05). Different groups results ranges: Control group 34-60 MPa, saliva without mucin 0-52 MPa, and saliva with mucin 0-57 MPa. Failure sites were mixed, adhesive failure was common for the low bond strength results. P&BNT with ideal conditions and following the manufacturer's instructions (control) had the highest bond strengths and the dentin-adhesive interface exhibited an ideal morphology of a etch and rinse system. SEM gave complementary visual evidence of the effect in the dentin/adhesive interface structure with some contaminated conditions compared to their respective control groups. This in-vitro artificial saliva model with and without mucin showed that an organic component of saliva could increase or decrease the bond strength depending on the specific bonding agent and decontamination procedure. PMID:14505182

  16. Adhesion studies of GaAs-based ohmic contact and bond pad metallization

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.K.; Briggs, R.D.; Rieger, D.J.; Baca, A.G.; Howard, A.J.

    1996-03-01

    Adhesion strength and surface morphology of commonly used n- and p-type ohmic contacts and pad metallization schemes for GaAs were investigated. GeNiAu, GePdAu, BeAu, and TiPtAu (being studied as potential ohmic contacts for internal optoelectronic devices) had quantitiative measurements made using wire bond pull testing to determine adhesion. Bond pad metals deposited as evaporated TiAu, TiPtAu, and 2-5 micron thick electroplated Au deposited on both semi-insulating GaAs and on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/GaAs were evaluated independently from the ohmic contact metals. In all samples was observed a strong correlation between surface treatment, surface morphology, wire bondability, and bond strength. Very high bond strengths (pull test average values above 6.5 grams force with 25 micron dia Au wire) wereobtained for n-type, p-type, and bond pad metals. Average values of 8.0 gram force were achieved with two-step GeAu/NiAu/TiPtAu metallization, while one-step deposition yielded poorer values. Adhesion was also monitored after aging at 250 C in air for four different times up to 60 hr by wire bond pull testing, with little degradation occurring.

  17. Shear bond strength of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers to bovine dentin after ozone application.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Witold; Czarnecka, Beata; Pryliński, Mariusz; Walory, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    The idea of using ozone to disinfect root canals is of recent origin. The wide acceptance of epoxy resin-based sealers lead us to investigate whether ozone can influence the adhesion to the dentin. In this study, we tested the shear bond strength of AH Plus and EZ Fill. Forty freshly extracted bovine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups. 16 of these samples were treated with ozone for 60 seconds (HealOzone, Kavo). 8 samples were conditioned with the G Bond bonding system. The groups tested were: (1) AH Plus, (2) AH Plus and ozone, (3) EZ Fill, (4) EZ Fill and ozone, (5) AH Plus and G Bond. 48 hours after being prepared the specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between materials (AH Plus > EZ Fill) and significant, positive influence of ozone and bonding agent on the shear bond strength.

  18. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, Marcus A.; List, Martina S.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Hopkins, John W.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesively bonded structures are potentially lighter in weight than mechanically fastened ones, but existing surface treatments are often considered unreliable. Two main problems in achieving reproducible and durable adhesive bonds are surface contamination and variability in standard surface preparation techniques. In this work three surface pretreatments were compared: laser etching with and without grit blasting and conventional Pasa-Jell treatment. Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were characterized by contact angle goniometry, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Laser -etching was found to produce clean surfaces with precisely controlled surface topographies and PETI-5 lap shear strengths and durabilities were equivalent to those produced with Pasa-Jell.

  19. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Noble and Base Metal Alloys with Different Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Raeisosadat, Farkhondeh; Ghavam, Maryam; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh; Arami, Sakineh; Sedaghati, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen. Materials and Method: Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to “Degubond 4” (Au Pd) and “Verabond” (Ni Cr) alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021) and Verabond (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291) and Verabond (P=0.899). Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003). The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011). The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59). RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035). Conclusion: The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2. PMID:25628687

  20. Adhesive bonding via exposure to variable frequency microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulauskas, F.L.; McMillan, A.D.; Warren, C.D.

    1996-05-01

    Adhesive bonding through the application of variable frequency microwave (VFM) radiation has been evaluated as an alternative curing method for joining composite materials. The studies showed that the required cure time of a thermosetting epoxy adhesive is substantially reduced by the use of VFM when compared to conventional (thermal) curing methods. Variable frequency microwave processing appeared to yield a slight reduction in the required adhesive cure time when compared to processing by the application of single frequency microwave radiation. In contrast to the single frequency processing, the variable frequency methodology does not readily produce localized overheating (burnt or brown spots) in the adhesive or the composite. This makes handling and location of the sample in the microwave oven less critical for producing high quality bonds and allows for a more homogeneous distribution of the cure energy. Variable frequency microwave processing is a valuable alternative method for rapidly curing thermoset adhesives at low input power levels.

  1. Stress analysis of adhesive bonded stiffener plates and double joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuceoglu, U.; Updike, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The general problem of adhesive bonded stiffener plates and double joints of dissimilar orthotropic adherends with transverse shear deformations are analyzed. Adhesive layers are assumed to be of an isotropic, elastic and relatively flexible material. It is shown that the stress distributions in the adhesive layers are very much dependent on the bending deformations in adherends. Also, it is found that, in the adhesive layer, maximum transverse normal stress is, in many cases, larger than the longitudinal shear stress and that both occur at the edge of the joint. The general method of solution developed is applied to several practical examples.

  2. New primers for adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrell, B. W.; Port, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide adhesive primers are effective, with high temperature epoxy resins, at temperatures from 100 deg to 300 deg C. Lap-shear failure loads and lap-shear strength of both primers are discussed.

  3. Bonding durability of single-step adhesives to previously acid-etched dentin.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Masahiko; Tsubota, Keishi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of phosphoric acid etching on the dentin bond strength of five single-step self-etch adhesive systems; Absolute, Clearfil tri-S Bond, Fluoro Bond Shake One, G-Bond and One-Up Bond F Plus. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and the facial surfaces were wet ground with #600 SiC paper. Adhesives were applied on the prepared dentin surfaces with and without prior phosphoric acid etching and light irradiated. Resin composite was condensed into a mold (ø4x2 mm), light irradiated and stored in water at 37 degrees C. Four groups (n=10) were made per adhesive system: with and without prior acid etching and with and without thermal cycling between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 10,000 cycles. The specimens were tested in a shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA, Student t-test and Tukey HSD test at a level of 0.05 were done. For specimens without prior acid etching, the mean bond strengths to bovine dentin ranged from 12.8 to 17.1 MPa and ranged from 6.7 to 13.3 MPa for specimens with prior acid etching after 24 hours storage in water. When the specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, the mean bond strengths ranged from 10.7 to 24.8 MPa for the specimens without prior acid etching and 4.6 to 13.9 MPa for the specimens with prior acid etching. The changes in dentin bond strength were different among the adhesive systems tested. Failure modes were commonly adhesive failure associated with mixed failure for specimens with prior acid etching. For specimens without prior acid etching, failures in composite and dentin were increased. From the results of this in vitro study, prior acid etching might be not acceptable for increasing the dentin bond strengths of single-step self-etch adhesive systems.

  4. Effect of aluminum anodizing in phosphoric acid electrolyte on adhesion strength and thermal performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sulki; Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Yonghwan; Jung, Uoochang; Chung, Wonsub

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the adhesive bond strength and thermal performance of the anodized aluminum 6061 in phosphoric acid electrolyte to improve the adhesive bond strength and thermal performance for use in metal core printed circuit boards (MCPCB). The electrolyte temperature and applied voltage were altered to generate varied pore structures. The thickness, porosity and pore diameter of the anodized layer were measured. The pore morphologies were affected most by temperature, which was the driving force for ion transportation. The mechanism of adhesive bond was penetration of the epoxy into the pores. The optimal anodization conditions for maximum adhesive bond strength, 27 MPa, were 293 K and 100V. The maximum thermal conductivity of the epoxy-treated anodized layer was 1.6 W/m·K at 273 K. Compared with the epoxy-treated Al layer used for conventional MCPCBs, the epoxy-treated anodized layer showed advanced thermal performance due to a low difference of thermal resistance and high heat dissipation.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require an effective nondestructive evaluation technique for their bond strength prediction. To properly evaluate factors affecting bond strength, effects of defects such as voids and disbonds on stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. At the same time, in order to use acousto-ultrasonic (AU) technique to evaluate bond quality, the effect of these defects on dynamic response of single lap joints must be clear. The stress distribution in a single lap joint with and without defects (void or disbond) is analyzed. A bar-Theta parameter which contains adherend and adhesive thickness and properties is introduced. It is shown for bonded joints with bar-Theta greater than 10, that a symmetric void or disbond in the middle of overlap up to the 70 percent of overlap length has negligible effect on bond strength. In contrast frequency response analyses by a finite element technique showed that the dynamic response is affected significantly by the presence of voids or disbonds. These results have direct implication in the interpretations of AU results. Through transmission attenuation and a number of AU parameters for various specimens with and without defects are evaluated. It is found that although void and disbond have similar effects on bond strength (stress distribution), they have completely different effects on wave propagation characteristics. For steel-adhesive-steel specimens with voids, the attenuation changes are related to the bond strength. However, the attenuation changes for specimens with disbond are fairly constant over a disbond range. In order to incorporate the location of defects in AU parameters, a weighting function is introduced. Using an immersion system with focused transducers, a number of AU parameters are evaluated. It is found that by incorporating weighting functions in these parameters better sensitivities (AU parameters vs. bond strength) are achieved. Acoustic emission

  6. Adhesive dentistry: the development of immediate dentin sealing/selective etching bonding technique.

    PubMed

    Helvey, Gregg A

    2011-01-01

    A major objective of dental research over the past 60 years has been a search for the "dream-team" of dental adhesives. In fact, a recent Medline search produced more than 6,500 papers on dentin bonding and its techniques. Adhesive systems are designed to retain direct and indirect restorations, minimize leakage at the margin, and be simple to place while producing consistent results. The development of materials and techniques has an interesting history; some have recirculated from the past and are being used in some form today. Buonocore used the etchant phosphoric acid at the beginning of the adhesive revolution. Though not accepted for many years it eventually became the "gold standard" for etching enamel. Technique sensitivity moved it out of favor and, through the development of self-etching acidic primers, was eliminated from some adhesive systems. Although these primers may have successfully addressed postoperative sensitivity, adhesion was compromised. The bond strength of these systems has now been improved with the incorporation of phosphoric acid-etch to condition enamel prior to using the adhesive system. This article will trace the history of adhesive techniques and materials and how it has led to the creation of a new technique that combines two bonding methods.

  7. Thermo-oxidative and hydrothermal ageing of epoxy-dicyandiamide adhesive in bonded stainless steel joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaukler, J. Ch; Fehling, P.; Possart, W.

    2009-09-01

    The ageing behaviour of stainless steel joints bonded with hot-curing adhesives is crucial for their reliability and durability in engineering applications. In industry, accelerated artificial ageing regimes are combined with short-term mechanical tests to simulate the in-service long-term behaviour and to predict the life time of the adhesive joints. With such a focus on mechanical bond strength, chemical changes in the adhesive are widely disregarded. Hence, neither the very causes for the decreasing performance of the joint nor their relevance for application can be revealed. Reasoning this study, lap shear samples of the stainless steel alloy 1.4376 are bonded with an epoxy-dicyandiamide adhesive and aged artificially under moderate thermo-oxidative (60 °C, dried air) or hydrothermal (60 °C, distilled water) condition. After testing (shear stress-strain analysis), chemical modifications of this adhesive due to ageing are detected on the fracture faces by μ-ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy as function of ageing time and position in the adhesive joint. The results attest high thermo-oxidative stability to these adhesive joints. For hydrothermal ageing, permeating water deteriorates the EP network from the edges towards the centre of the joint via hydrolysis of imine groups to ammonia, amine species and carbonyls.

  8. Comparisons of two approaches for removing excess adhesive during the bonding procedure.

    PubMed

    Bishara, S E; VonWald, L; Olsen, M E; Laffoon, J F

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on shear bond strength of removing excess adhesive from around the bracket base at 2 time periods: (1) immediately after placing the bracket on the tooth, and (2) after subjecting the adhesive to 5 seconds of light curing to initially secure the bracket in its proper position. The debonding forces were evaluated at 2 times; within half an hour after bonding and after storing for 24 hours in water at 37 degrees qC. These comparisons will help determine the most advantageous time for the clinician to remove excess adhesive from around the brackets during the bonding process. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to: (a) the time of removal of the excess adhesive from around the bracket base namely; immediately after placing the bracket or after 5 seconds of light cure and (b) the time of debonding the brackets, namely within half an hour or after 24 hours. Shear bond strength was measured using a Zwick test machine and calculated in Megapascals. The results of the analysis of variance (F = 35.05) comparing the 4 experimental groups indicated the presence of significant differences between all 4 groups (P = .0001). In general, the shear bond strengths were significantly larger for the 2 groups debonded after 24 hours, whether they were light cured for a total of 40 seconds (X = 8.8 +/- 3.6 MPa) or 45 seconds (X = 6.9 +/- 3.4 MPa). On the other hand, the shear bond strengths was significantly lower in the 2 groups debonded within half an hour from their initial bonding, whether light cured for 40 seconds (X = 0.4 +/- 1.0 MPa) or 45 seconds (X = 3.4 +/- 2.7 MPa). In conclusion, the additional 5 seconds of light cure significantly increased the initial shear bond strength. On the other hand, removing excess adhesive after 5 seconds of light cure significantly decreased the shear bond strength at 24 hours.

  9. Adhesion between silica surfaces due to hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Rossetto, Hebert L.; Kendall, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    The adhesion between surfaces can be enhanced significantly by the presence of hydrogen bonding. Confined water at the nanoscale can display behaviour remarkably different to bulk water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between two surfaces. In this work we investigate the role of confined water on the interaction between hydrophilic surfaces, specifically the effect of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase, by measuring the peak adhesive force and the work of adhesion. Atomic force microscope cantilevers presenting hemispherical silica tips were interacted with planar single crystals of silica in the presence of dimethylformamide, ethanol, and formamide; solution compositions in the range 0-100 mol% water were investigated for each molecule. Each molecule was chosen for its ability to hydrogen bond with water molecules, with increasing concentrations likely to disrupt the structure of surface-bound water layers. With the exception of aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of ethanol, all molecules decreased the ability of confined water to enhance the adhesion between the silica surfaces in excess of the predicted theoretical adhesion due to van der Waals forces. The conclusion was that adhesion depends strongly on the formation of a hydrogen-bonding network within the water layers confined between the silica surfaces.

  10. Effect of preoxidation on the bond strength of titanium and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mahale, K M; Nagda, S J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of preoxidation on porcelain titanium- bond strength and the effect of paste bonder (adhesive) on the titanium porcelain bond strength. 11 specimens of commercially pure titanium (26 x 7 x 3 mm) were prepared by different heat treatments in programmable dental furnace. Identification of the oxides formed on the metal surface was conducted with an X-Ray diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation. Vickers hardness numbers were determine. Additional 50 specimens of commercially pure titanium were used to bond with low fusing porcelain. The bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of the surface of pure titanium revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha -Ti decreased and that of TiO2 increased with increasing firing temperature. The Vickers hardness number decreased initially as the temperature increased but it increased remarkably above 900 degrees C & was harder in air than vacuum. The tensile shear bond strength was highest in the green stage i.e. without preoxidation of metal, and decreased above 900 degrees C, and was the lowest in the group without paste bonder application. The difference in bond strengths was statistically highly significant for all groups. Preoxidation under vacuum before porcelain firing can effectively improve bonding. The adhesive provided with the low fusing porcelain helps in the bond between titanium & porcelain.

  11. Model-based adhesive shrinkage compensation for increased bonding repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Tobias; Schlette, Christian; Lakshmanan, Shunmuganathan; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel; Sauer, Sebastian; Wenzel, Christian; Brecher, Christian; Roβmann, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The assembly process of optical components consists of two phases - the alignment and the bonding phase. Precision - or better process repeatability - is limited by the latter one. The limitation of the alignment precision is given by the measurement equipment and the manipulation technology applied. Today's micromanipulators in combination with beam imaging setups allow for an alignment in the range of far below 100nm. However, once precisely aligned optics need to be fixed in their position. State o f the art in optics bonding for laser systems is adhesive bonding with UV-curing adhesives. Adhesive bonding is a multi-factorial process and thus subject to statistical process deviations. As a matter of fact, UV-curing adhesives inherit shrinkage effects during their curing process, making offsets for shrinkage compensation mandatory. Enhancing the process control of the adhesive bonding process is the major goal of the activities described in this paper. To improve the precision of shrinkage compensation a dynamic shrinkage prediction is envisioned by Fraunhofer IPT. Intense research activities are being practiced to gather a deeper understanding of the parameters influencing adhesive shrinkage behavior. These effects are of different nature - obviously being the raw adhesive material itself as well as its condition, the bonding geometry, environmental parameters like surrounding temperature and of course process parameters such as curing properties. Understanding the major parameters and linking them in a model-based shrinkage-prediction environment is the basis for improved process control. Results are being deployed by Fraunhofer in prototyping, as well as volume production solutions for laser systems.

  12. Evaluation of thiouracil-based adhesive systems for bonding cast silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Miyuki; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishii, Takaya; Furuchi, Mika; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adhesive systems based on a thiouracil monomer on bonding to silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) alloy (Castwell M.C.12). Disk specimens were cast from the alloy and then air-abraded with alumina. The disks were bonded using six bonding systems selected from four primers and three luting materials. Shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling. Bond strength varied from 2.7 MPa to 32.0 MPa. Three systems based on a thiouracil monomer (MTU-6) showed durable bonding to the alloy, with post-thermocycling bond strengths of 22.4 MPa for the Metaltite (MTU-6) primer and Super-Bond, a tri-n-butylborane (TBB) initiated resin, 9.0 MPa for the Multi-Bond II resin, and 8.1 MPa for the Metaltite and Bistite II system. It can be concluded that a combination of thiouracil-based primer and TBB initiated resin is effective for bonding Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy.

  13. Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases.

    PubMed

    Lugato, Isabel Cristina Prado Torres; Pignatta, Lilian