Science.gov

Sample records for adhesive failure mechanisms

  1. Failure mechanisms of fibrin-based surgical tissue adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, David Hugh

    A series of studies was performed to investigate the potential impact of heterogeneity in the matrix of multiple-component fibrin-based tissue adhesives upon their mechanical and biomechanical properties both in vivo and in vitro. Investigations into the failure mechanisms by stereological techniques demonstrated that heterogeneity could be measured quantitatively and that the variation in heterogeneity could be altered both by the means of component mixing and delivery and by the formulation of the sealant. Ex vivo tensile adhesive strength was found to be inversely proportional to the amount of heterogeneity. In contrast, in vivo tensile wound-closure strength was found to be relatively unaffected by the degree of heterogeneity, while in vivo parenchymal organ hemostasis in rabbits was found to be affected: greater heterogeneity appeared to correlate with an increase in hemostasis time and amount of sealant necessary to effect hemostasis. Tensile testing of the bulk sealant showed that mechanical parameters were proportional to fibrin concentration and that the physical characteristics of the failure supported a ductile mechanism. Strain hardening as a function of percentage of strain, and strain rate was observed for both concentrations, and syneresis was observed at low strain rates for the lower fibrin concentration. Blister testing demonstrated that burst pressure and failure energy were proportional to fibrin concentration and decreased with increasing flow rate. Higher fibrin concentration demonstrated predominately compact morphology debonds with cohesive failure loci, demonstrating shear or viscous failure in a viscoelastic rubbery adhesive. The lower fibrin concentration sealant exhibited predominately fractal morphology debonds with cohesive failure loci, supporting an elastoviscous material condition. The failure mechanism for these was hypothesized and shown to be flow-induced ductile fracture. Based on these findings, the failure mechanism was

  2. A fracture mechanics analysis of adhesive failure in a single lap shear joint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.; Chang, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of adhesive fracture of single lap shear joints in terms of a maximum stress criterion and an energy balance. The Goland and Reissner (1944) analysis is used to determine the stress distribution in the adhesive assembly, and the results obtained are introduced into an energy balance to determine the initiation of adhesive fracture. In the stress analysis the loads at the edges of the joint are first determined. This is a problem in which the deformation of the joint sheets must be taken into account and is solved by using the finite-deflection theory of cylindrically bent plates. Then the stress in the joint due to applied loads is determined. This problem is formulated as one in plane strain consisting of two rectangular sheets of equal thickness and unit width. With the aid of this stress analysis and the stresses obtained from the conditions of equilibrium the contributions to the energy change with crack length are calculated. The analysis performed is then compared with a maximum stress criterion for a lap joint.

  3. Statistical failure analysis of adhesive resin cement bonded dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaou; Katsube, Noriko; Seghi, Robert R; Rokhlin, Stanislav I

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this work is to quantitatively examine the effect of adhesive resin cement on the probability of crack initiation from the internal surface of ceramic dental restorations. The possible crack bridging mechanism and residual stress effect of the resin cement on the ceramic surface are examined. Based on the fracture-mechanics-based failure probability model, we predict the failure probability of glass-ceramic disks bonded to simulated dentin subjected to indentation loads. The theoretical predictions match experimental data suggesting that both resin bridging and shrinkage plays an important role and need to be considered for accurate prognostics to occur.

  4. Wear mechanism based on adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Various concepts concerning wear mechanisms and deformation behavior observed in the sliding wear track are surveyed. The mechanisms for wear fragment formation is discussed on the basis of adhesion. The wear process under unlubricated sliding conditions is explained in relation to the concept of adhesion at the interface during the sliding process. The mechanism for tearing away the surface layer from the contact area and forming the sliding track contour is explained by assuming the simplified process of material removal based on the adhesion theory.

  5. Failure strength prediction for adhesively bonded single lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Niat Mahmud

    For adhesively bonded joint, failure strength depends on many factors such as material properties (both adhesive and adherend), specimen geometries, test environments, surface preparation procedures, etc. Failure occurs inside constitutive materials or along joint interfaces. Based on location, adhesively bonded failure mode can be classified as adhesive failure mode, cohesive failure mode and adherend failure mode. Failure mode directly affects the failure strength of joint. For last eight decades, researchers have developed analytical, empirical or semi-empirical methods capable of predicting failure strength for adhesively bonded joints generating either cohesive failure or adherend failure. Applicability of most of the methods is limited to particular cases. In this research, different failure modes for single lap joints (SLJs) were generated experimentally using epoxy based paste adhesive. Based on experimental data and analytical study, simplified failure prediction methods were developed for each failure mode. For adhesive failure mode, it is observed that peel stress distributions concur along interface near crack initiation points. All SLJs for this test endured consistent surface treatments. Geometric parameters of the joints were varied to study their effect on failure strength. Peel stress distributions were calculated using finite analysis (FEA). Based on peel stress distribution near crack initiation point, a failure model is proposed. Numerous analytical, empirical and semi-empirical models are available for predicting failure strengths of SLJs generating cohesive failures. However, most of the methods in the literature failed to capture failure behavior of SLJs having thickness of adhesive layer as variable. Cohesive failure mode was generated experimentally using aluminum as adherend and epoxy adhesive considering thickness of adhesive layers as variable within SLJs. Comparative study was performed among various methods. It was observed that

  6. Adhesive fracture mechanics. [stress analysis for bond line interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, S. J.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    In studies of fracture mechanics the adhesive fracture energy is regarded as a fundamental property of the adhesive system. It is pointed out that the value of the adhesive fracture energy depends on surface preparation, curing conditions, and absorbed monolayers. A test method reported makes use of a disk whose peripheral part is bonded to a substrate material. Pressure is injected into the unbonded central part of the disk. At a certain critical pressure value adhesive failure can be observed. A numerical stress analysis involving arbitrary geometries is conducted.

  7. Characterization of mode 1 and mixed-mode failure of adhesive bonds between composite adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of an adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize both the static and fatigue beyond growth mechanism under mode 1 and mixed-mode 1 and 2 loadings. Two bonded systems were studied: graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 and FM-300 adhesives. For each bonded system, two specimen types were tested: a double-cantilever-beam specimen for mode 1 loading and a cracked-lapshear specimen for mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading. In all specimens tested, failure occurred in the form of debond growth. Debonding always occurred in a cohesive manner with EC 3445 adhesive. The FM-300 adhesive debonded in a cohesive manner under mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading, but in a cohesive, adhesive, or combined cohesive and adhesive manner under mode 1 loading. Total strain-energy release rate appeared to be the driving parameter for debond growth under static and fatigue loadings.

  8. Characterization of mode I and mixed-mode failure of adhesive bonds between composite adherends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of an adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize both the static and fatigue beyond growth mechanism under mode 1 and mixed-mode 1 and 2 loadings. Two bonded systems were studied: graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with EC 3445 and FM-300 adhesives. For each bonded system, two specimen types were tested: a double-cantilever-beam specimen for mode 1 loading and a cracked-lapshear specimen for mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading. In all specimens tested, failure occurred in the form of debond growth. Debonding always occurred in a cohesive manner with EC 3445 adhesive. The FM-300 adhesive debonded in a cohesive manner under mixed-mode 1 and 2 loading, but in a cohesive, adhesive, or combined cohesive and adhesive manner under mode 1 loading. Total strain-energy release rate appeared to be the driving parameter for debond growth under static and fatigue loadings.

  9. Adhesive mechanisms in cephalopods: a review.

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Klepal, Waltraud

    2006-01-01

    Several genera of cephalopods (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions, which are used for attachment to the substratum, for mating and to capture prey. These adhesive structures are located in different parts of the body, viz. in the digital tentacles (Nautilus), in the ventral surface of the mantle and fourth arm pair (Sepia), in the dorsal epidermis (Euprymna), or in the dorsal mantle side and partly on the fins (Idiosepius). Adhesion in Sepia is induced by suction of dermal structures on the mantle, while for Nautilus, Euprymna and Idiosepius adhesion is probably achieved by chemical substances. Histochemical studies indicate that in Nautilus and Idiosepius secretory cells that appear to be involved in adhesion stain for carbohydrates and protein, whilst in Euprymna only carbohydrates are detectable. De-adhesion is either achieved by muscle contraction of the tentacles and mantle (Nautilus and Sepia) or by secretion of substances (Euprymna). The de-adhesive mechanism used by Idiosepius remains unknown. PMID:17110356

  10. Adhesive mechanisms in cephalopods: a review.

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Klepal, Waltraud

    2006-01-01

    Several genera of cephalopods (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions, which are used for attachment to the substratum, for mating and to capture prey. These adhesive structures are located in different parts of the body, viz. in the digital tentacles (Nautilus), in the ventral surface of the mantle and fourth arm pair (Sepia), in the dorsal epidermis (Euprymna), or in the dorsal mantle side and partly on the fins (Idiosepius). Adhesion in Sepia is induced by suction of dermal structures on the mantle, while for Nautilus, Euprymna and Idiosepius adhesion is probably achieved by chemical substances. Histochemical studies indicate that in Nautilus and Idiosepius secretory cells that appear to be involved in adhesion stain for carbohydrates and protein, whilst in Euprymna only carbohydrates are detectable. De-adhesion is either achieved by muscle contraction of the tentacles and mantle (Nautilus and Sepia) or by secretion of substances (Euprymna). The de-adhesive mechanism used by Idiosepius remains unknown.

  11. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  12. Mechanisms of adhesion in geckos.

    PubMed

    Autumn, Kellar; Peattie, Anne M

    2002-12-01

    The extraordinary adhesive capabilities of geckos have challenged explanation for millennia, since Aristotle first recorded his observations. We have discovered many of the secrets of gecko adhesion, yet the millions of dry, adhesive setae on the toes of geckos continue to generate puzzling new questions and valuable answers. Each epidermally-derived, keratinous seta ends in hundreds of 200 nm spatular tips, permitting intimate contact with rough and smooth surfaces alike. Prior studies suggested that adhesive force in gecko setae was directly proportional to the water droplet contact angle (θ) , an indicator of the free surface energy of a substrate. In contrast, new theory suggests that adhesion energy between a gecko seta and a surface (W(GS)) is in fact proportional to (1 + cosθ), and only for θ > 60°. A reanalysis of prior data, in combination with our recent study, support the van der Waals hypothesis of gecko adhesion, and contradict surface hydrophobicity as a predictor of adhesion force. Previously, we and our collaborators measured the force production of a single seta. Initial efforts to attach a seta failed because of improper 3D orientation. However, by simulating the dynamics of gecko limbs during climbing (based on force plate data) we discovered that, in single setae, a small normal preload, combined with a 5 μm displacement yielded a very large adhesive force of 200 microNewton (μN), 10 times that predicted by whole-animal measurements. 6.5 million setae of a single tokay gecko attached maximally could generate 130 kg force. This raises the question of how geckos manage to detach their feet in just 15 ms. We discovered that simply increasing the angle that the setal shaft makes with the substrate to 30° causes detachment. Understanding how simultaneous attachment and release of millions of setae are controlled will require an approach that integrates levels ranging from molecules to lizards.

  13. Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H; Molinari, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients. PMID:27264270

  14. Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H.; Molinari, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients. PMID:27264270

  15. Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H.; Molinari, Jean-Francois

    2016-06-01

    The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients.

  16. Tissue Mechanics and Adhesion during Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Joseph H.; Davidson, Lance A.

    2014-01-01

    During development cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment through cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Many proteins involved in these adhesions serve both mechanical and signaling roles. In this review we will focus on the mechanical roles of these proteins and their complexes in transmitting force or stress from cell to cell or from cell to the extracellular matrix. As forces operate against tissues they establish tissue architecture, extracellular matrix assembly, and pattern cell shapes. As tissues become more established, adhesions play a major role integrating cells with the mechanics of their local environment. Adhesions may serve as both a molecular-specific glue, holding defined populations of cells together, and as a lubricant, allowing tissues to slide past one another. We review the biophysical principles and experimental tools used to study adhesion so that we may aid efforts to understand how adhesions guide these movements and integrate their signaling functions with mechanical function. As we conclude we review efforts to develop predictive models of adhesion that can be used to interpret experiments and guide future efforts to control and direct the process of tissue self-assembly during development. PMID:25512299

  17. Adhesion failure behavior of sputtered calcium phosphate thin film coatings evaluated using microscratch testing.

    PubMed

    Toque, J A; Herliansyah, M K; Hamdi, M; Ide-Ektessabi, A; Sopyan, I

    2010-05-01

    It is generally accepted that calcium phosphate (CaP) is one of the most important biomaterials in implant coating applications mainly because of its excellent bioactivity. However, its relatively poor mechanical properties limits its application. This entails that a better understanding of the mechanical properties of a CaP coating is a must especially its behavior and the mechanisms involved when subjected to stresses which eventually lead to failure. The mechanical properties of the coating may be evaluated in terms of its adhesion strength. In this study, a radio frequency-magnetron (RF-MS) sputtering technique was used to deposit CaP thin films on 316L stainless steel (SS). The coatings were subjected to series of microscratch tests, taking careful note of its behavior as the load is applied. The adhesion behavior of the coatings showed varying responses. It was revealed that several coating process-related factors such as thickness, post-heat treatment and deposition parameters, to name a few, affect its scratching behavior. Scratch testing-related factors (i.e. loading rate, scratch speed, scratch load, etc.) were also shown to influence the mechanisms involved in the coating adhesion failure. Evaluation of the load-displacement graph combined with optical inspection of the scratch confirmed that several modes of failure occurred during the scratching process. These include trackside cracking, tensile cracking, radial cracking, buckling, delamination and combinations of one or more modes.

  18. Failure Surface Analysis of Polyimide/Titanium Notched Coating Adhesion Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    GIUNTA,RACHEL K.; KANDER,RONALD G.

    2000-12-18

    Adhesively bonded joints of LaRC{trademark} PETI-5, a phenylethynyl-terminated polyimide, with chromic acid anodized titanium were fabricated and debonded interfacially. The adhesive-substrate failure surfaces were investigated using several surface analysis techniques. From Auger spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy studies, polymer appears to be penetrating the pores of the anodized substrate to a depth of approximately 100 nm. From x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the polymer penetrating the pores appears to be in electrical contact with the titanium substrate, leading to differential charging. These analyses confirm that the polymer is becoming mechanically interlocked within the substrate surface.

  19. Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeshin; Scherer, Norbert F.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2006-08-01

    The glue proteins secreted by marine mussels bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments in which most adhesives function poorly. Studies of these functionally unique proteins have revealed the presence of the unusual amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), which is formed by posttranslational modification of tyrosine. However, the detailed binding mechanisms of dopa remain unknown, and the chemical basis for mussels' ability to adhere to both inorganic and organic surfaces has never been fully explained. Herein, we report a single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of a single dopa residue contacting a wet metal oxide surface reveal a surprisingly high strength yet fully reversible, noncovalent interaction. The magnitude of the bond dissociation energy as well as the inability to observe this interaction with tyrosine suggests that dopa is critical to adhesion and that the binding mechanism is not hydrogen bond formation. Oxidation of dopa, as occurs during curing of the secreted mussel glue, dramatically reduces the strength of the interaction to metal oxide but results in high strength irreversible covalent bond formation to an organic surface. A new picture of the interfacial adhesive role of dopa emerges from these studies, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition from organic to metallic. 3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine | atomic force microscopy | mussel adhesive protein

  20. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  1. Adhesive bond failure monitoring with triboluminescent optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohag, Md Abu S.; Hammel, Emily C.; Olawale, David O.; Okoli, Okenwa O.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most severe damage modes in modern wind turbines is the failure of the adhesive joints in the trailing edge of the large composite blades. The geometrical shape of the blade and current manufacturing techniques make the trailing edge of the wind turbine blade more sensitive to damage. Failure to timely detect this damage type may result in catastrophic failures, expensive system downtime, and high repair costs. A novel sensing system called the In-situ Triboluminescent Optical Fiber (ITOF) sensor has been proposed for monitoring the initiation and propagation of disbonds in composite adhesive joints. The ITOF sensor combines the triboluminescent property of ZnS:Mn with the many desirable features of optical fiber to provide in-situ and distributed damage sensing in large composite structures like the wind blades. Unlike other sensor systems, the ITOF sensor does not require a power source at the sensing location or for transmitting damage-induced signals to the hub of the wind turbine. Composite parts will be fabricated and the ITOF integrated within the bondline to provide in-situ and real time damage sensing. Samples of the fabricated composite parts with integrated ITOF will be subjected to tensile and flexural loads, and the response from the integrated sensors will be monitored and analyzed to characterize the performance of the ITOF sensor as a debonding damage monitoring system. In addition, C-scan and optical microscopy will be employed to gain greater insights into the damage propagation behavior and the signals received from the ITOF sensors.

  2. Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental methods for identifying failure mechanisms in fibrous composites are studied. Methods to identify failure in composite materials includes interferometry, holography, fractography and ultrasonics.

  3. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form

  4. The Effect of Composite Patches on the Failure of Adhesively-Bonded Joints Under Bending Moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar, Salih

    2013-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare mechanical behavior of double-strap joints with aluminum (AA2024-T3) or 16-ply laminate of carbon/epoxy composite (T300/934) patches of different orientation angles at their overlap area subjected to bending moment. For this purpose, AA2024-T3 aluminum was used as adherend, while the adhesive was a two-part paste (DP 460). Six different types of joint samples were subjected to bending moment. The effect of patch material on failure load and stress distribution was examined experimentally and numerically. In the numerical analysis, the composite patches were assumed to behave linearly elastic, while adherend and adhesive layers were assumed to be nonlinear. It was found that the data obtained from 3-D finite element analysis were coherent with experimental results. Meanwhile, experiments showed that fiber orientation angles of the patches markedly affected the failure load of joints, failure mode and stress distributions appeared in adhesive and composite.

  5. Rate and time dependent failure of structural adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, H. F.; Renieri, M. P.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Studies on two adhesives (Metlbond 1113 and 1113-2) identified as having important applications in the bonding of composite materials are presented. A testing program to ascertain stress-strain, strain-rate, time, yield, and/or failure behavior of these materials in bulk form using uniaxial tensile constant strain-rate, creep, and relaxation tests is described. The stress-strain behavior of each material is shown to be significantly rate dependent. A rate dependent stress whitening (crazing) phenomenon occurs prior to either yield or fracture. A region of linear elasticity, a region of viscoelasticity, and the onset of yielding are identified in the stress-strain behavior. The linear elastic limit and the yield point are shown to be rate dependent and agree well with an empirical equation proposed by Ludwik. A creep to failure phenomenon is shown to exist and is correlated with a delayed yield equation proposed by Crochet. Analytical predictions based on a modified Bingham model are shown to agree well with experimental stress-strain strain-rate data. Analytical predictions based on a modified Ramberg-Osgood equation are also shown for comparison purposes.

  6. Evaluation of a Linear Cumulative Damage Failure Model for Epoxy Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, David E.; Batista-Rodriquez, Alicia; Macon, David; Totman, Peter; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recently a significant amount of work has been conducted to provide more complex and accurate material models for use in the evaluation of adhesive bondlines. Some of this has been prompted by recent studies into the effects of residual stresses on the integrity of bondlines. Several techniques have been developed for the analysis of bondline residual stresses. Key to these analyses is the criterion that is used for predicting failure. Residual stress loading of an adhesive bondline can occur over the life of the component. For many bonded systems, this can be several years. It is impractical to directly characterize failure of adhesive bondlines under a constant load for several years. Therefore, alternative approaches for predictions of bondline failures are required. In the past, cumulative damage failure models have been developed. These models have ranged from very simple to very complex. This paper documents the generation and evaluation of some of the most simple linear damage accumulation tensile failure models for an epoxy adhesive. This paper shows how several variations on the failure model were generated and presents an evaluation of the accuracy of these failure models in predicting creep failure of the adhesive. The paper shows that a simple failure model can be generated from short-term failure data for accurate predictions of long-term adhesive performance.

  7. Physics of Cell Adhesion Failure and Human Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Family, Fereydoon

    Emergent phenomena in living systems, including your ability to read these lines, do not obviously follow as a consequence of the fundamental laws of physics. Understanding the physics of living systems clearly falls outside the conventional boundaries of scientific disciplines and requires a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach. Here I will discuss how theoretical and computational techniques from statistical physics can be used to make progress in explaining the physical mechanisms that underlie complex biological phenomena, including major diseases. In the specific cases of macular degeneration and cancer that we have studied recently, we find that the breakdown of the mechanical stability in the local tissue structure caused by weakening of the cell-cell adhesion plays a key role in the initiation and progression of the disease. This finding can help in the development of new therapies that would prevent or halt the initiation and progression of these diseases.

  8. Work of Adhesion Measurements of Silicone Networks Using Contract Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Benkoski, J.; Emerson, J.A.; Miller, G.V.; Pearson, R.A.

    1999-04-21

    Work of adhesion (Wa) measurements are being studied for several types of polymer/metal combinations in order to obtain a better understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. A primary concern is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. One study performed in our laboratory involved the determination of Wa between silicone (PDMS) and Al surfaces in order to establish potential adhesive failure mechanisms. Our initial work with PDMS was based on Dow Corning 170 Sylgard. PDMS hemispheres were synthesized following the procedure outlined by Chaudhury and Whitesides where the filler was stripped from the commercial silicone by centrifuging. Wa between PDMS surfaces was determined using the JKR method. Our results for the Wa of PDMS were in agreement with those reported by Chaudhury and Whitesides. However, further JKR studies using these PDMS hemispheres on flat Al surfaces were fraught with difficulty. We could not discriminate hydrogen-bonding effects between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydroxyl groups in the PDMS and other possible bonding mechanisms. It was suggested that commercial systems contain inhibitors and additives that interfere with understanding the PMDS/Al interface. Therefore, the current study uses pure PDMS networks synthesized in our lab. Also, two contact mechanics methods were deployed to measure the Wa--JKR method using two hemispheres and a LEFM method using a cylinder containing a circumferential crack. This paper contains a description of the synthesis of the PDMS used for these studies and the determination of Wa between PDMS surfaces using the JKR method, contact angle measurements, and a LEFM method that consists of a cylinder containing a circumferential crack.

  9. Mechanism of Focal Adhesion Kinase Mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Sebastian; Bullerjahn, Jakob Tómas; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensing at focal adhesions regulates vital cellular processes. Here, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) and mechano-biochemical network simulations that suggest a direct role of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a mechano-sensor. Tensile forces, propagating from the membrane through the PIP2 binding site of the FERM domain and from the cytoskeleton-anchored FAT domain, activate FAK by unlocking its central phosphorylation site (Tyr576/577) from the autoinhibitory FERM domain. Varying loading rates, pulling directions, and membrane PIP2 concentrations corroborate the specific opening of the FERM-kinase domain interface, due to its remarkably lower mechanical stability compared to the individual alpha-helical domains and the PIP2-FERM link. Analyzing downstream signaling networks provides further evidence for an intrinsic mechano-signaling role of FAK in broadcasting force signals through Ras to the nucleus. This distinguishes FAK from hitherto identified focal adhesion mechano-responsive molecules, allowing a new interpretation of cell stretching experiments. PMID:26544178

  10. ADHESION OF AMORPHOUS CALCIUM PHOSPHATE COMPOSITES BONDED TO DENTIN: A STUDY IN FAILURE MODALITY

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Schumacher, G.E.; Antonucci, J.M.; Skrtic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims As a bioactive filler capable of remineralizing tooth structures, the main disadvantage of as-made amorphous calcium phosphate (am-ACP) are its large agglomerates. The objective of this study was to mill ACP, and compare the adhesive strength to dentin, work to fracture, and failure modes of both groups to glass-filled composites and one commercial compomer after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 3 and 6 months of exposure to simulated saliva solution (SLS). Flat dentin surfaces were acid-etched, primed, and photopolymerized. Composites were applied, photo-cured, and debonded in shear. The resin used in each composite was identical: ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and methacryloxyethyl phthalate. Fillers consisted of am-ACP and milled ACP (m-ACP), and a strontium-containing glass (Sr-glass) at respective mass fractions of (40, 60, and 75) %. Findings 90 % of the fracture surfaces in this study showed adhesive failure, with most of these occurring at the dentin/primer interface. 52 % of failures after 24 h immersion occurred at the primer/composite interface. After six months of SLS exposure, 80 % of specimens failed at the dentin/primer interface, with a 42 % overall reduction in bond strength. Conclusions Milled ACP composites showed initial mechanical advantages over am-ACP composites and the compomer, and produced a higher incidence of a failure mode consistent with stronger adhesion. Evidence is provided which suggests that milled ACP composites may offer enhanced potential in clinical bonding applications. PMID:19107798

  11. Mechanical properties of methacrylate-based model dentin adhesives: effect of loading rate and moisture exposure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Viraj; Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Ye, Qiang; Park, Jonggu; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical behavior of model methacrylate-based dentin adhesives under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment. A series of monotonic and creep experiments were performed on rectangular beam samples of dentin adhesive in three-point bending configuration under different moisture conditions. The monotonic test results show a significant effect of loading rate on the failure strength and the linear limit (yield point) of the stress-strain response. In addition, these tests show that the failure strength is low, and the failure occurs at a smaller deformation when the test is performed under continuously changing moisture conditions. The creep test results show that under constant moisture conditions, the model dentin adhesives can have a viscoelastic response under certain low loading levels. However, when the moisture conditions vary under the same low loading levels, the dentin adhesives have an anomalous creep response accompanied by large secondary creep and high strain accumulation. PMID:23744598

  12. Mechanical properties of Hysol EA-9394 structural adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D.; Stavig, M.E.

    1995-02-01

    Dextor`s Hysol EA-9394 is a room temperature curable paste adhesive representative of the adhesives used in wind turbine blade joints. A mechanical testing program has been performed to characterize this adhesive. Tension, compression stress relaxation, flexural, butt tensile, and fracture toughness test results are reported.

  13. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  14. Mechanisms of heart failure in obesity.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Imo A; Goff, David C; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Chen, Haiying; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and its prevalence continues to rise. Because obesity has been linked with heart failure, the increasing prevalence of obesity may presage further rise in heart failure in the future. Obesity-related factors are estimated to cause 11% of heart failure cases in men and 14% in women. Obesity may result in heart failure by inducing haemodynamic and myocardial changes that lead to cardiac dysfunction, or due to an increased predisposition to other heart failure risk factors. Direct cardiac lipotoxicity has been described where lipid accumulation in the heart results in cardiac dysfunction inexplicable of other heart failure risk factors. In this overview, we discussed various pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to heart failure in obesity, including the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac lipotoxicity. We defined the obesity paradox and enumerated various premises for the paradoxical associations observed in the relationship between obesity and heart failure.

  15. Molecular mechanisms regulating CD13-mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Gerber, Claire; Rahman, M Mamunur; Vernier, Kaitlyn M; Pereira, Flavia E; Subramani, Jaganathan; Caromile, Leslie A; Shapiro, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    CD13/Aminopeptidase N is a transmembrane metalloproteinase that is expressed in many tissues where it regulates various cellular functions. In inflammation, CD13 is expressed on myeloid cells, is up-regulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation and mediates monocyte/endothelial adhesion by homotypic interactions. In animal models the lack of CD13 alters the profiles of infiltrating inflammatory cells at sites of ischaemic injury. Here, we found that CD13 expression is enriched specifically on the pro-inflammatory subset of monocytes, suggesting that CD13 may regulate trafficking and function of specific subsets of immune cells. To further dissect the mechanisms regulating CD13-dependent trafficking we used the murine model of thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis. Peritoneal monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were significantly decreased in inflammatory exudates from global CD13KO animals when compared with wild-type controls. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type and CD13KO primary myeloid cells, or wild-type myeloid cells pre-treated with CD13-blocking antibodies into thioglycollate-challenged wild-type recipients demonstrated fewer CD13KO or treated cells in the lavage, suggesting that CD13 expression confers a competitive advantage in trafficking. Similarly, both wild-type and CD13KO cells were reduced in infiltrates in CD13KO recipients, confirming that both monocytic and endothelial CD13 contribute to trafficking. Finally, murine monocyte cell lines expressing mouse/human chimeric CD13 molecules demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of the protein mediates CD13 adhesion. Therefore, this work verifies that the altered inflammatory trafficking in CD13KO mice is the result of aberrant myeloid cell subset trafficking and further defines the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:24627994

  16. Mechanical behavior of adhesive joints subjected to cyclic thermal loading

    SciTech Connect

    Humfeld, G.R.; Dillard, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stresses induced in bimaterial systems due to changing temperature has been the subject of much study since the publication of Timoshenko`s classic paper of 1925. An adhesive bond is one example of a bimaterial system in which thermal stress can play an important role. However, adhesives are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanical behavior is dictated by the temperature- and time-dependence of their material properties; analytical solutions for elastic materials do not adequately describe their true behavior. The effect of the adhesive`s viscoelasticity on stress in an adhesive bond subjected to changing temperature is therefore of compelling interest and importance for the adhesives industry. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the viscoelastic effect in an adhesive bond subjected to cycling temperature, particularly when the temperature range spans a transition temperature of the adhesive. Numerical modeling of a simplified geometry was first undertaken to isolate the influence of viscoelasticity on the stress state from any particular specimen geometry effect. Finite element modeling was then undertaken to examine the mechanical behavior of the adhesive in a layered geometry. Both solution methods predicted development of residual tensile stresses in the adhesive. For the layered geometry this was found to correspond with residual tensile peel stresses, which are thought to be the cause of interfacial debonding.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of Failure in Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersappe, Dilip

    2002-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of polymers reinforced with nanoscopic filler particles reveal the mechanisms by which nanofillers improve the toughness of the material. We find that the mobility of the nanofiller particle, rather than its surface area, controls its ability to dissipate energy. Our results show similarities between the toughening mechanisms observed in polymer nanocomposites and those postulated for biological structural materials such as spider silk and abalone adhesive.

  18. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  19. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  20. The Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Octopus vulgaris Suckers

    PubMed Central

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species. PMID:23750233

  1. Force nanoscopy of cell mechanics and cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufrêne, Yves F.; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2013-05-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to mechanical stimuli in their environment and have several evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to these cues. It is becoming increasingly recognized that many cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, possess a diverse set of proteins to translate mechanical cues into biochemical signalling and to mediate cell surface interactions such as cell adhesion. Moreover, the mechanical properties of cells are involved in regulating cell function as well as serving as indicators of disease states. Importantly, the recent development of biophysical tools and nanoscale methods has facilitated a deeper understanding of the role that physical forces play in modulating cell mechanics and cell adhesion. Here, we discuss how atomic force microscopy (AFM) has recently been used to investigate cell mechanics and cell adhesion at the single-cell and single-molecule levels. This knowledge is critical to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern mechanosensing, mechanotransduction, and mechanoresponse in living cells. While pushing living cells with the AFM tip provides a means to quantify their mechanical properties and examine their response to nanoscale forces, pulling single surface proteins with a functionalized tip allows one to understand their role in sensing and adhesion. The combination of these nanoscale techniques with modern molecular biology approaches, genetic engineering and optical microscopies provides a powerful platform for understanding the sophisticated functions of the cell surface machinery, and its role in the onset and progression of complex diseases.

  2. Basic failure mechanisms in advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. V.; Mazzio, V. F.; Mehan, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in carbon-epoxy composites are identified as a basis for more reliable prediction of the performance of these materials. The approach involves both the study of local fracture events in model specimens containing small groups of filaments and fractographic examination of high fiber content engineering composites. Emphasis is placed on the correlation of model specimen observations with gross fracture modes. The effects of fiber surface treatment, resin modification and fiber content are studied and acoustic emission methods are applied. Some effort is devoted to analysis of the failure process in composite/metal specimens.

  3. Mechanical circulatory support in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Szczurek, Wioletta; Suliga, Kamil; Rempega, Grzegorz; Rajwa, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    The increasing number of end-stage heart failure patients eligible for heart transplant and the disproportionately low number of donor hearts have led to increased interest in ventricular assist devices (VAD). These devices can be used as a bridge to decision, bridge to recovery, or bridge to candidacy. The main advantage of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is the improvement of organ perfusion and function, which leads to better quality of life and survival. The MCS can also be used as a destination therapy in end-stage heart failure patients who are not eligible for heart transplant. It should be remembered that, despite the tangible benefits, VAD implantation may also be associated with the risk of serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, arrhythmias, blood clots, right ventricular failure, and cardiovascular events. This study presents an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge on the role of MCS in modern medicine. PMID:27516785

  4. Mechanical circulatory support in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Suliga, Kamil; Rempega, Grzegorz; Rajwa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of end-stage heart failure patients eligible for heart transplant and the disproportionately low number of donor hearts have led to increased interest in ventricular assist devices (VAD). These devices can be used as a bridge to decision, bridge to recovery, or bridge to candidacy. The main advantage of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is the improvement of organ perfusion and function, which leads to better quality of life and survival. The MCS can also be used as a destination therapy in end-stage heart failure patients who are not eligible for heart transplant. It should be remembered that, despite the tangible benefits, VAD implantation may also be associated with the risk of serious complications, such as bleeding, infection, arrhythmias, blood clots, right ventricular failure, and cardiovascular events. This study presents an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge on the role of MCS in modern medicine. PMID:27516785

  5. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jian-Wen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test. In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis. The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this, shear sliding along

  6. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsin, Alexander; Grunze, Michael

    2014-05-14

    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity.

  7. Effect of adhesive interleaving and discontinuous plies on failure of composite laminates subject to transverse normal loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a series of tests to determine the effects of adhesive interleaving and discontinuous plies (plies with end-to-end gaps) on the displacements, failure loads and failure modes of graphite-epoxy laminates subjected to transverse normal loads are presented. Adhesive interleaving can be used to contain local damage within a group of plies, i.e., to arrest crack propagation on the interlaminate level, and it can increase the amount of normal displacement the laminate can withstand before failure. However, the addition of adhesive interleaving to a laminate does not significantly increase its load carrying capability. A few discontinuous plies in a laminate can reduce the normal displacement and load at failure by 10 to 40 percent compared to a laminate with no discontinuous plies, but the presence of the ply discontinuities does not generally change the failure location or the failure mode of the laminate.

  8. Compression failure mechanisms of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, H. T.; Sohi, M.; Moon, S.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was conducted to delineate the compression failure mechanisms of composite structures. The present report summarizes further results on kink band formation in unidirectional composites. In order to assess the compressive strengths and failure modes of fibers them selves, a fiber bundle was embedded in epoxy casting and tested in compression. A total of six different fibers were used together with two resins of different stiffnesses. The failure of highly anisotropic fibers such as Kevlar 49 and P-75 graphite was due to kinking of fibrils. However, the remaining fibers--T300 and T700 graphite, E-glass, and alumina--failed by localized microbuckling. Compressive strengths of the latter group of fibers were not fully utilized in their respective composite. In addition, acoustic emission monitoring revealed that fiber-matrix debonding did not occur gradually but suddenly at final failure. The kink band formation in unidirectional composites under compression was studied analytically and through microscopy. The material combinations selected include seven graphite/epoxy composites, two graphite/thermoplastic resin composites, one Kevlar 49/epoxy composite and one S-glass/epoxy composite.

  9. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... as the shoulder Eyes Inside the abdomen or pelvis Adhesions can become larger or tighter over time. ... Other causes of adhesions in the abdomen or pelvis include: Appendicitis , most often when the appendix breaks ...

  10. Role of failure-mechanism identification in accelerated testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, J. M.; Barker, D.; Dasgupta, A.; Arora, A.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerated life testing techniques provide a short-cut method to investigate the reliability of electronic devices with respect to certain dominant failure mechanisms that occur under normal operating conditions. However, accelerated tests have often been conducted without knowledge of the failure mechanisms and without ensuring that the test accelerated the same mechanism as that observed under normal operating conditions. This paper summarizes common failure mechanisms in electronic devices and packages and investigates possible failure mechanism shifting during accelerated testing.

  11. Fatigue of the resin-enamel bonded interface and the mechanisms of failure.

    PubMed

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Majd, Hessam; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne

    2013-05-01

    The durability of adhesive bonds to enamel and dentin and the mechanisms of degradation caused by cyclic loading are important to the survival of composite restorations. In this study a novel method of evaluation was used to determine the strength of resin-enamel bonded interfaces under oth static and cyclic loading, and to identify the mechanisms of failure. Specimens with twin interfaces of enamel bonded to commercial resin composite were loaded in monotonic and cyclic 4-point flexure to failure within a hydrated environment. Results for the resin-enamel interface were compared with those for the resin composite (control) and values reported for resin-dentin adhesive bonds. Under both modes of loading the strength of the resin-enamel interface was significantly (p≤0.0001) lower than that of the resin composite and the resin-dentin bonded interface. Fatigue failure of the interface occurred predominantly by fracture of enamel, adjacent to the interface, and not due to adhesive failures. In the absence of water aging or acid production of biofilms, the durability of adhesive bonds to enamel is lower than that achieved in dentin bonding.

  12. Crosstalk between focal adhesions and material mechanical properties governs cell mechanics and functions.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Sabato; Panzetta, Valeria; Embrione, Valerio; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical properties of materials strongly influence cell fate and functions. Focal adhesions are involved in the extremely important processes of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. To address the relationship between the mechanical properties of cell substrates, focal adhesion/cytoskeleton assembly and cell functions, we investigated the behavior of NIH/3T3 cells over a wide range of stiffness (3-1000kPa) using two of the most common synthetic polymers for cell cultures: polyacrylamide and polydimethylsiloxane. An overlapping stiffness region was created between them to compare focal adhesion characteristics and cell functions, taking into account their different time-dependent behavior. Indeed, from a rheological point of view, polyacrylamide behaves like a strong gel (elastically), whereas polydimethylsiloxane like a viscoelastic solid. First, focal adhesion characteristics and dynamics were addressed in terms of material stiffness, then cell spreading area, migration rate and cell mechanical properties were correlated with focal adhesion size and assembly. Focal adhesion size was found to increase in the whole range of stiffness and to be in agreement in the overlapping rigidity region for the investigated materials. Cell mechanics directly correlated with focal adhesion lengths, whereas migration rate followed an inverse correlation. Cell spreading correlated with the substrate stiffness on polyacrylamide hydrogel, while no specific trend was found on polydimethylsiloxane. Substrate mechanics can be considered as a key physical cue that regulates focal adhesion assembly, which in turn governs important cellular properties and functions. PMID:26004223

  13. Probing the intrinsic failure mechanism of fluorinated amorphous carbon film based on the first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ren-Hui; Wang, Li-Ping; Lu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-03-01

    Fluorinated amorphous carbon films exhibit superlow friction under vacuum, but are prone to catastrophic failure. Thus far, the intrinsic failure mechanism remains unclear. A prevailing view is that the failure of amorphous carbon film results from the plastic deformation of substrates or strong adhesion between two contacted surfaces. In this paper, using first-principles and molecular dynamics methodology, combining with compressive stress-strain relation, we firstly demonstrate that the plastic deformation induces graphitization resulting in strong adhesion between two contacted surfaces under vacuum, which directly corresponds to the cause of the failure of the films. In addition, sliding contact experiments are conducted to study tribological properties of iron and fluorinated amorphous carbon surfaces under vacuum. The results show that the failure of the film is directly attributed to strong adhesion resulting from high degree of graphitization of the film, which are consistent with the calculated results.

  14. Structure-sensitive mechanism of nanographene failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sheka, E. F. Popova, N. A.; Popova, V. A.; Nikitina, E. A.; Shaymardanova, L. H.

    2011-04-15

    The quantum-mechanochemical-reaction-coordinate approach has disclosed atomically matched peculiarities that accompany the deformation-failure-rupture process occurring in nanographenes. The high stiffness of the graphene body is provided by the benzenoid unit. The anisotropy of the unit mechanical behavior in combination with different configurations of the unit packing with respect to the body C-C bond chains forms the ground for the structure-sensitive mechanism of the mechanical behavior that is drastically different for two different deformation modes. The zig-zag deformation mode is particularly manifested with the formation of one-atom chains. The approach allows tracing a deformation-stimulated change in the chemical reactivity of both the nanographene body and its individual atoms.

  15. Failure Analysis and Mechanisms of Failure of Fibrous Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K. (Compiler); Shuart, M. J. (Compiler); Starnes, J. H., Jr. (Compiler); Williams, J. G. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of failure analysis and current design practices, especially as applied to the use of fibrous composite materials in aircraft structures is discussed. Deficiencies in these technologies are identified, as are directions for future research.

  16. Mechanics of failure of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reifsnider, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Composite materials are both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Both of these characteristics affect the internal stress distributions since inhomogeneity involves variations in both strength and stiffness. The fracture mechanics of nonuniform materials are considered, taking into account the effect of nonuniformity on stress distributions near the crack tip, predicted yield zones in nonuniform and uniform materials, and the fracture of a center-notched unidirectional specimen. The mechanics of failure of laminated materials is discussed. It is found that the development of damage in a laminate with increasing load and, possibly, increasing numbers of cycles of loading is peculiar to the laminate in question, i.e., the material system, the stacking sequence, and the geometry. Approaches for monitoring damage development are also described.

  17. Characterization of debond growth mechanism in adhesively bonded composites under mode II static and fatigue loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize the debond growth mechanism under mode II static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, end-notched flexure specimens of graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) adherends bonded with EC 3445 adhesive were tested. In all specimen tested, the fatigue failure occurred in the form of cyclic debonding. The present study confirmed the result of previous studies that total strain-energy-release rate is the driving parameter for cyclic debonding. Further, the debond growth resistance under cyclic loading with full shear reversal (i.e., stress ratio, R = -1) is drastically reduced in comparison to the case when subjected to cyclic shear loading with no shear reversal (i.e., R = 0.1).

  18. Effects of mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distribution in fiber-reinforced composite adhesive fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Using finite element analysis (FEA), this study investigated the effects of the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distributions in fiber-reinforced resin composite (FRC) adhesive fixed partial dentures (AFPDs). Two adhesive resin cements were compared: Super-Bond C&B and Panavia Fluoro Cement. The AFPD consisted of a pontic to replace a maxillary right lateral incisor and retainers on a maxillary central incisor and canine. FRC framework was made of isotropic, continuous, unidirectional E-glass fibers. Maximum principal stresses were calculated using finite element method (FEM). Test results revealed that differences in the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements led to different stress distributions at the cement interfaces between AFPD and abutment teeth. Clinical implication of these findings suggested that the safety and longevity of an AFPD depended on choosing an adhesive resin cement with the appropriate mechanical properties. PMID:22447051

  19. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  20. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  1. Impact failure mechanisms of layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Woo

    The response of layered materials to impact is extensively investigated. This study provides a demonstration of failure mechanisms of structures that undergo elastic and plastic deformation and sustain damage ranging in severity from surface plastic deformation and cracks at low velocity, variously developed conical, lateral and radial cracking at intermediate speeds, to catastrophic fragmentation and erosion that cause penetration at sufficiently high velocity. In order to demonstrate cracking fragmentation and penetration during impact in a structure, the cohesive element modeling and element erosion scheme are used, which is based on nonlinear dynamics using corotational scheme that is particularly effective method for handling relatively large deflection and rotations. It will provide a means of design of structure to moderate in impact loading from foreign object to protect safety zone by identifying the failure modes of structures for a wide range of impact. The assessment of the protection efficiency to impact is presented by computer simulation. Extensive results from a parametric study of the effects of confinement on residual strength and effects of interactions between phenomena that are essentially accompanied by impact, are also provided to supplement the statement.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of failure in polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersappe, Dilip

    2003-03-01

    With the emergence of synthetic methods that can produce nanometer sized fillers, resulting in an enormous increase of surface area, polymers reinforced with nanoscale particles should offer the possibility of vastly improved properties. However, experimental evidence suggests that the paradigms that have been used for conventional filled composites cannot account for the behavior of nanocomposites. We examine the role that spherical nanofillers play on the rheology and the strength of the nanocomposite by using Molecular Dynamics simulations. We find that the enhancement of properties in nanocomposites is a result of the equivalence of time scales for motion for the polymer and the filler. We show that the mobility of the nanofiller, rather than its surface area, is key to the performance of the nanocomposite and that this mobility is a complex function of the size of the filler, the attraction between the polymer and the filler, and the thermodynamic state of the matrix. Our results show similarities between the toughening mechanisms in polymer nanocomposites and those postulated for naturally occurring biological materials which also contain nanoscaled assemblies, such as spider silk and abalone adhesive.

  3. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic film with high adhesion and the adhesive mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yonggang; Wang, Zhongying; Wu, Haihong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, rod-like basic cupric carbonate grew into bundles on the copper substrate by a simple direct oxidation process of copper in the weak alkaline solution of sodium bicarbonate. After surface chemical modification with fluoro-alkyl silane, the corresponding wettability of the as-prepared film changed from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity with the contact angle larger than 150°. However, water droplets attached to the film even when the surface was upside down, showing a large adhesion between water droplets and the resulting film. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated the change of the surface chemical compositions before and after the modification with fluoro-alkyl silane. The surface microstructure was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The adhesive mechanism was analyzed by the schematic diagram of the surface microstructure and the corresponding action model between the film and water droplet. The unique surface structure can make water droplets partially penetrate into the large pores, leading to the capillary effect and the near-Wenzel state.

  4. Mesh convergence differences based on failure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, K.R.; Revelli, V.D.

    1994-04-01

    Material properties affect the deformation and failure modes in structural parts. When performing finite element analyses to compare response for different materials, different levels of mesh discretization may be necessary for each analyses because the failure mode changes, even through the part geometry and loading remain the same. Take, for example, strain localization, a material dependent phenomenon. When localization occurs, the mesh needs to be much finer to capture the steep strain gradients in the region of localization than in a case where localization does not occur. Although this requirement is almost intuitive once stated, it is often not used in practice because the effects are less pronounced when failure is not present, and also because failure modes are difficult to anticipate. The lack of availability of constitutive models for failure prediction is also a contributing factor. This paper describes a recent study regarding the effect of mesh refinement on failure prediction in a part modeled with two different materials.

  5. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Wagner Shin; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Wang, Yingxiao

    2015-01-01

    A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs) in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7) expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount) and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment) and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  6. Failure stress criterion for adhesively bonded joint at different strain rates by using dynamic Arcan test device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Ludovic; Bourel, Benjamin; Lauro, Franck; Haugou, Gregory; Leconte, Nicolas; Carrere, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the failure criterion evolution of assembly bonded with a strain rate dependent adhesive. A new modified ARCAN device is then designed to obtain the average stress at failure under different loading angles and for strain up to 350 s-1. Tests are performed on a hydraulic jack machine and a Digital Image Correlation measurement is used to control the opening and the sliding displacements of the two substrates.

  7. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They might connect the loops of the intestines to each other, to nearby ... can occur anywhere in the body. But they often form after surgery on the ...

  8. Peptides@mica: from affinity to adhesion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gladytz, A; John, T; Gladytz, T; Hassert, R; Pagel, M; Risselada, H J; Naumov, S; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Abel, B

    2016-09-14

    Investigating the adsorption of peptides on inorganic surfaces, on the molecular level, is fundamental for medicinal and analytical applications. Peptides can be potent as linkers between surfaces and living cells in biochips or in implantation medicine. Here, we studied the adsorption process of the positively charged pentapeptide RTHRK, a recently identified binding sequence for surface oxidized silicon, and novel analogues thereof to negatively charged mica surfaces. Homogeneous formation of monolayers in the nano- and low micromolar peptide concentration range was observed. We propose an alternative and efficient method to both quantify binding affinity and follow adhesion behavior. This method makes use of the thermodynamic relationship between surface coverage, measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the concomitant free energy of adhesion. A knowledge-based fit to the autocorrelation of the AFM images was used to correct for a biased surface coverage introduced by the finite lateral resolution of the AFM. Binding affinities and mechanisms were further explored by large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The combination of well validated MD simulations with topological data from AFM revealed a better understanding of peptide adsorption processes on the atomistic scale. We demonstrate that binding affinity is strongly determined by a peptide's ability to form salt bridges and hydrogen bonds with the surface lattice. Consequently, differences in hydrogen bond formation lead to substantial differences in binding affinity despite conservation of the peptide's overall charge. Further, MD simulations give access to relative changes in binding energy of peptide variations in comparison to a lead compound. PMID:27491508

  9. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannat, Risat A.; Robbins, Gregory P.; Ricart, Brendon G.; Dembo, Micah; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2010-05-01

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micromachined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the KD of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against β2-integrins leads to a significant reduction, but not an elimination, of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation.

  10. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Jannat, Risat A.; Dembo, Micah; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micro-machined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the KD of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against β2-integrins leads to a significant reduction but not an elimination of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation. PMID:20473350

  11. [The mechanism of adhesion formation and the possibilities of modeling -- a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Györgyi; Gamal, Eldin Mohamed; Sándor, József; Ferencz, Andrea; Lévay, Bernadett; Csukás, Domokos; Dankó, Titanilla; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    A huge number of factors play a significant role in the process of adhesion formation, like bleeding, the presence of foreign bodies, tissue injury, tissue destruction, ischemia and hypoxia. Adhesions are present in 95% of the cases following abdominal surgery. As a result of adhesions a large number of postoperative complications can occur, such as abdominal pain, bowel motility disturbances and infertility. Hence, it is important to know the precise mechanism of adhesion formation process and establish a suitable animal model to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Molecules which play a part in the process of adhesion formation were collected from the international literature. Male Wistar rats were used to create the adhesion model. Bleeding, implantation of foreign bodies, creation of ischemic areas and tissue destructions were carried out. Within this experiment the tiny bleeding and ischemic areas did not result in adhesion formation. The adhesion formation due to foreign body implantation depends on the type of the materials. Due to the inhibitory mechanism of adhesion formation there was no adhesion detectable due to tiny peritoneal destruction. The most reliable model was the one when gross tissue destruction of the abdominal wall was applied and the resulting bleeding initiated the adhesion formation process. It is also extremely important to know the key participants in the complex process of adhesion formation. This reliable model can help to work out the proper method of prevention.

  12. Quantifying adhesion energy of mechanical coatings at atomistic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Deqiang; Peng, Xianghe; Qin, Yi; Feng, Jiling; Wang, Zhongchang

    2011-12-01

    Coatings of transition metal compounds find widespread technological applications where adhesion is known to influence or control functionality. Here, we, by first-principles calculations, propose a new way to assess adhesion in coatings and apply it to analyze the TiN coating. We find that the calculated adhesion energies of both the (1 1 1) and (0 0 1) orientations are small under no residual stress, yet increase linearly once the stress is imposed, suggesting that the residual stress is key to affecting adhesion. The strengthened adhesion is found to be attributed to the stress-induced shrinkage of neighbouring bonds, which results in stronger interactions between bonds in TiN coatings. Further finite elements simulation (FEM) based on calculated adhesion energy reproduces well the initial cracking process observed in nano-indentation experiments, thereby validating the application of this approach in quantifying adhesion energy of surface coating systems.

  13. Failure mechanism characterization of platinum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, J. M.; Mcfarlen, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes procedures and results of testing performed on a platinum/10-percent rhodium, thin-wall tubular product. The purpose of the testing was to develop exemplar SEM fractographs to be used to characterize failures under various environmental conditions. Conditions evaluated for the platinum alloys included high temperature, hydrogen environment, braze metal contamination, and cyclic loading.

  14. Cell-adhesive and mechanically tunable glucose-based biodegradable hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeongho; Nichol, Jason W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The development of materials with biomimetic mechanical and biological properties is of great interest for regenerative medicine applications. In particular, hydrogels are a promising class of biomaterials due to their high water content, which mimic that of natural tissues. We have synthesized a hydrophilic biodegradable polymer, designated poly(glucose malate)methacrylate (PGMma), that is composed of glucose and malic acid which are commonly found in the human metabolic system. This polymer is made photocrosslinkable by the incorporation of methacrylate groups. The resulting properties of the hydrogels can be tuned by altering the reacting ratio of the starting materials, the degree of methacrylation, and the polymer concentration of the resultant hydrogel. Hydrogels exhibited compressive moduli ranging from 1.8 ± 0.4kPa to 172.7 ± 36kPa with compressive strain at failure from 37.5 ± 0.9% to 61.2 ± 1.1%, and hydration by mass ranging from 18.7 ± 0.5% to 114.1 ± 1.3%. PGMma hydrogels also showed a broad range of degradation rates and were cell-adhesive, enabling the spreading of adherent cells. Overall, this work introduces a class of cell adhesive, mechanically tunable and biodegradable glucose-based hydrogels that may be useful for various tissue engineering and cell culture applications. PMID:20647064

  15. The peel test in experimental adhesive fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Several testing methods have been proposed for obtaining critical energy release rate or adhesive fracture energy in bond systems. These tests include blister, cone, lap shear, and peel tests. Peel tests have been used for many years to compare relative strengths of different adhesives, different surface preparation techniques, etc. The present work demonstrates the potential use of the peel test for obtaining adhesive fracture energy values.

  16. Investigation of accelerated stress factors and failure/degradation mechanisms in terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an ongoing research program into the reliability of terrestrial solar cells are presented. Laboratory accelerated testing procedures are used to identify failure/degradation modes which are then related to basic physical, chemical, and metallurgical phenomena. In the most recent tests, ten different types of production cells, both with and without encapsulation, from eight different manufacturers were subjected to a variety of accelerated tests. Results indicated the presence of a number of hitherto undetected failure mechanisms, including Schottky barrier formation at back contacts and loss of adhesion of grid metallization. The mechanism of Schottky barrier formation is explained by hydrogen, formed by the dissociation of water molecules at the contact surface, diffusing to the metal semiconductor interface. This same mechanism accounts for the surprising increase in sensitivity to accelerated stress conditions that was observed in some cells when encapsulated.

  17. Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain Across-Species Scaling of Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Casey A; Imburgia, Michael J; Bartlett, Michael D; King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2015-01-01

    One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C) is the change in extension (Δ) relative to a change in force (F) while loading a gecko's adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF). Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2-100 g). We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis). We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic "model gecko" system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring) of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of adhesion in

  18. Hierarchical macroscopic fibrillar adhesives: in situ study of buckling and adhesion mechanisms on wavy substrates.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina T; Kroner, Elmar; Fleck, Norman A; Arzt, Eduard

    2015-10-23

    Nature uses hierarchical fibrillar structures to mediate temporary adhesion to arbitrary substrates. Such structures provide high compliance such that the flat fibril tips can be better positioned with respect to asperities of a wavy rough substrate. We investigated the buckling and adhesion of hierarchically structured adhesives in contact with flat smooth, flat rough and wavy rough substrates. A macroscopic model for the structural adhesive was fabricated by molding polydimethylsiloxane into pillars of diameter in the range of 0.3-4.8 mm, with up to three different hierarchy levels. Both flat-ended and mushroom-shaped hierarchical samples buckled at preloads one quarter that of the single level structures. We explain this behavior by a change in the buckling mode; buckling leads to a loss of contact and diminishes adhesion. Our results indicate that hierarchical structures can have a strong influence on the degree of adhesion on both flat and wavy substrates. Strategies are discussed that achieve highly compliant substrates which adhere to rough substrates.

  19. Thesaurus of terms for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.

    1973-01-01

    A Thesaurus of approximately 700 subject terms used to describe the six problem areas in the mechanics of structural failure is presented. The initial criteria for the selection of terms are their significance and frequency of use in the literature describing the mechanics of structural failure. The purpose of the Thesaurus is to provide the Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute a list of key works and identifiers that afford effective retrieval of information regarding failure modes and mechanisms for aerospace structures. The Thesaurus includes both a conventional listing of subject terms and a Key Words In Context (KWIC) listing.

  20. Mechanical switching and coupling between two dissociation pathways in a P-selectin adhesion bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Evan; Leung, Andrew; Heinrich, Volkmar; Zhu, Cheng

    2004-08-01

    Many biomolecular bonds exhibit a mechanical strength that increases in proportion to the logarithm of the rate of force application. Consistent with exponential decrease in bond lifetime under rising force, this kinetically limited failure reflects dissociation along a single thermodynamic pathway impeded by a sharp free energy barrier. Using a sensitive force probe to test the leukocyte adhesion bond P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1)-P-selectin, we observed a linear increase of bond strength with each 10-fold increase in the rate of force application from 300 to 30,000 pN/sec, implying a single pathway for failure. However, the strength and lifetime of PSGL-1-P-selectin bonds dropped anomalously when loaded below 300 pN/sec, demonstrating unexpectedly faster dissociation and a possible second pathway for failure. Remarkably, if first loaded by a "jump" in force to 20-30 pN, the bonds became strong when subjected to a force ramp as slow as 30 pN/sec and exhibited the same single-pathway kinetics under all force rates. Applied in this way, a new "jump/ramp" mode of force spectroscopy was used to show that the PSGL-1-P-selectin bond behaves as a mechanochemical switch where force history selects between two dissociation pathways with markedly different properties. Furthermore, replacing PSGL-1 by variants of its 19-aa N terminus and by the crucial tetrasaccharide sialyl LewisX produces dramatic changes in the failure kinetics, suggesting a structural basis for the two pathways. The two-pathway switch seems to provide a mechanism for the "catch bond" response observed recently with PSGL-1-P-selectin bonds subjected to small-constant forces.

  1. Instantly switchable adhesion of bridged fibrillar adhesive via gecko-inspired detachment mechanism and its application to a transportation system.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Doogon; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Inspired by the exceptional climbing ability of gecko lizards, artificial fibrillar adhesives have been extensively studied over the last decade both experimentally and theoretically. Therefore, a new leap towards practical uses beyond the academic horizon is timely and highly anticipated. To this end, we present a fibrillar adhesive in the form of bridged micropillars and its application to a transportation system with the detachment mechanism inspired by the climbing behaviour of gecko lizards. The adhesive shows strong normal attachment (~30 N cm(-2)) as well as easy and fast detachment within 0.5 s without involving complex dynamic mechanisms or specific stimulus-responsive materials. The fabrication of the bridged micropillars consists of replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars, transfer of the PDMS precursor to the heads of the micropillars, and inverse placement on an inert Teflon-coated surface. Owing to the spontaneous interconnections of low viscosity PDMS precursor, bridged micropillars with a uniform capping nanomembrane (~800 nm thickness) are formed over a large area. Interestingly, macroscopic adhesion in the normal direction can be immediately switched between on and off states by changing the two detachment modes of pulling and peeling, respectively. To prove the potential of the fibrillar adhesive for practical use, an automated transportation system is demonstrated for lifting and releasing a mass of stacked glass slides over 1000 cycles of attachment and detachment.

  2. Instantly switchable adhesion of bridged fibrillar adhesive via gecko-inspired detachment mechanism and its application to a transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Doogon; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the exceptional climbing ability of gecko lizards, artificial fibrillar adhesives have been extensively studied over the last decade both experimentally and theoretically. Therefore, a new leap towards practical uses beyond the academic horizon is timely and highly anticipated. To this end, we present a fibrillar adhesive in the form of bridged micropillars and its application to a transportation system with the detachment mechanism inspired by the climbing behaviour of gecko lizards. The adhesive shows strong normal attachment (~30 N cm-2) as well as easy and fast detachment within 0.5 s without involving complex dynamic mechanisms or specific stimulus-responsive materials. The fabrication of the bridged micropillars consists of replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars, transfer of the PDMS precursor to the heads of the micropillars, and inverse placement on an inert Teflon-coated surface. Owing to the spontaneous interconnections of low viscosity PDMS precursor, bridged micropillars with a uniform capping nanomembrane (~800 nm thickness) are formed over a large area. Interestingly, macroscopic adhesion in the normal direction can be immediately switched between on and off states by changing the two detachment modes of pulling and peeling, respectively. To prove the potential of the fibrillar adhesive for practical use, an automated transportation system is demonstrated for lifting and releasing a mass of stacked glass slides over 1000 cycles of attachment and detachment.Inspired by the exceptional climbing ability of gecko lizards, artificial fibrillar adhesives have been extensively studied over the last decade both experimentally and theoretically. Therefore, a new leap towards practical uses beyond the academic horizon is timely and highly anticipated. To this end, we present a fibrillar adhesive in the form of bridged micropillars and its application to a transportation system with the detachment mechanism inspired by the

  3. Ionizing radiation increases adhesiveness of human aortic endothelial cells via a chemokine-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Saman; Gupta, Kiran B; Kucik, Dennis F

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to radiation from a variety of sources is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke. Since radiation also induces inflammation, a possible mechanism is a change in the adhesiveness of vascular endothelial cells, triggering pro-atherogenic accumulation of leukocytes. To investigate this mechanism at the cellular level, the effect of X rays on adhesiveness of cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) was determined. HAECs were grown as monolayers and exposed to 0 to 30 Gy X rays, followed by measurement of adhesiveness under physiological shear stress using a flow chamber adhesion assay. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, HAEC adhesiveness was increased, with a peak effect at 15 Gy. Radiation had no significant effect on surface expression of the endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Antibody blockade of the leukocyte integrin receptors for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, however, abolished the radiation-induced adhesiveness. Since these leukocyte integrins can be activated by chemokines presented on the endothelial cell surface, the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of chemokine-mediated integrin activation, was tested. PTX specifically inhibited radiation-induced adhesiveness, with no significant effect on nonirradiated cells. Therefore, radiation induces increased adhesiveness of aortic endothelial cells through chemokine-dependent signaling from endothelial cells to leukocytes, even in the absence of increased expression of the adhesion molecules involved.

  4. Mechanism of tantalum adhesion on SiLK{sup TM}

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yue; Yang Shuowang; Chen Xiantong; Lu Dong; Feng Yuanping; Wu Ping

    2005-09-19

    Tantalum adhesion on SiLK{sup TM} was investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Phenylene groups were found to play a major role and the adjacent semi-benzene rings also contribute significantly to Ta adhesion on SiLK{sup TM}. In addition, the degradation effects of H{sub 2}/He reactive plasma clean on Ta adhesion on SiLK{sup TM} was investigated. Based on our findings, argon plasma treatment was suggested and implemented after reactive plasma cleaning process, which resulted in integration of SiLK{sup TM} with Cu up to seven metal layers.

  5. The effect of adhesive layer elasticity on the fracture mechanics of a blister test specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Updike, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical model of a blister type specimen for evaluating adhesive bond strength was developed. Plate theory with shear deformation was used to model the deformation of the plate, and elastic deformation of the adhesive layer is taken into account. It is shown that the inclusion of the elastic deformation of the adhesive layer can have a significant influence in the energy balance calculations of fracture mechanics.

  6. Effect of surface treatment of brackets and mechanical cycling on adhesion to enamel.

    PubMed

    Arrais, Fabiola Rossato; Degrazia, Felipe; Peres, Bernardo Urbanetto; Ferrazzo, Vilmar Antonio; Grehs, Renesio Armindo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate how surface conditioning from bracket and mechanical cycling aging affected the bond strength between metallic brackets and bovine enamel, and to determine the adhesive remnant index. Eighty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin using polyvinyl chloride rings and divided into 4 groups based on surface treatment (n = 20). Group 1 (control) received no surface treatment, Group 2 specimens were sandblasted with aluminum oxide particles, Group 3 specimens were sandblasted with silicon oxide and treated with a tribochemichemical silica coupling agent, and Group 4 specimens were primed with a multidomain protein-based agent. Half of the specimens were submitted to shear bond testing, while the others were subjected to mechanical cycling. ANOVA showed that mechanical cycling did not have a significant influence on bond strength (P = 0.9244), while surface conditioning of the brackets did (P = 0.0001). Tukey's test results were similar for mechanical cycling, and indicated that only Group 3 significantly improved the resin bond to the brackets; however, this group also demonstrated the highest percentage of enamel failure. PMID:24784526

  7. PBFA-2 vacuum insulator stack failure mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, M. A.

    The BPFA-II accelerator includes a large-radius, vertical-axis vacuum insulator stack. The possible failure of the acrylic rings in the stack from electron- or gamma-induced charge buildup is being evaluated. The induced static charges could remain for many hours, and either type of irradiation might cause dendrites to form. Aluminum grading rings sandwiched between the acrylic affect charge accumulation; the acrylic would preferentially break down to these grading rings. The charge buildup and the bremsstrahlung dose could depend critically upon the directionality and position of the electron loss. The effects of electron loss that occurs in the vicinity of the ion diode, where the electrons have energies of about 30 MeV are considered. Monte Carlo electron-photon transport calculations indicate that the bremsstrahlung dose expected in an acrylic ring once diode experiments begin in 1986 could be as much as 5 krads per shot, with roughly half of the photon energy above 5 MeV. Moreover, the calculation indicate that the charge deposition in an individual acrylic ring might exceed 2x10 to the 11 electrons/sq cm.

  8. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of dental adhesives and glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Magni, Elisa; Ferrari, Marco; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2010-02-01

    Adhesives and lining/base materials should relieve the stresses concentrated at the tooth/restoration interface. The study aimed at comparing the mechanical properties of eight adhesives and six glass-ionomer cements (GICs). The adhesives were applied on dentin disks, whereas 2 mm x 3 mm x 2 mm GICs specimens were prepared in a teflon mold. Vicker's hardness (VH), elastic modulus (E), creep (Cr) and elastic work (We/Wtot) were measured with a micro hardness indenter. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to compare the mechanical properties within each materials' type and among the materials' classes. Enamel and dentin were used as references. Significant differences were detected within each materials' type and among the materials' classes and enamel and dentin. GICs were superior to adhesives in VH and E and showed a VH similar to dentin. GICs presented mechanical properties more similar to enamel and dentin than adhesives.

  9. An Adhesion-Dependent Switch between Mechanisms That Determine Motile Cell Shape

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Keren, Kinneret; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes. PMID:21559321

  10. Intrinsic mechanisms of multilayer ceramic capacitor failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, L. C.

    1985-04-01

    The possible role of grain boundaries (GB) in MLC capacitors, with respect to insulation resistance and its degradation, is reviewed. Activation energy (E sub A) can be related directly to GB barrier height, Phi sub B. The voltage dependent activation energies for poly-Si, ZnO varistors and PTC devices has been attributed directly to E sub A. Varistor and PTC device degradation is caused GB passivation. A similar voltage dependence is reported here for barrier layer and COG capacitor types where E sub A decreases from 0.91 to 0.44eV and from 1.61 to 0.90eV respectively, with concurrent super-ohmic increases in leakage current. Such a voltage dependent E sub A is not seen for X7R devices, even though the current is super-ohmic. Reasons to account for this are discussed. It is concluded that the GB potential barrier may offer a major source of impedance to leakage current for MLC capacitors, and its decrease may result in failure. It has been ascertained that E sub A decreases for degraded X7R devices, with an increase in the I-V slope. These results are consistent with our earlier reports on degraded devices, and with the space charge limited current model for emission from electrodes. X7R chips with no internal electrodes exhibit both ohmic and super-ohmic characteristics, with activation energies independent of voltage. A near-exponential rate of current increase with time, accompanied by a linear decrease in E sub A, was seen for both X7R and Z5U capacitors.

  11. Nano-mechanics of Tunable Adhesion using Non Covalent Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Liechti

    2012-09-08

    The objective of this program was to examine, via experiment and atomistic and continuum analysis, coordinated noncovalent bonding over a range of length scales with a view to obtaining modulated, patterned and reversible bonding at the molecular level. The first step in this project was to develop processes for depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) bearing carboxylic acid and amine moieties on Si (111) surfaces and probe tips of an interfacial force microscope (IFM). This allowed the adhesive portion of the interactions between functionalized surfaces to be fully captured in the force-displacement response (force profiles) that are measured by the IFM. The interactionswere extracted in the form of traction-separation laws using combined molecular and continuum stress analyses. In this approach, the results of molecular dynamics analyses of SAMs subjected to simple stress states are used to inform continuum models of their stress-strain behavior. Continuum analyses of the IFM experiment were then conducted, which incorporate the stress-strain behavior of the SAMs and traction-separation relations that represent the interactions between the tip and functionalized Si surface. Agreement between predicted and measured force profiles was taken to imply that the traction-separation relations have been properly extracted. Scale up to larger contact areas was considered by forming Si/SAM/Si sandwiches and then separating them via fracture experiments. The mode 1 traction-separation relations have been extracted using fracture mechanics concepts under mode 1 and mixed-mode conditions. Interesting differences were noted between the three sets of traction-separation relations.

  12. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites.

    PubMed

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C&B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R(a) and R(y) values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  13. Large deformation contact mechanics of a pressurized long rectangular membrane. II. Adhesive contact

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2013-01-01

    In part I of this work, we presented a theory for adhesionless contact of a pressurized neo-Hookean plane-strain membrane to a rigid substrate. Here, we extend our theory to include adhesion using a fracture mechanics approach. This theory is used to study contact hysteresis commonly observed in experiments. Detailed analysis is carried out to highlight the differences between frictionless and no-slip contact. Membrane detachment is found to be strongly dependent on adhesion: for low adhesion, the membrane ‘pinches-off’, whereas for large adhesions, it detaches unstably at finite contact (‘pull-off’). Expressions are derived for the critical adhesion needed for pinch-off to pull-off transition. Above a threshold adhesion, the membrane exhibits bistability, two stable states at zero applied pressure. The condition for bistability for both frictionless and no-slip boundary conditions is obtained explicitly. PMID:24353472

  14. A fracture mechanics approach for designing adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mall, S.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was undertaken to determine if the adhesive debond initiation stress could be predicted for arbitrary joint geometries. The analysis was based upon a threshold total strain-energy-release rate (Gth) concept. Two bonded systems were tested: T300/5208 graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with either EC-3445 or FM-300 adhesive. The Gth for each adhesive was determined from cracked-lap-shear (CLS) specimens by initiation tests. Finite-element analyses of various tapered CLS specimen geometries predicted the specimen stress at which the total strain-energy-release rate (GT) equaled Gth at the joint tip. Experiments verified the predictions. The approach described herein predicts the maximum stress at which an adhesive joint can be cycled yet not debond. Furthermore, total strain-energy-release rate appeared to be the driving parameter for cyclic debonding and debond initiation in structural adhesives. In addition, debond initiation and growth were found to occur with virtually no peel stress present.

  15. A fracture mechanics approach for designing adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Mall, S.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was undertaken to determine if the adhesive debond initiation stress could be predicted for arbitrary joint geometries. The analysis was based upon a threshold total strain-energy-release rate (Gth) concept. Two bonded systems were tested: T300/5208 graphite/epoxy adherends bonded with either EC-3445 or FM-300 adhesive. The Gth for each adhesive was determined from cracked-lap-shear (CLS) specimens by initiation tests. Finite-element analyses of various tapered CLS specimen geometries predicted the specimen stress at which the total strain-energy-release rate (GT) equaled Gth at the joint tip. Experiments verified the predictions. The approach described herein predicts the maximum stress at which an adhesive joint can be cycled yet not debond. Furthermore, total strain-energy-release rate appeared to be the driving parameter for cyclic debonding and debond initiation in structural adhesives. In addition, debond initiation and growth were found to occur with virtually no peel stress present.

  16. A simple model of the adhesive failure of a layer: Cohesive effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.; Smith, D.H. |

    1997-02-01

    A fine-scale model is developed for the removal of an adhesive layer by a uniform stress. The initial motivation of this modeling project was a description of the removal of a layer of filter cake from cylindrical filters by backpulse cleaning. The model includes the bonding forces of adhesion between the layer and a substrate, as well as the forces of cohesion between imaginary {open_quotes}gridblocks{close_quote}{close_quote} within the layer. For stresses greater than a threshold value, some of the layer is removed, with the fraction removed depending upon the stress, the average adhesive and cohesive forces, and the distribution of these forces about their average. The cohesive forces reduce the threshold well below the average strength of the adhesive force, because they increase the stress near broken adhesive bonds. The cohesive forces also sharpen the threshold in the cleaning pressure significantly, so that the threshold is very much sharper than the distribution of adhesive strengths. For moderate filter cake thickness (moderately strong cohesive forces), the threshold becomes steplike, with no cleaning just below the threshold and complete cleaning at the threshold and above. The model also provides the pressure dependence of the size and shape distributions for the fragments of the filter cake layer removed from the filter, enabling the model to address questions of cleaning efficiency, {open_quotes}patchy cleaning,{close_quote}{close_quote} re-entrainment, and trapping of large cake-fragments in the filter vessel. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. The distinct element analysis of toppling failure mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özge Dinç, Şaziye; Sinan Işık, Nihat; Karaca, Zeki

    2016-04-01

    This project investigates the toppling failure mechanisms of rock masses having different rock materials and discontinuity properties in slopes that are designed in different heights. For this purpose, PFC2D as a distinct element code was used to anticipate the post failure behaviors of rock masses. After the simulation of laboratory tests on the samples in 2 (width) *4 (height) m, macro mechanical properties of rock masses were determined to be assigned the slopes. The properties of discontinuities were set up based on the smooth-joint method in PFC. The movements in the slopes -equipped with persistent and non-persistent discontinuities- were analyzed by using gravity increase method. The results show that the post failure behaviors of all rock samples have been controlled primarily by joint location and joint length. In addition to this, an increase on the slope height has an influence on the failure mechanism such that triggers the materials to transit from the toppling to circular yielding manner in some models. It has been also worth note that all models begin to fail as soon as the wing cracks develop by tension stresses, thus the tensile strength of the relevant rock material is the most critical mechanic parameter on the failure.

  18. Thermomechanical Mechanisms of Reducing Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N; Dotan, A; Dodiuk, H; Kenig, S

    2016-09-20

    Superhydrophobic (SH) coatings have been shown to reduce freezing and ice nucleation rates, by means of low surface energy chemistry tailored with nano/micro roughness. Durability enhancement of SH surfaces is a crucial issue. Consequently, the present research on reducing ice adhesion is based on radiation-induced radical reaction for covalently bonding SiO2 nanoparticles to polymer coatings to obtain durable roughness. Results indicated that the proposed approach resulted in SH surfaces having high contact angles (>155°) and low sliding angles (<5°) with improved durability and transparency. In a subsequent stage, the synthesized SH coating was investigated for its icephobic characteristics using a variety of substrates. Results indicated that supercooled water drops bounced back when impinging on SH polycarbonate substrate and froze on SH copper substrate held at -10 to -30 °C and were easily peeled off when coated by ice formed during exposure to air/supercooled water drops at -20 °C. The ice shear adhesion investigation (at -20 °C) demonstrated reduction of shear adhesion to a variety of SH treated substrates having low thermal expansion coefficient (copper and aluminum) and high thermal expansion coefficient (polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)). It was concluded that the thermal mismatch between the adhering ice and the various substrates and its resultant interfacial thermal stresses affect the adhesion strength of the ice to the respective substrate. PMID:27578298

  19. Mechanisms of enhanced osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina involve vitronectin.

    PubMed

    Webster, T J; Schadler, L S; Siegel, R W; Bizios, R

    2001-06-01

    The role, including concentration, conformation, and bioactivity, of adsorbed vitronectin in enhancing osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina was investigated in the present study. Vitronectin adsorbed in a competitive environment in the highest concentration on nanophase alumina compared to conventional alumina. Enhanced adsorption of vitronectin on nanophase alumina was possibly due to decreased adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I and/or increased adsorption of calcium on nanophase alumina. In a novel manner, the present study utilized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to determine the conformation of vitronectin adsorbed on nanophase alumina. These results provided the first evidence of increased unfolding of vitronectin adsorbed on nanophase alumina. Increased adsorption of calcium on nanophase alumina may affect the conformation of adsorbed vitronectin specifically to promote unfolding of the macromolecule to expose cell-adhesive epitopes recognized by specific cell-membrane receptors. Results of the present study also provided evidence of dose-dependent inhibition of osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina pretreated with vitronectin following preincubation (and thus blocking respective cell-membrane receptors) with either Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid-Serine (RGDS) or Lysine-Arginine-Serine-Arginine (KRSR). These events, namely, enhanced vitronectin adsorption, comformation, and bioactivity, may explain the increased osteoblast adhesion on nanophase alumina.

  20. A novel composite-to-composite adhesive bond mechanism.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Naotake; Sakamoto, Tominori; Kubota, Yuya; Kondo, Yoshie; Momoi, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adhesion between various resin composites can occur by a chelation reaction of elemental ions. The surface composition of four commercially available resin composites (Beautifil II, Clearfil AP-X, Estelite Σ Quick and Solare) were measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Composite-to-composite adhesion with conventional silane coupling treatment was compared to self-etching primer treatment and evaluated by conventional shear bond strength testing. Our results detected Strontium and Barium (alkaline metallic earth ions) on the surface of Beautifil II and Clearfil AP-X resins. The shear bond strength values of self-etching primer treatments of Beautifil II and Clearfil AP-X was significantly higher than Estelite Σ Quick and Solare. Our data suggest that self-etching primer treatment is effective for adhesion of resin composites, depending on their filler composition, due to the chelation adhesion reaction between the acidic monomer and incorporated alkaline metal ions. PMID:21778602

  1. Thermomechanical Mechanisms of Reducing Ice Adhesion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N; Dotan, A; Dodiuk, H; Kenig, S

    2016-09-20

    Superhydrophobic (SH) coatings have been shown to reduce freezing and ice nucleation rates, by means of low surface energy chemistry tailored with nano/micro roughness. Durability enhancement of SH surfaces is a crucial issue. Consequently, the present research on reducing ice adhesion is based on radiation-induced radical reaction for covalently bonding SiO2 nanoparticles to polymer coatings to obtain durable roughness. Results indicated that the proposed approach resulted in SH surfaces having high contact angles (>155°) and low sliding angles (<5°) with improved durability and transparency. In a subsequent stage, the synthesized SH coating was investigated for its icephobic characteristics using a variety of substrates. Results indicated that supercooled water drops bounced back when impinging on SH polycarbonate substrate and froze on SH copper substrate held at -10 to -30 °C and were easily peeled off when coated by ice formed during exposure to air/supercooled water drops at -20 °C. The ice shear adhesion investigation (at -20 °C) demonstrated reduction of shear adhesion to a variety of SH treated substrates having low thermal expansion coefficient (copper and aluminum) and high thermal expansion coefficient (polycarbonate and poly(methyl methacrylate)). It was concluded that the thermal mismatch between the adhering ice and the various substrates and its resultant interfacial thermal stresses affect the adhesion strength of the ice to the respective substrate.

  2. Application of the time-temperature superposition principle to the mechanical characterization of elastomeric adhesives for crash simulation purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauh, A.; Hinterhölzl, R.; Drechsler, K.

    2012-05-01

    In the automotive industry, finite element simulation is widely used to ensure crashworthiness. Mechanical material data over wide strain rate and temperature ranges are required as a basis. This work proposes a method reducing the cost of mechanical material characterization by using the time-temperature superposition principle on elastomeric adhesives. The method is based on the time and temperature interdependence which is characteristic for mechanical properties of polymers. Based on the assumption that polymers behave similarly at high strain rates and at low temperatures, a temperature-dominated test program is suggested, which can be used to deduce strain rate dependent material behavior at different reference temperatures. The temperature shift factor is found by means of dynamic mechanical analysis according to the WLF-equation, named after Williams, Landel and Ferry. The principle is applied to the viscoelastic properties as well as to the failure properties of the polymer. The applicability is validated with high strain rate tests.

  3. Mechanical failure probability of glasses in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Wiedlocher, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Results of five years of earth-orbital exposure on mechanical properties of glasses indicate that radiation effects on mechanical properties of glasses, for the glasses examined, are less than the probable error of measurement. During the 5 year exposure, seven micrometeorite or space debris impacts occurred on the samples examined. These impacts were located in locations which were not subjected to effective mechanical testing, hence limited information on their influence upon mechanical strength was obtained. Combination of these results with micrometeorite and space debris impact frequency obtained by other experiments permits estimates of the failure probability of glasses exposed to mechanical loading under earth-orbit conditions. This probabilistic failure prediction is described and illustrated with examples.

  4. Geckos as Springs: Mechanics Explain Across-Species Scaling of Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Casey A.; Imburgia, Michael J.; Bartlett, Michael D.; King, Daniel R.; Crosby, Alfred J.; Irschick, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the central controversies regarding the evolution of adhesion concerns how adhesive force scales as animals change in size, either among or within species. A widely held view is that as animals become larger, the primary mechanism that enables them to climb is increasing pad area. However, prior studies show that much of the variation in maximum adhesive force remains unexplained, even when area is accounted for. We tested the hypothesis that maximum adhesive force among pad-bearing gecko species is not solely dictated by toepad area, but also depends on the ratio of toepad area to gecko adhesive system compliance in the loading direction, where compliance (C) is the change in extension (Δ) relative to a change in force (F) while loading a gecko’s adhesive system (C = dΔ/dF). Geckos are well-known for their ability to climb on a range of vertical and overhanging surfaces, and range in mass from several grams to over 300 grams, yet little is understood of the factors that enable adhesion to scale with body size. We examined the maximum adhesive force of six gecko species that vary in body size (~2–100 g). We also examined changes between juveniles and adults within a single species (Phelsuma grandis). We found that maximum adhesive force and toepad area increased with increasing gecko size, and that as gecko species become larger, their adhesive systems become significantly less compliant. Additionally, our hypothesis was supported, as the best predictor of maximum adhesive force was not toepad area or compliance alone, but the ratio of toepad area to compliance. We verified this result using a synthetic “model gecko” system comprised of synthetic adhesive pads attached to a glass substrate and a synthetic tendon (mechanical spring) of finite stiffness. Our data indicate that increases in toepad area as geckos become larger cannot fully account for increased adhesive abilities, and decreased compliance must be included to explain the scaling of

  5. Failure mechanisms of ventricular tissue due to deep penetration.

    PubMed

    Gasser, T Christian; Gudmundson, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried

    2009-03-26

    Lead perforation is a rare but serious complication of pacemaker implantations, and in the present study the associated tissue failure was investigated by means of in-vitro penetration of porcine and bovine ventricular tissue. Rectangular patches from the right ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were separated, bi-axially stretched and immersed in physiological salt solution at 37( composite function)C before load displacement curves of in total 891 penetrations were recorded. To this end flat-bottomed cylindrical punches of different diameters were used, and following mechanical testing the penetration sites were histological analyzed using light and electron microscopes. Penetration pressure, i.e. penetration force divided by punch cross-sectional area decreased slightly from 2.27(SD 0.66) to 1.76(SD0.46)N/mm(2) for punches of 1.32 to 2.30 mm in diameter, respectively. Deep penetration formed cleavages aligned with the local fiber orientation of the tissue, and hence, a mode-I crack developed, where the crack faces were wedged open by the advancing punch. The performed study derived novel failure data from ventricular tissue due to deep penetration and uncovered associated failure mechanisms. This provides information to derive mechanical failure models, which are essential to enrich our current understanding of failure of soft biological tissues and to guide medical device development.

  6. Adaptive Shape Functions and Internal Mesh Adaptation for Modelling Progressive Failure in Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.

  7. Design of biomimetic fibrillar interfaces: 2. Mechanics of enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hui, C-Y; Glassmaker, N J; Tang, T; Jagota, A

    2004-11-22

    This study addresses the strength and toughness of generic fibrillar structures. We show that the stress sigmac required to pull a fibril out of adhesive contact with a substrate has the form sigma(c) = sigma(0)Phi(chi). In this equation, sigma(0) is the interfacial strength, Phi(chi) is a dimensionless function satisfying 0 1, but is flaw insensitive for chi < 1. The important parameter chi also controls the stability of a homogeneously deformed non-fibrillar (flat) interface. Using these results, we show that the work to fail a unit area of fibrillar surface can be much higher than the intrinsic work of adhesion for a flat interface of the same material. In addition, we show that cross-sectional fibril dimensions control the pull-off force, which increases with decreasing fibril radius. Finally, an increase in fibril length is shown to increase the work necessary to separate a fibrillar interface. Besides our calculations involving a single fibril, we study the concept of equal load sharing (ELS) for a perfect interface containing many fibrils. We obtain the practical work of adhesion for an idealized fibrillated interface under equal load sharing. We then analyse the peeling of a fibrillar surface from a rigid substrate and establish a criterion for ELS.

  8. Design of biomimetic fibrillar interfaces: 2. Mechanics of enhanced adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Hui, C-Y; Glassmaker, N. J.; Tang, T.; Jagota, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the strength and toughness of generic fibrillar structures. We show that the stress sigmac required to pull a fibril out of adhesive contact with a substrate has the form sigma(c) = sigma(0)Phi(chi). In this equation, sigma(0) is the interfacial strength, Phi(chi) is a dimensionless function satisfying 0 > 1, but is flaw insensitive for chi < 1. The important parameter chi also controls the stability of a homogeneously deformed non-fibrillar (flat) interface. Using these results, we show that the work to fail a unit area of fibrillar surface can be much higher than the intrinsic work of adhesion for a flat interface of the same material. In addition, we show that cross-sectional fibril dimensions control the pull-off force, which increases with decreasing fibril radius. Finally, an increase in fibril length is shown to increase the work necessary to separate a fibrillar interface. Besides our calculations involving a single fibril, we study the concept of equal load sharing (ELS) for a perfect interface containing many fibrils. We obtain the practical work of adhesion for an idealized fibrillated interface under equal load sharing. We then analyse the peeling of a fibrillar surface from a rigid substrate and establish a criterion for ELS. PMID:16849151

  9. Failure mechanism of single crystal alumina (sapphire) in conventional machining

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.

    1995-12-31

    This work is to investigate the types of common failure of sapphire during machining. The various features of failure indicated and types of failure characteristics will be discussed, and where appropriate, several of the fundamental mechanisms involved will be explained. The objective of this work is to show how sapphire is removed during machining. Based on a good understanding of the failure mechanism, the machining conditions can be optimized. Machining methods discussed in this work are all conventional methods. They include grinding, diamond saw cutting, diamond core drilling, abrasive and chemomechanical polishing. The machining conditions used for each different orientation of crystal planes were consistent. The machining surfaces were observed by using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The surface roughness and subsurface damage were also measured and compared. Under a consistent machining condition, sapphire is machined based on its different crystal orientations. Before machining, these crystals were annealed in order to get rid of the preexisting defects. After machining, these samples were etched, and observed under optical and scanning electronic microscope. A series of observations was compared. The machining induced failures, as observed, for example, are cleavage, twinning, chipping, and pitting, etc. The effect of crystal orientation on machining is also discussed. Results show the effect of crystal orientation on material removal rate, surface and subsurface damage and thereafter surface finish. It suggests a certain orientation of crystal for a certain type of machining method.

  10. Effects of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Eschen, O; Christensen, J H; LA Rovere, M T; Romano, P; Sala, P; Schmidt, E B

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory markers as circulating soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAMs) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and may constitute an increased risk of adverse outcome. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n-3 PUFA) may have anti-inflammatory effect and reduce levels of sCAMs (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), P-selectin) and hsCRP. In a randomized, controlled trial, 138 patients with NYHA class II-III CHF were allocated to receive a daily supplement of 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA or olive oil for 24 weeks. After supplementation, no significant changes occurred in sCAMs or hsCRP after adjusting for possible confounders. However, a significant reduction was observed in sP-selectin in patients receiving n-3 PUFA, but this result was only of borderline significance in a between-group analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplement with 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA does not significantly affect plasma levels of sCAMs or hs-CRP in patients with CHF. n-3 PUFA may reduce sP-selectin, indicating a possible effect on platelet (and endothelial) activation. The results also indicate that the low dose of n-3 PUFA used in many intervention trials does not have deleterious effects on sCAMs or hsCRP.

  11. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Leech Posterior Suckers

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenhao

    2015-01-01

    The posterior sucker of a leech represents a fascinating natural system that allows the leech to adhere to different terrains and substrates. However, the mechanism of adhesion and desorption has not yet to be elucidated. In order to better understand how the adhesion is performed, we analyzed the surface structure, adsorption movements, the muscles’ distribution, physical characteristics, and the adsorption force of the leech posterior suckers by experimental investigation. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the obtained experimental results. First, the adhesion by the posterior sucker is wet adhesion, because the surface of the posterior sucker is smooth and the sealing can only be achieved on wet surfaces. Second, the deformation texture, consisting of soft collagen tissues and highly ductile epidermal tissues, plays a key role in adhering to rough surfaces. Finally, the adhesion and desorption is achieved by the synergetic operation of six muscle fibers working in different directions. Concrete saying, directional deformation of the collagen/epithermal interface driven by spatially-distributed muscle fibers facilitates the excretion of fluids in the sucker venter, thus allowing liquid sealing. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion strength is directly related to the size of the contact surface which is generated and affected by the sucker deformation. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers potential cues for developing innovative bio-inspired artificial adhesion systems. PMID:26536352

  12. Cellular and molecular investigations of the adhesion and mechanics of Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskhan, Asma Omar

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to quantify the adherence and mechanical properties of an array of L. monocytogenes strains and their surface biopolymers. First, eight L. monocytogenes strains that represented the two major lineages of the species were compared for their adherence and mechanics at cellular and molecular levels. Our results indicated that strains of lineage' II were characterized by higher adhesion and Young's moduli, longer and more rigid surface biopolymers and lower specific and nonspecific forces when compared to lineage' I strains. Additionally, adherence and mechanical properties of eight L. monocytogenes epidemic and environmental strains were probed. Our results pointed to that environmental and epidemic strains representative of a given lineage were similar in their adherence and mechanical properties when investigated at a cellular level. However, when the molecular properties of the strains were considered, epidemic strains were characterized by higher specific and nonspecific forces, shorter, denser and more flexible biopolymers compared to environmental strains. Second, the role of environmental pH conditions of growth on the adhesion and mechanics of a pathogenic L. monocytogenes EGDe was investigated. Our results pointed to a transition in the adhesion energies for cells cultured at pH 7. In addition, when the types of molecular forces that govern the adhesion were quantified using Poisson statistical approach and using a new proposed method, specific hydrogen-bond energies dominated the bacterial adhesion process. Such a finding is instrumental to researchers designing methods to control bacterial adhesion. Similarly, bacterial cells underwent a transition in their mechanical properties. We have shown that cells cultured at pH 7 were the most rigid compared to those cultured in lower or higher pH conditions of growth. Due to transitions observed in adherence and mechanics when cells were cultured at pH 7, we hypothesized that

  13. Atomic Force Microscopy Mechanical Mapping of Micropatterned Cells Shows Adhesion Geometry-Dependent Mechanical Response on Local and Global Scales.

    PubMed

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Rico, Felix; Eghiaian, Frédéric; Piel, Mathieu; Scheuring, Simon

    2015-06-23

    In multicellular organisms, cell shape and organization are dictated by cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix adhesion interactions. Adhesion complexes crosstalk with the cytoskeleton enabling cells to sense their mechanical environment. Unfortunately, most of cell biology studies, and cell mechanics studies in particular, are conducted on cultured cells adhering to a hard, homogeneous, and unconstrained substrate with nonspecific adhesion sites, thus far from physiological and reproducible conditions. Here, we grew cells on three different fibronectin patterns with identical overall dimensions but different geometries (▽, T, and Y), and investigated their topography and mechanics by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The obtained mechanical maps were reproducible for cells grown on patterns of the same geometry, revealing pattern-specific subcellular differences. We found that local Young's moduli variations are related to the cell adhesion geometry. Additionally, we detected local changes of cell mechanical properties induced by cytoskeletal drugs. We thus provide a method to quantitatively and systematically investigate cell mechanics and their variations, and present further evidence for a tight relation between cell adhesion and mechanics.

  14. Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Brian

    1999-03-01

    OAK B188 Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature. This summary refers to work done in approximately the twelve months to the present in our contract ''Failure Mechanisms for Ceramic Matrix Textile Composites at High Temperature,'' which commenced in August, 1997. Our activities have consisted mainly of measurements of creep-controlled crack growth in ceramic matrix composites (CMCS) at high temperature; imaging of deformation fields in textile CMCS; the assessment of mechanisms of damage in textile composites, especially those with through-thickness reinforcement; the formulation of models of delamination crack growth under fatigue in textile composites; analytical models of the bridging traction law for creeping fibers in a CMC at high temperature; and an analytical model of a bridging fiber tow in a textile composite.

  15. Register of experts for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    This register is comprised of a list of approximately 300 experts from approximately 90 organizations who have published results of theoretical and/or experimental research related to six problem areas in the mechanics of structural failure: (1) life prediction for structural materials, (2) fracture toughness testing, (3) fracture mechanics analysis; (4) hydrogen embrittlement; (5) protective coatings; and (6) composite materials. The criteria for the selection of names for the register are recent contributions to the literature, participation in or support of relevant research programs, and referral by peers. Each author included is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal field of expertise. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures. The register includes two indexes; an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with whom they are affiliated.

  16. Mathematical model for the effects of adhesion and mechanics on cell migration speed.

    PubMed Central

    DiMilla, P A; Barbee, K; Lauffenburger, D A

    1991-01-01

    Migration of mammalian blood and tissue cells over adhesive surfaces is apparently mediated by specific reversible reactions between cell membrane adhesion receptors and complementary ligands attached to the substratum. Although in a number of systems these receptors and ligand molecules have been isolated and identified, a theory capable of predicting the effects of their properties on cell migration behavior currently does not exist. We present a simple mathematical model for elucidating the dependence of cell speed on adhesion-receptor/ligand binding and cell mechanical properties. Our model can be applied to propose answers to questions such as: does an optimal adhesiveness exist for cell movement? How might changes in receptor and ligand density and/or affinity affect the rate of migration? Can cell rheological properties influence movement speed? This model incorporates cytoskeletal force generation, cell polarization, and dynamic adhesion as requirements for persistent cell movement. A critical feature is the proposed existence of an asymmetry in some cell adhesion-receptor property, correlated with cell polarity. We consider two major alternative mechanisms underlying this asymmetry: (a) a spatial distribution of adhesion-receptor number due to polarized endocytic trafficking and (b) a spatial variation in adhesion-receptor/ligand bond strength. Applying a viscoelastic-solid model for cell mechanics allows us to represent one-dimensional locomotion with a system of differential equations describing cell deformation and displacement along with adhesion-receptor dynamics. In this paper, we solve these equations under the simplifying assumption that receptor dynamics are at a quasi-steady state relative to cell locomotion. Thus, our results are strictly valid for sufficiently slow cell movement, as typically observed for tissue cells such as fibroblasts. Numerical examples relevant to experimental systems are provided. Our results predict how cell speed might

  17. Mechanical Characterization of Adhesive Bonded Sheet Metal Joints at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kiyomi; Azimin, Muhd; Tanaka, Masashi; Ikeda, Takashi

    A new approach is expected for heat resisting metal joints with inorganic adhesive. In the present study, the mechanical characterization of the inorganic adhesive and the strength evaluation of metal joints are realized by an experimental procedure that includes a static test for single lap joints bonded with inorganic adhesives. The inorganic adhesive can be cured at 150°C, and the maximum temperature resistance proposed is up to 1,200°C. A tensile shear test for the joints with a nickel adherend is performed at an elevated temperature of up to 400°C. The effect of material property, overlap length, and thickness of adherend on the joint strength is discussed based on stress analysis for corresponding joint models using a Finite Element Method. It is important to confirm whether fracture occurred in the adhesive layer or at the interface between the adhesive and the adherend. Therefore, the deformation and fracture behavior of the adhesive layer is investigated microscopically by the photographs of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the fracture surface.

  18. Old and sticky-adhesive mechanisms in the living fossil Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Wani, Ryoji; Schwaha, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Nautiloidea is the oldest group within the cephalopoda, and modern Nautilus differs much in its outer morphology from all other recent species; its external shell and pinhole camera eye are the most prominent distinguishing characters. A further unique feature of Nautilus within the cephalopods is the lack of suckers or hooks on the tentacles. Instead, the animals use adhesive structures present on the digital tentacles. Earlier studies focused on the general tentacle morphology and put little attention on the adhesive gland system. Our results show that the epithelial parts on the oral adhesive ridge contain three secretory cell types (columnar, goblet, and cell type 1) that differ in shape and granule size. In the non-adhesive aboral epithelium, two glandular cell types (cell types 2 and 3) are present; these were not mentioned in any earlier study and differ from the cells in the adhesive area. The secretory material of all glandular cell types consists mainly of neutral mucopolysaccharide units, whereas one cell type in the non-adhesive epithelium also reacts positive for acidic mucopolysaccharides. The present data indicate that the glue in Nautilus consists mainly of neutral mucopolysaccharides. The glue seems to be a viscous carbohydrate gel, as known from another cephalopod species. De-attachment is apparently effectuated mechanically, i.e., by muscle contraction of the adhesive ridges and tentacle retraction.

  19. Register of experts for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.

    1973-01-01

    A list of approximately 150 experts from approximately 60 organizations who have published results of theoretical and/or experimental research related to six problem areas in the mechanics of structural failure is presented. Each author included is listed by organizational affiliation, address and principal field of expertise. The initial criteria for the selection of names for the register are recent contributions to the literature, participation in or support of relevant research programs, and referral by peers. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures. The Register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with whom they are affiliated.

  20. Acoustic emission spectral analysis of fiber composite failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, D. M.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic emission of graphite fiber polyimide composite failure mechanisms was investigated with emphasis on frequency spectrum analysis. Although visual examination of spectral densities could not distinguish among fracture sources, a paired-sample t statistical analysis of mean normalized spectral densities did provide quantitative discrimination among acoustic emissions from 10 deg, 90 deg, and plus or minus 45 deg, plus or minus 45 deg sub s specimens. Comparable discrimination was not obtained for 0 deg specimens.

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment on Some Mechanical Properties of Laminated Window Profiles Manufactured Using Two Types of Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Korkutand, Suleyman; Dilik, Tuncer

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of laminated window profiles manufactured using two types of adhesives were determined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of heat treatment on some mechanical properties of laminated window profiles that manufactured from Kosipo (Entandrophragma candollei Harms.) using differenet type adhesives. Commercially produced polyurethane based Macroplast UR 7221 and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive were used for experiments. The overall test results were found to be comparable to those obtained in the previous studies. Both types of adhesives resulted in significant differences in their strength characteristics at 95% confidence level. Adhesive UR 7221 improved the overall properties of the samples in contrast to PVAc. PMID:19325761

  2. Effect of new adhesion promoter and mechanical interlocking on bonding strength in metal-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuberth, A.; Göring, M.; Lindner, T.; Töberling, G.; Puschmann, M.; Riedel, F.; Scharf, I.; Schreiter, K.; Spange, S.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    There are various opportunities to improve the adhesion between polymer and metal in metal-plastic composites. The addition of a bonding agent which reacts with both joining components at the interfaces of the composite can enhance the bonding strength. An alternative method for the adjustment of interfaces in metal-plastic composites is the specific surface structuring of the joining partners in order to exploit the mechanical interlock effect. In this study the potential of using an adhesion promoter based on twin polymerization for metal-plastic composites in combination with different methods of mechanical surface treatment is evaluated by using the tensile shear test. It is shown that the new adhesion promoter has a major effect when applied on smooth metal surfaces. A combination of both mechanical and chemical surface treatment of the metal part is mostly just as effective as the application of only one of these surface treatment methods.

  3. LOCALIZED MECHANICS OF DENTIN SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Ko, Ching-Chang; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Martin, Manoel; Archangelo, Carlos Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The bond strength of composite resins (CRs) to dentin is influenced by the interfacial microstructure of the hybrid layer (HL) and the resin tags (TAG). The contemporary self-etching primer adhesive systems overcame the inconvenient of the etch-and-rinse protocol. Studies, however, have demonstrated that HL thickness and TAG length vary according to the wetting time and additional use of acid-etching prior to self-etching primers. This study investigated the localized stress distribution in the HL and the dentin/adhesive interface. Two HL thicknesses (3 or 6 μm), two TAG lengths (13 or 17 μm) and two loading conditions (perpendicular and oblique-25o) were investigated by the finite element (FE) analysis. Five two-dimensional FE models (M) of a dentin specimen restored with CR (38 x 64 μm) were constructed: Ml - no HL and no TAG; M2 - 3 μm of HL and 13 μm of TAG; M3 - 3 μm of HL and 17 μm of TAG; M4 - 6 μm of HL and 13 μm of TAG; and M5 - 6 μm of HL and 17 μm of TAG. Two distributed loadings (L) (20N) were applied on CR surface: L1 - perpendicular, and L2 - oblique (25°). Fixed interfacial conditions were assigned on the border of the dentin specimen. Ansys 10.0 (Ansys®, Houston, PA, USA) software was used to calculate the stress fields. The peak of von Mises (σvM) and maximum principal stress (σmax) was higher in L2 than in L1. Microstructures (HL and TAG) had no effect on local stresses for L1. Decreasing HL decreased σvM and σmax in all structures for L2, but the TAG length had influence only on the peributular dentin. The thickness of HL had more influence on the σvM and σmax than TAG length. The peritubular dentin and its adjacent structures showed the highest σvM and σmax, mainly in the oblique loading. PMID:19089152

  4. Bibliography of information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Moya, N.; Shaffer, R. A.; Smith, D. M.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliography of approximately 1500 reference citations related to six problem areas in the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures is presented. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the ten year period 1962-1972 and is largely limited to documents published in the United States. Listings are subdivided into the six problem areas: (1) life prediction of structural materials; (2) fracture toughness data; (3) fracture mechanics analysis; (4) hydrogen embrittlement; (5) protective coatings; and (6) composite materials. An author index is included.

  5. Methods of failure and reliability assessment for mechanical heart pumps.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonna M; Allaire, Paul E; Wood, Houston G; Throckmorton, Amy L; Tribble, Curt G; Olsen, Don B

    2005-01-01

    Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), and the Bethesda Conference. It further discusses studies that evaluate the failure, reliability, and safety of artificial blood pumps including in vitro and in vivo testing. A descriptive summary of mechanical and human error studies and methods of artificial blood pumps is detailed. PMID:15644079

  6. Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

  7. The Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Cell-Cell Adhesion Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Phillip W.; Clarke, Donald N.; Weis, William I.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Nelson, W. James

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A simple epithelium forms a barrier between the outside and the inside of an organism, and is the first organized multicellular tissue found in evolution. We examine the relationship between the evolution of epithelia and specialized cell-cell adhesion proteins comprising the classical cadherin/β-catenin/α-catenin complex (CCC). A review of the divergent functional properties of the CCC in metazoans and non-metazoans, and an updated phylogenetic coverage of the CCC using recent genomic data reveal: 1) The core CCC likely originated before the last common ancestor of unikonts and their closest bikont sister taxa. 2) Formation of the CCC may have constrained sequence evolution of the classical cadherin cytoplasmic domain and β-catenin in metazoa. 3) The α-catenin binding domain in β-catenin appears to be the favored mutation site for disrupting β-catenin function in the CCC. 4) The ancestral function of the α/β-catenin heterodimer appears to be an actin-binding module. In some metazoan groups, more complex functions of α-catenin were gained by sequence divergence in the non-actin binding (N-, M-) domains. 5) Allosteric regulation of α-catenin, rather than loss of function mutations, may have evolved for more complex regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24210433

  8. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbüchler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgeßner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  9. A numerical study on intended and unintended failure mechanisms in blanking of sandwich plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Soyarslan, C.; Tekkaya, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    Metal-polymer-metal sandwich plates are widely used in the automotive and aerospace industry. As for different applications the sandwich plates can be divided into two types. They are sound-damping laminates with a polymer core much thinner than the metallic faces and low-density laminates with a core thickness of approximately 40-60% of the total thickness. One frequent process step in production of parts made of these plates is the blanking process whose hereditary effects draw the limits of further forming stages or service performance and life; e.g. the failure of the adhesive in the thermoplastic polymer interface affects the sound-damping efficiency intensively. With this motivation, we present FE simulation of an axi-symmetric blanking process of steel/polyethylene/steel sound-damping laminates. The mechanical behavior of the metallic layers was characterized by finite strain rate independent elasto-plasticity where progressive material deterioration and fracture are given account for using continuum damage mechanics (CDM). This material model is made accessible via implementations as VUMAT subroutines for ABAQUS/Explicit. Possible failure of the thermoplastic polymer which may lead to delamination of the metallic layers is modeled using ABAQUS built-in cohesive zone elements. The results show that existing intended and unintended failure modes, e.g. blanking of the metallic and thermoplastic polymer constituents as well as failure of polymer layer under shear and compression, can be effectively studied with the proposed framework for process enhancement. As a future work, a damage coupled nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive model will be devised for the simulation of the thermoplastic layer in low-density laminates.

  10. Mechanical force mobilizes zyxin from focal adhesions to actin filaments and regulates cytoskeletal reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Yoshigi, Masaaki; Hoffman, Laura M; Jensen, Christopher C; Yost, H Joseph; Beckerle, Mary C

    2005-10-24

    Organs and tissues adapt to acute or chronic mechanical stress by remodeling their actin cytoskeletons. Cells that are stimulated by cyclic stretch or shear stress in vitro undergo bimodal cytoskeletal responses that include rapid reinforcement and gradual reorientation of actin stress fibers; however, the mechanism by which cells respond to mechanical cues has been obscure. We report that the application of either unidirectional cyclic stretch or shear stress to cells results in robust mobilization of zyxin from focal adhesions to actin filaments, whereas many other focal adhesion proteins and zyxin family members remain at focal adhesions. Mechanical stress also induces the rapid zyxin-dependent mobilization of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein from focal adhesions to actin filaments. Thickening of actin stress fibers reflects a cellular adaptation to mechanical stress; this cytoskeletal reinforcement coincides with zyxin mobilization and is abrogated in zyxin-null cells. Our findings identify zyxin as a mechanosensitive protein and provide mechanistic insight into how cells respond to mechanical cues. PMID:16247023

  11. Failure analysis for micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.A.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

    1997-10-01

    Micro-Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is an emerging technology with demonstrated potential for a wide range of applications including sensors and actuators for medical, industrial, consumer, military, automotive and instrumentation products. Failure analysis (FA) of MEMS is critically needed for the successful design, fabrication, performance analysis and reliability assurance of this new technology. Many devices have been examined using techniques developed for integrated circuit analysis, including optical inspection, scanning laser microscopy (SLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared (IR) microscopy, light emission (LE) microscopy, acoustic microscopy and acoustic emission analysis. For example, the FIB was used to microsection microengines that developed poor performance characteristics. Subsequent SEM analysis clearly demonstrated the absence of wear on gear, hub, and pin joint bearing surfaces, contrary to expectations. Another example involved the use of infrared microscopy for thermal analysis of operating microengines. Hot spots were located, which did not involve the gear or hub, but indicated contact between comb structures which drive microengines. Voltage contrast imaging proved useful on static and operating MEMS in both the SEM and the FIB and identified electrostatic clamping as a potentially significant contributor to failure mechanisms in microengines. This work describes MEMS devices, FA techniques, failure modes, and examples of FA of MEMS.

  12. 49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by § 192.1009, must be submitted on a Mechanical Fitting...

  13. 49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by § 192.1009, must be submitted on a Mechanical Fitting...

  14. 49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by § 192.1009, must be submitted on a Mechanical Fitting...

  15. 49 CFR 191.12 - Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.12 Distribution Systems: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports Each mechanical fitting failure, as required by § 192.1009, must be submitted on a Mechanical Fitting...

  16. Mechanics of load-drag-unload contact cleaning of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Abusomwan, Uyiosa A; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-14

    Contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with mushroom-shaped tips has been demonstrated recently using load-drag-unload cleaning procedures similar to that of the natural animal. However, the underlying mechanics of contact cleaning has yet to be fully understood. In this work, we present a detailed experiment of contact self-cleaning that shows that rolling is the dominant mechanism of cleaning for spherical microparticle contaminants, during the load-drag-unload procedure. We also study the effect of dragging rate and normal load on the particle rolling friction. A model of spherical particle rolling on an elastomer fibrillar adhesive interface is developed and agrees well with the experimental results. This study takes us closer to determining design parameters for achieving self-cleaning fibrillar adhesives.

  17. Mechanism of adhesion between protein-based hydrogels and plasma treated polypropylene backing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyders, Rony; Zabeida, Oleg; Roberges, Christophe; Shingel, Kirill I.; Faure, Marie-Pierre; Martinu, Ludvik; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of adhesion between N 2 plasma treated polypropylene (PP/N 2) backing and a hybrid hydrogel (HG) produced by chemical crosslinking between poly(ethylene glycol) and soy albumin. The work of adhesion, measured by peel testing, was found to be 25 times higher for PP/N 2 compared to untreated PP (≈5.0 J/m 2 versus ≈0.2 J/m 2). In order to understand the adhesion mechanism, we performed a detailed analysis of the surface chemical composition of PP and PP/N 2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical derivatization and attenuated total reflectance infra-red (ATR-IR) measurements. The results confirm incorporation of different nitrogen- (amine, amide,…) and oxygen- (hydroxyl, carboxyl,…) containing chemical groups on the PP/N 2 surface. The derivatized functions were primary amine, hydroxyl, carboxyl and carbonyl groups. Chemical derivatization reactions validated the XPS results (except for carbonyl groups), and they clearly underlined the essential role of primary amine groups in the adhesion process. In fact, after derivatization of the amine functions, the work of adhesion was found to be 0.41 ± 0.12 J/m 2. Participation of amine groups in the formation of covalent bonds at the interface between PP/N 2 and HG was directly confirmed by ATR-IR measurements.

  18. The effect of interlayer adhesion on the mechanical behaviors of macroscopic graphene oxide papers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Liu, Lu-Qi; Zu, Sheng-Zhen; Peng, Ke; Zhou, Ding; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhang, Zhong

    2011-03-22

    High mechanical performances of macroscopic graphene oxide (GO) papers are attracting great interest owing to their merits of lightweight and multiple functionalities. However, the loading role of individual nanosheets and its effect on the mechanical properties of the macroscopic GO papers are not yet well understood. Herein, we effectively tailored the interlayer adhesions of the GO papers by introducing small molecules, that is, glutaraldehyde (GA) and water molecules, into the gallery regions. With the help of in situ Raman spectroscopy, we compared the varied load-reinforcing roles of nanosheets, and further predicted the Young's moduli of the GO papers. Systematic mechanical tests have proven that the enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength of the GA-treated GO paper arose from the improved load-bearing capability of the nanosheets. On the basis of Raman and macroscopic mechanical tests, the influences of interlayer adhesions on the fracture mechanisms of the strained GO papers were inferred.

  19. Mechanisms of carotid body chemoreflex dysfunction during heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Harold D.; Marcus, Noah J.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have drawn interest in the potential for carotid body (CB) ablation or desensitization as an effective strategy for clinical treatment and management of cardio-respiratory diseases including hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and renal failure. These disease states have in common sympathetic overactivity, which plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease and is often associated with breathing dysregulation, which in turn likely mediates or aggravates the autonomic imbalance. Evidence from both chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and animal models indicates that the CB chemoreflex is enhanced in CHF and contributes to the tonic elevation in sympathetic activity and the development of periodic breathing associated with the disease. Although this maladaptive change likely derives from altered function at all levels of the reflex arc, a tonic increase in afferent activity from CB glomus cells is likely to be a main driving force. This report will focus on our understanding of mechanisms that alter CB function in CHF and their potential translational impact on treatment of CHF. PMID:25398713

  20. Temporary Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support in Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jessica L; Estep, Jerry D

    2016-07-01

    Cardiogenic shock is severe, refractory heart failure caused by significant myocardial dysfunction in the setting of adequate preload that is accompanied by systemic hypoperfusion. Progressive end-organ dysfunction is a hallmark of persistent cardiogenic shock and necessitates intervention to overcome altered hemodynamics and restore end-organ perfusion. Temporary percutaneous mechanical circulatory support is an established modality in the treatment of cardiogenic shock and is increasingly used in patients with cardiogenic shock as a bridge to recovery or further definitive therapy. This article reviews the current devices, their effects on left ventricular hemodynamics, and the evidence supporting their continued use. PMID:27371515

  1. Mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to model biomaterial surfaces: Establising a link between thrombosis and infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Julie Miyo

    Infections involving Staphylococcus epidermidis remain a life threatening complication associated with the use of polymer based cardiovascular devices. One of the critical steps in infection pathogenesis is the adhesion of the bacteria to the device surface. Currently, mechanisms of S. epidermidis adhesion are incompletely understood, but are thought to involve interactions between bacteria, device surface, and host blood elements in the form of adsorbed plasma proteins and surface adherent platelets. Our central hypothesis is that elements participating in thrombosis also promote S. epidermidis adhesion by specifically binding to the bacterial surface. The adhesion kinetics of S. epidermidis RP62A to host modified model biomaterial surface octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) under hydrodynamic shear conditions were characterized. Steady state adhesion to adsorbed proteins and surface adherent platelets was achieved at 90-120 minutes and 60-90 minutes, respectively. A dose response curve of S. epidermidis adhesion in the concentration range of 10sp7{-}10sp9 bac/mL resembled a multilayer adsorption isotherm. Increasing shear stress was found to LTA, and other LTA blocking agents significantly decreased S. epidermidis adhesion to the fibrin-platelet clots, suggesting that this interaction between S. epidermidis and fibrin-platelet clots is specific. Studies evaluated the adhesion of S. epidermidis to polymer immobilized heparin report conflicting results. Paulsson et al., showed that coagulase negative staphylococci adhered in comparable numbers to both immobilized heparin and nonheparinized surfaces, while exhibiting significantly greater adhesion to both surfaces than S. aureus. Preadsorption of the surfaces with specific heparin binding plasma proteins vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagen significantly increased adhesion. It was postulated that immobilized heparin contained binding sites for the plasma proteins, exposing bacteria binding domains of the

  2. Multi-step adhesive cementation versus one-step adhesive cementation: push-out bond strength between fiber post and root dentin before and after mechanical cycling.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Rippe, Marilia Pivetta; Bergoli, Cesar Dalmolin; Monaco, Carlo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of mechanical cycling on resin push-out bond strength to root dentin, using two strategies for fiber post cementation. Forty bovine roots were embedded in acrylic resin after root canal preparation using a custom drill of the fiber post system. The fiber posts were cemented into root canals using two different strategies (N = 20): a conventional adhesive approach using a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system combined with a conventional resin cement (ScotchBond Multi Purpose Plus + RelyX ARC ), or a simplified adhesive approach using a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100). The core was built up with composite resin and half of the specimens from each cementation strategy were submitted to mechanical cycling (45 degree angle; 37 degrees C; 88 N; 4 Hz; 700,000 cycles). Each specimen was cross-sectioned and the disk specimens were pushed-out. The means from every group (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and a Tukey test (P = 0.05). The cementation strategy affected the push-out results (P < 0.001), while mechanical cycling did not (P = 0.3716). The simplified approach (a self-adhesive resin cement) had better bond performance despite the conditioning. The self-adhesive resin cement appears to be a good option for post cementation. Further trials are needed to confirm these results.

  3. Scale Adhesion, Sulfur Content, and TBC Failure on Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main effects of sulfur impurity content on the cyclic oxidation resistance of single crystal superalloys, with emphasis on scale and TBC adhesion. Eleven hundred degrees C cyclic oxidation of PWA 1480 produces scale spallation leading to a weight loss of more than 30 Mg/sq cm after 500 one-hr cycles for a sulfur content of 6 ppmw. The sulfur content was reduced to levels below 0.1 ppmw by hydrogen annealing, resulting in weight gains of only 0.5 to 1.0 Mg/sq cm after 1000 one-hr cycles. Samples were produced with various sulfur contents by adjusting the annealing temperature, time, and sample thickness (i.e., diffusion product Dt/L(exp 2)). The subsequent cyclic oxidation behavior, mapped over a sulfur content/thickness diagram, shows a transition to adherent behavior at sulfur levels equivalent to 1 monolayer of total segregation. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Adhesion-delamination mechanics of a prestressed rectangular film adhered onto a rigid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ming-Fung; Duan, Gang; Wan, Kai-Tak

    2007-01-01

    A prestressed rectangular film clamped at both ends delaminates from a rigid punch. Based on a thermodynamic energy balance, the delamination mechanics is derived to relate the simultaneous external tensile force applied to the punch, punch displacement, and contact area. Effects of the coupled tensile residual membrane stress and adhesion energy at the punch-film interface are investigated. A "pinch off" (stable shrinking of the contact area to a line) is predicted, contrasting the nonzero "pull-off" radius in a clamped circular film. The model is useful in understanding the behavior of various adhesion-delamination phenomena, especially in one dimensional capacitive microelectromechanical systems radio frequency switches, microstructure network, and nanostructures.

  5. Mechanical Activation of a Multimeric Adhesive Protein Through Domain Conformational Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeratne, Sithara S.; Botello, Eric; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Zhou, Zhou; Bergeron, Angela L.; Frey, Eric W.; Patel, Jay M.; Nolasco, Leticia; Turner, Nancy A.; Moake, Joel L.; Dong, Jing-fei; Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    The mechanical force-induced activation of the adhesive protein von Willebrand factor (VWF), which experiences high hydrodynamic forces, is essential in initiating platelet adhesion. The importance of the mechanical force-induced functional change is manifested in the multimeric VWF’s crucial role in blood coagulation, when high fluid shear stress activates plasma VWF (PVWF) multimers to bind platelets. Here, we showed that a pathological level of high shear stress exposure of PVWF multimers results in domain conformational changes, and the subsequent shifts in the unfolding force allow us to use force as a marker to track the dynamic states of the multimeric VWF. We found that shear-activated PVWF multimers are more resistant to mechanical unfolding than nonsheared PVWF multimers, as indicated in the higher peak unfolding force. These results provide insight into the mechanism of shear-induced activation of PVWF multimers.

  6. Mechanical and water soaking properties of medium density fiberboard with wood fiber and soybean protein adhesive.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Yonghui; Zhong, Zhikai; Wang, Donghai; Ratto, Jo A; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2009-07-01

    Soybean protein is a renewable and abundant material that offers an alternative to formaldehyde-based resins. In this study, soybean protein was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an adhesive for wood fiber medium density fiberboard (MDF) preparation. Second-order response surface regression models were used to study the effects and interactions of initial moisture content (IMC) of coated wood fiber, press time (PT) and temperature on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Results showed that IMC of coated fiber was the dominant influencing factor. Mechanical and soaking properties improved as IMC increased and reached their highest point at an IMC of 35%. Press time and temperature also had a significant effect on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Second-order regression results showed that there were strong relationships between mechanical and soaking properties of MDF and processing parameters. Properties of MDF made using soybean protein adhesive are similar to those of commercial board.

  7. Adhesive bonding via exposure to microwave radition and resulting mechanical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulauskas, F.L.; Warren, C.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1996-04-01

    Adhesive bonding/joining through microwave radiation curing has been evaluated as an alternative processing technology. This technique significantly reduces the required curing time for the adhesive while maintaining equivalent physical characteristics as the adhesive material is polymerized (crosslinked). This results in an improvement in the economics of the process. Testing of samples cured via microwave radiation for evaluation of mechanical properties indicated that the obtained values from the single lap-shear test are in the range of the conventionally cured samples. In general, the ultimate tensile strength, {sigma}{sub B}, for the microwave processed samples subjected to this single lap-shear test was slightly higher than for conventionally cured samples. This technology shows promise for being applicable to a wide range of high volume, consumer goods industries, where plastics and polymer composites will be processed.

  8. A Novel Approach to Study Adhesion Mechanisms by Isolation of the Interacting System

    PubMed Central

    Coyle-Thompson, Cathy; Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    Summary For decades most investigations into mechanisms of adhesive interactions have examined whole organisms or single cells. Results using whole organisms are often unclear because it may not be known if a probe used in an experiment is directly affecting the cellular interaction under study or if it is an indirect effect resulting from action on some other structure or pathway. Here we develop a novel approach to isolate the structural components of a cellular interaction by dissecting them out of the organism to study them in a pristine environment away from all confounding factors. We used the adhesion between the archenteron and blastocoel roof of the sea urchin gastrula stage embryo as a model that can be replicated in many other developmental and pathological systems. The isolated components of the cellular interaction and those in the whole organism possessed identical cell surface receptors and adhesive affinities. PMID:16181663

  9. Mechanics in Mechanosensitivity of Cell Adhesion and its Roles in Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yuan; He, Shijie; Ji, Baohua

    2012-12-01

    Cells sense and respond to external stimuli and properties of their environment through focal adhesion complexes (FACs) to regulate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes, including cell migration. Currently, the basic principles in mechanics of the mechanosensitivity of cell adhesion and migration have not been fully understood. In this paper, an FEM-based mechano-chemical coupling model is proposed for studying the cell migration behaviors in which the dynamics of stability of FACs and the effect of cell shape on cell traction force distribution are considered. We find that the driving force of cell migration is produced by the competition of stability of cell adhesion between the cell front and cell rear, which consequently controls the speed of cell migration. We show that the rigidity gradient of matrix can bias this competition which allows cell to exhibit a durotaxis behavior, i.e. the larger the gradient, the higher the cell speed.

  10. Mussel Adhesion is Significantly Enhanced Due to the Shape and Mechanics of Its Holdfast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Kenneth; Zacchia, Nicholas; Waite, Herbert; Valentine, Megan

    2014-03-01

    Mussels permanently adhere to surfaces through a circular plaque that is attached to the animal body via a long thin thread; forming a mushroom-shaped geometry. A plaque just a few millimeters in diameter with a 250-micron diameter thread can withstand large pull forces of a several Newtons without debonding. While the strength of individual chemical bonds plays a role in determining the adhesive strength, the contact mechanics associated with the mushroom shape is also critically important. In fact, numerous other organisms also use mushroom-shaped holdfasts to create strong bonds, suggesting the mushroom geometry is particularly effective for adhesion. To better understand the role of contact mechanics on the adhesive strength of mussels, we study mussel detachment using a custom built load frame capable of pulling on samples along any orientation and measuring the resulting force, while simultaneously imaging the plaque deformation and the glass-plaque interface. We will show that the holdfast shape improves bond strength by an order of magnitude compared to other simple geometries and that force-induced yielding of the mussel plaque improves the bond strength by another two orders of magnitude. These results show that by optimizing for contact mechanics, adhesive strength can be finely tuned for a particular application without changing the interface chemistry.

  11. Transient adhesion and conductance phenomena in initial nanoscale mechanical contacts between dissimilar metals.

    PubMed

    Paul, William; Oliver, David; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grütter, Peter

    2013-11-29

    We report on transient adhesion and conductance phenomena associated with tip wetting in mechanical contacts produced by the indentation of a clean W(111) tip into a Au(111) surface. A combination of atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy was used to carry out indentation and to image residual impressions in ultra-high vacuum. The ∼7 nm radii tips used in these experiments were prepared and characterized by field ion microscopy in the same instrument. The very first indentations of the tungsten tips show larger conductance and pull-off adhesive forces than subsequent indentations. After ∼30 indentations to a depth of ∼1.7 nm, the maximum conductance and adhesion forces reach steady state values approximately 12 ×  and 6 ×  smaller than their initial value. Indentation of W(111) tips into Cu(100) was also performed to investigate the universality of tip wetting phenomena with a different substrate. We propose a model from contact mechanics considerations which quantitatively reproduces the observed decay rate of the conductance and adhesion drops with a 1/e decay constant of 9-14 indentation cycles. The results show that the surface composition of an indenting tip plays an important role in defining the mechanical and electrical properties of indentation contacts.

  12. A Bio-Inspired Swellable Microneedle Adhesive for Mechanical Interlocking with Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung Yun; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Park, Kyeng Min; Cho, Woo Kyung; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving significant adhesion to soft tissues while minimizing tissue damage poses a considerable clinical challenge. Chemical-based adhesives require tissue-specific reactive chemistry, typically inducing a significant inflammatory response. Staples are fraught with limitations including high-localized tissue stress and increased risk of infection, and nerve and blood vessel damage. Here, inspired by the endoparasite Pomphorhynchus laevis which swells its proboscis to attach to its host’s intestinal wall, we have developed a biphasic microneedle array that mechanically interlocks with tissue through swellable microneedle tips, achieving ~ 3.5 fold increase in adhesion strength compared to staples in skin graft fixation, and removal force of ~ 4.5 N/cm2 from intestinal mucosal tissue. Comprising a poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) swellable tip and non-swellable polystyrene core, conical microneedles penetrate tissue with minimal insertion force and depth, yet high adhesion strength in their swollen state. Uniquely, this design provides universal soft tissue adhesion with minimal damage, less traumatic removal, reduced risk of infection and delivery of bioactive therapeutics. PMID:23591869

  13. A bio-inspired swellable microneedle adhesive for mechanical interlocking with tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yun; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Park, Kyeng Min; Cho, Woo Kyung; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving significant adhesion to soft tissues while minimizing tissue damage poses a considerable clinical challenge. Chemical-based adhesives require tissue-specific reactive chemistry, typically inducing a significant inflammatory response. Staples are fraught with limitations including high-localized tissue stress and increased risk of infection, and nerve and blood vessel damage. Here inspired by the endoparasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, which swells its proboscis to attach to its host’s intestinal wall, we have developed a biphasic microneedle array that mechanically interlocks with tissue through swellable microneedle tips, achieving ~3.5-fold increase in adhesion strength compared with staples in skin graft fixation, and removal force of ~4.5 N cm-2 from intestinal mucosal tissue. Comprising a poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) swellable tip and non-swellable polystyrene core, conical microneedles penetrate tissue with minimal insertion force and depth, yet high adhesion strength in their swollen state. Uniquely, this design provides universal soft tissue adhesion with minimal damage, less traumatic removal, reduced risk of infection and delivery of bioactive therapeutics.

  14. Viscous-poroelastic interaction as mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulchinsky, A.; Gat, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a viscous liquid contained between and within the hexagonal structures. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, by allowing for exit of the liquid and thus improving contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscosity and elasticity as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary effects or van der Waals forces. We initially illustrate this concept experimentally by a simplified configuration consisting of two surfaces connected by a liquid bridge and elastic springs. We then utilize poroelastic mixture theory and model frog's toe pads as an elastic porous medium, immersed within a viscous liquid and pressed against a rigid rough surface. The flow between the surface and the toe pad is modeled by the lubrication approximation. Inertia is neglected and analysis of the elastic-viscous dynamics yields a governing partial differential equation describing the flow and stress within the porous medium. Several solutions of the governing equation are presented and show a temporary adhesion due to stress created at the contact surface between the solids. This work thus may explain how some frogs (such as the torrent frog) maintain adhesion underwater and the reason for the periodic repositioning of frogs' toe pads during adhesion to surfaces.

  15. Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biton, Y. Y.; Safran, S. A.

    2010-05-01

    The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.

  16. Fullerenes as adhesive layers for mechanical peeling of metallic, molecular and polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Maria B; Slater, Anna G; Mangham, Barry; Champness, Neil R; Beton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    We show that thin films of C60 with a thickness ranging from 10 to 100 nm can promote adhesion between a Au thin film deposited on mica and a solution-deposited layer of the elastomer polymethyldisolaxane (PDMS). This molecular adhesion facilitates the removal of the gold film from the mica support by peeling and provides a new approach to template stripping which avoids the use of conventional adhesive layers. The fullerene adhesion layers may also be used to remove organic monolayers and thin films as well as two-dimensional polymers which are pre-formed on the gold surface and have monolayer thickness. Following the removal from the mica support the monolayers may be isolated and transferred to a dielectric surface by etching of the gold thin film, mechanical transfer and removal of the fullerene layer by annealing/dissolution. The use of this molecular adhesive layer provides a new route to transfer polymeric films from metal substrates to other surfaces as we demonstrate for an assembly of covalently-coupled porphyrins.

  17. Knowledge Discovery Process for Characterization of Materials Failure Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cios, Krzysztof J.

    1999-01-01

    It is the intent of this project to provide a platform to visualize the various data collected from stress-strain testing of composite ceramic matrix materials. The data collected from the stress-strain tests are acoustic emissions (AE). As a material is subjected to a stress-strain test, various failure mechanisms occur in the material. The recorded sounds emitted during the test may correspond to various failure mechanisms. This project, thus, will give a possible way to visualize the data and data derived from the recorded AE. The stress-strain testing was performed on several composite matrix material combinations. Each of these tests produced anywhere from 1000 to 10,000+ AE events. For each AE event recorded, several characteristics in both the time and frequency domains are created. This project has two goals. First, this project will provide a summation page for a selected waveform. This page will include all of the characteristics determined from the AE event waveform along with graphs of the AE event waveform and its corresponding Power Spectrum. The other function of this project is to retrieve and display selected AE event waveforms for comparison.

  18. Molecular mechanisms underlying synergistic adhesion of sickle red blood cells by hypoxia and low nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gutsaeva, Diana R; Montero-Huerta, Pedro; Parkerson, James B; Yerigenahally, Shobha D; Ikuta, Tohru; Head, C Alvin

    2014-03-20

    The molecular mechanisms by which nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability modulates the clinical expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) remain elusive. We investigated the effect of hypoxia and NO bioavailability on sickle red blood cell (sRBC) adhesion using mice deficient for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) because their NO metabolite levels are similar to those of SCD mice but without hypoxemia. Whereas sRBC adhesion to endothelial cells in eNOS-deficient mice was synergistically upregulated at the onset of hypoxia, leukocyte adhesion was unaffected. Restoring NO metabolite levels to physiological levels markedly reduced sRBC adhesion to levels seen under normoxia. These results indicate that sRBC adherence to endothelial cells increases in response to hypoxia prior to leukocyte adherence, and that low NO bioavailability synergistically upregulates sRBC adhesion under hypoxia. Although multiple adhesion molecules mediate sRBC adhesion, we found a central role for P-selectin in sRBC adhesion. Hypoxia and low NO bioavailability upregulated P-selectin expression in endothelial cells in an additive manner through p38 kinase pathways. These results demonstrate novel cellular and signaling mechanisms that regulate sRBC adhesion under hypoxia and low NO bioavailability. Importantly, these findings point us toward new molecular targets to inhibit cell adhesion in SCD.

  19. Joining technologies for the 1990s: Welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical, explosive, solid-state, adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Editor); Stein, Bland A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Society, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers Conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  20. An investigation of mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of composite T-joints with transverse stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, Patrick Bickford

    2001-07-01

    A new low cost damage tolerant method of joining load-bearing composite structures using two-dimensional dry fabric preforms with transverse stitching and a novel fiber insertion process with resin transfer molding has recently been developed, however, knowledge of strength prediction and failure mechanisms is not well understood. In this investigation, fundamental knowledge of T-joint mechanical behavior was developed through detailed experimental, numerical, and post failure analyses. Experiments were conducted under flexure, tension, and shear loads and failed specimens were examined to discern failure modes. T-joint constituent elastic and strength properties were experimentally determined. Elastic properties were used as input to the finite element analysis and strength properties were used as limiting values in the T-joint failure analysis. Linear elastic, nonlinear elastic, and progressive damage finite element models were developed under each load condition. T-joint numerical models are shown to predict experimental behavior through ultimate load. Damage accumulation was characterized based on experimental, numerical, and post failure analyses. A parametric finite element analysis was conducted and design curves were derived to demonstrate the effect of varying key T-joint interface parameters on mechanical behavior under each load condition. Results of this research enable the application of T-joints with transverse stitching to future products and predictive finite element models developed herein reduce the structural testing required to validate these designs.

  1. Relationship between Early Inflammatory Response and Clinical Evolution of the Severe Multiorgan Failure in Mechanical Circulatory Support-Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Campolo, Jonica; Botta, Luca; Parolini, Marina; Milazzo, Filippo; Nonini, Sandra; Martinelli, Luigi; Paino, Roberto; Marraccini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is an effective treatment in critically ill patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF) that, however, may cause a severe multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS) in these subjects. The impact of altered inflammatory response, associated to MOFS, on clinical evolution of MCS postimplantation patients has not been yet clarified. Methods. Circulating cytokines, adhesion molecules, and a marker of monocyte activation (neopterin) were determined in 53 MCS-treated patients, at preimplant and until 2 weeks. MOFS was evaluated by total sequential organ failure assessment score (tSOFA). Results. During MCS treatment, 32 patients experienced moderate MOFS (tSOFA < 11; A group), while 21 patients experienced severe MOFS (tSOFA ≥ 11) with favorable (B group) or adverse (n = 13, C group) outcomes. At preimplant, higher values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were the only parameter independently associated with A group. In C group, during the first postoperative week, high levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and an increase of neopterin and adhesion molecules, precede tSOFA worsening and exitus. Conclusions. The MCS patients of C group show an excessive release to IL-8 and TNF-α, and monocyte-endothelial activation after surgery, that might contribute to the unfavourable evolution of severe MOFS. PMID:25132729

  2. Optical strain for monitoring of concrete failure mechanism with discontinuity.

    PubMed

    Deb, Debasis; Bhattacharjee, Sudipta

    2015-12-10

    Finite-element-based digital image correlation (FEM-DIC) is one of the most widely used noncontact techniques in the field of experimental mechanics for measurement of deformation/strain. In this paper, the FEM-DIC method is refined by introducing the concept of multilevel extended digital image correlation (X-DIC), which also can capture deformation across discontinuity planes if they exist in images. Using regular and enhanced displacements at each node, strain tensors are estimated by applying the concept of smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Numerical works are carried out to check the accuracy level of the developed algorithm by considering discrete discontinuity on the surface of a sample. Work is further extended to determine displacements and strains developed at the surface of several cubical concrete samples under uniaxial loading conditions. The tests are conducted until fractures are developed in the post-failure region. Using the concept of cumulative effective strain, a parameter is identified, which can be used as a precursor in the object failure process.

  3. A failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis (FMMEA) of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Christopher; Williard, Nick; Mathew, Sony; Pecht, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are popular energy storage devices for a wide variety of applications. As batteries have transitioned from being used in portable electronics to being used in longer lifetime and more safety-critical applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and aircraft, the cost of failure has become more significant both in terms of liability as well as the cost of replacement. Failure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysis (FMMEA) provides a rigorous framework to define the ways in which lithium-ion batteries can fail, how failures can be detected, what processes cause the failures, and how to model failures for failure prediction. This enables a physics-of-failure (PoF) approach to battery life prediction that takes into account life cycle conditions, multiple failure mechanisms, and their effects on battery health and safety. This paper presents an FMMEA of battery failure and describes how this process enables improved battery failure mitigation control strategies.

  4. Failure Mechanism for Thermal Fatigue of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G.; Borgioli, F.; Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L.

    2009-06-01

    Thick thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), consisting of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat and yttria-partially stabilized zirconia top coat with different porosity values, were produced by air plasma spray (APS). The thermal fatigue resistance limit of the TBCs was tested by furnace cycling tests (FCT) according to the specifications of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The morphology, residual stresses, and micromechanical properties (microhardness, indentation fracture toughness) of the TBC systems before and after FCT were analyzed. The thermal fatigue resistance increases with the amount of porosity in the top coat. The compressive in-plane stresses increase in the TBC systems after thermal cycling; nevertheless the increasing rate has a trend contrary to the porosity level of top coat. The data suggest that the spallation happens at the TGO/top coat interface. The failure mechanism of thick TBCs was found to be similar to that of conventional thin TBC systems made by APS.

  5. Mechanisms of compressive failure in woven composites and stitched laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B. N.; Dadkhah, M. S.; Inman, R. V.; Morris, W. L.; Schroeder, S.

    1992-01-01

    Stitched laminates and angle interlock woven composites have been studied in uniaxial, in-plane, monotonic compression. Failure mechanisms have been found to depend strongly on both the reinforcement architecture and the degree of constraint imposed by the loading grips. Stitched laminates show higher compressive strength, but are brittle, possessing no load bearing capacity beyond the strain for peak load. Post-mortem inspection shows a localized shear band of buckled and broken fibers, which is evidently the product of an unstably propagating kink band. Similar shear bands are found in the woven composites if the constraint of lateral displacements is weak; but, under strong constraint, damage is not localized but distributed throughout the gauge section. While the woven composites tested are weaker than the stitched laminates, they continue to bear significant loads to compressive strains of approx. 15 percent, even when most damage is confined to a shear band.

  6. Distinct biophysical mechanisms of focal adhesion kinase mechanoactivation by different extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jihye; Tajik, Arash; Sun, Jie; Guan, Jun-Lin; Humphries, Martin J; Craig, Susan E; Shekaran, Asha; García, Andrés J; Lu, Shaoying; Lin, Michael Z; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yingxiao

    2013-11-26

    Matrix mechanics controls cell fate by modulating the bonds between integrins and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, it remains unclear how fibronectin (FN), type 1 collagen, and their receptor integrin subtypes distinctly control force transmission to regulate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity, a crucial molecular signal governing cell adhesion/migration. Here we showed, using a genetically encoded FAK biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer, that FN-mediated FAK activation is dependent on the mechanical tension, which may expose its otherwise hidden FN synergy site to integrin α5. In sharp contrast, the ligation between the constitutively exposed binding motif of type 1 collagen and its receptor integrin α2 was surprisingly tension-independent to induce sufficient FAK activation. Although integrin α subunit determines mechanosensitivity, the ligation between α subunit and the ECM proteins converges at the integrin β1 activation to induce FAK activation. We further discovered that the interaction of the N-terminal protein 4.1/ezrin/redixin/moesin basic patch with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate is crucial during cell adhesion to maintain the FAK activation from the inhibitory effect of nearby protein 4.1/ezrin/redixin/moesin acidic sites. Therefore, different ECM proteins either can transmit or can shield from mechanical forces to regulate cellular functions, with the accessibility of ECM binding motifs by their specific integrin α subunits determining the biophysical mechanisms of FAK activation during mechanotransduction.

  7. Nature's Mechanisms for Tough, Self-healing Polymers and Polymer Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Spider silk^2 and the natural polymer adhesives in abalone shells^3 and bone^4,5 can give us insights into nature's mechanisms for tough, self-healing polymers and polymer adhesives. The natural polymer adhesives in biomaterials have been optimized by evolution. An optimized polymer adhesive has five characteristics. 1) It holds together the strong elements of the composite. 2) It yields just before the strong elements would otherwise break. 3) It dissipates large amounts of energy as it yields. 4) It self heals after it yields. 5) It takes just a few percent by weight. Both natural polymer adhesives and silk rely on sacrificial bonds and hidden length for toughness and self-healing.^6 A relatively large energy, of order 100eV, is required to stretch a polymer molecule after a weak bond, a sacrificial bond, breaks and liberates hidden length, which was previously hidden, typically in a loop or folded domain, from whatever was stretching the polymer. The bond is called sacrificial if it breaks at forces well below the forces that could otherwise break the polymer backbone, typically greater than 1nN. In many biological cases, the breaking of sacrificial bonds has been found to be reversible, thereby also providing a ``self-healing'' property to the material.^2-4 Individual polymer adhesive molecules based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length can supply forces of order 300pN over distances of 100s of nanometers. Model calculations show that a few percent by weight of adhesives based on these principles could be optimized adhesives for high performance composite materials including nanotube and graphene sheet composites. ^2N. Becker, E. Oroudjev, S. Mutz et al., Nature Materials 2 (4), 278 (2003). ^3B. L. Smith, T. E. Schaffer, M. Viani et al., Nature 399 (6738), 761 (1999). ^4J. B. Thompson, J. H. Kindt, B. Drake et al., Nature 414 (6865), 773 (2001). ^5G. E. Fantner, T. Hassenkam, J. H. Kindt et al., Nature Materials 4, 612 (2005). ^6G. E. Fantner, E. Oroudjev, G

  8. Doxorubicin induced heart failure: Phenotype and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mitry, Maria A.; Edwards, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Long term survival of childhood cancers is now more than 70%. Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, are some of the most efficacious anticancer drugs available. However, its use as a chemotherapeutic agent is severely hindered by its dose-limiting toxicities. Most notably observed is cardiotoxicity, but other organ systems are also degraded by doxorubicin use. Despite the years of its use and the amount of information written about this drug, an understanding of its cellular mechanisms is not fully appreciated. The mechanisms by which doxorubicin induces cytotoxicity in target cancer cells have given insight about how the drug damages cardiomyocytes. The major mechanisms of doxorubicin actions are thought to be as an oxidant generator and as an inhibitor of topoisomerase 2. However, other signaling pathways are also invoked with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. Further the interaction between oxidant generation and topoisomerase function has only recently been appreciated and the consequences of this interaction are still not fully understood. The unfortunate consequences of doxorubicin within cardiomyocytes have promoted the search for new drugs and methods that can prevent or reverse the damage caused to the heart after treatment in cancer patients. Alternative protocols have lessened the impact on newly diagnosed cancer patients. However the years of doxorubicin use have generated a need for monitoring the onset of cardiotoxicity as well as understanding its potential long-term consequences. Although a fairly clear understanding of the short-term pathologic mechanisms of doxorubicin actions has been achieved, the long-term mechanisms of doxorubicin induced heart failure remain to be carefully delineated. PMID:27213178

  9. Computational and numerical aspects of using the integral equation method for adhesive layer fracture mechanics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Giurgiutiu, V.; Ionita, A.; Dillard, D.A.; Graffeo, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fracture mechanics analysis of adhesively bonded joints has attracted considerable attention in recent years. A possible approach to the analysis of adhesive layer cracks is to study a brittle adhesive between 2 elastic half-planes representing the substrates. A 2-material 3-region elasticity problem is set up and has to be solved. A modeling technique based on the work of Fleck, Hutchinson, and Suo is used. Two complex potential problems using Muskelishvili`s formulation are set up for the 3-region, 2-material model: (a) a distribution of edge dislocations is employed to simulate the crack and its near field; and (b) a crack-free problem is used to simulate the effect of the external loading applied in the far field. Superposition of the two problems is followed by matching tractions and displacements at the bimaterial boundaries. The Cauchy principal value integral is used to treat the singularities. Imposing the traction-free boundary conditions over the entire crack length yielded a linear system of two integral equations. The parameters of the problem are Dundurs` elastic mismatch coefficients, {alpha} and {beta}, and the ratio c/H representing the geometric position of the crack in the adhesive layer.

  10. Comparing the mechanical influence of vinculin, focal adhesion kinase and p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, Anna H.; Diez, Gerold; Alonso, Jose-Luis

    2009-02-13

    Cytoskeletal reorganization is an ongoing process when cells adhere, move or invade extracellular substrates. The cellular force generation and transmission are determined by the intactness of the actomyosin-(focal adhesion complex)-integrin connection. We investigated the intracellular course of action in mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in the focal adhesion proteins vinculin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the nuclear matrix protein p53 using magnetic tweezer and nanoparticle tracking techniques. Results show that the lack of these proteins decrease cellular stiffness and affect cell rheological behavior. The decrease in cellular binding strength was higher in FAK- to vinculin-deficient cells, whilst p53-deficient cells showed no effect compared to wildtype cells. The intracellular cytoskeletal activity was lowest in wildtype cells, but increased in the following order when cells lacked FAK+p53 > p53 > vinculin. In summary, cell mechanical processes are differently affected by the focal adhesion proteins vinculin and FAK than by the nuclear matrix protein, p53.

  11. Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; He, Xiaolin

    2012-02-13

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular {beta}-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC {beta}-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular {beta}-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function.

  12. Homophilic adhesion mechanism of neurofascin, a member of the L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J; He, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular β-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC β-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular β-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function. PMID:21047790

  13. Mechanisms of Cell Death in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bantel, Heike; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can be the consequence of various etiologies, that might vary between different geographic regions. Most frequent are intoxications with acetaminophen, viral hepatitis, or liver damage of unknown origin. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the regenerative capacity of the liver. The mode of liver cell death that is predominantly induced in ALF, i.e., apoptosis or necrosis, is still controversial and presumably determined by the etiology, duration, and magnitude of liver injury. Severe liver damage involves oxidative stress and depletion of ATP resulting in necrosis. In contrast, maintenance of ATP stores is required for the execution of apoptosis. Recent data suggest that necrosis resulting from severe liver damage is associated with poor outcome of ALF patients. Discrimination between apoptosis and necrosis might be therefore useful for the identification of ALF patients requiring liver transplantation. Identification of the molecular cell death mechanisms remains an important issue not only for early prediction of ALF outcome, but also for therapeutic interventions. In view of the pleiotropic functions of critical mediators of cell death and tissue regeneration, a particular challenge will be to reduce hepatocellular death without inhibiting the regenerative capacity of the liver. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of hepatocyte injury and the pathways leading to apoptosis and necrosis, which might represent potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ALF. PMID:22485095

  14. Failure mechanisms in composite panels subjected to underwater impulsive loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latourte, Félix; Grégoire, David; Zenkert, Dan; Wei, Xiaoding; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2011-08-01

    This work examines the performance of composite panels when subjected to underwater impulsive loads. The scaled fluid-structure experimental methodology developed by Espinosa and co-workers was employed. Failure modes, damage mechanisms and their distributions were identified and quantified for composite monolithic and sandwich panels subjected to typical blast loadings. The temporal evolutions of panel deflection and center deflection histories were obtained from shadow Moiré fringes acquired in real time by means of high speed photography. A linear relationship of zero intercept between peak center deflections versus applied impulse per areal mass was obtained for composite monolithic panels. For composite sandwich panels, the relationship between maximum center deflection versus applied impulse per areal mass was found to be approximately bilinear but with a higher slope. Performance improvement of sandwich versus monolithic composite panels was, therefore, established specially at sufficiently high impulses per areal mass ( I0/ M¯>170 m s -1). Severe failure was observed in solid panels subjected to impulses per areal mass larger than 300 m s -1. Extensive fiber fracture occurred in the center of the panels, where cracks formed a cross pattern through the plate thickness and delamination was very extensive on the sample edges due to bending effects. Similar levels of damage were observed in sandwich panels but at much higher impulses per areal mass. The experimental work reported in this paper encompasses not only characterization of the dynamic performance of monolithic and sandwich panels but also post-mortem characterization by means of both non-destructive and microscopy techniques. The spatial distribution of delamination and matrix cracking were quantified, as a function of applied impulse, in both monolithic and sandwich panels. The extent of core crushing was also quantified in the case of sandwich panels. The quantified variables represent ideal

  15. Deformation and Failure Mechanisms of Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Samantha Hayes

    2015-04-15

    The goal of this research was to understand the fundamental mechanics that drive the deformation and failure of shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are difficult materials to characterize because of the complex phase transformations that give rise to their unique properties, including shape memory and superelasticity. These phase transformations occur across multiple length scales (one example being the martensite-austenite twinning that underlies macroscopic strain localization) and result in a large hysteresis. In order to optimize the use of this hysteretic behavior in energy storage and damping applications, we must first have a quantitative understanding of this transformation behavior. Prior results on shape memory alloys have been largely qualitative (i.e., mapping phase transformations through cracked oxide coatings or surface morphology). The PI developed and utilized new approaches to provide a quantitative, full-field characterization of phase transformation, conducting a comprehensive suite of experiments across multiple length scales and tying these results to theoretical and computational analysis. The research funded by this award utilized new combinations of scanning electron microscopy, diffraction, digital image correlation, and custom testing equipment and procedures to study phase transformation processes at a wide range of length scales, with a focus at small length scales with spatial resolution on the order of 1 nanometer. These experiments probe the basic connections between length scales during phase transformation. In addition to the insights gained on the fundamental mechanisms driving transformations in shape memory alloys, the unique experimental methodologies developed under this award are applicable to a wide range of solid-to-solid phase transformations and other strain localization mechanisms.

  16. A bio-inspired attachment mechanism for long-term adhesion to the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wanchuan; Kothari, Vishal; Terry, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    To achieve long-term attachment of capsule endoscopes (CEs) and miniature biosensors in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, a tissue attachment mechanism (TAM) was designed, optimized and tested for safety and adhesive capabilities on excised tissue in vitro and in vivo on a live pig model. Six TAMs were tested for their attachment strength in an in vitro attachment tensile experiment in which each TAM was tested on three different proximal intestine tissue samples. The maximum strength and average value are 8.09 N and 4.54 N respectively. The initial attachment damage was tested for 10 min using a sine wave pull force on the TAM with a 0.4 N peak value and 6 s period, which represents typical human intestinal traction force from peristalsis. The in vitro attachment tensile test verified that the tissue was not visually damaged nor perforated by the attachment process. In the in vivo experiment, four TAMs were placed in the intestine of a pig through individual longitudinal enterotomies. X-ray images were taken each hour after the surgery and showed zero migration of the TAMs after 24 h of adhesion. X-ray images taken each day indicated the attachment duration of this mechanism lasted up to 6 days. Post experiment inspection confirmed the attachment did not cause visible damage to tissue. These results confirmed the reliability of the TAM in vivo and demonstrated preliminary feasibility of long-term sensor adhesion to the GI tract. PMID:26044204

  17. Ultrasensitivity of Cell Adhesion to the Presence of Mechanically Strong Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roein-Peikar, Mehdi; Xu, Qian; Wang, Xuefeng; Ha, Taekjip

    2016-01-01

    Integrins, a class of membrane proteins involved in cell adhesion, participate in the cell's sensing of the mechanical environments. We previously showed that, for the initial cell adhesion to occur, single integrins need to experience a threshold force of 40 pico-Newton (pN) through their bond with surface-bound ligands. This force requirement was determined using a series of double-stranded DNA tethers called tension gauge tethers (TGTs), each with a different rupture force, linked to the ligand. Here, we performed cell-adhesion experiments using surfaces coated with two different TGTs, one of a strong rupture force (around 54 pN) and the other of a weak rupture force (around 12 pN). When presented with one type of TGT only, cells adhered to the strong TGT-coated surface but not to the weak TGT-coated surface. However, when presented with both, the presence of the strong TGTs transforms the way cells respond to the weak TGTs such that cells treat both TGTs the same, as if the weak TGTs were strong. Furthermore, a subpopulation of cells can adhere to and spread on a surface displaying just a few molecules of the strong TGTs per cell if, and only if, they are presented along with many weak TGTs. This ultrasensitivity to just a few tethers that can withstand strong forces raises a question of how the cells can achieve such remarkable sensitivity to their mechanical environment without amplifying noise.

  18. The Effect of Surface Contamination on Adhesive Forces as Measured by Contact Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GIUNTA,RACHEL K.; MILLER,GREGORY V.; SORENSEN,CHRISTOPHER R.; PEARSON,RAYMOND A.

    2000-12-18

    The contact adhesive forces between two surfaces, one being a soft hemisphere and the other being a hard plate, can readily be determined by applying an external compressive load to mate the two surfaces and subsequently applying a tensile load to peel the surfaces apart. The contact region is assumed the superposition of elastic Hertzian pressure and of the attractive surface forces that act only over the contact area. What are the effects of the degree of surface contamination on adhesive forces? Clean aluminum surfaces were coated with hexadecane as a controlled contaminant. The force required to pull an elastomeric hemisphere from a surface was determined by contact mechanics, via the JKR model, using a model siloxane network for the elastomeric contact sphere. Due to the dispersive nature of the elastomer surface, larger forces were required to pull the sphere from a contaminated surface than a clean aluminum oxide surface.

  19. Mechanisms relating to reducing stress in curing thick sections of UV adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norland, Eric A.; Martin, Frank S.

    1993-09-01

    Ultraviolet curing adhesives are widely used in optical lamination of precision optical lenses, safety windows, holographic displays, and flat panel displays. In most of these applications they are being used in relatively thin films from 3 microns to 40 mils, because most formulations will only allow uv light to penetrate to a certain depth. If the formulation does cure in thicker sections, the stress due to shrinkage typically becomes a problem. U.V. adhesives have been developed which can be cured in relatively thick sections with minimum stress. In this paper, a number of formulations are compared for variations in stress when cured in thick sections and the conditions and mechanism to minimize stress are characterized.

  20. Oxide film microstructure: the link between surface preparation processes and strength/durability of adhesively bonded aluminum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, K. Jimmy; Pearlstein, Arne J.; Scheeline, Alexander; Shang, Jian Ku

    2000-11-30

    Strength and durability of adhesive bonding of aluminum alloys structures are intrinsically determined by the surface microstructures and interfacial failure micromechanisms. The current project presents a multidisciplinary approach to addressing critical issues controlling the strength and durability of adhesive bonds of aluminum alloys. Three main thrust areas have been pursued: surface treatment technology development to achieve desirable surface microstructures; relationship between surface structure and properties of adhesive bonds; and failure mechanisms of adhesively bonded components.

  1. Sliding-induced non-uniform pre-tension governs robust and reversible adhesion: a revisit of adhesion mechanisms of geckos

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Q. H.; Chen, B.; Gao, H. J.; Zhang, Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to explain the robust attachment and rapid, controllable detachment of geckos' feet on vertical walls or ceilings, yet, it is still debatable, which one is ultimately responsible for geckos' extraordinary capabilities for robust and reversible adhesion. In this paper, we re-examine some of the key movements of geckos' spatula pads and seta hairs during attachment and detachment, and propose a sequence of simple mechanical steps that would lead to the extraordinary properties of geckos observed in experiments. The central subject under study here is a linear distribution of pre-tension along the spatula pad induced by its sliding motion with respect to a surface. The resulting pre-tension, together with a control of setae's pulling force and angle, not only allows for robust and strong attachment, but also enables rapid and controllable detachment. We perform computational modelling and simulations to validate the following key steps of geckos' adhesion: (i) creation of a linear distribution of pre-tension in spatula through sliding, (ii) operation of an instability envelope controlled by setae's pulling force and angle, (iii) triggering of an adhesion instability leading to partial decohesion along the interface, and (iv) complete detachment of spatula through post-instability peeling. The present work not only reveals novel insights into the adhesion mechanism of geckos, but also develops a powerful numerical simulation approach as well as additional guidelines for bioinspired materials and devices. PMID:21775325

  2. Gigaseal mechanics: creep of the gigaseal under the action of pressure, adhesion, and voltage.

    PubMed

    Slavchov, Radomir I; Nomura, Takeshi; Martinac, Boris; Sokabe, Masahiro; Sachs, Frederick

    2014-11-01

    Patch clamping depends on a tight seal between the cell membrane and the glass of the pipet. Why does the seal have such high electric resistance? Why does the patch adhere so strongly to the glass? Even under the action of strong hydrostatic, adhesion, and electrical forces, it creeps at a very low velocity. To explore possible explanations, we examined two physical models for the structure of the seal zone and the adhesion forces and two respective mechanisms of patch creep and electric conductivity. There is saline between the membrane and glass in the seal, and the flow of this solution under hydrostatic pressure or electroosmosis should drag a patch. There is a second possibility: the lipid core of the membrane is liquid and should be able to flow, with the inner monolayer slipping over the outer one. Both mechanisms predict the creep velocity as a function of the properties of the seal and the membrane, the pipet geometry, and the driving force. These model predictions are compared with experimental data for azolectin liposomes with added cholesterol or proteins. It turns out that to obtain experimentally observed creep velocities, a simple viscous flow in the seal zone requires ~10 Pa·s viscosity; it is unclear what structure might provide that because that viscosity alone severely constrains the electric resistance of the gigaseal. Possibly, it is the fluid bilayer that allows the motion. The two models provide an estimate of the adhesion energy of the membrane to the glass and membrane's electric characteristics through the comparison between the velocities of pressure-, adhesion-, and voltage-driven creep. PMID:25295693

  3. Mechanical and cell-to-cell adhesive properties of aggregated Methanosarcina.

    PubMed

    Milkevych, V; Donose, B C; Juste-Poinapen, N; Batstone, D J

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical and adhesive properties as well as the turgor pressure of microbes play an important role in cell growth and aggregation. By applying AFM together with finite element modelling, one can determine the cell wall structural homogeneity, mechanical and cell-to-cell adhesive properties for aggregated Methanosarcina barkeri cells. This also allows a novel approach to determine in-aggregate turgor pressure determination. Analyzing the AFM force-indentation response of the aggregates under loads less than 10 nN, our study reveals structural inhomogeneity of the polymeric part of the cell wall material and suggests that the cell wall consists of two layers of methanochondroitin (external: with a thickness of 3 ± 1 nm and internal: with a thickness of 169 ± 30 nm). On average, the hyperelastic finite element model showed that the internal layer is more rigid (μ = 14 ± 4 MPa) than the external layer (μ = 2.8 ± 0.9 MPa). To determine the turgor pressure and adhesiveness of the cells, a specific mode of indentation (under a load of 45 nN), aimed towards the centre of the individual aggregate, was performed. By modelling the AFM induced decohesion of the aggregate, the turgor pressure and the cell-to-cell adhesive interface properties could be determined. On average, the turgor pressure is estimated to be 59 ± 22 kPa, the interface strength is 78 ± 12 kPa and the polymer network extensibility is 2.8 ± 0.9 nm. We predict that internal cell wall comprised highly compressed methanochondroitin chains and we are able to identify a conceptual model for stress dependent inner cell wall growth.

  4. Noncontact Adhesion and Mechanical Properties Characterization of Nano and Micro-Scale Structures Interacting with Elastic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeedi Vahdat, Armin

    At nano/micrometer scales, adhesion, a weak intermolecular interaction (van der Waals force), compared to several other type of forces often dominates the deformation and mechanics of nano/micro-scale structures. Accurate adhesion characterization of nano/micro-scale particles and thin-films (nm-scale) with various substrates is critically important in various industries. In semiconductor industries, understanding and characterizing particle-substrate adhesion bond and interfacial adhesion of thin films plays a critical role in fabricating defect-free structures. In this dissertation, ultrasonic-based techniques along with novel mathematical models are introduced to accurate adhesion energy characterization of nano/micro-scale particles and thin-films (Graphene layer is used as thin-film) in a non-contact manner. In the case of nano/micro-scale particles adhesion characterization, particle-substrate adhesion bond is characterized based on complex vibrational dynamics of micro-spherical particles on flat substrates subjected to ultrasonic base excitations. In the thin-films adhesion characterization case, the interfacial adhesion energy between thin films and various substrates is extracted based on the micro-spherical particles complex dynamics affected by the presence of thin-films on the vibrating substrates. Also in order to study the anisotropic adhesion properties and the rolling dynamic of nano/micro-scale particles as the most important dynamic in particle removal techniques, a novel non-contact manipulation/transport technique is introduced. In this technique, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) fields are employed to roll the particles on dry substrates in a non-contact manner in order to eliminate the inaccuracies and undesirable property modifications of contact-based techniques. Adhesion and mechanics of nano/micro-scale objects is affected by the viscoelastic properties of the contacting materials. Therefore, a novel and non-destructive technique along with a

  5. Heart failure and kidney dysfunction: epidemiology, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Schefold, Joerg C; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health-care problem and the prognosis of affected patients is poor. HF often coexists with a number of comorbidities of which declining renal function is of particular importance. A loss of glomerular filtration rate, as in acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), independently predicts mortality and accelerates the overall progression of cardiovascular disease and HF. Importantly, cardiac and renal diseases interact in a complex bidirectional and interdependent manner in both acute and chronic settings. From a pathophysiological perspective, cardiac and renal diseases share a number of common pathways, including inflammatory and direct, cellular immune-mediated mechanisms; stress-mediated and (neuro)hormonal responses; metabolic and nutritional changes including bone and mineral disorder, altered haemodynamic and acid-base or fluid status; and the development of anaemia. In an effort to better understand the important crosstalk between the two organs, classifications such as the cardio-renal syndromes were developed. This classification might lead to a more precise understanding of the complex interdependent pathophysiology of cardiac and renal diseases. In light of exceptionally high mortality associated with coexisting HF and kidney disease, this Review describes important crosstalk between the heart and kidney, with a focus on HF and kidney disease in the acute and chronic settings. Underlying molecular and cellular pathomechanisms in HF, AKI and CKD are discussed in addition to current and future therapeutic approaches. PMID:27573728

  6. Determined to Fail--the Role of Genetic Mechanisms in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kayvanpour, Elham; Katus, Hugo A; Meder, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    Genetic variants contribute to several steps during heart failure pathophysiology. The mechanisms include frequent polymorphisms that increase the susceptibility to heart failure in the general population and rare variants as causes of an underlying cardiomyopathy. In this review, we highlight recent discoveries made by genetic approaches and provide an outlook onto the role of epigenetic modifiers of heart failure.

  7. [Bonding strength of metal frameworks and adhesive agents in the resin-bonded bridge technic. 3. Comparative research on various retention mechanisms and adhesive systems].

    PubMed

    Wirz, J; Besimo, C; Schmidli, F

    1989-01-01

    In fixed denture prosthetics, macro- and micromechanical as well as chemical adhesive mechanisms may be used between metal and bonding agent. The in vitro research presented here determines the adhesive strength of six different bonding agents and five different retention mechanisms on twelve precious and nonprecious metal alloys using shearing stress. The evaluation of the results should help to assess the suitability of the various combinations of materials and anchoring methods for the fixation of adhesive bridges. On the basis of the adhesive strengths and the examination of the various clinical advantages and disadvantages of the different methods that were analyzed, the electrolytic etching of nonprecious metal alloys appears to be particularly suitable for fixed denture prostheses. An efficient combination between alloy and bonding agent is of particular importance in this area. Macromechanical mesh and negative retentions can only be used to a limited clinical extent due to their high space requirements. Very good results were produced by the preconditioning of inner anchor surfaces with silanes. Sandblasting, however, provided unsatisfactory shear-stress results over a broad front independently of the type of alloy.

  8. Mechanism of platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor and microparticle formation under high shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Armin J.; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Schumann, Hannah; Specht, Hanno M.; Schramm, Wolfgang; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the mechanism of platelet adhesion to immobilized von Willebrand factor (VWF) and subsequent formation of platelet-derived microparticles mediated by glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) under high shear stress. As visualized in whole blood perfused in a flow chamber, platelet attachment to VWF involved one or few membrane areas of 0.05 to 0.1 μm2 that formed discrete adhesion points (DAPs) capable of resisting force in excess of 160 pN. Under the influence of hydrodynamic drag, membrane tethers developed between the moving platelet body and DAPs firmly adherent to immobilized VWF. Continued stretching eventually caused the separation of many such tethers, leaving on the surface tube-shaped or spherical microparticles with a diameter as low as 50 to 100 nm. Adhesion receptors (GPIbα, αIIbβ3) and phosphatidylserine were expressed on the surface of these microparticles, which were procoagulant. Shearing platelet-rich plasma at the rate of 10 000 s–1 in a cone-and-plate viscosimeter increased microparticle counts up to 55-fold above baseline. Blocking the GPIb-VWF interaction abolished microparticle generation in both experimental conditions. Thus, a biomechanical process mediated by GPIbα-VWF bonds in rapidly flowing blood may not only initiate platelet arrest onto reactive vascular surfaces but also generate procoagulant microparticles that further enhance thrombus formation. PMID:16449527

  9. Poly(AAc-co-MBA) hydrogel films: adhesive and mechanical properties in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Boxin

    2013-01-10

    Poly(acrylic acid-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) hydrogel films were synthesized by copolymerizing acrylic acid (AAc) with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a cross-linker via photo polymerization in the spacing confined between two glass plates. NMR spectroscopy was utilized to determine the cross-linking density. We found that the cross-linking density determined by NMR is higher than that expected from the feed concentrations of cross-linkers, suggesting that MBA is more reactive than AAc and the heterogeneous nature of the cross-linking. In addition to the swelling tests, indentation tests were performed on the hydrogel films under water to investigate effects of the cross-linking density on the adhesion and mechanical properties of the hydrogel films in terms of adhesive pull-off force and Hertz-type elastic modulus. As the cross-linker concentration increased, the effective elastic modulus of the hydrogel films increased dramatically at low cross-linking densities and reached a high steady-state value at higher cross-linking densities. The pull-off force decreased with increasing cross-linker concentration and reached a lower force plateau at high cross-linking densities. An optimal "trade-off" cross-linking density was determined to be 0.02 mol fraction of MBA in the hydrogel, where balanced elastic modulus and adhesive pull-off force can be obtained.

  10. Viscous-elastic interaction as a mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Amir; Tulchinsky, Arie

    2013-11-01

    The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a network of channels between and within the soft structures, containing a viscous liquid. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, that the channel network allows for exit of the viscous liquid and thus improve contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscous flow and elastic forces as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary or van der Waals forces. We study the dynamics of a solid body covered with an array of protruding elastic cylinders, immersed within a viscous liquid, and pressed against a flat surface. Inertia is neglected and the elastic-viscous dynamics yield the governing differential equation describing the relative motion between the body and the surface. The compressed elastic cylinders apply a force acting to separate the solid body from the surface. The relative motion between the body and the surface creates a viscous flow and pressure field resisting the elastic force and significantly reducing the speed of separation. We show that the viscous-elastic interaction can prevent motion tangential and normal to the surface and can create temporary adhesion.

  11. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    DOE PAGES

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted formore » by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.« less

  12. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted for by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.

  13. Mechanisms of Cardiotoxicity and the Development of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S

    2015-12-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a broad term that refers to the negative effects of toxic substances on the heart. Cancer drugs can cause cardiotoxicity by effects on heart cells, thromboembolic events, and/or hypertension that can lead to heart failure. Rheumatoid arthritis biologics may interfere with ischemic preconditioning and cause/worsen heart failure. Long-term and heavy alcohol use can result in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and decreased contractile protein function. Cocaine use results in sympathetic nervous system stimulation of heart and smooth muscle cells and leads to cardiotoxicity and evolution of heart failure. The definition of cardiotoxicity is likely to evolve along with knowledge about detecting subclinical myocardial injury. PMID:26567492

  14. Failure Mechanisms and Color Stability in Light-Emitting Diodes during Operation in High- Temperature Environments in Presence of Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lall, Pradeep; Zhang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-05-26

    The energy efficiency of light-emitting diode (LED) technology compared to incandescent light bulbs has triggered an increased focus on solid state luminaries for a variety of lighting applications. Solid-state lighting (SSL) utilizes LEDs, for illumination through the process of electroluminescence instead of heating a wire filament as seen with traditional lighting. The fundamental differences in the construction of LED and the incandescent lamp results in different failure modes including lumen degradation, chromaticity shift and drift in the correlated color temperature. The use of LED-based products for safety-critical and harsh environment applications necessitates the characterization of the failure mechanisms and modes. In this paper, failure mechanisms and color stability has been studied for commercially available vertical structured thin film LED (VLED) under harsh environment conditions with and without the presence of contaminants. The VLED used for the study was mounted on a ceramic starboard in order to connect it to the current source. Contamination sources studied include operation in the vicinity of vulcanized rubber and adhesive epoxies in the presence of temperature and humidity. Performance of the VLEDs has been quantified using the measured luminous flux and color shift of the VLEDs subjected to both thermal and humidity stresses under a forward current bias of 350 mA. Results indicate that contamination can result in pre-mature luminous flux degradation and color shift in LEDs.

  15. Mechanisms of rock slope failure in conglomerates with variable lithification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundschuh, M.; Thuro, K.

    2012-04-01

    In conglomerates with variable lithification very special failure mechanisms my occur. On January 25th, 2010 at the village of Stein at the river Traun, at about 8 p.m. a 432 m3 large and 1,026 t heavy block was released from a conglomerate face obviously without warning, destroying the family home below. Only two of four inhabitants could be saved out of the debris by means of a spectacular rescue operation through the local fire brigade. After this event the question arised, if the rock fall could have been foreseen or if such spontaneous incidents are abrupt and unpredictable. In this paper the conducted studies to reconstruct the processes leading to this event will be presented. These investigations included field mapping, geodetic survey, laserscanning of the rupture face, mineralogical analysis of sinter crust thin sections, inventory of the block dimensions and reconstruction of the collapse kinematics, analysis of the weather data prior to the event and a 2D finite element calculation (Phase2, rocscience) using the geometry of the overhanging conglomerate strata. In this case, it seems like there was no clear triggering event prior to the wall collapse. Instead, it could be proved by engineering geology mapping, mineralogical analysis of the sinter crusts and numerical modelling, that the back scarp connected with a set of discontinuities started to propagate several years ago already. Also supported by early photographs of the cracks in the brick walls of the endangered house in 1993 and 2006 together with eye wittnesses, it could be shown, that the fracture propagation started tens of years beforehand and the rock topple - rock fall took place after the last rock bond bridges finally were sheared through. As a result of all field data and the numerical modeling, the causes of the event can be stated as: • caving in the rock mass of up to 9 m depth at the foot oft he wall; • the low strength values of the conglomerates; and • vertical joint sets

  16. Failure mechanisms of thermal barrier coatings exposed to elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Lowell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The failure of a ZrO2-8%Y2O3/Ni-14% Al-0.1% Zr coating system on Rene 41 in Mach 0.3 burner rig tests was characterized. High flame and metal temperatures were employed in order to accelerate coating failure. Failure by delamination was shown to precede surface cracking or spalling. This type of failure could be duplicated by cooling down the specimen after a single long duration isothermal high temperature cycle in a burner rig or a furnace, but only if the atmosphere was oxidizing. Stresses due to thermal expansion mismatch on cooling coupled with the effects of plastic deformation of the bond coat and oxidation of the irregular bond coat are the probable life limiting factors. Heat up stresses alone could not fail the coating in the burner rig tests. Spalling eventually occurs on heat up but only after the coating has already failed through delamination.

  17. 77 FR 34457 - Pipeline Safety: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., failures in the joints between the fitting and the pipe, indications of leakage from the seals associated..., indications of leakage from the seals associated with the fitting, and partial or complete separation of...

  18. Mechanical coupling between transsynaptic N-cadherin adhesions and actin flow stabilizes dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Chazeau, Anaël; Garcia, Mikael; Czöndör, Katalin; Perrais, David; Tessier, Béatrice; Giannone, Grégory; Thoumine, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of neuronal dendritic spines is a critical indicator of synaptic function. It is regulated by several factors, including the intracellular actin/myosin cytoskeleton and transcellular N-cadherin adhesions. To examine the mechanical relationship between these molecular components, we performed quantitative live-imaging experiments in primary hippocampal neurons. We found that actin turnover and structural motility were lower in dendritic spines than in immature filopodia and increased upon expression of a nonadhesive N-cadherin mutant, resulting in an inverse relationship between spine motility and actin enrichment. Furthermore, the pharmacological stimulation of myosin II induced the rearward motion of actin structures in spines, showing that myosin II exerts tension on the actin network. Strikingly, the formation of stable, spine-like structures enriched in actin was induced at contacts between dendritic filopodia and N-cadherin–coated beads or micropatterns. Finally, computer simulations of actin dynamics mimicked various experimental conditions, pointing to the actin flow rate as an important parameter controlling actin enrichment in dendritic spines. Together these data demonstrate that a clutch-like mechanism between N-cadherin adhesions and the actin flow underlies the stabilization of dendritic filopodia into mature spines, a mechanism that may have important implications in synapse initiation, maturation, and plasticity in the developing brain. PMID:25568337

  19. Integrin binding and mechanical tension induce movement of mRNA and ribosomes to focal adhesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicurel, M. E.; Singer, R. H.; Meyer, C. J.; Ingber, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) activates signalling pathways that control cell behaviour by binding to cell-surface integrin receptors and inducing the formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs). In addition to clustered integrins, FACs contain proteins that mechanically couple the integrins to the cytoskeleton and to immobilized signal-transducing molecules. Cell adhesion to the ECM also induces a rapid increase in the translation of preexisting messenger RNAs. Gene expression can be controlled locally by targeting mRNAs to specialized cytoskeletal domains. Here we investigate whether cell binding to the ECM promotes formation of a cytoskeletal microcompartment specialized for translational control at the site of integrin binding. High-resolution in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA and ribosomes rapidly and specifically localized to FACs that form when cells bind to ECM-coated microbeads. Relocation of these protein synthesis components to the FAC depended on the ability of integrins to mechanically couple the ECM to the contractile cytoskeleton and on associated tension-moulding of the actin lattice. Our results suggest a new type of gene regulation by integrins and by mechanical stress which may involve translation of mRNAs into proteins near the sites of signal reception.

  20. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Eason, Eric V; Christensen, David L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A(-1/4). We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A(-1/50). Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm(2) of adhesive per hand.

  1. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Elliot W.; Eason, Eric V.; Christensen, David L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A−1/4. We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A−1/50. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm2 of adhesive per hand. PMID:25411404

  2. Mechanism of gas pipeline failures on Balboa Boulevard during the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Nobuaki

    1995-12-31

    A possible mechanism of gas pipeline failures on Balboa Boulevard during the 1994 Northridge earthquake is proposed. This mechanism is the one that has been adopted by the Japan Gas Association in the Recommended Practice for the Earthquake-Resistant Design of Gas Pipelines. The possible mode of ground displacement that might have caused the above pipeline failures is also discussed.

  3. Fatigue behavior of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.

    1983-01-01

    The fatigue damage mechanism of composite to composite adhesively bonded joints was characterized. The mechanics of the possible modes of fatigue damage propagation in these joints when subjected to constant amplitude cyclic mechanical loading were investigated. The possible failure modes in composite bonded joints may be cyclic debonding (i.e., progressive separation of the adhesive), interlaminar damage (delamination), adherend fatigue or a combination of these. Two composite systems - graphite/epoxy adhesively bonded to graphite/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy adhesively bonded to Kevlar 49/epoxy were investigated. Both composite systems consisted of quasi-isotropic lay-ups, i.e., 0 deg/-45 deg/+45 deg/90 degs. The two adhesives, employed in the study were (1) EC 3445 with cure temperature of 250 F for secondary bonding and (2) FM 300 with cure temperature of 350 F for co-cure bonding.

  4. Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds from Guided Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mal, A. K.; Lih, S-S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The critical role played by adhesive bonds in the fracture and failure of composites and other bonded materials is well known. A good knowledge of the mechanical properties of these adhesion joints is a prerequisite to reliable design and reliable prediction of the performance of these bonded structures.

  5. Burn prevention mechanisms and outcomes: pitfalls, failures and successes.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Costagliola, Michel; Hayek, Shady N

    2009-03-01

    Burns are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide and are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes spanning the spectrum from physical impairments and disabilities to emotional and mental consequences. Management of burns and their sequelae even in well-equipped, modern burn units of advanced affluent societies remains demanding and extremely costly. Undoubtedly, in most low and middle income countries (LMICs) with limited resources and inaccessibility to sophisticated skills and technologies, the same standard of care is obviously not possible. Unfortunately, over 90% of fatal fire-related burns occur in developing or LMICs with South-East Asia alone accounting for over half of these fire-related deaths. If burn prevention is an essential part of any integrated burn management protocol anywhere, focusing on burn prevention in LMICs rather than treatment cannot be over-emphasized where it remains the major and probably the only available way of reducing the current state of morbidity and mortality. Like other injury mechanisms, the prevention of burns requires adequate knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics and associated risk factors, it is hence important to define clearly, the social, cultural and economic factors, which contribute to burn causation. While much has been accomplished in the areas of primary and secondary prevention of fires and burns in many developed or high-income countries (HICs) such as the United States due to sustained research on the epidemiology and risk factors, the same cannot be said for many LMICs. Many health authorities, agencies, corporations and even medical personnel in LMICs consider injury prevention to have a much lower priority than disease prevention for understandable reasons. Consequently, burns prevention programmes fail to receive the government funding that they deserve. Prevention programmes need to be executed with patience, persistence, and precision, targeting high

  6. Surgical indicators for the operative treatment of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction due to adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Boluk, Salih; Bayraktar, Baris; Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Yildirim Boluk, Sumeyra; Tombalak, Ercument; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to investigate the predictive factors indicating strangulation, and the requirement for surgery in patients with acute mechanical intestinal obstruction due to adhesions. Methods This study retrospectively evaluated the records of patients with adhesive acute mechanical intestinal obstruction. The surgical treatment (group S), conservative treatment (group C), intraoperative bowel ischemia (group I), and intraoperative adhesion only (group A) groups were statistically evaluated according to the diagnostic and surgical parameters. Results The study group of 252 patients consisted of 113 women (44.8%), and 139 men (55.2%). The mean age was 62.79 ± 18.08 years (range, 20-98 years). Group S consisted of 50 patients (19.8%), and 202 (80.2%) were in group C. Group I consisted of 19 patients (38%), where as 31 (62%) were in group A. In group S, the prehospital symptomatic period was longer, incidence of fever was increased, and elevated CRP levels were significant (P < 0.05). Plain abdominal radiography, and abdominal computerized tomography were significantly sensitive for strangulation (P < 0.05). The elderly were more prone to strangulation (P < 0.05). Fever, rebound tendernes, and urea & creatinine levels were significantly higher in the presence of strangulation (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, consecutively). Conclusion Fever, rebound tenderness, urea & creatinine levels, plain abdominal radiography, and abdominal computerized tomography images were important indicators of bowel ischemia. Longer prehospital symptomatic period was related with a tendency for surgical treatment, and the elderly were more prone to strangulation. CRP detection was considered to be useful for the decision of surgery, but not significantly predictive for strangulation. PMID:26029678

  7. Failure mechanisms of woven carbon and glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Alif, N.; Carlsson, L.A.

    1997-12-31

    Stress-strain responses in tension, compression, and shear of a five-harness satin-weave carbon/epoxy composite and a four-harness satin-weave glass/epoxy composite have been examined. Damage progression under tension was examined by optical microscopic inspection of the polished edges of the specimens. Models for elastic property and failure predictions of woven-fabric composites were examined and correlated with the experimental data. Damage inspection of the carbon/epoxy composite under tension revealed that the initial failure was cracking of pure matrix regions followed by transverse bundle cracking. Fill/weft debonding and longitudinal splits of the fill bundles occurred close to ultimate failure of the composite. The glass/epoxy composite displayed damage in the form of fill/weft debonding and longitudinal splits, but no transverse yarn cracking. The damage observed in both composites was confined to the region where ultimate failure occurred. Elastic properties of the composites were overall in good agreement with micromechanical predictions based on uniform strain, but failure stress predictions were less accurate.

  8. Micro-measurements of mechanical properties for adhesives and composites using digital imaging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinson, Hal F.

    1994-01-01

    The need for a constituent based durability or accelerated life prediction procedure to be used for the engineering design of polymer matrix composites is discussed in the light of current plans for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concerns about the U.S. infrastructure (bridges, pipelines, etc.) and other technological considerations of national concern. It is pointed out that good measurement procedures for insitu resin properties are needed for both adhesives and composites. A double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen which shows promise for the easy determination of adhesive shear properties is presented and compared with measurements of strains within the bondline using a new optical digital imaging micro-measurement system (DIMMS). The DCB specimen is also used to assess damage in a bonded joint using a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis system (DMTA). The possible utilization of the same DIMMS and DMTA procedures to determine the insitu properties of the resin in a composite specimen are discussed as well as the use of the procedures to evaluate long term mechanical and physical aging. Finally, a discussion on the state-of-the art of the measurement of strains in micron and sub-micron domains is given.

  9. Failure Mechanisms of Hollow Fiber Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, Matthew; Wickramanayake, Shan; Hopkinson, David

    2016-01-01

    Hollow fiber supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were tested using the bubble point method to investigate potential failure modes, including the maximum transmembrane pressure before loss of the ionic liquid from the support. Porous hollow fiber supports were fabricated with different pore morphologies using Matrimid® and Torlon® as the polymeric material and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidalzolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6mim][Tf2N]) as the ionic liquid (IL) component. Hollow fiber SILMs were tested for their maximum pressure before failure, with pressure applied either from the bore side or shell side. It was found that the membranes exhibited one or more of three different modes of failure when pressurized: liquid loss (occurring at the bubble point), rupture, and collapse. PMID:27023620

  10. Comparison of three work of adhesion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, J.A.; O`Toole, E.; Zamora, D.; Poon, B.

    1998-02-01

    Practical work of adhesion measurements are being studied for several types of polymer/metal combinations in order to obtain a better understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. The primary question is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. The authors report on their first attempts to obtain the work of adhesion between a PDMS polymer and stainless steel. The work of adhesion measurements were made using three techniques -- contact angle, adhesive fracture energy at low deformation rates and JKR. Previous work by Whitesides` group show a good correlation between JKR and contact angle measurements for PDMS. Their initial work focused on duplicating the PDMS measurements of Chaudury. In addition, in this paper the authors extend the work of adhesion measurement to third technique -- interfacial failure energy. The ability to determine the reversible work of adhesion for practical adhesive joints allows understanding of several issues that control adhesion: surface preparation, nature of the interphase region, and bond durability.

  11. Flocculation protein structure and cell-cell adhesion mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Katty; Willaert, Ronnie

    2010-11-01

    Cell-cell adhesion occurs in a broad spectrum of biological processes, of which yeast flocculation is an area of interest for evolutionary scientists to brewers and winemakers. The flocculation mechanism is based on a lectin-carbohydrate interaction but is not yet fully understood, although the first model dates back to the 1950s. This review will update the current understanding of the complex mechanism behind yeast flocculation. Moreover, modern technologies to measure the forces involved in single carbohydrate-lectin interactions, are discussed. The Flo1 protein has been extensively described as the protein responsible for strong flocculation. Recently, more research has been directed to the detailed analysis of this flocculin. Due to the advances in the field of bioinformatics, more information about Flo1p could be obtained via structurally or functionally related proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge of the Flo1 protein, with a strong emphasis towards its structure.

  12. Groundwater seepage mechanisms of streambank erosion and failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of groundwater seepage and pipeflow is unknown with respect to other fundamental processes of streambank erosion and failure, although seepage and pipeflow features are observed on streambanks throughout the world that span a range of geomorphologic conditions. Previous field and labo...

  13. Role of seta angle and flexibility in the gecko adhesion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Congcong; Alex Greaney, P.

    2014-08-01

    A model is developed to describe the reversible nature of gecko dry adhesion. The central aspect of this model is that the seta can be easily peeled away from the contacting surface by a small moment at the contact tip. It is shown that this contact condition is very sensitive, but can result in robust adhesion if individual setae are canted and highly flexible. In analogy to the "cone of friction," we consider the "adhesion region"—the domain of normal and tangential forces that maintain adhesion. Results demonstrate that this adhesion region is highly asymmetric enabling the gecko to adhere under a variety of loading conditions associated with scuttling horizontally, vertically, and inverted. Moreover, under each of these conditions, there is a low energy path to de-adhesion. In this model, obliquely canted seta (as possessed by geckos) rather than vertically aligned fibers (common in synthetic dry adhesive) provides the most robust adhesion.

  14. Failure to block adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to ICAM-1 with soluble ICAM-1.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A G; Pinches, R; Khan, S; Roberts, D J; Turner, G D; Newbold, C I; Berendt, A R

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. ICAM-1 has been identified as one of the host receptors for parasitized erythrocytes and has been implicated as being involved in progression to cerebral malaria. Thus, intervention strategies based on the reversal of this interaction could potentially be used to reduce morbidity and mortality. We have investigated the inhibition of the interaction between ICAM-1 and infected erythrocytes by using recombinant soluble ICAM-1 as competitor and find that we are unable to reduce adhesion to ICAM-1 in vitro. PMID:9353036

  15. Molecular mechanism of vinculin activation and nano-scale spatial organization in focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Case, Lindsay B.; Baird, Michelle A.; Shtengel, Gleb; Campbell, Sharon L.; Hess, Harald F.; Davidson, Michael W.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the actin cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion, migration, mechanosensing and signaling. FAs have conserved nanoscale protein organization, suggesting that the position of proteins within FAs regulates their activity and function. Vinculin binds different FA proteins to mediate distinct cellular functions, but how vinculin’s interactions are spatiotemporally organized within FA is unknown. Using interferometric photo-activation localization (iPALM) super-resolution microscopy to assay vinculin nanoscale localization and a FRET biosensor to assay vinculin conformation, we found that upward repositioning within the FA during FA maturation facilitates vinculin activation and mechanical reinforcement of FA. Inactive vinculin localizes to the lower integrin signaling layer in FA by binding to phospho-paxillin. Talin binding activates vinculin and targets active vinculin higher in FA where vinculin can engage retrograde actin flow. Thus, specific protein interactions are spatially segregated within FA at the nano-scale to regulate vinculin activation and function. PMID:26053221

  16. Effect of plasma pretreatment on adhesion and mechanical properties of UV-curable coatings on plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gururaj, T.; Subasri, R.; Raju, K. R. C. Soma; Padmanabham, G.

    2011-02-01

    An attempt was made to study the effect of plasma surface activation on the adhesion of UV-curable sol-gel coatings on polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates. The sol was synthesized by the hydrolysis and condensation of a UV-curable silane in combination with Zr-n-propoxide. Coatings deposited by dip coating were cured using UV-radiation followed by thermal curing between 80 °C and 130 °C. The effect of plasma surface treatment on the wettability of the polymer surface prior to coating deposition was followed up by measuring the water contact angle. The water contact angle on the surface of as-cleaned substrates was 80° ± 2° and that after plasma treatment was 43° ± 1° and 50° ± 2° for PC and PMMA respectively. Adhesion as well as mechanical properties like scratch resistance and taber abrasion resistance were evaluated for coatings deposited over plasma treated and untreated surfaces.

  17. A study of the failure mechanism of chlorine anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Zuhr, R.A.; Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    Thin coating RuO{sub 2}{minus}TiO{sub 2} electrodes, which mimic the DSA anodes, have been prepared and tested for their activity toward the chlorine evolution reaction and subjected to life time testing. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used concurrently with electrochemical measurements to analyze changes in the ruthenium content of the coating. The decrease in electrode activity is found to be closely related to a decrease in Ru content, and the measured profiles indicate that the loss takes place across the thin coating. Failure is observed for electrodes with a Ru content below a critical concentration, but there is no evidence for the build up of a pure TiO{sub 2} layer. AFM imaging of an anode after failure sustained the hypothesis of loss of material.

  18. Method of Testing and Predicting Failures of Electronic Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, Frances A.

    1996-01-01

    A method employing a knowledge base of human expertise comprising a reliability model analysis implemented for diagnostic routines is disclosed. The reliability analysis comprises digraph models that determine target events created by hardware failures human actions, and other factors affecting the system operation. The reliability analysis contains a wealth of human expertise information that is used to build automatic diagnostic routines and which provides a knowledge base that can be used to solve other artificial intelligence problems.

  19. APPLICATION OF FAILURE EVENT DATA TO BENCHMARK PROBABILISTIC STRUCTURAL MECHANICS COMPUTER CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Lydell, Bengt O.; Rudland, David L.; Wilkowski, Gery M.

    2007-07-22

    This paper describes an application of data on cracking, leak and rupture events from nuclear power plant operating experience to estimate failure frequencies for piping components that had been previously evaluated using the PROLOCA and PRAISE probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) computer codes. The calculations had addressed the failure mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking, intergranular stress corrosion cracking and fatigue for materials and operating conditions that were known to have failed components. The first objective was to benchmark the calculations against field experience. A second objective was a review of uncertainties in the treatments of the data from observed failures and in the structural mechanics models. The database PIPExp-2006 was applied to estimate failure frequencies. Because the number of reported failure events was small, there were also statistical uncertainties in the estimates of frequencies. Comparisons of predicted and observed failure frequencies showed that PFM codes correctly predicted relatively high failure probabilities for components that had experienced field failures. However, the predicted frequencies tended to be significantly greater than those estimated from plant operating experience. A review of the PFM models and inputs to the models showed that uncertainties in the calculations were sufficiently large to explain the differences between the predicted and observed failure frequencies.

  20. Register of specialized sources for information on mechanics of structural failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Denny, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Specialized information sources that generate information relative to six problem areas in aerospace mechanics of structural failure are identified. Selection for inclusion was based upon information obtained from the individual knowledge and professional contacts of Martin Marietta Aerospace staff members and the information uncovered by the staff of technical reviewers. Activities listed perform basic or applied research related to the mechanics of structural failure and publish the results of such research. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy reference form, original sources for dependable information regarding failure modes and mechanisms of aerospace structures.

  1. Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

  2. Probing mechanical principles of focal contacts in cell–matrix adhesion with a coupled stochastic–elastic modelling framework

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huajian; Qian, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Cell–matrix adhesion depends on the collective behaviours of clusters of receptor–ligand bonds called focal contacts between cell and extracellular matrix. While the behaviour of a single molecular bond is governed by statistical mechanics at the molecular scale, continuum mechanics should be valid at a larger scale. This paper presents an overview of a series of recent theoretical studies aimed at probing the basic mechanical principles of focal contacts in cell–matrix adhesion via stochastic–elastic models in which stochastic descriptions of molecular bonds and elastic descriptions of interfacial traction–separation are unified in a single modelling framework. The intention here is to illustrate these principles using simple analytical and numerical models. The aim of the discussions is to provide possible clues to the following questions: why does the size of focal adhesions (FAs) fall into a narrow range around the micrometre scale? How can cells sense and respond to substrates of varied stiffness via FAs? How do the magnitude and orientation of mechanical forces affect the binding dynamics of FAs? The effects of cluster size, cell–matrix elastic modulus, loading direction and cytoskeletal pretension on the lifetime of FA clusters have been investigated by theoretical arguments as well as Monte Carlo numerical simulations, with results showing that intermediate adhesion size, stiff substrate, cytoskeleton stiffening, low-angle pulling and moderate cytoskeletal pretension are factors that contribute to stable FAs. From a mechanistic point of view, these results provide possible explanations for a wide range of experimental observations and suggest multiple mechanisms by which cells can actively control adhesion and de-adhesion via cytoskeletal contractile machinery in response to mechanical properties of their surroundings. PMID:21632610

  3. Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coating adhesion mechanism on a Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhong; Zheng, Hua; Sinkovits, Theo; Hee, Ay Ching; Zhao, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coatings deposited on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy substrates by the filtered arc deposition system were examined using scratch testing and depth-sensing indentation in terms of the relationship between the coating adhesion, deformation mechanism, and microstructure, and mechanical properties at the film/substrate interface. The results show that multilayer TiN/Ti coatings offer a greater resistance to cracking and delamination than monolithic TiN coatings under the same conditions on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates. And increasing the number of layers for TiN multilayer coating improves the coatings adhesion. In contrast, for the coatings on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates that were heat-treated to a higher hardness, the limited deformation in the substrates improved remarkably the coating adhesion indiscriminately. The substrate mechanical properties play the major roles in controlling the coating adhesion, and increasing thickness and layers of the TiN multilayer have a limited improvement to the adhesion of coating.

  4. Laboratory and 3-D-distinct element analysis of failure mechanism of slope under external surcharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2014-09-01

    Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient details. There are however increasing interest on the consequences after the initiation of failure which includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more details and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanism and the post-failure mechanism of slope will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  5. Agent autonomy approach to probabilistic physics-of-failure modeling of complex dynamic systems with interacting failure mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromek, Katherine Emily

    A novel computational and inference framework of the physics-of-failure (PoF) reliability modeling for complex dynamic systems has been established in this research. The PoF-based reliability models are used to perform a real time simulation of system failure processes, so that the system level reliability modeling would constitute inferences from checking the status of component level reliability at any given time. The "agent autonomy" concept is applied as a solution method for the system-level probabilistic PoF-based (i.e. PPoF-based) modeling. This concept originated from artificial intelligence (AI) as a leading intelligent computational inference in modeling of multi agents systems (MAS). The concept of agent autonomy in the context of reliability modeling was first proposed by M. Azarkhail [1], where a fundamentally new idea of system representation by autonomous intelligent agents for the purpose of reliability modeling was introduced. Contribution of the current work lies in the further development of the agent anatomy concept, particularly the refined agent classification within the scope of the PoF-based system reliability modeling, new approaches to the learning and the autonomy properties of the intelligent agents, and modeling interacting failure mechanisms within the dynamic engineering system. The autonomous property of intelligent agents is defined as agent's ability to self-activate, deactivate or completely redefine their role in the analysis. This property of agents and the ability to model interacting failure mechanisms of the system elements makes the agent autonomy fundamentally different from all existing methods of probabilistic PoF-based reliability modeling. 1. Azarkhail, M., "Agent Autonomy Approach to Physics-Based Reliability Modeling of Structures and Mechanical Systems", PhD thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 2007.

  6. Mechanisms of lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells: studies using a LFA-1-deficient cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Haskard, D O; Strobel, S; Thornhill, M; Pitzalis, C; Levinsky, R J

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) in lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (EC), we have studied the adhesion of a LFA-1-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-KM, which has < 10% of the cell surface LFA-1 expressed on a normal lymphoblastoid cell line, ICH-BJ. The adhesion of ICH-KM cells to unstimulated EC was 49.9 +/- 8.6% (mean +/- SD) that of ICH-BJ cells. Moreover, phorbol ester-stimulated ICH-KM cells showed a considerably weaker increase in adhesion to unstimulated EC compared with ICH-BJ cells (mean +/- SD increase in percentage adhesion, 3.8 +/- 2.3 compared with 18.5 +/- 8.0; P<0.025). In contrast, there was no significant difference between the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM cells and ICH-BJ cells to interleukin-1 (IL-1)-stimulated EC. Thus ICH-KM cells showed a 22.7 +/- 11.0 (mean +/- SD) increase in percentage adhesion to IL-1-stimulated EC compared with the 24.8 +/- 8.5 increase in percentage adhesion of ICH-BJ cells. Anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies had no effect on the enhanced adhesion of ICH-KM and ICH-BJ cells to IL-1-stimulated EC but abolished the differences in adhesion between the two cell lines. The study therefore indicates that although a major part of unstimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated lymphocyte-EC adhesion is dependent upon LFA-1, the enhanced adhesion due to stimulation of EC with IL-1 is not dependent upon this molecule. The data therefore supports the existence of cytokine-inducible LFA-1-independent adhesion molecules for lymphocytes on EC. PMID:15493272

  7. Accelerated Thermal Cycling and Failure Mechanisms for BGA and CSP Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the accelerated thermal cycling test methods that are currently used by industry to characterize the interconnect reliability of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ball grid array (BGA) and chip scale package (CSP) assemblies. Acceleration induced failure mechanisms varied from conventional surface mount (SM) failures for CSPs. Examples of unrealistic life projections for other CSPs are also presented. The cumulative cycles to failure for ceramic BGA assemblies performed under different conditions, including plots of their two Weibull parameters, are presented. The results are for cycles in the range of -30 C to 100 C, -55 C to 100 C, and -55 C to 125 C. Failure mechanisms as well as cycles to failure for thermal shock and thermal cycling conditions in the range of -55 C to 125 C were compared. Projection to other temperature cycling ranges using a modified Coffin-Manson relationship is also presented.

  8. Failure mechanisms in laminated carbon/carbon composites under biaxial compression

    SciTech Connect

    Grape, J.A.; Gupta, V.

    1995-07-01

    The failure mechanisms of 2D carbon/carbon (C/C) woven laminates have been determined under inplane biaxial compression loads, and the associated failure envelopes that account for the effect of matrix-type and loading directions were also obtained. The failure was in the form of micro-kinking of fiber bundles, interspersed with localized interply delaminations to form an overall shear fault. The shear fault was aligned with the major axis of loading except at above 75% of balanced biaxial compressive stress where failure occurred along both axes. Although the biaxial strength varied significantly with the ratio of in-plane principal stresses, R, there was no variation in the local failure mechanisms. Accordingly, it was found that the samples fail upon achieving a critical strain along the primary axis of loading.

  9. MECHANICAL FAILURE OF THE LONG GAMMA NAIL IN TWO PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Najibi, Soheil; Mark, Lemos; Fehnel, David

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical failure of the long gamma nail was encountered in two elderly patients with proximal femur fractures over a 6-month period. One of the patients had a known history of lymphoma. The other patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis but no history of cancer or other metabolic bone disease. Both nails failed at the junction of the compression screw and the nail. The angle of failure of the nail was the same in both cases. The index of suspicion for imminent mechanical failure of the gamma nail should be higher in pathologic fractures and fractures which are malreduced during nailing. PMID:21046000

  10. Mechanical failure of the long gamma nail in two proximal femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Najibi, Soheil; Mark, Lemos; Fehnel, David

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical failure of the long gamma nail was encountered in two elderly patients with proximal femur fractures over a 6-month period. One of the patients had a known history of lymphoma. The other patient had a history of rheumatoid arthritis but no history of cancer or other metabolic bone disease. Both nails failed at the junction of the compression screw and the nail. The angle of failure of the nail was the same in both cases. The index of suspicion for imminent mechanical failure of the gamma nail should be higher in pathologic fractures and fractures which are malreduced during nailing. PMID:21046000

  11. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  12. Failure mechanics of fiber composite notched charpy specimens. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    A finite element stress analysis was performed to determine the stress variation in the vicinity of the notch and far field of fiber composites Charpy specimens (ASTM Standard). NASTRAN was used for the finite element analysis assuming linear behavior and equivalent static load. The unidirectional composites investigated ranged from Thornel 75 Epoxy to S-Glass/Epoxy with the fiber direction parallel to the long dimension of the specimen. The results indicate a biaxial stress state exists in (1) the notch vicinity which is dominated by transverse tensile and interlaminar shear and (2) near the load application point which is dominated by transverse compression and interlaminar shear. The results also lead to the postulation of hypotheses for the predominant failure modes, the fracture initiation, and the fracture process. Finally, the results indicate that the notched Charpy test specimen is not suitable for assessing the impact resistance of nonmetallic fiber composites directly.

  13. [Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Cruz, A J; Moreno-Torres Herrera, R; Pérez Roca, C

    2007-05-01

    Severe forms of intestinal failure represent one of the most complex pathologies to manage, in both children and adults. In adults, the most common causes are chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and severe short bowel syndrome following large intestinal resections, particularly due to massive mesenteric ischemic, within the context of cardiopathies occurring with atrial fibrillation. The essential management after stabilizing the patient consists in nutritional support, either by parenteral or enteral routes, with tolerance to oral diet being the final goal of intestinal adaptation in these pathologies. Surgery may be indicated in some cases to increase the absorptive surface area. Parenteral nutrition is an essential support measure that sometimes has to be maintained for long time, even forever, except for technique-related complications or unfavorable clinical course that would lead to extreme surgical alternatives such as intestinal transplantation. Hormonal therapy with trophism-stimulating factors opens new alternatives that are already being tried in humans.

  14. Lubrication and failure mechanisms of graphite fluoride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    An optical microscope, equipped with a vertical illuminator and two polaroid filters (one rotatable), was used to visually study 440C HT steel surfaces lubricated with rubbed graphite fluoride films. Friction and wear results were compared to visual observations as a function of sliding distance for films applied to three surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sand-blasted. In general, the lubricating process was one of initial deformation or wear of metallic asperities into flat plateaus and then the formation of thin, layer-like, dynamic films which sheared between the flats and eventually flowed through the contact area. Failure was due to depletion of the graphite fluoride with the subsequent formation of excessive powdery metallic debris that formed a heavy, powdery film on both the rider and disk surfaces.

  15. Wellbore failure mechanisms in shales: Prediction and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Gazaniol, D.; Forsans, T.; Boisson, M.J.F.; Piau, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Shales stability is still one of the most important problems faced during drilling. Until recently, stability problems were attributed, most often to the swelling of shales. Recent research work performed by Elf and others shows that several mechanisms are involved, and that their relative importance can be estimated. A review of these mechanisms is presented here. More precisely, pore pressure diffusion, plasticity, anisotropy, capillary effects, osmosis, and physicochemical alteration are discussed. Considering all these phenomena, the way of acting of different kinds of muds is discussed. The practical use of rock mechanics models is also addressed.

  16. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of composites as adherends was studied. Several other variables were studied by fractography: aluminum powder adhesive filler, fiber glass cloth scrim or adhesive carrier, new adhesives PPQ-413 and LARC-13, and strength-test temperature. When the new results were juxtaposed with previous work, it appeared that complex interactions between adhesive, adherend, bonding, and testing conditions govern the observed strength and fracture-surface features. The design parameters likely to have a significant effect upon strength-test results are listed.

  17. Rsu1 contributes to regulation of cell adhesion and spreading by PINCH1-dependent and - independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Nieves, Reyda; Desantis, Akiko Iwahari; Cutler, Mary L

    2013-12-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are complex processes that require integrin activation, the formation and dissolution of focal adhesion (FAs), and linkage of actin cytoskeleton to the FAs. The IPP (ILK, PINCH, Parvin) complex regulates FA formation via binding of the adaptor protein ILK to β1 integrin, PINCH and parvin. The signaling protein Rsu1 is linked to the complex via binding PINCH1. The role of Rsu1 and PINCH1 in adhesion and migration was examined in non-transformed mammary epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that the depletion of either Rsu1 or PINCH1 by siRNA in MCF10A cells decreased the number of focal adhesions and altered the distribution and localization of β1 integrin, vinculin, talin and paxillin without affecting the levels of FA protein expression. This correlated with reduced adhesion, failure to spread or migrate in response to EGF and a loss of actin stress fibers and caveolae. In addition, constitutive phosphorylation of actin regulatory proteins occurred in the absence of PINCH1. The depletion of Rsu1 caused significant reduction in PINCH1 implying that Rsu1 may function by regulating levels of PINCH1. However, while both Rsu1- or PINCH1-depleted cells retained the ability to activate adhesion signaling in response to EGF stimulation, only Rsu1 was required for EGF-induced p38 Map Kinase phosphorylation and ATF2 activation, suggesting an Rsu1 function independent from the IPP complex. Reconstitution of Rsu1-depleted cells with an Rsu1 mutant that does not bind to PINCH1 failed to restore FAs or migration but did promote spreading and constitutive p38 activation. These data show that Rsu1-PINCH1 association with ILK and the IPP complex is required for regulation of adhesion and migration but that Rsu1 has a critical role in linking integrin-induced adhesion to activation of p38 Map kinase signaling and cell spreading. Moreover, it suggests that Rsu1 may regulate p38 signaling from the IPP complex affecting other functions including

  18. Creasable Batteries: Understanding Failure Modes through Dynamic Electrochemical Mechanical Testing.

    PubMed

    Blake, Aaron J; Kohlmeyer, Ryan R; Drummy, Lawrence F; Gutiérrez-Kolar, Jacob S; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Maruyama, Benji; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Huang, Hong; Durstock, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Thin-film batteries that can be folded, bent, and even repeatedly creased with minimal or no loss in electrochemical performance have been demonstrated and systematically evaluated using two dynamic mechanical testing approaches for either controlled bending or creasing of flexible devices. The results show that mechanically robust and flexible Li-ion batteries (Li4Ti5O12//LiFePO4) based on the use of a nonwoven multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) mat as a current collector (CC) exhibited a 14-fold decrease in voltage fluctuation at a bending strain of 4.2%, as compared to cells using traditional metal foil CCs. More importantly, MWNT-based full-cells exhibited excellent mechanical integrity through 288 crease cycles, whereas the foil full-cell exhibited continuously degraded performance with each fold and catastrophic fracture after only 94 folds. The enhancements due to MWNT CCs can be attributed to excellent interfacial properties as well as high mechanical strength coupled with compliancy, which allow the batteries to easily conform during mechanical abuse. These results quantitatively demonstrate the substantial enhancement offered in both mechanical and electrochemical stability which can be realized with traditional processing approaches when an appropriate choice of a flexible and robust CC is utilized. PMID:26741734

  19. Fundamental study of failure mechanisms of pressure vessels under thermo-mechanical cycling in multiphase environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penso Mula, Jorge Antonio

    Cracking and bulging in welded and internally lined pressure vessels that work in thermal-mechanical cycling services have been well known problems in the petrochemical, power and nuclear industries. Published literature and industry surveys show that similar problems have been occurring during the last 50 years. Understanding the causes of cracking and bulging would lead to improvements in the reliability of these pressure vessels. This study attempts to add information required for improving the knowledge and fundamental understanding of these problems. Cracking and bulging, most often in the weld areas, commonly experienced in delayed coking units (e.g. coke drums) in oil refineries are typical examples. The coke drum was selected for this study because of the existing field experience and past industrial investigation results that were available to serve as the baseline references for the analytical studies performed for this dissertation. Another reason for selecting the delayed coking units for this study was due to their high economical yields. Shutting down these units would cause a high negative economic impact on the refinery operations. Several failure mechanisms were hypothesized. The finite element method was used to analyze these significant variables and to verify the hypotheses. In conclusion, a fundamental explanation of the occurrence of bulging and cracking in pressure vessels in multiphase environments has been developed. Several important factors have been identified, including the high convection coefficient of the boiling layer during filling and quenching, the mismatch in physical, thermal and mechanical properties in the dissimilar weld of the clad plates and process conditions such as heating and quenching rate and warming time. Material selection for coke drums should consider not only fatigue strength but also corrosion resistance at high temperatures and low temperatures. Cracking occurs due to low cycle fatigue and corrosion. The FEA

  20. BIOMECHANICS OF THE FETAL MEMBRANE PRIOR TO MECHANICAL FAILURE: REVIEW AND IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Erinn M.; Moore, John J.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Annually, premature birth is a major public health problem accounting for over 13,000 deaths and 30,000 surviving infants with life-long morbidity. Preterm premature rupture of the membranes is the initiating event leading to preterm birth of 40% of these premature infants. Fetal membrane (FM) rupture is a catastrophic tissue failure, a unique event in normal physiology; other tissue failures (bone breaks, aneurism ruptures) are pathological processes. The mechanisms which cause FM failure and thereby rupture are not understood. A full understanding of FM failure process requires a complete characterization of structural and biomechanical behavior at near/full term under sub-failure (forces well below that which induce rupture) and failure conditions as well as elucidating the biological factors which modulate its failure. The relatively, highly loaded stated of the FM in vivo may also facilitate its susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, which was shown to be augmented with increased load in collagenous tissues. Indeed, this last observation may help to provide the link between biomechanical degradation and premature mechanical failure in the FM. This integrated approach will further the understanding of this unique physiological event and thereby provide insight into how to anticipate and when appropriate, intervene to prevent preterm FM rupture. PMID:19303191

  1. Mechanical Properties of Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive Film Under Hygrothermal Aging and Thermal Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li-Lan; Chen, Xu; Gao, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical properties of anisotropic conductive adhesive film (ACF) were investigated experimentally under various environmental conditions. The temperature sweep test was conducted to investigate the effects of temperature on dynamical mechanical properties of the ACF. The ACF exhibited transitions to the glass state, viscoelastic state, and rubber state with increasing temperature, and its glass-transition temperature ( T g) was determined to be 149°C. The creep-recovery behaviors of the ACF were investigated, and it was found that the initial strains, instantaneous strains, and creep or recovery rates increased with increasing temperature. No obvious creep phenomenon was observed at low temperatures (≤0°C). The creep strain and creep rates at any time decreased with increasing hygrothermal aging time. The uniaxial tensile behaviors of the ACF were also investigated under hygrothermal aging and thermal cycling. The results show that the Young's modulus and tensile strength of the ACF decrease with increasing hygrothermal aging time; however, they increase at first and then decrease with increasing thermal cycling time. T g decreases slightly for the ACF after hygrothermal aging; however, it increases after thermal cycling.

  2. Defect induced plasticity and failure mechanism of boron nitride nanotubes under tension

    SciTech Connect

    Anoop Krishnan, N. M. Ghosh, Debraj

    2014-07-28

    The effects of Stone-Wales (SW) and vacancy defects on the failure behavior of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) under tension are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The Tersoff-Brenner potential is used to model the atomic interaction and the temperature is maintained close to 300 K. The effect of a SW defect is studied by determining the failure strength and failure mechanism of nanotubes with different radii. In the case of a vacancy defect, the effect of an N-vacancy and a B-vacancy is studied separately. Nanotubes with different chiralities but similar diameter is considered first to evaluate the chirality dependence. The variation of failure strength with the radius is then studied by considering nanotubes of different diameters but same chirality. It is observed that the armchair BNNTs are extremely sensitive to defects, whereas the zigzag configurations are the least sensitive. In the case of pristine BNNTs, both armchair and zigzag nanotubes undergo brittle failure, whereas in the case of defective BNNTs, only the zigzag ones undergo brittle failure. An interesting defect induced plastic behavior is observed in defective armchair BNNTs. For this nanotube, the presence of a defect triggers mechanical relaxation by bond breaking along the closest zigzag helical path, with the defect as the nucleus. This mechanism results in a plastic failure.

  3. Mechanical properties and failure behavior of unidirectional porous ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuba, Jordi; Deville, Sylvain; Guizard, Christian; Stevenson, Adam J.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the honeycomb out-of-plane model derived by Gibson and Ashby can be applied to describe the compressive behavior of unidirectional porous materials. Ice-templating allowed us to process samples with accurate control over pore volume, size, and morphology. These samples allowed us to evaluate the effect of this microstructural variations on the compressive strength in a porosity range of 45–80%. The maximum strength of 286 MPa was achieved in the least porous ice-templated sample (P(%) = 49.9), with the smallest pore size (3 μm). We found that the out-of-plane model only holds when buckling is the dominant failure mode, as should be expected. Furthermore, we controlled total pore volume by adjusting solids loading and sintering temperature. This strategy allows us to independently control macroporosity and densification of walls, and the compressive strength of ice-templated materials is exclusively dependent on total pore volume.

  4. Investigation of failure mechanisms in integrated vacuum circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosengreen, A.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication techniques of integrated vacuum circuits are described in detail. Data obtained from a specially designed test circuit are presented. The data show that the emission observed in reverse biased devices is due to cross-talk between the devices and can be eliminated by electrostatic shielding. The lifetime of the cathodes has been improved by proper activation techniques. None of the cathodes on life test has shown any sign of failure after more than 3500 hours. Life tests of triodes show a decline of anode current by a factor of two to three after a few days. The current recovers when the large positive anode voltage (100 V) has been removed for a few hours. It is suggested that this is due to trapped charges in the sapphire substrate. Evidence of the presence of such charges is given, and a model of the charge distribution is presented consistent with the measurements. Solution of the problem associated with the decay of triode current may require proper treatment of the sapphire surface and/or changes in the deposition technique of the thin metal films.

  5. Mechanical properties and failure behavior of unidirectional porous ceramics.

    PubMed

    Seuba, Jordi; Deville, Sylvain; Guizard, Christian; Stevenson, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the honeycomb out-of-plane model derived by Gibson and Ashby can be applied to describe the compressive behavior of unidirectional porous materials. Ice-templating allowed us to process samples with accurate control over pore volume, size, and morphology. These samples allowed us to evaluate the effect of this microstructural variations on the compressive strength in a porosity range of 45-80%. The maximum strength of 286 MPa was achieved in the least porous ice-templated sample (P(%) = 49.9), with the smallest pore size (3 μm). We found that the out-of-plane model only holds when buckling is the dominant failure mode, as should be expected. Furthermore, we controlled total pore volume by adjusting solids loading and sintering temperature. This strategy allows us to independently control macroporosity and densification of walls, and the compressive strength of ice-templated materials is exclusively dependent on total pore volume. PMID:27075397

  6. Mechanical properties and failure behavior of unidirectional porous ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Seuba, Jordi; Deville, Sylvain; Guizard, Christian; Stevenson, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    We show that the honeycomb out-of-plane model derived by Gibson and Ashby can be applied to describe the compressive behavior of unidirectional porous materials. Ice-templating allowed us to process samples with accurate control over pore volume, size, and morphology. These samples allowed us to evaluate the effect of this microstructural variations on the compressive strength in a porosity range of 45–80%. The maximum strength of 286 MPa was achieved in the least porous ice-templated sample (P(%) = 49.9), with the smallest pore size (3 μm). We found that the out-of-plane model only holds when buckling is the dominant failure mode, as should be expected. Furthermore, we controlled total pore volume by adjusting solids loading and sintering temperature. This strategy allows us to independently control macroporosity and densification of walls, and the compressive strength of ice-templated materials is exclusively dependent on total pore volume. PMID:27075397

  7. Sarcopenia in heart failure: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Collamati, Agnese; Marzetti, Emanuele; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Sisto, Alex N; Landi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a highly prevalent condition among the elderly and is associated with considerable morbidity, institutionalization and mortality. In its advanced stages, CHF is often accompanied by the loss of muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that has been actively studied in recent years due to its association with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The goal of this review is to discuss the relationship between CHF and sarcopenia, with a focus on shared pathophysiological pathways and treatments. Malnutrition, systemic inflammation, endocrine imbalances, and oxidative stress appear to connect sarcopenia and CHF. At the muscular level, alterations of the ubiquitin proteasome system, myostatin signaling, and apoptosis have been described in both sarcopenia and CHF and could play a role in the loss of muscle mass and function. Possible therapeutic strategies to impede the progression of muscle wasting in CHF patients include protein and vitamin D supplementation, structured physical exercise, and the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. Hormonal supplementation with growth hormone, testosterone, and ghrelin is also discussed as a potential treatment. PMID:27605943

  8. Sarcopenia in heart failure: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Collamati, Agnese; Marzetti, Emanuele; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Sisto, Alex N; Landi, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a highly prevalent condition among the elderly and is associated with considerable morbidity, institutionalization and mortality. In its advanced stages, CHF is often accompanied by the loss of muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that has been actively studied in recent years due to its association with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The goal of this review is to discuss the relationship between CHF and sarcopenia, with a focus on shared pathophysiological pathways and treatments. Malnutrition, systemic inflammation, endocrine imbalances, and oxidative stress appear to connect sarcopenia and CHF. At the muscular level, alterations of the ubiquitin proteasome system, myostatin signaling, and apoptosis have been described in both sarcopenia and CHF and could play a role in the loss of muscle mass and function. Possible therapeutic strategies to impede the progression of muscle wasting in CHF patients include protein and vitamin D supplementation, structured physical exercise, and the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. Hormonal supplementation with growth hormone, testosterone, and ghrelin is also discussed as a potential treatment. PMID:27605943

  9. Sarcopenia in heart failure: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Collamati, Agnese; Marzetti, Emanuele; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Sisto, Alex N; Landi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a highly prevalent condition among the elderly and is associated with considerable morbidity, institutionalization and mortality. In its advanced stages, CHF is often accompanied by the loss of muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that has been actively studied in recent years due to its association with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The goal of this review is to discuss the relationship between CHF and sarcopenia, with a focus on shared pathophysiological pathways and treatments. Malnutrition, systemic inflammation, endocrine imbalances, and oxidative stress appear to connect sarcopenia and CHF. At the muscular level, alterations of the ubiquitin proteasome system, myostatin signaling, and apoptosis have been described in both sarcopenia and CHF and could play a role in the loss of muscle mass and function. Possible therapeutic strategies to impede the progression of muscle wasting in CHF patients include protein and vitamin D supplementation, structured physical exercise, and the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. Hormonal supplementation with growth hormone, testosterone, and ghrelin is also discussed as a potential treatment.

  10. Wellbore failure mechanisms in shales: Prediction and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Gazaniol, D.; Forsans, T.; Boisson, M.J.F.; Piau, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    Shale stability is still one of the most important problems faced during drilling. Until recently, stability problems were most often attributed to shale swelling; however, recent research shows that several mechanisms are involved and that their relative importance can be estimated. This paper presents a review of these mechanisms, including pore-pressure diffusion, plasticity, anisotropy, capillary effects, osmosis, and physicochemical alteration. Pore-pressure diffusion into the rock in the vicinity of the wellbore (transition from undrained to drained behavior) appears to be of major importance in these very-low-permeability rocks. Plasticity is discussed in terms of modeling. Compared with simple elastic models, modeling of plasticity can simulate the actual behavior of wellbore better. The behavior of different types of muds is discussed while taking these phenomena into consideration, and the practical use of rock-mechanics models is also addressed.

  11. Impaired ATP release from red blood cells promotes their adhesion to endothelial cells: A mechanism of hypoxemia after transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongmei; Zennadi, Rahima; Xu, Bruce X.; Eu, Jerry P.; Torok, Jordan A.; Telen, Marilyn J.; McMahon, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) has been linked to disappointing clinical outcomes in the critically ill, but specific mechanisms of organ dysfunction after transfusion remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that RBC storage impairs the ability of RBCs to release ATP and that impaired ATP-release was injurious in vivo, in part through increased RBC adhesion. Design Prospective, controlled, mechanistic study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Human and mouse blood donors; nude mouse transfusion recipients. Interventions Manipulation of ATP release, supplemental ATP, and antibodies to RBC and endothelial adhesion receptors were used in vitro and in vivo to probe the roles of released ATP and adhesion in responses to (transfused) RBCs. Measurements and main results The ability of stored RBCs to release ATP declined markedly within 14 days after collection, despite relatively stable levels of ATP within the RBCs. Inhibiting ATP release promoted the adhesion of stored RBCs to endothelial cells in vitro and RBC sequestration in the lungs of transfused mice in vivo. Unlike transfusion of fresh human RBCs, stored-RBC transfusion in mice decreased blood oxygenation and increased extravasation of RBCs into the lung’s alveolar airspaces. Similar findings were seen with transfusion of fresh RBCs treated with the ATP-release inhibitors glibenclamide and carbenoxolone. These findings were prevented by either co-infusion of an ATP analog or pre-transfusion incubation of the RBCs with an antibody against the erythrocyte adhesion receptor LW (Landsteiner-Wiener; ICAM-4). Conclusions The normal flow of RBCs in pulmonary microvessels depends in part on the release of anti-adhesive ATP from RBCs, and storage-induced deficiency in ATP release from transfused RBCs may promote or exacerbate microvascular pathophysiology in the lung, in part through increased RBC adhesion. PMID:21765360

  12. Degradation mechanisms and stability forecasting and adhesion contacts of metal films with binary dielectric substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarova, S.; Nemirovsky, Y.; Simanovskis, A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors present their conception of degradation and stability on the adhesion contacts of metal films with binary nonmetallic crystals. There are numerous works devoted to the atomic scale determination of adhesion forces and development of adhesion interaction laws. But in the real life the kinetic processes, taking place on the adhesion contact, can lead to such dramatic changes in adhesion strength values that the initial adhesion characteristics do not worth much for practice. Sometimes, adhesion contact with a metal which supposed to be highly adhesive failes in a short period of aging time. What the authors have learned from their studies of the contact processes is that in many cases the aging could not be separately addressed to the individual properties of film metal or to those of the substrate material. It depends mainly on the relationships between the parameters of interacting pair. The question is: what parameters should be taken into account to explain degradation phenomena and to predict them? The purpose of the present work is to show how the relative chemical activity of film metal and substrate cation affects the contact degradation in a vacuum and in different environmental conditions.

  13. Cellular function and adhesion mechanisms of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kroustalli, Anthoula A; Kourkouli, Souzana N; Deligianni, Despina D

    2013-12-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered to be excellent reinforcements for biorelated applications, but, before being incorporated into biomedical devices, their biocompatibility need to be investigated thoroughly. We investigated the ability of films of pristine MWCNTs to influence human mesenchymal stem cells' proliferation, morphology, and differentiation into osteoblasts. Moreover, the selective integrin subunit expression and the adhesion mechanism to the substrate were evaluated on the basis of adherent cell number and adhesion strength, following the treatment of cells with blocking antibodies to a series of integrin subunits. Results indicated that MWCNTs accelerated cell differentiation to a higher extent than tissue culture plastic, even in the absence of additional biochemical inducing agents. The pre-treatment with anti-integrin antibodies decreased number of adherent cells and adhesion strength at 4-60%, depending on integrin subunit. These findings suggest that pristine MWCNTs represent a suitable reinforcement for bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  14. Immune mechanisms in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Krenkel, Oliver; Mossanen, Jana C; Tacke, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An overdose of acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP), also termed paracetamol, can cause severe liver damage, ultimately leading to acute liver failure (ALF) with the need of liver transplantation. APAP is rapidly taken up from the intestine and metabolized in hepatocytes. A small fraction of the metabolized APAP forms cytotoxic mitochondrial protein adducts, leading to hepatocyte necrosis. The course of disease is not only critically influenced by dose of APAP and the initial hepatocyte damage, but also by the inflammatory response following acetaminophen-induced liver injury (AILI). As revealed by mouse models of AILI and corresponding translational studies in ALF patients, necrotic hepatocytes release danger-associated-molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by resident hepatic macrophages, Kupffer cell (KC), and neutrophils, leading to the activation of these cells. Activated hepatic macrophages release various proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α or IL-1β, as well as chemokines (e.g., CCL2) thereby further enhancing inflammation and increasing the influx of immune cells, like bone-marrow derived monocytes and neutrophils. Monocytes are mainly recruited via their receptor CCR2 and aggravate inflammation. Infiltrating monocytes, however, can mature into monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMF), which are, in cooperation with neutrophils, also involved in the resolution of inflammation. Besides macrophages and neutrophils, distinct lymphocyte populations, especially γδ T cells, are also linked to the inflammatory response following an APAP overdose. Natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT) and T cells possibly further perpetuate inflammation in AILI. Understanding the complex interplay of immune cell subsets in experimental models and defining their functional involvement in disease progression is essential to identify novel therapeutic targets for human disease. PMID:25568858

  15. Mechanical Performance and Failure Mechanism of Thick-walled Composite Connecting Rods Fabricated by Resin Transfer Molding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Luo, Chuyang; Zhang, Daijun; Li, Xueqin; Qu, Peng; Sun, Xiaochen; Jia, Yuxi; Yi, Xiaosu

    2015-08-01

    A resin transfer molding technique was used to fabricate thick-walled composite connecting rods, and then the mechanical performance of the connecting rod was studied experimentally, at the same time the stress and failure index distributions were simulated numerically. The experimental results show that under a tensile load, the connecting rod first cracks near the vertex of the triangle areas at the two ends, and then the damage propagates along the interface between the main bearing beam and the triangle area as well as along the round angle of the triangle area. Whereas under a compressive load, the delamination primarily occurs at the corner of the U-shaped flange, and the final destruction is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam. The simulated results reveal that the tensile failure is originated from the delamination at the round angle transition areas of the T-joints, and the failure strength is determined by the interlaminar strength. Whereas the compressive failure is caused by the fracture of fibers in the main bearing beam, and the failure strength of the structure is determined by the longitudinal compressive strength of the composite material. The simulated results are basically consistent with the experimental results. Hence the mechanical performance and failure mechanism of the complicated composite structure are revealed in great detail through the coupling of the two kinds of research methods, which is helpful for the optimal design of composite structures.

  16. On mechanics and material length scales of failure in heterogeneous interfaces using a finite strain high performance solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Matthew; Matouš, Karel

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional simulations capable of resolving the large range of spatial scales, from the failure-zone thickness up to the size of the representative unit cell, in damage mechanics problems of particle reinforced adhesives are presented. We show that resolving this wide range of scales in complex three-dimensional heterogeneous morphologies is essential in order to apprehend fracture characteristics, such as strength, fracture toughness and shape of the softening profile. Moreover, we show that computations that resolve essential physical length scales capture the particle size-effect in fracture toughness, for example. In the vein of image-based computational materials science, we construct statistically optimal unit cells containing hundreds to thousands of particles. We show that these statistically representative unit cells are capable of capturing the first- and second-order probability functions of a given data-source with better accuracy than traditional inclusion packing techniques. In order to accomplish these large computations, we use a parallel multiscale cohesive formulation and extend it to finite strains including damage mechanics. The high-performance parallel computational framework is executed on up to 1024 processing cores. A mesh convergence and a representative unit cell study are performed. Quantifying the complex damage patterns in simulations consisting of tens of millions of computational cells and millions of highly nonlinear equations requires data-mining the parallel simulations, and we propose two damage metrics to quantify the damage patterns. A detailed study of volume fraction and filler size on the macroscopic traction-separation response of heterogeneous adhesives is presented.

  17. Hydrophobic recovery of UV/ozone treated poly(dimethylsiloxane): adhesion studies by contact mechanics and mechanism of surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oláh, Attila; Hillborg, Henrik; Vancso, G. Julius

    2005-01-01

    Silicone elastomers (Sylgard 184 and 170), based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), were surface treated by a combined exposure to UV and ozone. The effects of the treatments were analyzed as a function of time elapsed after stopping the treatments using different standard surface characterization techniques, such as water contact angle measurements, XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM). However, the primary focus of this study was to apply the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics approach to investigate PDMS samples prior to and following UV/ozone surface treatment. A gradual formation of a hydrophilic, silica-like surface layer with increasing modulus was observed with increasing UV/ozone exposure. A subsequent hydrophobic recovery after UV/ozone exposure was observed, as indicated by increasing contact angles. This supports the hypothesis that the hydrophobic recovery is mainly caused by the gradual coverage of a permanent silica-like structure with free siloxanes and/or reorientation of polar groups. PDMS containing a homogenously dispersed filler (Sylgard 184), exhibited a decreasing surface roughness (by AFM) when the oxidized surface region "collapsed" into a smooth SiO x layer (final surface roughness <2 nm). PDMS containing heterogeneously distributed, aggregated filler particles (Sylgard 170), exhibited an increasing surface roughness with treatment dose, which was attributed to the "collapse" of the oxidized surface region thus exposing the contours of the underlying filler aggregates (final surface roughness ˜140 nm). A dedicated device was designed and built to study the contact mechanics behavior of PDMS prior to, and following surface treatment. The value of the combined elastic modulus obtained for PDMS lens and semi-infinite flat surface system showed an increase in full agreement with the formation of a silica-like layer exhibiting a high elastic modulus (compared with untreated PDMS). The work of adhesion observed in JKR experiments

  18. A Probabilistic-Micro-mechanical Methodology for Assessing Zirconium Alloy Cladding Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.M.; Chan, K.S.; Riha, D.S.

    2007-07-01

    Cladding failure of fuel rods caused by hydride-induced embrittlement is a reliability concern for spent nuclear fuel after extended burnup. Uncertainties in the cladding temperature, cladding stress, oxide layer thickness, and the critical stress value for hydride reorientation preclude an assessment of the cladding failure risk. A set of micro-mechanical models for treating oxide cracking, blister cracking, delayed hydride cracking, and cladding fracture was developed and incorporated in a computer model. Results obtained from the preliminary model calculations indicate that at temperatures below a critical temperature of 318.5 deg. C [605.3 deg. F], the time to failure by delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5%Nb decreased with increasing cladding temperature. The overall goal of this project is to develop a probabilistic-micro-mechanical methodology for assessing the probability of hydride-induced failure in Zircaloy cladding and thereby establish performance criteria. (authors)

  19. A mathematical model of the coupled mechanisms of cell adhesion, contraction and spreading.

    PubMed

    Vernerey, Franck J; Farsad, Mehdi

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has shown that cell spreading is highly dependent on the contractility of its cytoskeleton and the mechanical properties of the environment it is located in. The dynamics of such process is critical for the development of tissue engineering strategy but is also a key player in wound contraction, tissue maintenance and angiogenesis. To better understand the underlying physics of such phenomena, the paper describes a mathematical formulation of cell spreading and contraction that couples the processes of stress fiber formation, protrusion growth through actin polymerization at the cell edge and dynamics of cross-membrane protein (integrins) enabling cell-substrate attachment. The evolving cell's cytoskeleton is modeled as a mixture of fluid, proteins and filaments that can exchange mass and generate contraction. In particular, besides self-assembling into stress fibers, actin monomers able to polymerize into an actin meshwork at the cell's boundary in order to push the membrane forward and generate protrusion. These processes are possible via the development of cell-substrate attachment complexes that arise from the mechano-sensitive equilibrium of membrane proteins, known as integrins. After deriving the governing equation driving the dynamics of cell evolution and spreading, we introduce a numerical solution based on the extended finite element method, combined with a level set formulation. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model is able to capture the dependency of cell spreading and contraction on substrate stiffness and chemistry. The very good agreement between model predictions and experimental observations suggests that mechanics plays a strong role into the coupled mechanisms of contraction, adhesion and spreading of adherent cells. PMID:23463540

  20. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  1. Interface failure modes explain non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties in bioinspired nanolaminates

    PubMed Central

    Song, Z. Q.; Ni, Y.; Peng, L. M.; Liang, H. Y.; He, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites. PMID:27029955

  2. Interface failure modes explain non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties in bioinspired nanolaminates.

    PubMed

    Song, Z Q; Ni, Y; Peng, L M; Liang, H Y; He, L H

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites. PMID:27029955

  3. Development Testing and Subsequent Failure Investigation of a Spring Strut Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervan, Jared; Robertson, Brandan; Staab, Lucas; Culberson, Michael; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and Lockheed Martin (LM) performed random vibration testing on a single spring strut development unit to assess its ability to withstand qualification level random vibration environments. Failure of the strut while exposed to random vibration resulted in a follow-on failure investigation, design changes, and additional development tests. This paper focuses on the results of the failure investigations referenced in detail in the NESC final report [1] including identified lessons learned to aid in future design iterations of the spring strut and to help other mechanism developers avoid similar pitfalls.

  4. Development Testing and Subsequent Failure Investigation of a Spring Strut Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervan, Jared; Robertson, Brandon; Staab, Lucas; Culberson, Michael; Pellicciotti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and Lockheed Martin (LM) performed random vibration testing on a single spring strut development unit to assess its ability to withstand qualification level random vibration environments. Failure of the strut while exposed to random vibration resulted in a follow-on failure investigation, design changes, and additional development tests. This paper focuses on the results of the failure investigations referenced in detail in the NESC final report including identified lessons learned to aid in future design iterations of the spring strut and to help other mechanism developers avoid similar pitfalls.

  5. Interface failure modes explain non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties in bioinspired nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z. Q.; Ni, Y.; Peng, L. M.; Liang, H. Y.; He, L. H.

    2016-03-01

    Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites.

  6. Interlaminar failure due to mechanical and thermal stresses at the free edges of laminated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, S. K.; Webber, J. P. H.

    Analytical methods for the calculation of free edge stresses due to mechanical and thermal loads, together with a quadratic interlaminar stress criterion, are used to predict interlaminar failure in laminated composite plates. The predicted applied stresses are compared with experimental results from the literature and found to give reasonable agreement. The effect on stress distributions, and on predicted interlaminar failure, of including thermal stresses in the free edge analysis is illustrated for various stacking sequences.

  7. An autonomous recovery mechanism against optical distribution network failures in EPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Andrew Tanny; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Nikoukar, AliAkbar

    2014-10-01

    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is chosen for servicing diverse applications with higher bandwidth and Quality-of-Service (QoS), starting from Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH), FTTB (business/building) and FTTO (office). Typically, a single OLT can provide services to both residential and business customers on the same Optical Line Terminal (OLT) port; thus, any failures in the system will cause a great loss for both network operators and customers. Network operators are looking for low-cost and high service availability mechanisms that focus on the failures that occur within the drop fiber section because the majority of faults are in this particular section. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an autonomous recovery mechanism that provides protection and recovery against Drop Distribution Fiber (DDF) link faults or transceiver failure at the ONU(s) in EPON systems. In the proposed mechanism, the ONU can automatically detect any signal anomalies in the physical layer or transceiver failure, switching the working line to the protection line and sending the critical event alarm to OLT via its neighbor. Each ONU has a protection line, which is connected to the nearest neighbor ONU, and therefore, when failure occurs, the ONU can still transmit and receive data via the neighbor ONU. Lastly, the Fault Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for recovery mechanism is presented. Simulation results show that our proposed autonomous recovery mechanism is able to maintain the overall QoS performance in terms of mean packet delay, system throughput, packet loss and EF jitter.

  8. Predictors of extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Cristina de Oliveira; Schettino, Renata de Carvalho; Ferreira, Sandra Clecêncio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for extubation failure and reintubation in newborn infants subjected to mechanical ventilation and to establish whether ventilation parameters and blood gas analysis behave as predictors of those outcomes. Methods Prospective study conducted at a neonatal intensive care unit from May to November 2011. A total of 176 infants of both genders subjected to mechanical ventilation were assessed after extubation. Extubation failure was defined as the need to resume mechanical ventilation within less than 72 hours. Reintubation was defined as the need to reintubate the infants any time after the first 72 hours. Results Based on the univariate analysis, the variables gestational age <28 weeks, birth weight <1,000g and low Apgar scores were associated with extubation failure and reintubation. Based on the multivariate analysis, the variables length of mechanical ventilation (days), potential of hydrogen (pH) and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) remained associated with extubation failure, and the five-minute Apgar score and age at extubation were associated with reintubation. Conclusion Low five-minute Apgar scores, age at extubation, length of mechanical ventilation, acid-base disorders and hyperoxia exhibited associations with the investigated outcomes of extubation failure and reintubation. PMID:24770689

  9. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  10. New functions and signaling mechanisms for the class of adhesion G protein–coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liebscher, Ines; Ackley, Brian; Araç, Demet; Ariestanti, Donna M.; Aust, Gabriela; Bae, Byoung-il; Bista, Bigyan R.; Bridges, James P.; Duman, Joseph G.; Engel, Felix B.; Giera, Stefanie; Goffinet, André M.; Hall, Randy A.; Hamann, Jörg; Hartmann, Nicole; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Liu, Mingyao; Luo, Rong; Mogha, Amit; Monk, Kelly R.; Peeters, Miriam C.; Prömel, Simone; Ressl, Susanne; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Sigoillot, Séverine M.; Song, Helen; Talbot, William S.; Tall, Gregory G.; White, James P.; Wolfrum, Uwe; Xu, Lei; Piao, Xianhua

    2014-01-01

    The class of adhesion G protein–coupled receptors (aGPCRs), with 33 human homologs, is the second largest family of GPCRs. In addition to a seven-transmembrane α-helix—a structural feature of all GPCRs—the class of aGPCRs is characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular region. In addition, all aGPCRs but one (GPR123) contain a GPCR autoproteolysis–inducing (GAIN) domain that mediates autoproteolytic cleavage at the GPCR autoproteolysis site (GPS) motif to generate N- and a C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF, respectively) during protein maturation. Subsequently, the NTF and CTF are associated non-covalently as a heterodimer at the plasma membrane. While the biological function of the GAIN domain–mediated autocleavage is not fully understood, mounting evidence suggests that the NTF and CTF possess distinct biological activities in addition to their function as a receptor unit. We discuss recent advances in understanding the biological functions, signaling mechanisms, and disease associations of the aGPCRs. PMID:25424900

  11. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society. PMID:24699375

  12. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-04

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  13. Influence of Martensite Mechanical Properties on Failure Mode and Ductility of Dual Phase Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of the mechanical properties of the martensite phase on the failure mode and ductility of dual phase (DP) steels are investigated using a micromechanics-based finite element method. Actual microstructures of DP sheet steels obtained from scanning electron microscopy are used as representative volume element (RVE) in two-dimensional plane-stress finite element calculations. Failure is predicted as plastic strain localization in the RVE during deformation. The mechanical properties of the ferrite and martensite phases in a commercial DP 980 steel are obtained based on the in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements of a uniaxial tensile test. Computations are then conducted on the RVE in order to investigate the influence of the martensite mechanical properties and volume fraction on the macroscopic behavior and failure mode of DP steels. The computations show that, as the strength and volume fraction of the martensite phase increase, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of DP steels increases but the UTS strain and failure strain decrease. These results agree well with the general experimental observations on DP steels. Additionally, shear dominant failure modes usually develop for DP steels with lower martensite strengths, whereas split failure modes typically develop for DP steels with higher martensite strengths.

  14. Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.

    2015-10-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.

  15. Exertional dyspnoea in chronic heart failure: the role of the lung and respiratory mechanical factors.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Bruno-Pierre; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2016-09-01

    Exertional dyspnoea is among the dominant symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure and progresses relentlessly as the disease advances, leading to reduced ability to function and engage in activities of daily living. Effective management of this disabling symptom awaits a better understanding of its underlying physiology.Cardiovascular factors are believed to play a major role in dyspnoea in heart failure patients. However, despite pharmacological interventions, such as vasodilators or inotropes that improve central haemodynamics, patients with heart failure still complain of exertional dyspnoea. Clearly, dyspnoea is not determined by cardiac factors alone, but likely depends on complex, integrated cardio-pulmonary interactions.A growing body of evidence suggests that excessively increased ventilatory demand and abnormal "restrictive" constraints on tidal volume expansion with development of critical mechanical limitation of ventilation, contribute to exertional dyspnoea in heart failure. This article will offer new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with chronic heart failure by exploring the potential role of the various constituents of the physiological response to exercise and particularly the role of abnormal ventilatory and respiratory mechanics responses to exercise in the perception of dyspnoea in patients with heart failure. PMID:27581831

  16. Identification of fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Andrea Marie

    Indentation of a surface with a hard sphere can be used to examine micromechanical response of a wide range of materials and has been shown to generate loading conditions resembling early stages of ballistic impact events. Cracking morphologies also show similarities, particularly with formation of cone cracks at the contact site. The approach in this thesis is to use this indentation technique to characterize contact damage and deformation processes in armor ceramics, as well as identify the role of cone cracking and inelastic behavior. To accomplish these objectives, an instrumented indentation system was designed and fabricated, extending depth-sensing capabilities originally developed for nano-indentation to higher forces. This system is also equipped with an acoustic emission system to detect onset of cone cracking and subsequent failure. Once calibrated and verified the system was used to evaluate elastic modulus and cone crack initiation forces of two commercial float glasses. As-received air and tin surfaces of soda-lime-silica and borosilicate float glass were tested to determine differences in elastic and fracture behavior. Information obtained from load--displacement curves and visual inspection of indentation sites were used to determine elastic modulus, and conditions for onset of cone cracking as a function of surface roughness. No difference in reduced modulus or cone cracking loads on as-received air and tin surfaces were observed. Abraded surfaces showed the tin surface to be slightly more resistant to cone cracking. A study focusing on the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation in two transparent fine-grained polycrystalline spinels with different grain sizes was then conducted. Congruent experiments included observations on evolution of damage, examinations of sub-surface damage and inspection of remnant surface profiles. Indentation stress--strain behavior obtained from load--displacement curves revealed a small difference in yielding

  17. Molecular mechanisms underlying the force-dependent regulation of actin-to-ECM linkage at the focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiroaki; Sokabe, Masahiro; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2014-01-01

    The linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to extracellular matrices (ECMs) at focal adhesions provides a physical path for cells to exert traction forces on substrates during cellular processes such as migration and morphogenesis. Mechanical strength of the actin-to-ECM linkage increases in response to forces loaded at this linkage. This is achieved by local accumulations of actin filaments, as well as linker proteins connecting actins to integrins, at force-bearing adhesion sites, which leads to an increase in the number of molecular bonds between the actin cytoskeleton- and ECM-bound integrins. Zyxin-dependent actin polymerization and filamin-mediated actin bundling are seemingly involved in the force-dependent actin accumulation. Each actin-integrin link is primarily mediated by the linker protein talin, which is strengthened by another linker protein vinculin connecting the actin filaments to talin in a force-dependent manner. This eliminates slippage between the actin cytoskeleton and talin (clutch mechanism), thus playing a crucial role in creating cell membrane protrusions mediated by actin polymerization. Finally, each integrin-ECM bond is also strengthened when a force is loaded on it, which ensures force transmission at focal adhesions, contributing to stable cell-substrate adhesion in cell migration. PMID:25081617

  18. Original mechanism of failure initiation revealed through modelling of naturally occurring microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikh, Larissa; Lomov, Stepan V.; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2010-05-01

    Motivated to reveal original mechanisms of failure resistance, we developed a material model that encompasses most reoccurring microstructural features of natural composites. The interesting result of the work is a notion that material failure is governed by the quality of interactions between hierarchical levels in the material microstructure. With intelligent use of the structure, these interactions can be tuned to create a powerful synergetic effect on the material failure behaviour. For example, while exploring different mechanisms of failure initiation in composites with bimodal size reinforcements (an indirect way to model two levels of hierarchy simultaneously) we found that failure initiation could be shifted from stress concentration sites of the higher level to the lower level. One could say that the material behaviour became insensitive to the presence of reinforcements on the higher level—a phenomenon that is counterintuitive to what is commonly known. The new mechanism of failure initiation could only be activated in composites with a highly controlled structural organization—in the studied case, reinforcements of the lower level needed to establish lamellar pathways between reinforcements of the higher level. These pathways lead to formation of an intriguing network-like microstructure. Intelligent communication between reinforcements in such a network created the necessary synergy to change the failure initiation mechanism in a discontinuous fashion. Another finding was that by establishing such a network, tensile stresses near dangerous stress concentration sites were locally transformed into compressive stresses. Resemblance of the revealed mechanism to phenomena on the nano-scale was also discussed. In the course of this work a new method was developed to investigate interactions between reinforcements and their collective input into effective and local properties of a composite. The reinforcement phase was modelled with the use of rigid

  19. Investigating Deformation and Failure Mechanisms in Nanoscale Multilayer Metallic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zbib, Hussein M; Bahr, David F

    2014-10-22

    Over the history of materials science there are many examples of materials discoveries that have made superlative materials; the strongest, lightest, or toughest material is almost always a goal when we invent new materials. However, often these have been a result of enormous trial and error approaches. A new methodology, one in which researchers design, from the atoms up, new ultra-strong materials for use in energy applications, is taking hold within the science and engineering community. This project focused on one particular new classification of materials; nanolaminate metallic composites. These materials, where two metallic materials are intimately bonded and layered over and over to form sheets or coatings, have been shown over the past decade to reach strengths over 10 times that of their constituents. However, they are not yet widely used in part because while extremely strong (they don’t permanently bend), they are also not particularly tough (they break relatively easily when notched). Our program took a coupled approach to investigating new materials systems within the laminate field. We used computational materials science to explore ways to institute new deformation mechanisms that occurred when a tri-layer, rather than the more common bi-layer system was created. Our predictions suggested that copper-nickel or copper-niobium composites (two very common bi-layer systems) with layer thicknesses on the order of 20 nm and then layered 100’s of times, would be less tough than a copper-nickel-niobium metallic composite of similar thicknesses. In particular, a particular mode of permanent deformation, cross-slip, could be activated only in the tri-layer system; the crystal structure of the other bi-layers would prohibit this particular mode of deformation. We then experimentally validated this predication using a wide range of tools. We utilized a DOE user facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnology (CINT), to fabricate, for the first time, these

  20. Acoustic emission classification for failure prediction due to mechanical fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emamian, Vahid; Kaveh, Mostafa; Tewfik, Ahmed H.

    2000-06-01

    Acoustic Emission signals (AE), generated by the formation and growth of micro-cracks in metal components, have the potential for use in mechanical fault detection in monitoring complex- shaped components in machinery including helicopters and aircraft. A major challenge for an AE-based fault detection algorithm is to distinguish crack-related AE signals from other interfering transient signals, such as fretting-related AE signals and electromagnetic transients. Although under a controlled laboratory environment we have fewer interference sources, there are other undesired sources which have to be considered. In this paper, we present some methods, which make their decision based on the features extracted from time-delay and joint time-frequency components by means of a Self- Organizing Map (SOM) neural network using experimental data collected in a laboratory by colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

  1. Internal instability as a possible failure mechanism for layered composites.

    PubMed

    Guz, I A; Menshykova, M; Soutis, C

    2016-07-13

    This paper revisits a three-dimensional analytical approach to study internal instability in layered composites, when the behaviour of each component of the material is described by the three-dimensional equations of solid mechanics. It shows the development of a unified computational procedure for numerical realization of the three-dimensional analytical method as applied to various constitutive equations of the layers and fibres, and different loading schemes (uniaxial or biaxial loading). The paper also contains many examples of calculation of critical controlled parameters for particular composites as well as analysis of different buckling modes. The results of this method can be used as a benchmark for simplified models. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242292

  2. Mechanical Properties and Failure of Biopolymers: Atomistic Reactions to Macroscale Response.

    PubMed

    Jung, GangSeob; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of chemical bonding under various mechanical loadings is an intriguing mechanochemical property of biological materials, and the property plays a critical role in determining their deformation and failure mechanisms. Because of their astonishing mechanical properties and roles in constituting the basis of a variety of physiologically relevant materials, biological protein materials have been intensively studied. Understanding the relation between chemical bond networks (structures) and their mechanical properties offers great possibilities to enable new materials design in nanotechnology and new medical treatments for human diseases. Here we focus on how the chemical bonds in biological systems affect mechanical properties and how they change during mechanical deformation and failure. Three representative cases of biomaterials related to the human diseases are discussed in case studies, including: amyloids, intermediate filaments, and collagen, each describing mechanochemical features and how they relate to the pathological conditions at multiple scales.

  3. Failure mechanism of Ta diffusion barrier between Cu and Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tomi; Zeng, Kejun; Kivilahti, Jorma K.; Molarius, Jyrki; Suni, Ilkka

    2000-09-01

    The reaction mechanisms in the Si/Ta/Cu metallization system and their relation to the microstructure of thin films are discussed on the basis of experimental results and the assessment of the ternary Si-Ta-Cu phase diagram at 700 °C. With the help of sheet resistance measurements, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, and a transmission electron microscope, the Ta barrier layer was observed to fail at temperatures above 650 °C due to the formation of TaSi2, the diffusion of Cu through the silicide layer, and the resulting formation of Cu3Si precipitates. However, in order for the TaSi2 phase to form first, the Ta diffusion barrier layer must be thick enough (e.g., 50-100 nm) to prevent Cu diffusion into the Si substrate up to the temperature of TaSi2 formation (˜650 °C). Independent of the Ta layer thickness, Cu3Si was present as large nodules, whereas the TaSi2 existed as a uniform layer. The resulting reaction structure was found to be in local equilibrium on the basis of the assessed Si-Ta-Cu phase diagram at 700 °C, and therefore no further reactions were expected. The role of oxygen was also found to be important in the reactions and it seems to have a strong effect on the thermal stability of the barrier layer.

  4. Investigation into the mechanism of bacterial adhesion to hydrogel-coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kunz, R; Anders, C; Heinrich, L; Gersonde, K

    1999-01-01

    As a model for hydrogel-coated biomaterials, self-assembled monolayers of polyoxyethylene (POE) derivatives on sheets of polymeric biomaterials were prepared. The POE derivatives consisted of hydrophilic chains with different lengths and a long-chain alkyl group that served as an anchor function. The coatings obtained were analyzed with XPS and contact angle measurements showing hydrophilic chains of different lengths extending away from the surface. Bacterial adhesion was measured with a clinically relevant Klebsiella pneumoniae type strain and measurements reproduced 12 times. Bacterial adhesion decreased markedly with increasing hydrophilic chain length. Based upon these findings a new model for bacterial adhesion to hydrogel-coated surfaces is suggested: steric repulsion effects that increase with increasing chain length of grafted hydrophilic chains play an important role in bacterial adhesion to hydrogel-coated surfaces. PMID:15347980

  5. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    Adherend surfaces and fractography were studied using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. In addition, Auger Electron Spectroscopy with depth profiling capability was used. It is shown that contamination of adhesion systems plays an important role not only in determining initial bond strengths but also in the durability of adhesive bonds. It is concluded that the analytical techniques used to characterize and monitor such contamination.

  6. Mechanical failure modes of chronically implanted planar silicon-based neural probes for laminar recording.

    PubMed

    Kozai, Takashi D Y; Catt, Kasey; Li, Xia; Gugel, Zhannetta V; Olafsson, Valur T; Vazquez, Alberto L; Cui, X Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating intracortical electrode arrays that record brain activity longitudinally are powerful tools for basic neuroscience research and emerging clinical applications. However, regardless of the technology used, signals recorded by these electrodes degrade over time. The failure mechanisms of these electrodes are understood to be a complex combination of the biological reactive tissue response and material failure of the device over time. While mechanical mismatch between the brain tissue and implanted neural electrodes have been studied as a source of chronic inflammation and performance degradation, the electrode failure caused by mechanical mismatch between different material properties and different structural components within a device have remained poorly characterized. Using Finite Element Model (FEM) we simulate the mechanical strain on a planar silicon electrode. The results presented here demonstrate that mechanical mismatch between iridium and silicon leads to concentrated strain along the border of the two materials. This strain is further focused on small protrusions such as the electrical traces in planar silicon electrodes. These findings are confirmed with chronic in vivo data (133-189 days) in mice by correlating a combination of single-unit electrophysiology, evoked multi-unit recordings, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy from traces and electrode sites with our modeling data. Several modes of mechanical failure of chronically implanted planar silicon electrodes are found that result in degradation and/or loss of recording. These findings highlight the importance of strains and material properties of various subcomponents within an electrode array.

  7. Mechanical failure modes of chronically implanted planar silicon-based neural probes for laminar recording

    PubMed Central

    Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Catt, Kasey; Li, Xia; Gugel, Zhannetta V.; Olafsson, Valur T.; Vazquez, Alberto L.; Cui, X. Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating intracortical electrode arrays that record brain activity longitudinally are powerful tools for basic neuroscience research and emerging clinical applications. However, regardless of the technology used, signals recorded by these electrodes degrade over time. The failure mechanisms of these electrodes are understood to be a complex combination of the biological reactive tissue response and material failure of the device over time. While mechanical mismatch between the brain tissue and implanted neural electrodes have been studied as a source of chronic inflammation and performance degradation, the electrode failure caused by mechanical mismatch between different material properties and different structural components within a device have remained poorly characterized. Using Finite Element Model (FEM) we simulate the mechanical strain on a planar silicon electrode. The results presented here demonstrate that mechanical mismatch between iridium and silicon leads to concentrated strain along the border of the two materials. This strain is further focused on small protrusions such as the electrical traces in planar silicon electrodes. These findings are confirmed with chronic in vivo data (133–189 days) in mice by correlating a combination of single-unit electrophysiology, evoked multi-unit recordings, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy from traces and electrode sites with our modeling data. Several modes of mechanical failure of chronically implanted planar silicon electrodes are found that result in degradation and/or loss of recording. These findings highlight the importance of strains and material properties of various subcomponents within an electrode array. PMID:25453935

  8. Mechanism for Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR56-Mediated RhoA Activation Induced By Collagen III Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rong; Jeong, Sung-Jin; Yang, Annie; Wen, Miaoyun; Saslowsky, David E.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Araç, Demet; Piao, Xianhua

    2014-01-01

    GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Despite the importance of GPR56 in brain development, where mutations cause a devastating human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP), the signaling mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. Like many other adhesion GPCRs, GPR56 is cleaved via a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain into N- and C-terminal fragments (GPR56N and GPR56C); however, the biological significance of this cleavage is elusive. Taking advantage of the recent identification of a GPR56 ligand and the presence of BFPP-associated mutations, we investigated the molecular mechanism of GPR56 signaling. We demonstrate that ligand binding releases GPR56N from the membrane-bound GPR56C and triggers the association of GPR56C with lipid rafts and RhoA activation. Furthermore, one of the BFPP-associated mutations, L640R, does not affect collagen III-induced lipid raft association of GPR56. Instead, it specifically abolishes collagen III-mediated RhoA activation. Together, these findings reveal a novel signaling mechanism that may apply to other members of the adhesion GPCR family. PMID:24949629

  9. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  10. Failure mechanisms of concrete slab-soil double-layer structure subjected to underground explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z.; Zhang, W.; Cho, C.; Han, X.

    2014-09-01

    The failure mechanism of a concrete slab-soil double-layer structure subjected to an underground explosion was investigated by experimental and numerical methods in this paper. Two underground explosion depths of 150 and 350 mm were tested. The typical failure modes such as the conoid spall of concrete, the bulge of the concrete slab and the cavity in the soil were obtained experimentally. Numerical simulations of the experiments were performed using a hydrodynamic code to analyze the effects of both the stress wave and the expansion of the blast products. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the effects of explosive depth, blast wave front and expansion of the blast products on the failure modes and failure mechanisms were discussed. The underground explosion process at different explosion depths was also analyzed. The results show that attenuation of the stress wave in the soil is significant. The blast wave front and the expansion of the blast products play different roles at different explosion depths. At the explosion depth of 150 mm, the failure mode is mainly caused by a point load induced by the blast wave front, whereas at the depth of 350 mm a sphere-shaped load resulting from the expansion of the blast products is a key factor for failure.

  11. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  12. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local “soft short circuits” in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  13. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local “soft short circuits” in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data. PMID:27581185

  14. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local "soft short circuits" in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data.

  15. Li-ion Battery Separators, Mechanical Integrity and Failure Mechanisms Leading to Soft and Hard Internal Shorts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Separator integrity is an important factor in preventing internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries. Local penetration tests (nail or conical punch) often produce presumably sporadic results, where in exactly similar cell and test set-ups one cell goes to thermal runaway while the other shows minimal reactions. We conducted an experimental study of the separators under mechanical loading, and discovered two distinct deformation and failure mechanisms, which could explain the difference in short circuit characteristics of otherwise similar tests. Additionally, by investigation of failure modes, we provided a hypothesis about the process of formation of local "soft short circuits" in cells with undetectable failure. Finally, we proposed a criterion for predicting onset of soft short from experimental data. PMID:27581185

  16. Failure and runout of giant landslides on Hawaiian volcanoes; cases of enigmatic mechanics?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Landslide failure and runout are distinct mechanical processes. Whereas failure is a quasi-static phenomenon that generally can be quantified by means of conventional limit-equilibrium or elastostatic stress analyses, runout is a dynamic phenomenon that can be quantified only if momentum transport and energy dissipation in moving landslides are understood. The balance of forces that governs landslide failure is highly sensitive to only a few factors: the slope morphology, pore-pressure distribution, friction coefficient, and a lateral pressure coefficient. None of these factors produces scale-dependent effects. Consequently, although runout dynamics of giant landslides are poorly understood and are possibly scale-dependent, failure mechanisms are generally less vexing. Giant landslides that have occurred on Hawaiian volcanoes pose an exception to this generalization; both their failure and runout appear to be mechanically enigmatic. Failure is difficult to explain because the volcano slopes are typically inclined less than ten degrees, and simple ground-water flow analyses show that the pore-pressure distributions necessary to trigger failure of these low-angle slopes are unlikely to arise in high-permeability volcanic rocks. Similarly, limit-equilibrium analyses show that dike injection at prospective headscarps provides insufficient pressure to push the landslides downslope. Large earthquakes or the presence of extraordinarily weak rocks might facilitate failure, but these hypotheses remain untested. On the basis of GLORIA data reported by Moore et al. (JGR, 94, 1989, p. 17465), some giant Hawaiian landslides appear to have descent-to-runout (H/L) ratios smaller than 0.1, which indicate remarkably efficient post-failure movement. Runout paths are entirely submarine. However, most of the mechanisms proposed to account for efficient runout of giant landslides (e.g., air-layer lubrication, acoustic fluidization, mechanical fluidization, pore-fluid vaporization

  17. Unsmooth cuticles of soil animals and theoretical analysis of their hydrophobicity and anti-soil-adhesion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xian

    2006-03-15

    Soil adhesion is a natural phenomenon, and it is harmful to terrain machines and tillage equipment that have soil as their work medium, such as automobiles, tractors, earth-moving machines, spades, hoes, and plows. Soil adhesion increases motion resistance and energy consumption, quickens damage to the soil-engaging components, and lowers work quality. The biomimetic research has provided a promising method to solve the soil adhesion problem. In this work, the cuticles of typical soil animals were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their wettability and mechanism of antiadhesion were analyzed in theory. The results of experimental observation have shown that the cuticles of soil animals have different unsmooth appearances, such as pimple-shaped, pit-like, and undee structures. But for the cross sections of the unsmooth cuticles, their common character is undee. Theoretical analysis has indicated that the larger the ratio of the amplitude of the wave to the period of the wave, the stronger the hydrophobicity, the more easily the composite interface between the liquid and the unsmooth cuticles forms, and the function of reducing soil adhesion of the unsmooth cuticles will be better. PMID:16298383

  18. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions.

  19. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions. PMID:27058377

  20. Reliability characterization of UV-curable adhesives used in optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plitz, Irene M.; Gebizlioglu, Osman S.; Dugan, Michael P.

    1994-09-01

    UV (ultra-violet)-curable adhesives were identified as the underlying cause for failure of devices subjected to accelerated aging conditions. These adhesives must be resistant to degradation and dimensional/mechanical instabilities such as creep. We examined two UV-curable adhesives and found that thermal post-curing caused some shrinkage and degradation. However, post-curing also raised the adhesive glass transition temperature, thereby reducing the reliability risk associated with mechanical instability. We investigated the dimensional/mechanical stability of UV adhesives by measuring thermal expansion/contraction and creep compliance. We found that the adhesive thermal expansion and creep compliance are large enough to pose device reliability risk. Raising the glass transition temperature of UV-curable adhesives by thermal post-cure can improve optical device reliability by lowering the creep compliance.

  1. Advanced research on the microRNA mechanism in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianying; Zhong, Qianjin

    2016-10-01

    Heart failure is the end stage of most cardiac diseases and also an important cardiovascular disease. Ventricular remodeling, a complicated pathophysiological process involving multiple molecular pathways, is a crucial mechanism for the occurrence and development of heart failure. A microRNA (miRNA) is a highly conservative noncoding molecule containing 18-25 nucleotides. miRNA is different from other RNAs. It mainly serves as an endogenous gene-regulating factor, and is a member of the complex regulatory network. It induces gene repression of target transcripts by affecting mRNA at the post-transcriptional level Vasudevan et al. (2007) . This study aimed at determining the mechanism of miRNA action in heart failure. PMID:27372044

  2. Degradation and corresponding failure mechanism for GaN-based LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiajia; Zhao, Lixia; Cao, Haicheng; Sun, Xuejiao; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-05-01

    The degradation behaviors of high power GaN-based vertical blue LEDs on Si substrates were measured using in-situ accelerated life test. The results show that the dominant failure mechanism would be different during the operation. Besides that, the corresponding associated failure mechanisms were investigated systematically by using different analysis technologies, such as Scan Electron Microscopy, Reflectivity spectroscopy, Transient Thermal Analysis, Raman Spectra, etc. It is shown that initially, the failure modes were mainly originated from the semiconductor die and interconnect, while afterwards, the following serious deterioration of the radiant fluxes was attributed to the package. The interface material and quality, such as die attach and frame, play an important role in determining the thermal performance and reliability. In addition, the heating effect during the operation will also release the compressive strain in the chip. These findings will help to improve the reliability of GaN-based LEDs, especially for the LEDs with vertical structure.

  3. The microstructural mechanism of electromigration failure in narrow interconnects of Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Choongun

    1993-04-01

    This thesis reports a study of the mechanism of electromigration failure in Al-2Cu-1Si thin-film conducting lines on Si. Samples were patterned from 0.5 {mu}m thick vapor-deposited films with various mean grain sizes (G), and had lines widths (W) of 1.3, 2, 4 and 6 {mu}m. The lines were aged at various conditions to change the Cu-precipitate distribution and were tested to failure at T = 225{degrees}C and j = 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. Some samples were tested over a range of substrate temperatures, current densities and current reversal times. Aging produces an initially dense distribution of metastable {Theta}{prime} (Al{sub 2}Cu; coherent) in the grain interiors, with stable {Theta} (Al{sub 2}Cu; incoherent) at the grain boundaries. The intragranular {theta}{prime} is gradually absorbed into the grain boundary precipitates. In the wide lines the mean time to failure increases slowly and monotonically with pre-aging time and current reversal time. The failure mode is the formation and coalescence of voids that form on grain boundaries with an apparent activation energy of 0.65 eV. In the narrow lines, the lines failed by a transgranular-slit mechanism with an activation energy near 0.93 eV. The distribution of the polygranular segments and the kinetics of failure varies with the linewidths. Failure occurs after Cu has been swept from the grains that fail. Pre-aging the line to create a more stable distribution of Cu significantly increases the time to failure. When the density of intragranular {Theta}-phase precipitates is maximized, the transgranular-slit failure mechanism is suppressed, and the bamboo grain fails by diffuse thinning to rupture. The results from the current reversal test indicate that the time to sweep Cu in the polygranular segments is longer for longer polygranular segments. Thus the time to first failure in an array of lines is much longer than predicted by a log-normal fit to the distribution of failure times.

  4. Mechanics of rainfall-induced flow failure in unsaturated shallow slopes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarnera, G.

    2013-12-01

    The increase in pore water pressure due to rain infiltration can be a dominant component in the activation of slope instabilities. This work shows an application of the theory of material stability to the triggering analysis of this important class of natural hazards. The goal is to identify the mechanisms through which the process of rain infiltration promotes instabilities of the flow-type in the soil covers. The interplay between increase in pore water pressure and failure mechanisms is investigated at material point level. To account for multiple failure mechanisms, the second-order energy input is linked to the controllability theory and used to define different types of stability indices, each associated with a specific mode of slope failure. It is shown that the theory can be used to assess both shear failure and static liquefaction in saturated and unsaturated soil covers. In particular, it is shown that these instability modes are regulated by the hydro-mechanical characteristics of the soil covers, as well as by their mutual coupling. This finding discloses the importance of the constitutive functions that simulate the interaction between the response of the solid skeleton and the fluid-retention characteristics of the soil. As a consequence, they suggest that even material properties that are not be to directly associated with the shearing resistance (e.g., the potential for wetting compaction) may play a role in the initiation of catastrophic slope failures. According to the proposed interpretation, the process of pore pressure increase can be seen as the trigger of uncontrolled strains, which can anticipate the onset of frictional failure and promote a solid-to-fluid transition.

  5. Some Aspects of the Failure Mechanisms in BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David Donhang; Sampson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to gain insight into possible failure mechanisms in BaTiO3-based ceramic capacitors that may be associated with the reliability degradation that accompanies a reduction in dielectric thickness, as reported by Intel Corporation in 2010. The volumetric efficiency (microF/cm3) of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) has been shown to not increase limitlessly due to the grain size effect on the dielectric constant of ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 material. The reliability of an MLCC has been discussed with respect to its structure. The MLCCs with higher numbers of dielectric layers will pose more challenges for the reliability of dielectric material, which is the case for most base-metal-electrode (BME) capacitors. A number of MLCCs manufactured using both precious-metal-electrode (PME) and BME technology, with 25 V rating and various chip sizes and capacitances, were tested at accelerated stress levels. Most of these MLCCs had a failure behavior with two mixed failure modes: the well-known rapid dielectric wearout, and so-called 'early failures." The two failure modes can be distinguished when the testing data were presented and normalized at use-level using a 2-parameter Weibull plot. The early failures had a slope parameter of Beta >1, indicating that the early failures are not infant mortalities. Early failures are triggered due to external electrical overstress and become dominant as dielectric layer thickness decreases, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in reliability. This indicates that early failures are the main cause of the reliability degradation in MLCCs as dielectric layer thickness decreases. All of the early failures are characterized by an avalanche-like breakdown leakage current. The failures have been attributed to the extrinsic minor construction defects introduced during fabrication of the capacitors. A reliability model including dielectric thickness and extrinsic defect feature size is proposed in this

  6. Acute dissection of a Contegra conduit: a rare mechanism of failure.

    PubMed

    Kavarana, Minoo N; Dorfman, Adam L; Agarwal, Prachi P; Bove, Edward L

    2010-09-01

    The Contegra (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) bovine jugular vein conduit has been used with increasing frequency in congenital heart disease for the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. In this report, we describe a mechanism for conduit failure secondary to an acute dissection of the inner neointimal peel from the conduit wall. PMID:20732536

  7. Effect of substrate surface finish on the lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrate was rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run-in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic-colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X-ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha-iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha-iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

  8. Lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films. 2: Effect of substrate roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes; polished, sanded, and sandblasted as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrate was rough, flat plateaus were created during run-in and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and as deposit sites for wear debris. In moist air the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X-ray diffraction to be alpha iron, MoO3, and possibly FeMoO3. In dry argon the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of MoS2 from the contact region by transverse flow, and the wear debris on the track at failure was alpha iron, residual MoS2, and possibly FeS.

  9. Effect of Substrate Surface Finish on the Lubrication and Failure Mechanisms of Molybdenum Disulfide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrates were rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

  10. Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2010-09-01

    Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models show a strong dependence on the level of hydrostatic tension. Even though the reason for this pressure dependence is different in the two models, as the shear-extended Gurson model does not describe voids flattening out and the associated failure mechanism by micro-cracks interacting with neighbouring micro-cracks, it is shown that the trends of the predictions are in good agreement.

  11. Basic failure mechanisms in advanced composites. [composed of epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzio, V. F.; Mehan, R. L.; Mullin, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental failure mechanisms which result from the interaction of thermal cycling and mechanical loading of carbon-epoxy composites were studied. This work was confined to epoxy resin uniderictionally reinforced with HTS carbon fibers, and consists of first identifying local fiber, matrix and interface failure mechanisms using the model composite specimen containing a small number of fibers so that optical techniques can be used for characterization. After the local fracture process has been established for both mechanical loading and thermal cycling, engineering composite properties and gross fracture modes are then examined to determine how the local events contribute to real composite performance. Flexural strength in high fiber content specimens shows an increase in strength with increased thermal cycling. Similar behavior is noted for 25 v/o material up to 200 cycles; however, there is a drastic reduction after 200 cycles indicating a major loss of integrity probably through the accumulation of local cleavage cracks in the tensile region.

  12. Failure mechanism analysis under compression loading of unidirectional carbon/epoxy composites using micromechanical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effendi, R. R.; Barrau, J.-J.; Guedra-Degeorges, D.

    An experimental study of the compression fracture of unidirectional composites (T300/914, T800/5245C, M40J/913, GY70/V108 and AS4/PEEK) shows that fiber kinking is the main failure mode. All materials tested exhibited a non-linear elastic behavior characterized by a continuous decrease of the tangent modulus as soon as the load was applied. A micromechanical model taking into account initial geometric imperfections was developed. Stress evolution in the constituents was analysed and then compared with their strength. Two failure modes were distinguished: failure due to the fracture of fibers and failure due to the fracture of matrix. This model demonstrates that the non-linear behavior is not due to the initial geometric imperfections. To refine modelling, a numerical analysis using a finite element method with elastoplastic and large displacement hypothesis was developed. This model not only shows the principals governing failure parameters: initial geometric impertions, yield stress of matrix and fiber compressive strength, but also demonstrates two failure mechanisms: fracture of fibers in compression and fiber kinking. This model confirms that the non-linear behavior is not attributed to the initial geometric imperfections.

  13. Dynamic tensile failure mechanics of the musculoskeletal neck using a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Eno M; Pellettiere, Joseph A; Doczy, Erica J; Nuckley, David J; Perry, Chris E; Ching, Randal P

    2009-05-01

    Although the catapult phase of pilot ejections has been well characterized in terms of human response to compressive forces, the effect of the forces on the human body during the ensuing ejection phases (including windblast and parachute opening shock) has not been thoroughly investigated. Both windblast and parachute opening shock have been shown to induce dynamic tensile forces in the human cervical spine. However, the human tolerance to such loading is not well known. Therefore, the main objective of this research project was to measure human tensile neck failure mechanics to provide data for computational modeling, anthropometric test device development, and improved tensile injury criteria. Twelve human cadaver specimens, including four females and eight males with a mean age of 50.1+/-9 years, were subjected to dynamic tensile loading through the musculoskeletal neck until failure occurred. Failure load, failure strain, and tensile stiffness were measured and correlated with injury type and location. The mean failure load for the 12 specimens was 3100+/-645 N, mean failure strain was 16.7+/-5.4%, and mean tensile stiffness was 172+/-54.5 N/mm. The majority of injuries (8) occurred in the upper cervical spine (Oc-C3), and none took place in the midcervical region (C3-C5). The results of this study assist in filling the existing void in dynamic tensile injury data and will aid in developing improved neck injury prevention strategies. PMID:19388771

  14. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min. PMID:26043809

  15. Investigation of the design and static behavior of cylindrical tubular composite adhesive joints utilizing the finite element method and stress-based failure theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Michael D.

    2011-12-01

    The stress and strength behavior of cylindrical tubular adhesive joints composed of dissimilar materials was explored. This was accomplished with the finite element method (FEM) and stress-based failure theories. Also, it was shown how a design of experiments (DOE) based method can be used to objectively organize the process of optimizing joint strength by using stress-based failure criteria. The finite element program used in this work was written in-house from scratch to implement the FEM for the purpose of solving both axisymmetric and three-dimensional linear elastic governing equations of static equilibrium. The formulation of the three-dimensional model is presented, and the required operations to arrive to the axisymmetric model are also presented. The axisymmetric model is two dimensional, capable of using four and eight node quadrilateral elements. However, only four node elements are used because a mesh of eight node elements requires more memory and increased mesh refinement. The three-dimensional model is capable of using eight and twenty node brick elements, but only eight node brick elements are used for the same reason. Both of the axisymmetric and three-dimensional models calculate the nodal displacements, strains, stress values for each material, and strength values for each material. The external static loads can be individually applied, or coupled together. The outputs seem to be most useful for interpretation when plotted through-the-thickness (TTT) and along-the-length (ATL) of the joint or tube. Outputs are valid only for materials that behave linearly elastic up to (or near) failure, and the stress-based failure criteria are used to define that limit. A small laboratory-sized joint was modeled to look at the theoretical stress and strength distributions plotted along-the-length of the joint at different radial locations. These stress and strength distributions can be correlated to the type of load being applied because of unique or prominent

  16. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary cilia detect features of the

  17. Failure Mechanisms During Isothermal Fatigue of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, P. K.; Bartolotta, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Failure mechanisms during isothermal fatigue of unidirectional SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at.%) composites have been determined by microstructural analysis of samples from tests interrupted prior to the end of life and from tests conducted to failure. Specimens from three regions of life were examined based on the maximum strain from a fatigue life diagram: Region 1 (high strain), Region 2 (mid-strain) and Region 3 (low strain). Crack lengths were also measured from interrupted samples and compared based on temperature (23-815 C), region of life and numbers of cycles. Region 1 was controlled by fiber-dominated failure. A transition zone was observed between Regions 1 and 2 due to competition between failure mechanisms. Failure in Region 2 was generally described as surface-initiated cracking with varying amounts of fiber bridging. However, the specific descriptions of crack propagation through the fibers and matrix varied with strain and temperature over this broad region. Region 3 exhibited endurance behaviour at 23 C with no cracking after lO(exp 6) cycles. However at 425 C, surface-initiated cracking was observed after 10(exp 6) cycles with fractured fibers in the crack wake. If endurance behaviour exists for conditions of isothermal fatigue in air at temperatures of greater than or equal to 425 C, it may only be found at very low strains and at greater than 10(exp 6) cycles.

  18. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics. [titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Dwight, D. W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Various surface preparations for titanium 6-4 alloy were studied. An anodizing method was investigated, and compared with the results of other chemical treatments, namely, phosphate/fluoride, Pasa-Jell and Turco. The relative durability of the different surface treatments was assessed by monitoring changes in surface chemistry and morphology occasioned by aging at 505 K (450 F). Basic electron spectroscopic data were collected for polyimide and polyphenylquinoxaline adhesives and synthetic precursors. Fractographic studies were completed for several combinations of adherend, adhesive, and testing conditions.

  19. High performance Cu adhesion coating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.W.; Viehbeck, A.; Chen, W.R.; Ree, M.

    1996-12-31

    Poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) (PAEBI) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with imidazole functional groups forming the polymer backbone structure. It is proposed that upon coating PAEBI onto a copper surface the imidazole groups of PAEBI form a bond with or chelate to the copper surface resulting in strong adhesion between the copper and polymer. Adhesion of PAEBI to other polymers such as poly(biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylene diamine) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide is also quite good and stable. The resulting locus of failure as studied by XPS and IR indicates that PAEBI gives strong cohesive adhesion to copper. Due to its good adhesion and mechanical properties, PAEBI can be used in fabricating thin film semiconductor packages such as multichip module dielectric (MCM-D) structures. In these applications, a thin PAEBI coating is applied directly to a wiring layer for enhancing adhesion to both the copper wiring and the polymer dielectric surface. In addition, a thin layer of PAEBI can also function as a protection layer for the copper wiring, eliminating the need for Cr or Ni barrier metallurgies and thus significantly reducing the number of process steps.

  20. Role of Durable Mechanical Circulatory Support for the Management of Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammed; Cowger, Jennifer A

    2016-07-01

    In the past decade, there has been a dramatic evolution in the field of mechanical circulatory support. Device-related complications continue to burden the field and will be a major obstacle for achieving therapeutic noninferiority compared with cardiac transplant. Selected patients with end-stage systolic heart failure enjoy an average survival of 80% at 1 year post-ventricular assist device implant, vastly better than survival rates of 25% to 50% on chronic inotrope support. Early patient referral to an advanced heart failure specialist before the onset of significant end-organ dysfunction and malnutrition is critical for achieving good operative outcomes. PMID:27371516

  1. Percutaneous mechanical assist for severe cardiogenic shock due to acute right ventricular failure.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Ryan; Raval, Amish N

    2015-05-01

    Acute right ventricular failure can lead to severe cardiogenic shock and death. Recovery may be achieved with early supportive measures. In many patients, intravenous fluid and inotropic resuscitation is inadequate to improve cardiac output. In these cases, percutaneous mechanical assist may provide a non-surgical bridge to recovery. Herein, we describe a case series of patients with severe, refractory cardiogenic shock due to acute right ventricular failure who received a continuous flow percutaneous ventricular device primarily utilizing the right internal jugular vein for out flow cannula placement.

  2. Investigation of static and cyclic bearing failure mechanisms for GR/EP laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. W.; Tuttle, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Static, cyclic load (fatigue), and residual strength testing of graphite-epoxy (GR/EP) and aluminum pin bearing joints was completed to study bearing failure mechanisms. Parameters investigated included static strength, failure mode, fatigue life, hole growth, joint stiffness, and residual strength. Comparative evaluation of these results show that the MIL-HDBK-5 convention for the definition of bearing strength can be used for GR/EP materials while maintaining the same, or improved, level of structural integrity shown for metal joints.

  3. Continuum Damage Mechanics Models for the Analysis of Progressive Failure in Open-Hole Tension Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyonchan; Li, Yingyong; Rose, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of a state-of-the-art continuum damage mechanics model for interlaminar damage, coupled with a cohesive zone model for delamination is examined for failure prediction of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates. Limitations of continuum representations of intra-ply damage and the effect of mesh orientation on the analysis predictions are discussed. It is shown that accurate prediction of matrix crack paths and stress redistribution after cracking requires a mesh aligned with the fiber orientation. Based on these results, an aligned mesh is proposed for analysis of the open-hole tension specimens consisting of different meshes within the individual plies, such that the element edges are aligned with the ply fiber direction. The modeling approach is assessed by comparison of analysis predictions to experimental data for specimen configurations in which failure is dominated by complex interactions between matrix cracks and delaminations. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms observed in the tests are well predicted. In addition, the modeling approach is demonstrated to predict proper trends in the effect of scaling on strength and failure mechanisms of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates.

  4. Hypoxia regulates iNOS expression in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts through NF-κB activation mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhong L.; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Abu-Soud, Husam M.; Saed, Ghassan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the mechanism by which hypoxia increases expression of iNOS in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts. Design Prospective experimental study. Setting University medical center. Patient(s) Primary cultures of fibroblasts from normal peritoneum and adhesion tissues. Intervention(s) Hypoxia treated cells. Main Outcome Measure(s) We utilized real-time RT-PCR to quantify mRNA levels of iNOS and NF-κB. Western blots were used to determine iNOS, NF-κB, IκB-α and phospho-IκB expression levels in normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts in response to hypoxia. Result(s) Hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in iNOS and NF-κB expression in normal and adhesion fibroblasts. Furthermore, both cell types manifested lower levels of NF-κB, cytoplasmic phospho-IκB-α, and iNOS proteins. In contrast, they manifested higher levels of cytoplasmic IκB-α and IκB-α/NF-κB ratios as well as phosphorylated-IκB-α/NF-κB ratio. Under hypoxic conditions, both cell types exhibited significantly decreased cytoplasmic NF-κB, IκB-α levels, and significantly increased cytoplasmic phospho-IκB-α, iNOS, and NF-κB protein levels. Conclusions Hypoxia increases iNOS expression by a mechanism involving activation of NF-κB. The ratio of IκB-α/NF-κB or IκB-α/p-IκB-α can be used to monitor activation. PMID:18281043

  5. Failure mechanisms of polyester fiber anterior cruciate ligament implants: A human retrieval and laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Amis, A A; Kempson, S A

    1999-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that ACL implant failure is often caused by bone impingement in knee extension following malplacement of the tibial tunnel. This study examined polyethylene terephtalate fiber ACL implants retrieved from a clinical study, and, to confirm the hypothesis, also set up a laboratory study intended to duplicate the failure mechanism. SEM and TEM examination of 25 ruptured implants gave details of fiber failure morphology, with shearing into longitudinal fibrils, followed by rupture, when the fibrils burst apart. Cadaver joints were run in a knee simulator, with deliberately impinging ACL implants. SEM examination of implants abraded in the knee in vitro showed identical fiber damage patterns, thus confirming the impingement hypothesis. PMID:10421698

  6. Direct Insulation-to-Conduction Transformation of Adhesive Catecholamine for Simultaneous Increases of Electrical Conductivity and Mechanical Strength of CNT Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Chou, Jeffrey B; Lee, Kyueui; Lee, Dongju; Hong, Soon Hyung; Zhao, Rong; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang-gook

    2015-06-01

    Increase in conductivity and mechanical properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber inspired by mussel-adhesion chemistry is described. Infiltration of polydopamine into an as-drawn CNT fiber followed by pyrolysis results in a direct insulation-to-conduction transformation of poly(dopamine) into pyrolyzed-poly(dopamine) (py-PDA), retaining the intrinsic adhesive function of catecholamine. The py-PDA enhances both the electrical conductivity and the mechanical strength of the CNT fibers. PMID:25899742

  7. Direct Insulation-to-Conduction Transformation of Adhesive Catecholamine for Simultaneous Increases of Electrical Conductivity and Mechanical Strength of CNT Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Chou, Jeffrey B; Lee, Kyueui; Lee, Dongju; Hong, Soon Hyung; Zhao, Rong; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang-gook

    2015-06-01

    Increase in conductivity and mechanical properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber inspired by mussel-adhesion chemistry is described. Infiltration of polydopamine into an as-drawn CNT fiber followed by pyrolysis results in a direct insulation-to-conduction transformation of poly(dopamine) into pyrolyzed-poly(dopamine) (py-PDA), retaining the intrinsic adhesive function of catecholamine. The py-PDA enhances both the electrical conductivity and the mechanical strength of the CNT fibers.

  8. Mechanical behaviour and failure modes in the Whakaari (White Island volcano) hydrothermal system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Pernin, Noémie; Jacquemard, Laura; Baud, Patrick; Farquharson, Jamie I.; Scheu, Bettina; Lavallée, Yan; Gilg, H. Albert; Letham-Brake, Mark; Mayer, Klaus; Jolly, Arthur D.; Reuschlé, Thierry; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-03-01

    Volcanic hydrothermal systems host a prodigious variety of physico-chemical conditions. The physico-chemical state and mechanical behaviour of rocks within is correspondingly complex and often characterised by vast heterogeneity. Here, we present uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments designed to investigate the breadth of mechanical behaviour and failure modes (dilatant or compactant) for hydrothermally-altered lava and ash tuff deposits from Whakaari (White Island volcano) in New Zealand, a volcano with a well-documented and very active hydrothermal system. Our deformation experiments show that the failure mode of low porosity lava remains dilatant over a range of depths (up to pressures corresponding to depths of about 2 km). Upon failure, shear fractures, the result of the coalescence of dilatational microcracks, are universally present. The high porosity ash tuffs switch however from a dilatant to a compactant failure mode (driven by progressive distributed pore collapse) at relatively low pressure (corresponding to a depth of about 250 m). We capture the salient features of the dynamic conditions (e.g., differential stress, effective pressure) in a schematic cross section for the Whakaari hydrothermal system and map, for the different lithologies, areas susceptible to either dilatant vs. compactive modes of failure. The failure mode will impact, for example, the evolution of rock physical properties (e.g., porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity) and the nature of the seismicity accompanying periods of unrest. We outline accordingly the potential implications for the interpretation of seismic signals, outgassing, ground deformation, and the volcanic structural stability for Whakaari and similar hydrothermally-active volcanoes worldwide.

  9. Hydrological Effects on Failure Mechanism of the Shiaolin Landslide, Taiwan Induced by Typhoon Morakot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meei-Ling; Chou, Li-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    In 2009 Typhoon Morakot struck southern Taiwan and induced a catastrophic landslide in Shiaolin Village, Kaoshiung City, and more than 400 people were killed. This research focused on the hydrological condition and its effect on the failure mechanism of the catastrophic Shiaolin Landslide. The topographic analysis was conducted using the DEM before and LiDAR derived DEM after the landslide. Based on results of the topographic analysis, a wedge type failure mode was deduced. In order to determine the critical sliding condition and geometry of the failure wedge, the PIV analysis, slope & aspect analysis and attitude analysis were conducted, and comparisons of results were made to finalize the geometry and attitude of the critical sliding condition of the Shiaolin Landslide. The stability analysis was conducted accordingly using material properties from laboratory test and estimation from the similar formation. The effects of ground water variation, possible effect of fault gouge on seepage water table, and the strength reduction of rock mass material were considered in the detailed analysis. The results suggested that the Shiaolin Landslide has a wedge type failure mode, and the ground water variation played an important role of the landslide, and the existence of fault gouge affected the ground hydrology significantly, which could lead to the critical failure of the Shiaolin Landslide.

  10. Atomistic simulations to micro-mechanisms of adhesion in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Fatih Gurcag

    This study aimed at depicting atomistic and microstructural aspects of adhesion and friction that appear in different automotive applications and manufacturing processes using atomistic simulations coupled with tribological tests and surface characterization experiments. Thin films that form at the contact interfaces due to chemical reactions and coatings that are developed to mitigate or enhance adhesion were studied in detail. The adhesion and friction experiments conducted on diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings against Al indicated that F incorporation into DLC decreased the coefficient of friction (COF) by 30% -with respect to H-DLC that is known to have low COF and anti-adhesion properties against Al- to 0.14 owing to formation of repulsive F-F interactions at the sliding interface as shown by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. F atoms transferred to the Al surface with an increase in the contact pressure, and this F transfer led to the formation of a stable AlF3 compound at the Al surface as confirmed by XPS and cross-sectional FIB-TEM. The incorporation of Si and O in a F-containing DLC resulted in humidity independent low COF of 0.08 due to the hydration effect of the Si-O-Si chains in the carbonaceous tribolayers that resulted in repulsive OH-OH interactions at the contact interface. At high temperatures, adhesion of Al was found to be enhanced as a result of superplastic oxide fibers on the Al surface. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of tensile deformation of Al nanowires in oxygen carried out with ReaxFF showed that native oxide of Al has an oxygen deficient, low density structure and in O2, the oxygen diffusion in amorphous oxide healed the broken Al-O bonds during applied strain and resulted in the superplasticity. The oxide shell also provided nucleation sites for dislocations in Al crystal. In fuel cell applications, where low Pt/carbon adhesion is causing durability problems, spin-polarized DFT showed that metals with unfilled d

  11. Kinetic Mechanism and Rate-Limiting Steps of Focal Adhesion Kinase-1

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, Jessica L.; Briand, Jacques; Chen, Stephanie; Lehr, Ruth; McDevitt, Patrick; Zhao, Baoguang; Smallwood, Angela; Concha, Nestor; Oza, Khyati; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Yan, Kang; Villa, James P.; Meek, Thomas D.; Thrall, Sara H.

    2010-12-07

    Steady-state kinetic analysis of focal adhesion kinase-1 (FAK1) was performed using radiometric measurement of phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate (Ac-RRRRRRSETDDYAEIID-NH{sub 2}, FAK-tide) which corresponds to the sequence of an autophosphorylation site in FAK1. Initial velocity studies were consistent with a sequential kinetic mechanism, for which apparent kinetic values k{sub cat} (0.052 {+-} 0.001 s{sup -1}), K{sub MgATP} (1.2 {+-} 0.1 {micro}M), K{sub iMgATP} (1.3 {+-} 0.2 {micro}M), K{sub FAK-tide} (5.6 {+-} 0.4 {micro}M), and K{sub iFAK-tide} (6.1 {+-} 1.1 {micro}M) were obtained. Product and dead-end inhibition data indicated that enzymatic phosphorylation of FAK-tide by FAK1 was best described by a random bi bi kinetic mechanism, for which both E-MgADP-FAK-tide and E-MgATP-P-FAK-tide dead-end complexes form. FAK1 catalyzed the {beta}{gamma}-bridge:{beta}-nonbridge positional oxygen exchange of [{gamma}-{sup 18}O{sub 4}]ATP in the presence of 1 mM [{gamma}-{sup 18}O{sub 4}]ATP and 1.5 mM FAK-tide with a progressive time course which was commensurate with catalysis, resulting in a rate of exchange to catalysis of k{sub x}/k{sub cat} = 0.14 {+-} 0.01. These results indicate that phosphoryl transfer is reversible and that a slow kinetic step follows formation of the E-MgADP-P-FAK-tide complex. Further kinetic studies performed in the presence of the microscopic viscosogen sucrose revealed that solvent viscosity had no effect on k{sub cat}/K{sub FAK-tide}, while k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub MgATP} were both decreased linearly at increasing solvent viscosity. Crystallographic characterization of inactive versus AMP-PNP-liganded structures of FAK1 showed that a large conformational motion of the activation loop upon ATP binding may be an essential step during catalysis and would explain the viscosity effect observed on k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for MgATP but not on k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for FAK-tide. From the positional isotope exchange, viscosity, and

  12. Application of dynamic fracture mechanics to the investigation of catastrophic failure in aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Benjamin Bin

    A dynamic fracture mechanics approach to the estimation of the residual strength of aircraft structures is presented. The dependence of the dynamic crack initiation toughness of aluminum 2024-T3 on loading rate is first studied experimentally. Based on the experimental results and on established dynamic fracture mechanic concepts, a fracture mechanics based failure model is established and is used to estimate the residual strength of aircraft structures. A methodology to determine residual strength of dynamically loaded structures based on global structural analysis coupled with local finite element analysis is introduced. Local finite element calculations were performed for different loading rates to simulate the conditions encountered in an explosively loaded aircraft fuselage. The results from the analyses were then used in conjunction with the experimental results for the dynamic fracture toughness of a 2024-T3 aluminum alloy as a function of loading rate, KdIC vs. K˙d(t), to determine the time to failure, tf, for a given loading rate. A failure envelope, sf vs. ṡ , based on the failure model and finite element analysis, is presented for the different cases and the implications for the residual strength of aircraft structures is discussed. Mixed mode dynamic crack initiation in aluminum 2024-T3 alloy is investigated by combining experiments with numerical simulations. The optical technique of coherent gradient sensing (CGS) and a strain gage method are employed to study the evolution of the mixed mode stress intensity factors. The dynamic mixed mode failure envelope is obtained using the crack initiation data from the experiments at a nominal loading rate of 7 x 105 MPam/s . Numerical simulations of the experiments are conducted to both help in designing the experiments and to validate the results of the experiments. The numerical simulations show good correlation with the experimental results.

  13. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  14. The effect of ionic strength on oil adhesion in sandstone – the search for the low salinity mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hilner, E.; Andersson, M. P.; Hassenkam, T.; Matthiesen, J.; Salino, P. A.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Core flood and field tests have demonstrated that decreasing injection water salinity increases oil recovery from sandstone reservoirs. However, the microscopic mechanism behind the effect is still under debate. One hypothesis is that as salinity decreases, expansion of the electrical double layer decreases attraction between organic molecules and pore surfaces. We have developed a method that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) in chemical force mapping (CFM) mode to explore the relationship between wettability and salinity. We functionalised AFM tips with alkanes and used them to represent tiny nonpolar oil droplets. In repeated measurements, we brought our “oil” close to the surface of sand grains taken from core plugs and we measured the adhesion between the tip and sample. Adhesion was constant in high salinity solutions but below a threshold of 5,000 to 8,000 ppm, adhesion decreased as salinity decreased, rendering the surface less oil wet. The effect was consistent, reproducible and reversible. The threshold for the onset of low salinity response fits remarkably well with observations from core plug experiments and field tests. The results demonstrate that the electric double layer force always contributes at least in part to the low salinity effect, decreasing oil wettability when salinity is low. PMID:25899050

  15. Therapeutic effects of tyroservatide on metastasis of lung cancer and its mechanism affecting integrin–focal adhesion kinase signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Lan; Fu, Zheng; Zhao, Meng; Song, Xiao-meng; Jia, Jing; Wang, Song; Li, Jin-ping; Zhu, Zhi-feng; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Tyroservatide (YSV) can inhibit the growth and metastasis of mouse lung cancer significantly. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of tripeptide YSV on metastasis of human lung cancer cells and explored its possible mechanism that affects integrin–focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signal transduction in tumor cells. YSV significantly inhibited the adhesion and the invasion of highly metastatic human lung cancer cell lines 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299. In addition, YSV significantly inhibited phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 and FAK Tyr576/577 in the 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells in vitro. And the mRNA level and protein expression of FAK in these human lung cancer cells decreased at the same time. YSV also significantly inhibited mRNA and protein levels of integrin β1 and integrin β3 in the 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells. Our research showed that YSV inhibited adhesion and invasion of human lung cancer cells and exhibited therapeutic effects on metastasis of lung cancer. PMID:27041993

  16. Therapeutic effects of tyroservatide on metastasis of lung cancer and its mechanism affecting integrin-focal adhesion kinase signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Lan; Fu, Zheng; Zhao, Meng; Song, Xiao-meng; Jia, Jing; Wang, Song; Li, Jin-ping; Zhu, Zhi-feng; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Tyroservatide (YSV) can inhibit the growth and metastasis of mouse lung cancer significantly. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of tripeptide YSV on metastasis of human lung cancer cells and explored its possible mechanism that affects integrin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signal transduction in tumor cells. YSV significantly inhibited the adhesion and the invasion of highly metastatic human lung cancer cell lines 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299. In addition, YSV significantly inhibited phosphorylation of FAK Tyr397 and FAK Tyr576/577 in the 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells in vitro. And the mRNA level and protein expression of FAK in these human lung cancer cells decreased at the same time. YSV also significantly inhibited mRNA and protein levels of integrin β1 and integrin β3 in the 95D, A549, and NCI-H1299 human lung cancer cells. Our research showed that YSV inhibited adhesion and invasion of human lung cancer cells and exhibited therapeutic effects on metastasis of lung cancer.

  17. The effect of ionic strength on oil adhesion in sandstone--the search for the low salinity mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hilner, E; Andersson, M P; Hassenkam, T; Matthiesen, J; Salino, P A; Stipp, S L S

    2015-01-01

    Core flood and field tests have demonstrated that decreasing injection water salinity increases oil recovery from sandstone reservoirs. However, the microscopic mechanism behind the effect is still under debate. One hypothesis is that as salinity decreases, expansion of the electrical double layer decreases attraction between organic molecules and pore surfaces. We have developed a method that uses atomic force microscopy (AFM) in chemical force mapping (CFM) mode to explore the relationship between wettability and salinity. We functionalised AFM tips with alkanes and used them to represent tiny nonpolar oil droplets. In repeated measurements, we brought our "oil" close to the surface of sand grains taken from core plugs and we measured the adhesion between the tip and sample. Adhesion was constant in high salinity solutions but below a threshold of 5,000 to 8,000 ppm, adhesion decreased as salinity decreased, rendering the surface less oil wet. The effect was consistent, reproducible and reversible. The threshold for the onset of low salinity response fits remarkably well with observations from core plug experiments and field tests. The results demonstrate that the electric double layer force always contributes at least in part to the low salinity effect, decreasing oil wettability when salinity is low.

  18. Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

    2014-06-01

    Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

  19. A fundamental approach to adhesion: Synthesis, surface analysis, thermodynamics and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwight, D. W.; Wightman, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of SEM/EDAX to determine the physical and chemical composition of very small areas was used to study several diverse types of samples representative of NASA-LaRC technology. More systematic investigation was carried out on differences in the results of grit-blasting Ti 6-4 adherends and the presence of extraneous elements, primarily silicon, in some polymer/HT-S fiber composites. Initial results were obtained from a fractured (ILS) short-beam shear specimen, and from Ti 6-4 alloy, before and after a proprietary Boeing anodizing surface preparation for adhesive bonding. Photomicrographs and EDAX spectra were also obtained from new, fractured lap shear strength specimens that employed PPQ and LARC-13 adhesives.

  20. Multiscale treatment of theoretical mechanisms for the protection of hydrogel surfaces from adhesive forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, J. B.

    2014-09-01

    One role of a lubricant is to prevent wear of two surfaces in contact, which is likely to be the result of adhesive forces that cause a pair of asperities belonging to two surfaces in contact to stick together. Such adhesive sticking of asperities can occur both for sliding surfaces and for surfaces which are pressed together and then pulled apart. The latter situation, for example, is important for contact lenses, as prevention of sticking reduces possible damage to the cornea as the lenses are inserted and removed from the eye. Contact lenses are made from both neutral and polyelectrolyte hydrogels. It is demonstrated here that sticking of neutral hydrogels can be prevented by repulsive forces between asperities in contact, resulting from polymers attached to the gel surface but not linked with each other. For polyelectrolyte hydrogels, it is shown that osmotic pressure due to counterions, held at the interface between asperities in contact by the electrostatic attraction between the ions and the fixed charges in the gel, can provide a sufficiently strong repulsive force to prevent adhesive sticking of small-length-scale asperities.

  1. Deformation and failure of single- and multi-phase silicate liquids: seismic precursors and mechanical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Wassermann, Joachim; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2013-04-01

    Along with many others, volcanic unrest is regarded as a catastrophic material failure phenomenon and is often preceded by diverse precursory signals. Although a volcanic system intrinsically behave in a non-linear and stochastic way, these precursors display systematic evolutionary trends to upcoming eruptions. Seismic signals in particular are in general dramatically increasing prior to an eruption and have been extensively reported to show accelerating rates through time, as well as in the laboratory before failure of rock samples. At the lab-scale, acoustic emissions (AE) are high frequency transient stress waves used to track fracture initiation and propagation inside a rock sample. Synthesized glass samples featuring a range of porosities (0 - 30%) and natural rock samples from volcán de Colima, Mexico, have been failed under high temperature uniaxial compression experiments at constant stresses and strain rates. Using the monitored AEs and the generated mechanical work during deformation, we investigated the evolutionary trends of energy patterns associated to different degrees of heterogeneity. We observed that the failure of dense, poorly porous glasses is achieved by exceeding elevated strength and thus requires a significant accumulation of strain, meaning only pervasive small-scale cracking is occurring. More porous glasses as well as volcanic samples need much lower applied stress and deformation to fail, as fractures are nucleating, propagating and coalescing into localized large-scale cracks, taking the advantage of the existence of numerous defects (voids for glasses, voids and crystals for volcanic rocks). These observations demonstrate that the mechanical work generated through cracking is efficiently distributed inside denser and more homogeneous samples, as underlined by the overall lower AE energy released during experiments. In contrast, the quicker and larger AE energy released during the loading of heterogeneous samples shows that the

  2. Mechanical properties and platelet adhesion behavior of diamond-like carbon films synthesized by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Wan, G. J.; Huang, N.

    2003-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an attractive biomedical material due to its high inertness and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, DLC films were fabricated on Ti6Al4V and Si(1 0 0) substrates at room temperature by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition. By changing the argon flow from 0 to 13 sccm during deposition, the effects of argon flow on the characteristics of the DLC films were systematically examined to correlate to the blood compatibility. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analysis, a nano-indenter and pin-on-disk tribometer. The blood compatibility of the films was evaluated using in vitro platelet adhesion investigation, and the quantity and morphology of the adherent platelets was investigated employing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Raman spectroscopy results showed a decreasing sp 3 fraction (an increasing trend in ID/ IG ratio) with increasing argon flow from 0 to 13 sccm. The sp 3:sp 2 ratio of the films was evaluated from the deconvoluted XPS spectra. We found that the sp 3 fraction decreased as the argon flow was increased from 0 to 13 sccm, which is consistent with the results of the Raman spectra. The mechanical properties results confirmed the decreasing sp 3 content with increasing argon flow. The Raman D-band to G-band intensity ratio increased and the platelet adhesion behavior became better with higher flow. This implies that the blood compatibility of the DLC films is influenced by the sp 3:sp 2 ratio. DLC films deposited on titanium alloys have high wear resistance, low friction and good adhesion.

  3. Mechanisms Regulating the Degradation of Dentin Matrices by Endogenous Dentin Proteases and their Role in Dental Adhesion. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Camila; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This systematic review provides an overview of the different mechanisms proposed to regulate the degradation of dentin matrices bye host-derived dentin proteases, particularly as it relates to their role in dental adhesion. Methods Significant developments have taken place over the last few years that have contributed to a better understanding of all the factors affecting the durability of adhesive resin restorations. The complexity of dentin-resin interfaces mandates a thorough understanding of all the mechanical, physical and biochemical aspects that play a role in the formation of hybrid layers. The ionic and hydrophilic nature of current dental adhesives yields permeable, unstable hybrid layers susceptible to water sorption, hydrolytic degradation and resin leaching. The hydrolytic activity of host-derived proteases also contributes to the degradation of the resin-dentin bonds. Preservation of the collagen matrix is critical to the improvement of resin-dentin bond durability. Approaches to regulate collagenolytic activity of dentin proteases have been the subject of extensive research in the last few years. A shift has occurred from the use of proteases inhibitors to the use of collagen cross-linking agents. Data provided by fifty-one studies published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1999 and December 2013 was compiled in this systematic review. Results Appraisal of the data provided by the studies included in the present review yielded a summary of the mechanisms which have already proven to be clinically successful and those which need further investigation before new clinical protocols can be adopted. PMID:25831604

  4. Parametric Studies Of Failure Mechanisms In Thermal Barrier Coatings During Thermal Cycling Using FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivathsa, B.; Das, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used on different hot components of gas turbine engines such as blades and vanes. Although, several mechanisms for the failure of the TBCs have been suggested, it is largely accepted that the durability of these coatings is primarily determined by the residual stresses that are developed during the thermal cycling. In the present study, the residual stress build-up in an electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD) based TBCs on a coupon during thermal cycling has been studied by varying three parameters such as the cooling rate, TBC thickness and substrate thickness. A two-dimensional thermomechanical generalized plane strain finite element simulations have been performed for thousand cycles. It was observed that these variations change the stress profile significantly and the stress severity factor increases non-linearly. Overall, the predictions of the model agree with reported experimental results and help in predicting the failure mechanisms.

  5. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°.

  6. Bibliography of information on mechanics of structural failure (hydrogen embrittlement, protective coatings, composite materials, NDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is comprised of approximately 1,600 reference citations related to four problem areas in the mechanics of failure in aerospace structures. The bibliography represents a search of the literature published in the period 1962-1976, the effort being largely limited to documents published in the United States. Listings are subdivided into the four problem areas: Hydrogen Embrittlement; Protective Coatings; Composite Materials; and Nondestructive Evaluation. An author index is included.

  7. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°. PMID:26143351

  8. Vimentin contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition cancer cell mechanics by mediating cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2015-01-01

    Modulations of cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion turnover correlate to tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the latter process accompanied by the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers (e.g., vimentin). Clinical microarray results demonstrated that increased levels of vimentin mRNA after chemotherapy correlated to a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. We hypothesized that vimentin mediated the reorganization of cytoskeletons to maintain the mechanical integrity in EMT cancer cells. By using knockdown strategy, the results showed reduced cell proliferation, impaired wound healing, loss of directional migration, and increased large membrane extension in MDA-MB 231 cells. Vimentin depletion also induced reorganization of cytoskeletons and reduced focal adhesions, which resulted in impaired mechanical strength because of reduced cell stiffness and contractile force. In addition, overexpressing vimentin in MCF7 cells increased cell stiffness, elevated cell motility and directional migration, reoriented microtubule polarity, and increased EMT phenotypes due to the increased β1-integrin and the loss of junction protein E-cadherin. The EMT-related transcription factor slug was also mediated by vimentin. The current study demonstrated that vimentin serves as a regulator to maintain intracellular mechanical homeostasis by mediating cytoskeleton architecture and the balance of cell force generation in EMT cancer cells. PMID:25965826

  9. Improving the fatigue resistance of adhesive joints in laminated wood structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Theodore L.; River, Bryan H.; Murmanis, Lidija L.; Christiansen, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    The premature fatigue failure of a laminated wood/epoxy test beam containing a cross section finger joint was the subject of a multi-disciplinary investigation. The primary objectives were to identify the failure mechanisms which occurred during the finger joint test and to provide avenues for general improvements in the design and fabrication of adhesive joints in laminated wood structures.

  10. Photo-crosslinkable cyanoacrylate bioadhesive: shrinkage kinetics, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of adhesives containing TMPTMA and POSS nanostructures as crosslinking agents.

    PubMed

    Ghasaban, S; Atai, M; Imani, M; Zandi, M; Shokrgozar, M-A

    2011-11-01

    The study investigates the photo-polymerization shrinkage behavior, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of cyanoacrylate bioadhesives containing POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents. Adhesives containing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and different percentages of POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents were prepared. The 1-phenyl-1, 2-propanedione (PPD) was incorporated as photo-initiator into the adhesive in 1.5, 3, and 4 wt %. The shrinkage strain of the specimens was measured using bonded-disk technique. Shrinkage strain, shrinkage strain rate, maximum and time at maximum shrinkage strain rate were measured and compared. Mechanical properties of the adhesives were also studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Biocompatibility of the adhesives was examined by MTT method. The results showed that shrinkage strain increased with increasing the initiator concentration up to 3 wt % in POSS-containing and 1.5 wt % in TMPTMA-containing specimens and plateaued out at higher concentrations. By increasing the crosslinking agent, shrinkage strain, and shrinkage strain rate increased and the time at maximum shrinkage strain rate decreased. The study indicates that the incorporation of crosslinking agents into the cyanoacrylate adhesives resulted in improved mechanical properties. Preliminary MTT studies also revealed better biocompatibility profile for the adhesives containing crosslinking agents comparing to the neat specimens.

  11. Mechanical failures as a contributing cause to motor vehicle accidents South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Schoor, O; van Niekerk, J L; Grobbelaar, B

    2001-11-01

    Over the past decades motor vehicles became the primary mode of transportation in developing countries. At the same time an improvement in automotive engineering and manufacturing as well as the phenomena of urbanisation have resulted in more vehicles spending more time on the road at higher speeds. Invariably this leads to driving scenarios where safety critical manoeuvres have to be performed that rely on the mechanical condition of the vehicles. In developing countries, where economic realities force the population to make use of older and less reliable vehicles, the risk of accidents caused by some sort of mechanical failure increases. The casualty rate (events causing death and/or serious injuries) for road traffic accidents in South Africa is amongst the highest in the world. This trend has persisted with little variation over the years, despite the efforts of local road safety organisations and research institutes to decrease them. The main goal of this study was to establish the contribution of mechanical failures to motor vehicle accidents, and furthermore, to compare it with international trends. Data obtained from accident response units (ARU) indicate that tyres and brakes were the main contributors to mechanical failures resulting in accidents in the Pretoria region (Gauteng Province). However, the reported percentage of approximately 3% is comparable to similar statistics from developed countries. Detailed information on the condition of road-going vehicles was then collected in this area. The roadside survey (potential mechanical defect tests (PMDT)) indicated that 40% of the vehicles surveyed on the suburban road and 29% of the vehicles surveyed on the highway had mechanical defects that contravened current road and traffic regulations in South Africa and may, therefore, be at risk of causing an accident due to a mechanical failure. In the Minibus (taxi) survey, large irregularities in tyre inflation pressure were identified as a cause of concern

  12. Mechanism of failure of the Cabrol procedure: A computational fluid dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Poullis, M; Pullan, M

    2015-12-01

    Sudden failure of the Cabrol graft is common and frequently fatal. We utilised the technique of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to evaluate the mechanism of failure and potentially improve on the design of the Cabrol procedure. CFD analysis of the classic Cabrol procedure and a number of its variants was performed. Results from this analysis was utilised to generate further improved geometric options for the Cabrol procedure. These were also subjected to CFD analysis. All current Cabrol and variations of the Cabrol procedure are predicated by CFD analysis to be prone to graft thrombosis, secondary to stasis around the right coronary artery button. The right coronary artery flow characteristics were found to be the dominant reason for Cabrol graft failure. A simple modification of the Cabrol geometry is predicated to virtually eliminate any areas of blood stasis, and graft failure. Modification of the Cabrol graft geometry, due to CFD analysis may help reduce the incidence of graft thrombosis. A C shaped Cabrol graft with the right coronary button anastomosed to its side along its course from the aorta to the left coronary button is predicted to have the least thrombotic tendency. Clinical correlation is needed. PMID:26508722

  13. Failure mechanisms of polycrystalline diamond compact drill bits in geothermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, E.R.; Pope, L.E.

    1981-09-01

    Over the past few years the interest in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits has grown proportionately with their successful use in drilling oil and gas wells in the North Sea and the United States. This keen interest led to a research program at Sandia to develop PDC drill bits suitable for the severe drilling conditions encountered in geothermal fields. Recently, three different PDC drill bits were tested using either air or mud drilling fluids: one in the laboratory with hot air, one in the Geysers field with air, and one in the Geysers field with mud. All three tests were unsuccessful due to failure of the braze joint used to attach the PDC drill blanks to the tungsten carbide studs. A post-mortem failure analysis of the defective cutters identified three major failure mechanisms: peripheral nonbonding caused by braze oxidation during the brazing step, nonbonding between PDC drill blanks and the braze due to contamination prior to brazing, and hot shortness. No evidence was found to suggest that the braze failures in the Geysers field tests were caused by frictional heating. In addition, inspection of the PDC/stud cutter assemblies using ultrasonic techniques was found to be ineffective for detecting the presence of hot shortness in the braze joint.

  14. Mechanism of failure of the Cabrol procedure: A computational fluid dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Poullis, M; Pullan, M

    2015-12-01

    Sudden failure of the Cabrol graft is common and frequently fatal. We utilised the technique of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to evaluate the mechanism of failure and potentially improve on the design of the Cabrol procedure. CFD analysis of the classic Cabrol procedure and a number of its variants was performed. Results from this analysis was utilised to generate further improved geometric options for the Cabrol procedure. These were also subjected to CFD analysis. All current Cabrol and variations of the Cabrol procedure are predicated by CFD analysis to be prone to graft thrombosis, secondary to stasis around the right coronary artery button. The right coronary artery flow characteristics were found to be the dominant reason for Cabrol graft failure. A simple modification of the Cabrol geometry is predicated to virtually eliminate any areas of blood stasis, and graft failure. Modification of the Cabrol graft geometry, due to CFD analysis may help reduce the incidence of graft thrombosis. A C shaped Cabrol graft with the right coronary button anastomosed to its side along its course from the aorta to the left coronary button is predicted to have the least thrombotic tendency. Clinical correlation is needed.

  15. Investigation into the Formation and Adhesion of Cyclopentane Hydrates on Mechanically Robust Vapor-Deposited Polymeric Coatings.

    PubMed

    Sojoudi, Hossein; Walsh, Matthew R; Gleason, Karen K; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-06-01

    Blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases (also called gas hydrates) can compromise project safety and economics in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Cyclopentane (CyC5) hydrate has attracted interest as a model system for studying natural gas hydrates, because CyC5, like typical natural gas hydrate formers, is almost fully immiscible in water; and thus CyC5 hydrate formation is governed not only by thermodynamic phase considerations but also kinetic factors such as the hydrocarbon/water interfacial area, as well as mass and heat transfer constraints, as for natural gas hydrates. We present a macroscale investigation of the formation and adhesion strength of CyC5 hydrate deposits on bilayer polymer coatings with a range of wettabilities. The polymeric bilayer coatings are developed using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of a mechanically robust and densely cross-linked polymeric base layer (polydivinylbenzene or pDVB) that is capped with a covalently attached thin hydrate-phobic fluorine-rich top layer (poly(perfluorodecyl acrylate) or pPFDA). The CyC5 hydrates are formed from CyC5-in-water emulsions, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to confirm the thermal dissociation properties of the solid hydrate deposits. We also investigate the adhesion of the CyC5 hydrate deposits on bare and bilayer polymer-coated silicon and steel substrates. Goniometric measurements with drops of CyC5-in-water emulsions on the coated steel substrates exhibit advancing contact angles of 148.3 ± 4.5° and receding contact angles of 142.5 ± 9.8°, indicating the strongly emulsion-repelling nature of the iCVD coatings. The adhesion strength of the CyC5 hydrate deposits is reduced from 220 ± 45 kPa on rough steel substrates to 20 ± 17 kPa on the polymer-coated steel substrates. The measured strength of CyC5 hydrate

  16. Reduction of Tendon Adhesions following Administration of Adaprev, a Hypertonic Solution of Mannose-6-Phosphate: Mechanism of Action Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason K. F.; Metcalfe, Anthony D.; Wong, Richard; Bush, Jim; Platt, Chris; Garcon, Arnaud; Goldspink, Nick; McGrouther, Duncan A.; Ferguson, Mark W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Repaired tendons may be complicated by progressive fibrosis, causing adhesion formation or tendon softening leading to tendon rupture and subsequent reduced range of motion. There are few therapies available which improve the gliding of damaged tendons in the hand. We investigate the role of Mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) in a 600 mM hypertonic solution (Adaprev) on tendon adhesion formation in vivo using a mouse model of severed tendon in conjunction with analysis of collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and receptors involved in TGF beta signalling. Cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring tissue residency, mechanical strength and cell viability of tendons after treatment with Adaprev. To elicit potential modes of action, in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed investigating phosphorylation of p38, cell migration and proliferation. Adaprev treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced the development of adhesions and improved collagen organisation without reducing overall collagen synthesis following tendon injury in vivo. The bioavailability of Adaprev saw a 40% reduction at the site of administration over 45 minutes and tendon fibroblasts tolerated up to 120 minutes of exposure without significant loss of cell viability or tensile strength. These favourable effects were independent of CI-MPR and TGF-β signalling and possibly highlight a novel mechanism of action related to cellular stress demonstrated by phosphorylation of p38. The effect of treatment reduced tendon fibroblast migration and transiently halted tendon fibroblast proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. Our studies demonstrate that the primary mode of action for Adaprev is potentially via a physical, non-chemical, hyperosmotic effect. PMID:25383548

  17. Cardiac arrhythmia mechanisms in rats with heart failure induced by pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, David; Stones, Rachel; Drinkhill, Mark J.; Benson, Alan P.; Yang, Zhaokang; Cassan, Cecile; Gilbert, Stephen H.; Saint, David A.; Cazorla, Olivier; Steele, Derek S.; Bernus, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension provokes right heart failure and arrhythmias. Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these arrhythmias is needed to facilitate new therapeutic approaches for the hypertensive, failing right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to identify the mechanisms generating arrhythmias in a model of RV failure induced by pulmonary hypertension. Rats were injected with monocrotaline to induce either RV hypertrophy or failure or with saline (control). ECGs were measured in conscious, unrestrained animals by telemetry. In isolated hearts, electrical activity was measured by optical mapping and myofiber orientation by diffusion tensor-MRI. Sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ handling was studied in single myocytes. Compared with control animals, the T-wave of the ECG was prolonged and in three of seven heart failure animals, prominent T-wave alternans occurred. Discordant action potential (AP) alternans occurred in isolated failing hearts and Ca2+ transient alternans in failing myocytes. In failing hearts, AP duration and dispersion were increased; conduction velocity and AP restitution were steeper. The latter was intrinsic to failing single myocytes. Failing hearts had greater fiber angle disarray; this correlated with AP duration. Failing myocytes had reduced sarco(endo)plasmic reticular Ca2+-ATPase activity, increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+-release fraction, and increased Ca2+ spark leak. In hypertrophied hearts and myocytes, dysfunctional adaptation had begun, but alternans did not develop. We conclude that increased electrical and structural heterogeneity and dysfunctional sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ handling increased the probability of alternans, a proarrhythmic predictor of sudden cardiac death. These mechanisms are potential therapeutic targets for the correction of arrhythmias in hypertensive, failing RVs. PMID:22427523

  18. Scanning electron microscopy-based approach to understand the mechanism underlying the adhesion of dengue viruses on ceramic hydroxyapatite columns.

    PubMed

    Saito, Maiko; Kurosawa, Yae; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    Although ceramic hydroxyapatite (HAp) chromatography has been used as an alternative method ultracentrifugation for the production of vaccines, the mechanism of virus separation is still obscure. In order to begin to understand the mechanisms of virus separation, HAp surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy after chromatography with dengue viruses. When these processes were performed without elution and with a 10-207 mM sodium phosphate buffer gradient elution, dengue viruses that were adsorbed to HAp were disproportionately located in the columns. However, when eluted with a 10-600 mM sodium phosphate buffer gradient, few viruses were observed on the HAp surface. After incubating the dengue viruses that were adsorbed on HAp beads at 37°C and 2°C, the sphericity of the dengue viruses were reduced with an increase in incubation temperature. These results suggested that dengue virus was adsorbed to the HAp surface by electronic interactions and could be eluted by high-salt concentration buffers, which are commonly used in protein purification. Furthermore, virus fusion was thought to occur with increasing temperature, which implied that virus-HAp adhesion was similar to virus-cell adhesion.

  19. MUC16 contributes to the metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma through focal adhesion mediated signaling mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Seema; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Gupta, Suprit; Seshacharyulu, Parthasarathy; Smith, Lynette M.; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2016-01-01

    MUC16, a heavily glycosylated type-I transmembrane mucin is overexpressed in several cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Previously, we have shown that MUC16 is significantly overexpressed in human PDAC tissues. However, the functional consequences and its role in PDAC is poorly understood. Here, we show that MUC16 knockdown decreases PDAC cell proliferation, colony formation and migration in vitro. Also, MUC16 knockdown decreases the tumor formation and metastasis in orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Mechanistically, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses confirms MUC16 interaction with galectin-3 and mesothelin in PDAC cells. Adhesion assay displayed decreased cell attachment of MUC16 knockdown cells with recombinant galectin-1 and galectin-3 protein. Further, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated MUC16 knockout cells show decreased tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (T and Tn) in PDAC cells. Importantly, carbohydrate antigens were decreased in the region that corresponds to MUC16 and suggests for the decreased MUC16-galectin interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation also revealed a novel interaction between MUC16 and FAK in PDAC cells. Interestingly, we observed decreased expression of mesenchymal and increased expression of epithelial markers in MUC16-silenced cells. Additionally, MUC16 loss showed a decreased FAK-mediated Akt and ERK/MAPK activation. Altogether, these findings suggest that MUC16-focal adhesion signaling may play a critical role in facilitating PDAC growth and metastasis. PMID:27382435

  20. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  1. Failure mechanism of shear-wall dominant multi-story buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuksel, S.B.; Kalkan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The recent trend in the building industry of Turkey as well as in many European countries is towards utilizing the tunnel form (shear-wall dominant) construction system for development of multi-story residential units. The tunnel form buildings diverge from other conventional reinforced concrete (RC) buildings due to the lack of beams and columns in their structural integrity. The vertical load-carrying members of these buildings are the structural-walls only, and the floor system is a flat plate. Besides the constructive advantages, tunnel form buildings provide superior seismic performance compared to conventional RC frame and dual systems as observed during the recent devastating earthquakes in Turkey (1999 Mw 7.4 Kocaeli, Mw 7.2 Duzce, and 2004 Mw 6.5 Bingol). With its proven earthquake performance, the tunnel form system is becoming the primary construction technique in many seismically active regions. In this study, a series of nonlinear analyses were conducted using finite element (FE) models to augment our understanding on their failure mechanism under lateral forces. In order to represent the nonlinear behavior adequately, The FE models were verified with the results of experimental studies performed on three dimensional (3D) scaled tunnel form building specimens. The results of this study indicate that the structural walls of tunnel form buildings may exhibit brittle flexural failure under lateral loading, if they are not properly reinforced. The global tension/compression couple triggers this failure mechanism by creating pure axial tension in the outermost shear-walls.

  2. Failure and deformation mechanisms at macro- and nano-scales of alkali activated clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar Das, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Chanda, Dipak Kr; Dalui, Srikanta; Acharya, Saikat; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Here we report two qualitative models on failure and deformation mechanisms at macro- and nano-scales of alkali activated clay (AACL), a material of extraordinary importance as a low cost building material. The models were based on experimental data of compressive failure and nanoindentation response of the AACL materials. A 420% improvement in compressive strength (σ c) of the AACL was achieved after 28 days (d) of curing at room temperature and it correlated well with the decrements in the residual alkali and pH concentrations with the increase in curing time. Based on extensive post-mortem FE-SEM examinations, a schematic model for the compressive failure mechanism of AACL was proposed. In addition, the nanoindentation results of AACL provided the first ever experimental evidence of the presence of nano-scale plasticity and a nano-scale contact deformation resistance that increased with the applied load. These results meant the development of a unique strain tolerant microstructure in the AACL of Indian origin. The implications of these new observations were discussed in terms of a qualitative model based on the deformation of layered clay structure.

  3. Tension Strength, Failure Prediction and Damage Mechanisms in 2D Triaxial Braided Composites with Notch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Timothy L.; Anglin, Colin

    1995-01-01

    The unnotched and notched (open hole) tensile strength and failure mechanisms of two-dimensional (2D) triaxial braided composites were examined. The effect of notch size and notch position were investigated. Damage initiation and propagation in notched and unnotched coupons were also examined. Theory developed to predict the normal stress distribution near an open hole and failure for tape laminated composites was evaluated for its applicability to 2D triaxial braided textile composite materials. Four different fiber architectures were considered; braid angle, yarn and braider size, percentage of longitudinal yarns and braider angle varied. Tape laminates equivalent to textile composites were also constructed for comparison. Unnotched tape equivalents were stronger than braided textiles but exhibited greater notch sensitivity. Notched textiles and tape equivalents have roughly the same strength at large notch sizes. Two common damage mechanisms were found: braider yarn cracking and near notch longitudinal yarn splitting. Cracking was found to initiate in braider yarns in unnotched and notched coupons, and propagate in the direction of the braider yarns until failure. Damage initiation stress decreased with increasing braid angle. No significant differences in prediction of near notch strain between textile and tape equivalents could be detected for small braid angle, but the correlations were weak for textiles with large braid angle. Notch strength could not be predicted using existing anisotropic theory for braided textiles due to their insensitivity to notch.

  4. β-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes: Postulated Mechanisms and Prospects for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Donald W.; Hawkins, Meredith A.; Ling, Charlotte; Mather, Kieren J.; Powers, Alvin C.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Sussel, Lori; Weir, Gordon C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This article examines the foundation of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and suggests areas for future research on the underlying mechanisms that may lead to improved prevention and treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A group of experts participated in a conference on 14–16 October 2013 cosponsored by the Endocrine Society and the American Diabetes Association. A writing group prepared this summary and recommendations. RESULTS The writing group based this article on conference presentations, discussion, and debate. Topics covered include genetic predisposition, foundations of β-cell failure, natural history of β-cell failure, and impact of therapeutic interventions. CONCLUSIONS β-Cell failure is central to the development and progression of T2D. It antedates and predicts diabetes onset and progression, is in part genetically determined, and often can be identified with accuracy even though current tests are cumbersome and not well standardized. Multiple pathways underlie decreased β-cell function and mass, some of which may be shared and may also be a consequence of processes that initially caused dysfunction. Goals for future research include to 1) impact the natural history of β-cell failure; 2) identify and characterize genetic loci for T2D; 3) target β-cell signaling, metabolic, and genetic pathways to improve function/mass; 4) develop alternative sources of β-cells for cell-based therapy; 5) focus on metabolic environment to provide indirect benefit to β-cells; 6) improve understanding of the physiology of responses to bypass surgery; and 7) identify circulating factors and neuronal circuits underlying the axis of communication between the brain and β-cells. PMID:24812433

  5. Lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films. 1: Effect of atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Friction, wear, and wear lives of rubbed molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 films applied to sanded 440C HT steel surfaces were evaluated in moist air, dry air, and dry argon. Optical microscope observations were made as a function of sliding distance to determine the effect of moisture and oxygen on the lubricating and failure mechanisms of MoS2 films. In general, the lubrication process consisted of the formation of a thin, metallic colored, coalesced film of MoS2 that flowed between the surfaces in relative motion. In air, failure was due to the transformation of the metallic colored, coalesced films to a black, powdery material. Water in the air appeared to accelerate the transformation rate. In argon, no transformation of MoS2 was observed with the microscope, but cracking and spalling of the coalesced film occurred and resulted in the gradual depletion of the film.

  6. Failure of blood-thymus barrier as a mechanism of tumor and trophoblast escape.

    PubMed

    Bubanovic, I V

    2003-03-01

    A major process through which the immune system becomes tolerant to self-proteins involves the deletion of self-reactive clones in the thymus, but clonal deletion is not single mechanisms of thymic tolerance. There is now much evidence that intrathymic antigen expression results in anergy induction of T helper type-1 (Th1) clones in the periphery. Blood-thymus barrier is most important structure for prevention of unwanted penetration of antigens into the thymus. Impermeability of the barrier restrain induction of acquired thymic tolerance on unwanted antigens like microbes and tumor cells. Nevertheless, one of most important mechanism of tumor and trophoblast escape is in anergy of Th1 cells and in Th2 cells domination. Many mechanisms are included in disarrangement of Th1/Th2 balance in pregnancy and tumor bearers, but one of possibility is in failure of blood-thymus barrier. Possible consequences of blood-thymus barrier failure are trophoblast-specific or tumor-specific antigens penetrate into the thymus, deletion or anergy of antigen-specific clones and acquired thymic tolerance induction. Blood-thymus barrier is variable structure in anatomical and functional sense so that in certain condition foreign antigens probably can permeate across the barrier. Probability that some factors like hormones, cytokines, prostaglandine and neuromediators can affect blood-thymus barrier permeability and contribute in mechanisms of trophoblast and tumor escape is real but relatively unexplored.

  7. Study on the Effects of Adipic Acid on Properties of Dicyandiamide-Cured Electrically Conductive Adhesive and the Interaction Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Chao; Fu, Yonggao; Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Xiaojian; Li, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    A small quantity of adipic acid was found to improve the performance of dicyandiamide-cured electrically conductive adhesive (ECA) by enhancing its electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. The mechanism of action of the adipic acid and its effects on the ECA were examined. The results indicated that adipic acid replaced the electrically insulating lubricant on the surface of the silver flakes, which significantly improved the electrical conductivity. Specifically, one of the acidic functional groups in adipic acid reacted with the silver flakes, and an amidation reaction occurred between the other acidic functional group in adipic acid and the dicyandiamide, which participated in the curing reaction. Therefore, adipic acid may act as a coupling agent to improve the overall ECA performance.

  8. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction--an independent risk factor for weaning failure from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Konomi, I; Tasoulis, A; Kaltsi, I; Karatzanos, E; Vasileiadis, I; Temperikidis, P; Nanas, S; Routsi, C I

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction to weaning failure, along with the levels of the currently used cardiac biomarkers. Forty-two mechanically ventilated patients, who fulfilled criteria for weaning from mechanical ventilation (MV), underwent a two-hour spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed before the start of the SBT. The grade of LV diastolic dysfunction was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging at the level of the mitral valve. Haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded. Blood levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, and myoglobin were measured on MV and at the end of the SBT. Weaning success was defined as the patient's ability to tolerate spontaneous breathing for more than 48 hours. Fifteen patients failed to wean. LV diastolic dysfunction was significantly associated with weaning failure (P<0.001). The grade of diastolic dysfunction was significantly correlated with BNP levels both on MV and at the end of the SBT (P<0.001, r=0.703 and P<0.001, r=0.709, respectively). BNP levels on MV were lower in patients who successfully weaned compared to those who did not (361±523 ng/l versus 643±382 ng/l respectively, P=0.008). The presence of diastolic dysfunction was independently associated with weaning failure (odds ratio [OR] 11.23, confidence interval [CI] 1.16-109.1, P=0.037) followed by respiratory frequency/tidal volume (OR 1.05, CI 1.00-1.10, P=0.048). Therefore, assessment of LV diastolic function before the start of weaning could be useful to identify patients at risk of weaning failure.

  9. The mysterious nature of bacterial surface (gliding) motility: A focal adhesion-based mechanism in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Islam, Salim T; Mignot, Tâm

    2015-10-01

    Motility of bacterial cells promotes a range of important physiological phenomena such as nutrient detection, harm avoidance, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis. While much research has been devoted to the mechanism of bacterial swimming in liquid via rotation of flagellar filaments, the mechanisms of bacterial translocation across solid surfaces are poorly understood, particularly when cells lack external appendages such as rotary flagella and/or retractile type IV pili. Under such limitations, diverse bacteria at the single-cell level are still able to "glide" across solid surfaces, exhibiting smooth translocation of the cell along its long axis. Though multiple gliding mechanisms have evolved in different bacterial classes, most remain poorly characterized. One exception is the gliding motility mechanism used by the Gram-negative social predatory bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. The available body of research suggests that M. xanthus gliding motility is mediated by trafficked multi-protein (Glt) cell envelope complexes, powered by proton-driven flagellar stator homologues (Agl). Through coupling to the substratum via polysaccharide slime, Agl-Glt assemblies can become fixed relative to the substratum, forming a focal adhesion site. Continued directional transport of slime-associated substratum-fixed Agl-Glt complexes would result in smooth forward movement of the cell. In this review, we have provided a comprehensive synthesis of the latest mechanistic and structural data for focal adhesion-mediated gliding motility in M. xanthus, with emphasis on the role of each Agl and Glt protein. Finally, we have also highlighted the possible connection between the motility complex and a new type of spore coat assembly system, suggesting that gliding and cell envelope synthetic complexes are evolutionarily linked. PMID:26520023

  10. Morphologic Interpretation of Rock Failure Mechanisms Under Uniaxial Compression Based on 3D Multiscale High-resolution Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen; Liang, Zheng-Zhao; Tang, Chun-An

    2015-11-01

    Multiscale continuous lab oratory observation of the progressive failure process has become a powerful means to reveal the complex failure mechanism of rock. Correspondingly, the representative volume element (RVE)-based models, which are capable of micro/meso- to macro-scale simulations, have been proposed, for instance, the rock failure process analysis (RFPA) program. Limited by the computational bottleneck due to the RVE size, multiscale high-resolution modeling of rock failure process can hardly be implemented, especially for three-dimensional (3D) problems. In this paper, the self-developed parallel RFPA3D code is employed to investigate the failure mechanisms and various fracture morphology of laboratory-scale rectangular prism rock specimens under unconfined uniaxial compression. The specimens consist of either heterogeneous rock with low strength or relatively homogeneous rock with high strength. The numerical simulations, such as the macroscopic fracture pattern and stress-strain responses, can reproduce the well-known phenomena of physical experiments. In particular, the 3D multiscale continuum modeling is carried out to gain new insight into the morphologic interpretation of brittle failure mechanisms, which is calibrated and validated by comparing the actual laboratory experiments and field evidence. The advantages of 3D multiscale high-resolution modeling are demonstrated by comparing the failure modes against 2D numerical predictions by other models. The parallel RVE-based modeling tool in this paper can provide an alternative way to investigate the complicated failure mechanisms of rock.

  11. Mechanical characteristics of antibacterial epoxy resin adhesive wood biocomposites against skin disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Feng; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul

    2016-01-01

    Moldy wood can cause some skin disease. However epoxy resin adhesive (EP) can inhibit mold growth. Therefore, antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites were reinforced and analyzed by the nonlinear finite element. Results show that glass fiber cloth and aluminum foil have the obvious reinforced effect under flat pressure, but this was not the case under side pressure. And when the assemble pattern was presented in 5A way, the strengthening effect was better. The nonlinear finite element showed that the aluminum foil and glass fiber cloth have the obvious reinforced effect. The mutual influence and effect of span, thickness and length on the ultimate bearing capacity of specimen were studied. And the simulation results agreed with the test. It provided a theoretical basis on the preparation of antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites against skin disease.

  12. Mechanical characteristics of antibacterial epoxy resin adhesive wood biocomposites against skin disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-xiang; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul

    2015-01-01

    Moldy wood can cause some skin disease. However epoxy resin adhesive (EP) can inhibit mold growth. Therefore, antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites were reinforced and analyzed by the nonlinear finite element. Results show that glass fiber cloth and aluminum foil have the obvious reinforced effect under flat pressure, but this was not the case under side pressure. And when the assemble pattern was presented in 5A way, the strengthening effect was better. The nonlinear finite element showed that the aluminum foil and glass fiber cloth have the obvious reinforced effect. The mutual influence and effect of span, thickness and length on the ultimate bearing capacity of specimen were studied. And the simulation results agreed with the test. It provided a theoretical basis on the preparation of antibacterial EP/wood biocomposites against skin disease. PMID:26858557

  13. Antiviral adhesion molecular mechanisms for influenza: W. G. Laver's lifetime obsession

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Elspeth F.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the influenza virus depends firstly on cell adhesion via the sialic-acid-binding viral surface protein, haemagglutinin, and secondly on the successful escape of progeny viruses from the host cell to enable the virus to spread to other cells. To achieve the latter, influenza uses another glycoprotein, the enzyme neuraminidase (NA), to cleave the sialic acid receptors from the surface of the original host cell. This paper traces the development of anti-influenza drugs, from the initial suggestion by MacFarlane Burnet in 1948 that an effective ‘competitive poison’ of the virus' NA might be useful in controlling infection by the virus, through to the determination of the structure of NA by X-ray crystallography and the realization of Burnet's idea with the design of NA inhibitors. A focus is the contribution of the late William Graeme Laver, FRS, to this research. PMID:25533092

  14. Methods And Systms For Analyzing The Degradation And Failure Of Mechanical Systems

    DOEpatents

    Jarrell, Donald B.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2005-02-08

    Methods and systems for identifying, understanding, and predicting the degradation and failure of mechanical systems are disclosed. The methods include measuring and quantifying stressors that are responsible for the activation of degradation mechanisms in the machine component of interest. The intensity of the stressor may be correlated with the rate of physical degradation according to some determinable function such that a derivative relationship exists between the machine performance, degradation, and the underlying stressor. The derivative relationship may be used to make diagnostic and prognostic calculations concerning the performance and projected life of the machine. These calculations may be performed in real time to allow the machine operator to quickly adjust the operational parameters of the machinery in order to help minimize or eliminate the effects of the degradation mechanism, thereby prolonging the life of the machine. Various systems implementing the methods are also disclosed.

  15. Failure mechanisms of nano-silicon anodes upon cycling: an electrode porosity evolution model.

    PubMed

    Radvanyi, Etienne; Porcher, Willy; De Vito, Eric; Montani, Alexandre; Franger, Sylvain; Jouanneau Si Larbi, Séverine

    2014-08-28

    With a specific capacity of 3600 mA h g(-1), silicon is a promising anode active material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, because of the huge volume changes undergone by Si particles upon (de)alloying with lithium, Si electrodes suffer from rapid capacity fading. A deep understanding of the associated failure mechanisms is necessary to improve these electrochemical performances. To reach this goal, we investigate here nano-Si based electrodes by several characterization techniques. Thanks to all these techniques, many aspects, such as the behaviour of the active material or the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and the lithiation mechanisms, are studied upon cycling. A clear picture of the failure mechanisms of nano-Si based electrodes is provided. In particular, by combining Hg analyses, SEM observations of electrode cross-sections, and EIS measurements, we follow the evolution of the porosity within the electrode. For the first time, our results clearly show a real dynamic of the pore size distribution: the first cycles lead to the formation of a micrometric porosity which is not present initially. During the following cycles, these large pores are progressively filled up with SEI products which form continuously at the Si particle surface. Thus, from the 50th cycle, Li(+) ion diffusion is dramatically hindered leading to a strongly heterogeneous lithiation of the electrode and a rapid capacity fading.

  16. Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, Alex

    2013-10-30

    The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

  17. Spironolactone promotes autophagy via inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway and reduce adhesive capacity damage in podocytes under mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Lu, Zhenyu; Xu, Zhongwei; Ji, Junya; Zheng, Zhenfeng; Lin, Shan; Yan, Tiekun

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stress which would cause deleterious adhesive effects on podocytes is considered a major contributor to the early progress of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our previous study has shown that spironolactone could ameliorate podocytic adhesive capacity in diabetic rats. Autophagy has been reported to have a protective role against renal injury. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms by which spironolactone reduced adhesive capacity damage in podocytes under mechanical stress, focusing on the involvement of autophagy. Human conditional immortalized podocytes exposed to mechanical stress were treated with spironolactone, LY294002 or rapamycin for 48 h. The accumulation of LC3 puncta was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Podocyte expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), integrin β1, LC3, Atg5, p85-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting. Podocyte adhesion to collagen type IV was also performed with spectrophotometry. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the normal level of autophagy was reduced in podocytes under mechanical stress. Decreased integrin β1, LC3, Atg5 and abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were also detected in podocytes under mechanical stress. Spironolactone up-regulated integrin β1, LC3, Atg5 expression, down-regulated p85-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR expression and reduced podocytic adhesive capacity damage. Our data demonstrated that spironolactone inhibited mechanical-stress-induced podocytic adhesive capacity damage through blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and restoring autophagy activity. PMID:27129295

  18. [Chronic cervical vagal stimulation. Mechanisms of action and clinical relevance for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Kuschyk, J; Doesch, C; Akin, I; Borggrefe, M; Roeger, S

    2015-11-01

    Increased sympathetic nerve activity and reduced vagal activity are associated with increased mortality in patients after myocardial infarction and patients with chronic heart failure; furthermore, vagal withdrawal has been documented to precede acute decompensation. Experimental studies have indicated that increased parasympathetic activity by means of vagal stimulation may reduce mortality in animal models of postinfarction sudden cardiac death and of chronic heart failure. First clinical results have demonstrated that chronic vagus nerve stimulation in heart failure patients with severe systolic dysfunction appears to be safe and tolerable and may improve the quality of life and left ventricular (LV) function. Vagus nerve stimulation gives rise to these potential clinical benefits by multiple mechanisms of action, including reduced heart rate, restoration of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and antiarrhythmic effects. First clinical results suggest that vagal nerve stimulation is safe and tolerable and could lead to a marked clinical improvement but discrepancies in the findings due to different study designs warrant further discussion. PMID:26555481

  19. Development Testing and Subsequent Failure Investigation of a Spring Strut Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervan, Jared; Robertson, Brandon; Staab, Lucas; Culberson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Commodities are transferred between the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) crew module (CM) and service module (SM) via an external umbilical that is driven apart with spring-loaded struts after the structural connection is severed. The spring struts must operate correctly for the modules to separate safely. There was no vibration testing of strut development units scoped in the MPCV Program Plan; therefore, any design problems discovered as a result of vibration testing would not have been found until the component qualification. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and Lockheed Martin (LM) performed random vibration testing on a single spring strut development unit to assess its ability to withstand qualification level random vibration environments. Failure of the strut while exposed to random vibration resulted in a follow-on failure investigation, design changes, and additional development tests. This paper focuses on the results of the failure investigations including identified lessons learned and best practices to aid in future design iterations of the spring strut and to help other mechanism developers avoid similar pitfalls.

  20. [Right-sided mechanical circulatory support in acute right ventricular failure in the dog].

    PubMed

    Gabauer, I; Okolicány, J; Styk, J; Pancza, D; Holec, V

    1991-05-01

    The technique of surgically induced acute progressive right ventricular failure in experimental animals is described. It sumultates the hemodynamic situation of right ventricular failure in some patients after termination of extracorporeal circulation applied for carrying out procedures on the left ventricle. The described technique consists of rightsided longitudinal ventriculotomy, destruction of the tricuspid valve, and ligation of the right coronary artery. Nine control dogs died within two hours after induction of failure due to low stroke volume caused by low pulmonary and left atrial pressure. The use of rightsided support appliance draining blood from the right atrium in systole and pumping it into the trunk of the pulmonary artery in diastole by means of a membrane pump resulted in further 12 dogs in the restoration of left ventricular diastolic pressure, significant increase of aortal pressure (p less than 0.003) and stroke volume (p less than 0.003) and in a decrease of right atrial pressure (p less than 0.003). The study demonstrated that by using the described mechanical support the circulation can be adequately assisted so that the failing right side of the heart can get restored. (Tab.1,Fig.5,Ref.25.).

  1. Laboratory and 3-D distinct element analysis of the failure mechanism of a slope under external surcharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient detail. There is however increasing interest in the consequences after the initiation of failure that includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more detail and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and a laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanisms and the post-failure mechanisms of slopes will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure, which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  2. Analysis of electrolyte abnormalities and the mechanisms leading to arrhythmias in heart failure. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Canino, B; Brucculeri, S; Firenze, A; Caimi, G

    2016-01-01

    About 50% of deaths from heart failure (HF) are sudden, presumably referable to arrhythmias. Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in HF patients. Their incidence is almost always correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction; furthermore leading to arrhythmias, these imbalances are associated with a poor prognosis. The frequency of ventricular ectopic beats and sudden cardiac death correlate with both plasma and whole body levels of potassium, especially in alkalemia. The early recognition of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are useful for the management of these HF patients.

  3. Analysis of electrolyte abnormalities and the mechanisms leading to arrhythmias in heart failure. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Urso, C; Canino, B; Brucculeri, S; Firenze, A; Caimi, G

    2016-01-01

    About 50% of deaths from heart failure (HF) are sudden, presumably referable to arrhythmias. Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in HF patients. Their incidence is almost always correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction; furthermore leading to arrhythmias, these imbalances are associated with a poor prognosis. The frequency of ventricular ectopic beats and sudden cardiac death correlate with both plasma and whole body levels of potassium, especially in alkalemia. The early recognition of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are useful for the management of these HF patients. PMID:27598028

  4. User-defined Material Model for Thermo-mechanical Progressive Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Previously a user-defined material model for orthotropic bimodulus materials was developed for linear and nonlinear stress analysis of composite structures using either shell or solid finite elements within a nonlinear finite element analysis tool. Extensions of this user-defined material model to thermo-mechanical progressive failure analysis are described, and the required input data are documented. The extensions include providing for temperature-dependent material properties, archival of the elastic strains, and a thermal strain calculation for materials exhibiting a stress-free temperature.

  5. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Alfonso Megido, Joaquín; González Franco, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    When acute heart failure progresses and there is acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, routine therapeutic measures should be accompanied by other measures that help to correct oxygenation of the patient. The final and most drastic step is mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation has been developed in the last few years as a method that attempts to improve oxygenation without the need for intubation, thus, in theory, reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present article describes the controversies surrounding the results of this technique and discusses its indications. The article also discusses how to start non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary edema from a practical point of view.

  6. Analysis and testing of adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, G. P.; Bennett, S. J.; Devries, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    An adhesive fracture mechanics approach is described with reference to the identification and design of the best tests for evaluating a given adhesive, the definition of the most meaningful fundamental parameters by which adhesives might be characterized, and the application of these parameters to the design of joints and to the prediction of their performance. Topics include standard adhesive test techniques, the theory of adhesive fracture, and adhesive fracture energy tests. Analytical methods and computer techniques for adhesive bonding, chemical and physical aspects of adhesive fracture, and specific applications and aspects of adhesive fracture mechanics are discussed.

  7. Physical Mechanisms of Failure, Ultralow Partial Pressure Lubrication, and the Reservoir Effect in MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, David Adam

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings as long term lubrication coatings in microsystems, to examine the failure regimes of SAM coated devices, to examine the role of mobility in adsorbed lubricating films, and to examine evolution of the coefficient of friction of devices surrounded by ultralow partial pressures of alcohols up to saturation. Finally the role of self assembled monlayers in vapor phase lubrication is examined. Self-assembled monolayers are ubiquitous in fabrication of free-standing microdevices because of their ability to prevent release related and dormancy related stiction. However their ability to lubricate under sliding and normal contact conditions is not well documented. It can be shown that the energy dissipated per unit area in one sliding cycle due to friction is significant under general loading conditions. Therefore from an energy dissipated standpoint the bond energies of the silane molecules should not be enough to withstand even a short number of cycles. An extension of this is the energy imparted to the surface through a normal loading cycle through a loss of kinetic energy. It can also be shown that this is enough to break the silicon oxygen bonds however this is over a longer time scale than in sliding. Also there is an open question on the role of mobile and non-mobile adsorbed species on friction. Is the mobility of a molecule/layer on a surface an indicator of the effectiveness of the lubrication potential of the layer? Do submonolayer coverages of alcohols "lock-up" to contacting surfaces by disrupting non-corrogated potentials? Is there a distinct lowering of frictional forces at the formation of a monolayer? Controlled adsorption of mobile and non-mobile species on rubbing contacts is necessary to elucidate this physical relationship. To accomplish this one must take into account that friction measurements are highly scale dependant. Therefore to ensure the accuracy of

  8. A damage mechanics approach for quantifying stress changes due to brittle failure of porous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquey, Antoine B.; Cacace, Mauro; Blöcher, Guido; Milsch, Harald; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Natural fault zones or man-made injection or production of fluid impact the regional stress distribution in Earth's crust and can be responsible for localized stress discontinuities. Understanding the processes controlling fracturing of the porous rocks and mechanical behaviour of fault zones is therefore of interest for several applications including geothermal energy production. In this contribution, we will present a thermodynamically consistent visco-poroelastic damage model which can deal with the multi-scale and multi-physics nature of the physical processes controlling the deformation of porous rocks during and after brittle failure. Deformation of a porous medium is crucially influenced by the changes in the effective stress. Considering a strain-formulated yield cap and the compaction-dilation transition, three different regimes can be identified: quasi-elastic deformation, cataclastic compaction with microcracking (damage accumulation) and macroscopic brittle failure with dilation. The governing equations for deformation, damage accumulation/healing and fluid flow have been implemented in a fully-coupled finite-element-method based framework (MOOSE). The MOOSE framework provides a powerful and flexible platform to solve multiphysics problems implicitly and in a tightly coupled manner on unstructured meshes which is of interest for such non-linear context. To illustrate the model, simulation of a compaction experiment of a sandstone leading to shear failure will be presented which allows to quantify the stress drop accompanying the failure. Finally, we will demonstrate that this approach can also be used at the field scale to simulate hydraulic fracturing and assess the resulting changes in the stress field.

  9. DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF POORLY CONSOLIDATED MEDIA - Borehole Failure Mechanisms in High-Porosity Sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Bezalel c. Haimson

    2005-06-10

    We investigated failure mechanisms around boreholes and the formation of borehole breakouts in high-porosity sandstone, with particular interest to grain-scale micromechanics of failure leading to the hitherto unrecognized fracture-like borehole breakouts and apparent compaction band formation in poorly consolidated granular materials. We also looked at a variety of drilling-related factors that contribute to the type, size and shape of borehole breakouts. The objective was to assess their effect on the ability to establish correlations between breakout geometry and in situ stress magnitudes, as well as on borehole stability prediction, and hydrocarbon/water extraction in general. We identified two classes of medium to high porosity (12-30%) sandstones, arkosic, consisting of 50-70% quartz and 15 to 50% feldspar, and quartz-rich sandstones, in which quartz grain contents varied from 90 to 100%. In arkose sandstones critical far-field stress magnitudes induced compressive failure around boreholes in the form of V-shaped (dog-eared) breakouts, the result of dilatant intra-and trans-granular microcracking subparallel to both the maximum horizontal far-field stress and to the borehole wall. On the other hand, boreholes in quartz-rich sandstones failed by developing fracture-like breakouts. These are long and very narrow (several grain diameters) tabular failure zones perpendicular to the maximum stress. Evidence provided mainly by SEM observations suggests a failure process initiated by localized grain-bond loosening along the least horizontal far-field stress springline, the packing of these grains into a lower porosity compaction band resembling those discovered in Navajo and Aztec sandstones, and the emptying of the loosened grains by the circulating drilling fluid starting from the borehole wall. Although the immediate several grain layers at the breakout tip often contain some cracked or even crushed grains, the failure mechanism enabled by the formation of the

  10. A microfabricated wedge-shaped adhesive array displaying gecko-like dynamic adhesion, directionality and long lifetime.

    PubMed

    Parness, Aaron; Soto, Daniel; Esparza, Noé; Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar; Cutkosky, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Gecko adhesion has become a paradigmatic example of bio-inspired engineering, yet among the many gecko-like synthetic adhesives (GSAs), truly gecko-like performance remains elusive. Many GSAs have previously demonstrated one or two features of the gecko adhesive. We present a new wedge-shaped GSA that exhibits several gecko-like properties simultaneously: directional features; zero force at detachment; high ratio of detachment force to preload force; non-adhesive default state; and the ability to maintain performance while sliding, even after thousands of cycles. Individual wedges independently detach and reattach during sliding, resulting in high levels of shear and normal adhesion during drag. This behaviour provides a non-catastrophic failure mechanism that is desirable for applications such as climbing robots where sudden contact failure would result in serious falls. The effects of scaling patch sizes up to tens of square centimetres are also presented and discussed. Patches of 1 cm(2) had an adhesive pressure of 5.1 kPa while simultaneously supporting 17.0 kPa of shear. After 30 000 attachment/detachment cycles, a patch retained 67 per cent of its initial adhesion and 76 per cent of its initial shear without cleaning. Square-based wedges of 20 mum and 50 mum are manufactured in a moulding process where moulds are fabricated using a dual-side, dual-angle lithography process on quartz wafers with SU-8 photoresist as the mould material and polydimethylsiloxane as the cast material.

  11. Deciphering the Combinatorial Roles of Geometric, Mechanical, and Adhesion Cues in Regulation of Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Greg M.; Shazly, Tarek; Jabbarzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Significant effort has gone towards parsing out the effects of surrounding microenvironment on macroscopic behavior of stem cells. Many of the microenvironmental cues, however, are intertwined, and thus, further studies are warranted to identify the intricate interplay among the conflicting downstream signaling pathways that ultimately guide a cell response. In this contribution, by patterning adhesive PEG (polyethylene glycol) hydrogels using Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN), we demonstrate that substrate elasticity, subcellular elasticity, ligand density, and topography ultimately define mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) spreading and shape. Physical characteristics are parsed individually with 7 kilopascal (kPa) hydrogel islands leading to smaller, spindle shaped cells and 105 kPa hydrogel islands leading to larger, polygonal cell shapes. In a parallel effort, a finite element model was constructed to characterize and confirm experimental findings and aid as a predictive tool in modeling cell microenvironments. Signaling pathway inhibition studies suggested that RhoA is a key regulator of cell response to the cooperative effect of the tunable substrate variables. These results are significant for the engineering of cell-extra cellular matrix interfaces and ultimately decoupling matrix bound cues presented to cells in a tissue microenvironment for regenerative medicine. PMID:24282570

  12. Development, Testing, and Failure Mechanisms of a Replicative Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Hansen, Scott; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM's have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. Wax PCM units have been baselined for the Orion thermal control system and also provide risk mitigation for the Altair Lander. However, the use of water as a PCM has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. An ice PCM heat exchanger that replicates the thermal energy storage capacity of an existing wax PCM unit was fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion are investigated. This paper presents the results to date of this investigation. Nomenclature

  13. Testing and Failure Mechanisms of Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Hawkins-Reynolds, Ebony

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as specific spacecraft orientations in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and low beta angle Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM s have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. The use of water as a PCM rather than the more traditional paraffin wax has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. A number of ice PCM heat exchangers were fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion were investigated. This paper presents the results of testing that occurred from March through September of 2010 and builds on testing that occurred during the previous year.

  14. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients: A Respiratory Therapist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, V; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C; Pérez, R; Cerpa, F; Budini, H; Cáceres, D; Gutiérrez, T; Molina, J; Keymer, J; Romero-Dapueto, C

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be the first-line of treatment in acute respiratory failure, and the standard of care in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and in immunosuppressed patients with high levels of evidence that support the work of physiotherapist. Exist other considerations where most of the time, physicians and other professionals in the critical units do not take into account when checking the patient ventilator synchrony, such as the appropriate patient selection, ventilator selection, mask selection, mode selection, and the selection of a trained team in NIMV. The physiotherapist needs to evaluate bedside; if patients are properly connected to the ventilator and in a synchronously manner. In Chile, since 2004, the physioterapist are included in the guidelines as a professional resource in the ICU organization, with the same skills and obligations as those described in the literature for respiratory therapists. PMID:26312104

  15. Testing and Failure Mechanisms of Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Hawkins-Reynolds, Ebony

    2010-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM s have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. The use of water as a PCM rather than the more traditional paraffin wax has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. A number of ice PCM heat exchangers were fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion were investigated. This paper presents the results of testing that occurred from March through September of 2010 and builds on testing that occurred during the previous year.

  16. Failure Mechanism for Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries with Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, DP; Shao, YY; Lozano, T; Bennett, WD; Graff, GL; Polzin, B; Zhang, JG; Engelhard, MH; Saenz, NT; Henderson, WA; Bhattacharya, P; Liu, J; Xiao, J

    2014-09-11

    In recent years, the Li metal anode has regained a position of paramount research interest because of the necessity for employing Li metal in next-generation battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O-2. Severely limiting this utilization, however, are the rapid capacity degradation and safety issues associated with rechargeable Li metal anodes. A fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of Li metal at high charge rates has remained elusive due to the complicated interfacial chemistry that occurs between Li metal and liquid electrolytes. Here, it is demonstrated that at high current density the quick formation of a highly resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) entangled with Li metal, which grows towards the bulk Li, dramatically increases up the cell impedance and this is the actual origin of the onset of cell degradation and failure. This is instead of dendritic or mossy Li growing outwards from the metal surface towards/through the separator and/or the consumption of the Li and electrolyte through side reactions. Interphase, in this context, refers to a substantive layer rather than a thin interfacial layer. Discerning the mechanisms and consequences for this interphase formation is crucial for resolving the stability and safety issues associated with Li metal anodes.

  17. Analyzing failure modes of rock mass based on statistical mechanics of rock mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, H.; Wu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Joints influence mechanical properties of rock mass. Based on the strength criterion of statistical mechanics of rock mass, we analyzed the four different failure modes of rock mass with a group of joints by combining with Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. We also deduced an expression of the critical confining pressure for explaining the transformation from structure control to stress control of rock mass strength. On this basis, rock mass with a group of joints were divided into four classes according to the relations between rock mass and joints parameters. Then, the possible failure modes and their corresponding conditions were discussed. At last, the strength characteristics of diorite with a group of joints were analyzed. The results showed that the diorite belonged to class rock mass and performed significant anisotropy in compressive strength. At the condition of vertical pressure, the rock start failing after joints at the critical confining pressure of 9.12MPa. However, with the confining pressure increasing, the anisotropy of strength became weak, and the strength of diorite would convert from structure control to stress control under some particular loading directions.

  18. Development, Testing, and Failure Mechanisms of a Replicative Ice Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Hansen, Scott; Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) may be useful for thermal control systems that involve cyclical heat loads or cyclical thermal environments such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Thermal energy can be stored in the PCM during peak heat loads or in adverse thermal environments. The stored thermal energy can then be released later during minimum heat loads or in more favorable thermal environments. One advantage that PCM s have over evaporators in this scenario is that they do not use a consumable. Wax PCM units have been baselined for the Orion thermal control system and also provide risk mitigation for the Altair Lander. However, the use of water as a PCM has the potential for significant mass reduction since the latent heat of formation of water is approximately 70% greater than that of wax. One of the potential drawbacks of using ice as a PCM is its potential to rupture its container as water expands upon freezing. In order to develop a space qualified ice PCM heat exchanger, failure mechanisms must first be understood. Therefore, a methodical experimental investigation has been undertaken to demonstrate and document specific failure mechanisms due to ice expansion in the PCM. An ice PCM heat exchanger that replicates the thermal energy storage capacity of an existing wax PCM unit was fabricated and tested. Additionally, methods for controlling void location in order to reduce the risk of damage due to ice expansion are investigated. This paper presents the results to date of this investigation.

  19. Thermo-mechanical Fatigue Failure of Thermal Barrier Coated Superalloy Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Rajivgandhi; Mori, Yuzuru; Yamagishi, Satoshi; Okazaki, Masakazu

    2015-09-01

    Failure behavior of thermal barrier coated (TBC) Ni-based superalloy specimens were studied from the aspect of the effect of bond coat material behavior on low cycle fatigue (LCF) and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) at various temperatures and under various loading conditions. Initially, monotonic tensile tests were carried out on a MCrAlY alloy bond coat material in the temperature range of 298 K to 1273 K (25 °C to 1000 °C). Special attention was paid to understand the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Next, LCF and TMF tests were carried out on the thermal barrier coated Ni-based alloy IN738 specimen. After these tests, the specimens were sectioned to understand their failure mechanisms on the basis of DBTT of the bond coat material. Experimental results demonstrated that the LCF and TMF lives of the TBC specimen were closely related to the DBTT of the bond coat material, and also the TMF lives were different from those of LCF tests. It has also been observed that the crack density in the bond coat in the TBC specimen was significantly dependent on the test conditions. More importantly, not only the number of cracks but also the crack penetration probability into substrate were shown to be sensitive to the DBTT.

  20. Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Romero-Dapueto, C; Budini, H; Cerpa, F; Caceres, D; Hidalgo, V; Gutiérrez, T; Keymer, J; Pérez, R; Molina, J; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs). The evidence strongly supports its use in patients with COPD exacerbation, support in weaning process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), and Immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, there is poor evidence that supports the use of NIMV in other pathologies such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and during procedures as bronchoscopy, where its use is still controversial because the results of these studies are inconclusive against the decrease in the rate of intubation or mortality.

  1. Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Dapueto, C; Budini, H; Cerpa, F; Caceres, D; Hidalgo, V; Gutiérrez, T; Keymer, J; Pérez, R; Molina, J; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is that it can be used earlier outside intensive care units (ICUs). The evidence strongly supports its use in patients with COPD exacerbation, support in weaning process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), and Immunosuppressed patients. On the other hand, there is poor evidence that supports the use of NIMV in other pathologies such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and during procedures as bronchoscopy, where its use is still controversial because the results of these studies are inconclusive against the decrease in the rate of intubation or mortality. PMID:26312101

  2. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients: A Respiratory Therapist Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, V; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C; Pérez, R; Cerpa, F; Budini, H; Cáceres, D; Gutiérrez, T; Molina, J; Keymer, J; Romero-Dapueto, C

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be the first-line of treatment in acute respiratory failure, and the standard of care in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, and in immunosuppressed patients with high levels of evidence that support the work of physiotherapist. Exist other considerations where most of the time, physicians and other professionals in the critical units do not take into account when checking the patient ventilator synchrony, such as the appropriate patient selection, ventilator selection, mask selection, mode selection, and the selection of a trained team in NIMV. The physiotherapist needs to evaluate bedside; if patients are properly connected to the ventilator and in a synchronously manner. In Chile, since 2004, the physioterapist are included in the guidelines as a professional resource in the ICU organization, with the same skills and obligations as those described in the literature for respiratory therapists.

  3. Tensile Properties and Failure Mechanism of a New 3D Nonorthogonal Woven Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Jin; Cai, Deng'an; Zhou, Guangming

    2016-05-01

    Tensile properties and failure mechanism of a newly developed three-dimensional (3D) woven composite material named 3D nonorthogonal woven composite are investigated in this paper. The microstructure of the composite is studied and the tensile properties are obtained by quasi-static tensile tests. The failure mechanism of specimen is discussed based on observation of the fracture surfaces via electron microscope. It is found that the specimens always split along the oblique yarns and produce typical v-shaped fracture surfaces. The representative volume cell (RVC) is established based on the microstructure. A finite element analysis is conducted with periodical boundary conditions. The finite element simulation results agree well with the experimental data. By analyzing deformation and stress distribution under different loading conditions, it is demonstrated that finite element model based on RVC is valid in predicting tensile properties of 3D nonorthogonal woven composites. Stress distribution shows that the oblique yarns and warp yarns oriented along the x direction carry primary load under x tension and that warp yarns bear primary load under y tension.

  4. Material heterogeneity in cancellous bone promotes deformation recovery after mechanical failure

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ashley M.; Matheny, Jonathan B.; Keaveny, Tony M.; Taylor, David; Rimnac, Clare M.; Hernandez, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Many natural structures use a foam core and solid outer shell to achieve high strength and stiffness with relatively small amounts of mass. Biological foams, however, must also resist crack growth. The process of crack propagation within the struts of a foam is not well understood and is complicated by the foam microstructure. We demonstrate that in cancellous bone, the foam-like component of whole bones, damage propagation during cyclic loading is dictated not by local tissue stresses but by heterogeneity of material properties associated with increased ductility of strut surfaces. The increase in surface ductility is unexpected because it is the opposite pattern generated by surface treatments to increase fatigue life in man-made materials, which often result in reduced surface ductility. We show that the more ductile surfaces of cancellous bone are a result of reduced accumulation of advanced glycation end products compared with the strut interior. Damage is therefore likely to accumulate in strut centers making cancellous bone more tolerant of stress concentrations at strut surfaces. Hence, the structure is able to recover more deformation after failure and return to a closer approximation of its original shape. Increased recovery of deformation is a passive mechanism seen in biology for setting a broken bone that allows for a better approximation of initial shape during healing processes and is likely the most important mechanical function. Our findings suggest a previously unidentified biomimetic design strategy in which tissue level material heterogeneity in foams can be used to improve deformation recovery after failure. PMID:26929343

  5. Stickiness--some fundamentals of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cyprien

    2002-12-01

    We review some adhesion mechanisms that have been understood in the field of synthetic adhesives, and more precisely for adhesives that adhere instantaneously (a property named tackiness) and whose adhesive strength usually depends on the applied pressure (pressure-sensitive adhesives). The discussion includes effects of surface roughness, elasticity, cavitation, viscous and elastic fingering, substrate flexibility. PMID:21680396

  6. Stickiness--some fundamentals of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cyprien

    2002-12-01

    We review some adhesion mechanisms that have been understood in the field of synthetic adhesives, and more precisely for adhesives that adhere instantaneously (a property named tackiness) and whose adhesive strength usually depends on the applied pressure (pressure-sensitive adhesives). The discussion includes effects of surface roughness, elasticity, cavitation, viscous and elastic fingering, substrate flexibility.

  7. Effect of viscous macromolecules on peritoneal plasminogen activator activity: a potential mechanism for their ability to reduce postoperative adhesion formation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M; Yedgar, S; Hurwitz, A; Palti, Z; Finzi, Z; Milwidsky, A

    1988-10-01

    Activity of peritoneal plasminogen activator and its regulation by dextran and other macromolecules that clinically suppress postoperative adhesions was studied. Plasminogen activator activity was assayed by a two-stage globinolytic assay that monitors formation of plasmin, as well as by cleavage of a chromogenic peptide substrate (S-2444) in the presence of aprotinin (Trasylol). Plasminogen activator activity was located on the outer surface of human peritoneum. Incubation of peritoneal tissue with buffer in vitro (conditioning) prompted release of plasminogen activator into the conditioning medium. The released plasminogen activator formed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis at an apparent molecular weight of 174,000 and was markedly suppressed by antiserum raised against human melanoma tissue-type plasminogen activator. Nonspecific proteolytic activity did not accumulate in the medium during conditioning. The presence of dextran 80 during conditioning of peritoneum reversibly suppressed tissue-bound plasminogen activator activity and reduced plasminogen activator activity in the spent medium. A similar inhibition of peritoneal plasminogen activator was induced by dextran 500, methyl cellulose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Dextran, when added to the medium after conditioning, had no direct inhibitory effect on plasminogen activator activity. Dextran did not induce peritoneal production of inhibitor(s) of trypsin, chymotrypsin, or urokinase. On the basis of these findings, two possible mechanisms for the effect of viscous polymers in the reduction of adhesion formation are proposed. These mechanisms consider the importance of peritoneal tissue-type plasminogen activator for removal of fibrin clots and suggest that polymer coating either prevents the shedding of plasminogen activator into the abdominal cavity or reduces the access of fibrin clots to the serosal surfaces. PMID:2459968

  8. Adhesive and mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in human bone marrow and periosteum-derived progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Eyckmans, Jeroen; Lin, Grace L.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary It has previously been demonstrated that cell shape can influence commitment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMCs) to adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and other lineages. Human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) exhibit multipotency similar to hBMCs, but hPDCs may offer enhanced potential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis given their apparent endogenous role in bone and cartilage repair in vivo. Here, we examined whether hPDC differentiation is regulated by adhesive and mechanical cues comparable to that reported for hBMC differentiation. When cultured in the appropriate induction media, hPDCs at high cell seeding density demonstrated enhanced levels of adipogenic or chondrogenic markers as compared with hPDCs at low cell seeding density. Cell seeding density correlated inversely with projected area of cell spreading, and directly limiting cell spreading with micropatterned substrates promoted adipogenesis or chondrogenesis while substrates promoting cell spreading supported osteogenesis. Interestingly, cell seeding density influenced differentiation through both changes in cell shape and non-shape-mediated effects: density-dependent adipogenesis and chondrogenesis were regulated primarily by cell shape whereas non-shape effects strongly influenced osteogenic potential. Inhibition of cytoskeletal contractility by adding the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 further enhanced adipogenic differentiation and discouraged osteogenic differentiation of hPDCs. Together, our results suggest that multipotent lineage decisions of hPDCs are impacted by cell adhesive and mechanical cues, though to different extents than hBMCs. Thus, future studies of hPDCs and other primary stem cell populations with clinical potential should consider varying biophysical metrics for more thorough optimization of stem cell differentiation. PMID:23213385

  9. To Err is Human Case Reports of Two Military Aircraft Accidents: Possible mechanisms of human failure.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Mohan B

    2010-04-01

    It has been postulated that pilot error or in-flight incapacitation may be the main contributory factors to 70-80% of aircraft accidents. Two fatal aircraft accidents are presented in which either of the above possibilities may have played a role. The first case report describes an erroneous decision by a fighter pilot to use a seat position adjustment of the ejection seat leading to fatal injuries when he had to eject from his aircraft. Injuries to the body of the pilot, and observations on the state of his flying clothing and the ejection seat were used to postulate the mechanism of fatal injury and establish the cause of the accident. The second case report describes the sequence of events which culminated in the incapacitation of a fighter pilot while executing a routine manouevre. This resulted in a fatal air crash. Possible contributions of environmental factors which may have resulted in failure of his physiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21509093

  10. Mechanisms and clinical consequences of untreated central sleep apnea in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Khayat, Rami; Ponikowski, Piotr; Augostini, Ralph; Stellbrink, Christoph; Mianulli, Marcus; Abraham, William T

    2015-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a highly prevalent, though often unrecognized, comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). Data from HF population studies suggest that it may present in 30% to 50% of HF patients. CSA is recognized as an important contributor to the progression of HF and to HF-related morbidity and mortality. Over the past 2 decades, an expanding body of research has begun to shed light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CSA. Armed with this growing knowledge base, the sleep, respiratory, and cardiovascular research communities have been working to identify ways to treat CSA in HF with the ultimate goal of improving patient quality of life and clinical outcomes. In this paper, we examine the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of CSA in HF and review emerging therapies for this disorder.

  11. Mechanics-Based Definition of Safety Factors Against Flow Failure in Unsaturated Shallow Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarnera, G.; Lizarraga-Barrera, J.

    2014-12-01

    Physical models for landslide forecasting rely on the combination of hydrologic models for water infiltration and stability criteria based on infinite slope mechanics. Such concepts can be used to derive safety factors for shallow landsliding, in which the mobilization of the soil cover is associated with the attainment of critical values of pore water pressures expressed as a function of the frictional strength. While such models capture the role of important geomorphic features and geotechnical properties, their performance depends on the validity of the postulate of frictional failure. As a result, the safety factors do not to consider a broader range of solid-fluid interactions promoting different slope failure mechanisms, such as flow slides. This work combines principles of soil stability, unsaturated soil mechanics and plasticity theory to derive an alternative set of safety factors. While frictional slips are included in the study as a particular case, the proposed analytical methodology can also be applied to cases in which an increase in degree of saturation promotes liquefaction instabilities, i.e. possible transitions from solid- to fluid-like response. The study shows that the incorporation of principles of unsaturated soil mechanics into slope stability analyses generates suction-dependent coefficients that alter the value of the safety factors. As a result, while the proposed approach can still be combined with standard hydrologic models simulating the evolution of pore pressures in the near-surface, it can also provide a spatially distributed assessment of evolving safety conditions in landscapes susceptible to landslides of the flow type.

  12. Engagement of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules up-regulates intercellular adhesion of human B cells via a CD11/CD18-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Alcover, A; Juillard, V; Acuto, O

    1992-02-01

    We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency patient, lacking surface CD11/CD18, also aggregated in response to anti-MHC class I or class II monoclonal antibodies. Together these data indicate that engagement of MHC molecules may transduce signals to B cells resulting in up-regulation of intercellular adhesion, via an LFA-1-independent mechanism. This may play a role in the stabilization of T cell/antigen-presenting cell conjugates at the moment of antigen recognition.

  13. Effects of mechanical layering on magmatic reservoir failure and magma propagation within the Venusian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corvec, N.; McGovern, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Failure of magmatic reservoirs and propagation of magmas is controlled in part by the state of stress within the lithosphere. Such stresses are induced by a range of loadings (e.g., gravitational, magmatic and tectonic). In addition, the response of the lithosphere to these loadings depends on its physical properties. Magmatic reservoirs on planetary bodies have been studied using homogeneous lithosphere mainly composed of crustal material. However, planetary lithospheres may include substantial fractions of mantle material, with greater stiffness and density than those typical of crust. The mechanics of a heterogeneous lithosphere may influence the failure of a magmatic reservoir and the propagation of the magma. To explore this scenario, we created two-layered axisymmetric elastic models made of mantle and crustal components using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element package, in which a stiffer and denser mantle is underlying a softer and lighter crust. A spherical reservoir was created at the contact between the two layers. In these models, we analyzed the magmatic reservoir stability, the amount of overpressure needed to reach failure and the type of resulting intrusions within the two-layered lithosphere for three distinct environments: 1- lithostatic; 2- upward flexure due to a rising mantle plume; and 3- downward flexure due to a basaltic shield volcano. The results show that in most cases, magmatic reservoirs fail below the mantle-crust contact. The resulting failure is driven by the in-plane stress tangential to the chamber, favoring lateral sill injections. In the flexure cases, magma chambers may become unstable (i.e., require no additional overpressure to fail) depending on the crust/mantle ratio. In some cases, we observed that the magma chambers failure can be driven by the (out-of-plane) hoop stress favoring radial dike intrusions. The stability of magmatic reservoirs and the type and orientation of magmatic intrusions on Venus are influenced by

  14. Cortical and Spinal Mechanisms of Task Failure of Sustained Submaximal Fatiguing Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Petra S.; Hoffman, Richard L.; Clark, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    In this and the subsequent companion paper, results are presented that collectively seek to delineate the contribution that supraspinal circuits have in determining the time to task failure (TTF) of sustained submaximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare adjustments in supraspinal and spinal excitability taken concurrently throughout the performance of two different fatigue tasks with identical mechanical demands but different TTF (i.e., force-matching and position-matching tasks). On separate visits, ten healthy volunteers performed the force-matching or position-matching task at 15% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors to task failure. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), paired-pulse TMS, paired cortico-cervicomedullary stimulation, and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were delivered in a 6-stimuli sequence at baseline and every 2–3 minutes throughout fatigue-task performance. Contrary to expectations, the force-matching task TTF was 42% shorter (17.5±7.9 min) than the position-matching task (26.9±15.11 min; p<0.01); however, both tasks caused the same amount of muscle fatigue (p = 0.59). There were no task-specific differences for the total amount or rate of change in the neurophysiologic outcome variables over time (p>0.05). Therefore, failure occurred after a similar mean decline in motorneuron excitability developed (p<0.02, ES = 0.35–0.52) coupled with a similar mean increase in measures of corticospinal excitability (p<0.03, ES = 0.30–0.41). Additionally, the amount of intracortical inhibition decreased (p<0.03, ES = 0.32) and the amount of intracortical facilitation (p>0.10) and an index of upstream excitation of the motor cortex remained constant (p>0.40). Together, these results suggest that as fatigue develops prior to task failure, the increase in corticospinal excitability observed in relationship to the decrease in spinal excitability results from a combination of decreasing

  15. Shear lag sutures: Improved suture repair through the use of adhesives.

    PubMed

    Linderman, Stephen W; Kormpakis, Ioannis; Gelberman, Richard H; Birman, Victor; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Genin, Guy M; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2015-09-01

    Suture materials and surgical knot tying techniques have improved dramatically since their first use over five millennia ago. However, the approach remains limited by the ability of the suture to transfer load to tissue at suture anchor points. Here, we predict that adhesive-coated sutures can improve mechanical load transfer beyond the range of performance of existing suture methods, thereby strengthening repairs and decreasing the risk of failure. The mechanical properties of suitable adhesives were identified using a shear lag model. Examination of the design space for an optimal adhesive demonstrated requirements for strong adhesion and low stiffness to maximize the strength of the adhesive-coated suture repair construct. To experimentally assess the model, we evaluated single strands of sutures coated with highly flexible cyanoacrylates (Loctite 4903 and 4902), cyanoacrylate (Loctite QuickTite Instant Adhesive Gel), rubber cement, rubber/gasket adhesive (1300 Scotch-Weld Neoprene High Performance Rubber & Gasket Adhesive), an albumin-glutaraldehyde adhesive (BioGlue), or poly(dopamine). As a clinically relevant proof-of-concept, cyanoacrylate-coated sutures were then used to perform a clinically relevant flexor digitorum tendon repair in cadaver tissue. The repair performed with adhesive-coated suture had significantly higher strength compared to the standard repair without adhesive. Notably, cyanoacrylate provides strong adhesion with high stiffness and brittle behavior, and is therefore not an ideal adhesive for enhancing suture repair. Nevertheless, the improvement in repair properties in a clinically relevant setting, even using a non-ideal adhesive, demonstrates the potential for the proposed approach to improve outcomes for treatments requiring suture fixation. Further study is necessary to develop a strongly adherent, compliant adhesive within the optimal design space described by the model. PMID:26022966

  16. Shear lag sutures: Improved suture repair through the use of adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Linderman, Stephen W.; Kormpakis, Ioannis; Gelberman, Richard H.; Birman, Victor; Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Genin, Guy M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Suture materials and surgical knot tying techniques have improved dramatically since their first use over five millennia ago. However, the approach remains limited by the ability of the suture to transfer load to tissue at suture anchor points. Here, we predict that adhesive-coated sutures can improve mechanical load transfer beyond the range of performance of existing suture methods, thereby strengthening repairs and decreasing the risk of failure. The mechanical properties of suitable adhesives were identified using a shear lag model. Examination of the design space for an optimal adhesive demonstrated requirements for strong adhesion and low stiffness to maximize the strength of the adhesive-coated suture repair construct. To experimentally assess the model, we evaluated single strands of sutures coated with highly flexible cyanoacrylates (Loctite 4903 and 4902), cyanoacrylate (Loctite QuickTite Instant Adhesive Gel), rubber cement, rubber/gasket adhesive (1300 Scotch-Weld Neoprene High Performance Rubber & Gasket Adhesive), an albumin-glutaraldehyde adhesive (BioGlue), or poly(dopamine). As a clinically relevant proof-of-concept, cyanoacrylate-coated sutures were then used to perform a clinically relevant flexor digitorum tendon repair in cadaver tissue. The repair performed with adhesive-coated suture had significantly higher strength compared to the standard repair without adhesive. Notably, cyanoacrylate provides strong adhesion with high stiffness and brittle behavior, and is therefore not an ideal adhesive for enhancing suture repair. Nevertheless, the improvement in repair properties in a clinically relevant setting, even using a non-ideal adhesive, demonstrates the potential for the proposed approach to improve outcomes for treatments requiring suture fixation. Further study is necessary to develop a strongly adherent, compliant adhesive within the optimal design space described by the model. PMID:26022966

  17. Congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is associated with severely impaired dynamic Starling mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeff L.; Prasad, Anand; Fu, Qi; Bhella, Paul S.; Pacini, Eric; Krainski, Felix; Palmer, M. Dean; Zhang, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary aging leads to increased cardiovascular stiffening, which can be ameliorated by sufficient amounts of lifelong exercise training. An even more extreme form of cardiovascular stiffening can be seen in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which comprises ∼40∼50% of elderly patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure. There are two major interrelated hypotheses proposed to explain heart failure in these patients: 1) increased left ventricular (LV) diastolic stiffness and 2) increased arterial stiffening. The beat-to-beat dynamic Starling mechanism, which is impaired with healthy human aging, reflects the interaction between ventricular and arterial stiffness and thus may provide a link between these two mechanisms underlying HFpEF. Spectral transfer function analysis was applied between beat-to-beat changes in LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP; estimated from pulmonary artery diastolic pressure with a right heart catheter) and stroke volume (SV) index. The dynamic Starling mechanism (transfer function gain between LVEDP and the SV index) was impaired in HFpEF patients (n = 10) compared with healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) (HFpEF: 0.23 ± 0.10 ml·m−2·mmHg−1 and control: 0.37 ± 0.11 ml·m−2·mmHg−1, means ± SD, P = 0.008). There was also a markedly increased (3-fold) fluctuation of LV filling pressures (power spectral density of LVEDP) in HFpEF patients, which may predispose to pulmonary edema due to intermittent exposure to higher pulmonary capillary pressure (HFpEF: 12.2 ± 10.4 mmHg2 and control: 3.8 ± 2.9 mmHg2, P = 0.014). An impaired dynamic Starling mechanism, even more extreme than that observed with healthy aging, is associated with marked breath-by-breath LVEDP variability and may reflect advanced ventricular and arterial stiffness in HFpEF, possibly contributing to reduced forward output and pulmonary congestion. PMID:21310890

  18. Acoustic Imaging of Microstructure and Evaluation of the Adhesive's Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties Changes at Different Cure States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severina, I. A.; Fabre, A. J.; Maeva, E. Yu.

    Epoxy thermoset adhesives transform during cure from liquid state into the highly cross-linked solid. Cure state of the material depends on condition of the reaction (temperature, pressure, time etc.) and resin/hardener ratio. It is known that the cure degree of the adhesive correlates with adhesion strength, which is critical for structural adhesives used in automotive, aerospace and marine industries. In this work, characterization of cure process of the adhesive with acoustic methods is presented. Evolution of the acoustic and elastic properties (attenuation, sound velocity, density, elastic moduli) during cure reaction was monitored in relation to the substantial physical and chemical changes of the material. These macro parameters of the adhesive were compared with the material's microstructure obtained by high-resolution acoustic microscopy technique in frequencies range of 50-400 MHz. Development of the microstructure of the adhesive as it cures at different conditions has been investigated. Appearance and development of the granular structure on the adhesive interface during cure reaction has been demonstrated. Acoustic images were analyzed by mathematical method to quantitatively characterize distribution of the adhesive's components. Statistical analysis of such images provides an accurate quantitative measure of the degree of cure of such samples. Research results presented in this paper can be useful as a basis for non-destructive evaluation of the adhesive materials

  19. A novel intrinsic analgesic mechanism: the enhancement of the conduction failure along polymodal nociceptive C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuchao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Wenting; Duan, Jianhong; Zhang, Ming; Lv, Xiaohua; Niu, Chunxiao; Tan, Chao; Wu, Yuanbin; Yang, Jing; Hu, Sanjue; Xing, Junling

    2016-10-01

    Although conduction failure has been observed in nociceptive C-fibers, little is known regarding its significance or therapeutic potential. In a previous study, we demonstrated that C-fiber conduction failure, which is regarded as an intrinsic self-inhibition mechanism, was reduced in circumstances of painful diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we extend this finding in the complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory pain and validate that the degree of conduction failure decreased and led to a greater amount of pain signals conveyed to the central nervous system. In complete Freund's adjuvant-injected animals, conduction failure occurred in a C-fiber-selective, activity-dependent manner and was associated with an increase in the rising slope of the C-fiber after-hyperpolarization potential. To target conduction failure in a therapeutic modality, we used ZD7288, an antagonist of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-modulated channels which are activated by hyperpolarization and play a pivotal role in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. ZD7288 promoted conduction failure by suppressing Ih as a mechanism to reduce the rising slope of the after-hyperpolarization potential. Moreover, perineuronal injection of ZD7288 inhibited abnormal mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting motor function or heart rate. Our data highlight the analgesic potential of local ZD7288 application and identify conduction failure as a novel target for analgesic therapeutic development.

  20. A novel intrinsic analgesic mechanism: the enhancement of the conduction failure along polymodal nociceptive C-fibers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuchao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Wenting; Duan, Jianhong; Zhang, Ming; Lv, Xiaohua; Niu, Chunxiao; Tan, Chao; Wu, Yuanbin; Yang, Jing; Hu, Sanjue; Xing, Junling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although conduction failure has been observed in nociceptive C-fibers, little is known regarding its significance or therapeutic potential. In a previous study, we demonstrated that C-fiber conduction failure, which is regarded as an intrinsic self-inhibition mechanism, was reduced in circumstances of painful diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we extend this finding in the complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory pain and validate that the degree of conduction failure decreased and led to a greater amount of pain signals conveyed to the central nervous system. In complete Freund's adjuvant–injected animals, conduction failure occurred in a C-fiber-selective, activity-dependent manner and was associated with an increase in the rising slope of the C-fiber after-hyperpolarization potential. To target conduction failure in a therapeutic modality, we used ZD7288, an antagonist of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide–modulated channels which are activated by hyperpolarization and play a pivotal role in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. ZD7288 promoted conduction failure by suppressing Ih as a mechanism to reduce the rising slope of the after-hyperpolarization potential. Moreover, perineuronal injection of ZD7288 inhibited abnormal mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting motor function or heart rate. Our data highlight the analgesic potential of local ZD7288 application and identify conduction failure as a novel target for analgesic therapeutic development. PMID:27583680

  1. A novel intrinsic analgesic mechanism: the enhancement of the conduction failure along polymodal nociceptive C-fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuchao; Wang, Shan; Wang, Wenting; Duan, Jianhong; Zhang, Ming; Lv, Xiaohua; Niu, Chunxiao; Tan, Chao; Wu, Yuanbin; Yang, Jing; Hu, Sanjue; Xing, Junling

    2016-10-01

    Although conduction failure has been observed in nociceptive C-fibers, little is known regarding its significance or therapeutic potential. In a previous study, we demonstrated that C-fiber conduction failure, which is regarded as an intrinsic self-inhibition mechanism, was reduced in circumstances of painful diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we extend this finding in the complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory pain and validate that the degree of conduction failure decreased and led to a greater amount of pain signals conveyed to the central nervous system. In complete Freund's adjuvant-injected animals, conduction failure occurred in a C-fiber-selective, activity-dependent manner and was associated with an increase in the rising slope of the C-fiber after-hyperpolarization potential. To target conduction failure in a therapeutic modality, we used ZD7288, an antagonist of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-modulated channels which are activated by hyperpolarization and play a pivotal role in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. ZD7288 promoted conduction failure by suppressing Ih as a mechanism to reduce the rising slope of the after-hyperpolarization potential. Moreover, perineuronal injection of ZD7288 inhibited abnormal mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting motor function or heart rate. Our data highlight the analgesic potential of local ZD7288 application and identify conduction failure as a novel target for analgesic therapeutic development. PMID:27583680

  2. Visualizing mechanical modulation of nanoscale organization of cell-matrix adhesions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Guanqing; Thakar, Dhruv; Tung, Jason C; Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A; Dufort, Christopher C; Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex; Weaver, Valerie M

    2016-07-11

    The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix influence cell signaling to regulate key cellular processes, including differentiation, apoptosis, and transformation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction is contingent upon our ability to visualize the effect of altered matrix properties on the nanoscale organization of proteins involved in this signalling. The development of super-resolution imaging techniques has afforded researchers unprecedented ability to probe the organization and localization of proteins within the cell. However, most of these methods require use of substrates like glass or silicon wafers, which are artificially rigid. In light of a growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix in regulating many aspects of cellular behavior and signaling, we have developed a system that allows scanning angle interference microscopy on a mechanically tunable substrate. We describe its implementation in detail and provide examples of how it may be used to aide investigations into the effect of substrate rigidity on intracellular signaling. PMID:27334548

  3. Strong adhesion and friction coupling in hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays for dry adhesive applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shihao; Xia, Zhenhai; Gao, Xiaosheng

    2012-04-01

    The adhesion and friction coupling of hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays was investigated with a hierarchical multiscale modeling approach. At device level, vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) arrays with laterally distributed segments on top were analyzed via finite element methods to determine the macroscopic adhesion and friction force coupling. At the nanoscale, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to explore the origin of the adhesion enhancement due to the existence of the laterally distributed CNTs. The results show interfacial adhesion force is drastically promoted by interfacial friction force when a single lateral CNT is being peeled from an amorphous carbon substrate. By fitting with experiments, we find that under shearing loadings the maximum interfacial adhesion force is increased by a factor of ~5, compared to that under normal loadings. Pre-existing surface asperities of the substrate have proven to be the source of generating large interfacial friction, which in turn results in an enhanced adhesion. The critical peeling angles derived from the continuum and nano- levels are comparable to those of geckos and other synthetic adhesives. Our analysis indicates that the adhesion enhancement factor of the hierarchically structured VA-CNT arrays could be further increased by uniformly orienting the laterally distributed CNTs on top. Most importantly, a significant buckling of the lateral CNT at peeling front is captured on the molecular level, which provides a basis for the fundamental understanding of local deformation, and failure mechanisms of nanofibrillar structures. This work gives an insight into the durability issues that prevent the success of artificial dry adhesives.

  4. How can health literacy influence outcomes in heart failure patients? Mechanisms and interventions.

    PubMed

    Westlake, Cheryl; Sethares, Kristen; Davidson, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Health literacy is discussed in papers from 25 countries where findings suggest that approximately a third up to one half of the people in developed countries have low health literacy. Specifically, health literacy is the mechanism by which individuals obtain and use health information to make health decisions about individual treatments in the home, access care in the community, promote provider-patient interactions, structure self-care, and navigate health care programs both locally and nationally. Further, health literacy is a key determinant of health and a critical dimension for assessing individuals' needs, and, importantly, their capacity for self-care. Poorer health knowledge/status, more medication errors, costs, and higher rates of morbidity, readmissions, emergency room visits, and mortality among patients with health illiteracy have been demonstrated. Individuals at high risk for low health literacy include the elderly, disabled, Blacks, those with a poverty-level income, some or less high school education, either no insurance or Medicare or Medicaid, and those for whom English is a second language. As a consequence, health literacy is a complex, multifaceted, and evolving construct including aspects of social, psychological, cultural and economic circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms and consequences of health illiteracy. Specifically, the prevalence, associated demographics, and models of health literacy are described. The mechanism of health illiteracy's influence on outcomes in heart failure is proposed. Tools for health literacy assessment are described and compared. Finally, the health outcomes and general interventions to enhance the health outcomes in heart failure are discussed. PMID:23873404

  5. Mechanical Failure of Revision Knee Prosthesis at both Femoral and Tibial Modular Metaphyseal Stem Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Woodgate, Ian G; Rooney, John; Mulford, Johnathan S; Gillies, R Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This is a report of a mechanical failure of an S-ROM revision total knee prosthesis. The prosthesis was used as a revision implant following deep peri-prosthetic infection in a morbidly obese male. The prosthesis failed on both the femoral and tibial sides at the modular metaphyseal stem junctions and required a further revision using the same type of implant after infection was excluded. Case Presentation: A 57 year old male had previously undergone a left total knee arthroplasty in 1999 for osteoarthritis. He acquired a late deep peri-prosthetic infection with a multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. The organism was sensitive to vancomycin and rifampicin. A two stage revision was undertaken after clinical signs of infection had resolved and blood parameters had normalized. Intra-operative gram stain was negative for micro-organisms and frozen section of deep tissue was less than five polymorphs per high power field. A cemented S-ROM prosthesis was implanted using a coronal tibial osteotomy and a lateral release for exposure. After three years of the second stage of revision, the patient again presented to the orthopaedic department after reportedly falling on a wet floor six weeks ago. Conclusion: Radiographically, there was a broken tibial wire, osteolysis and pedestal formation around both the femoral and distal tibial stem extensions. The prosthesis was bent at the proximal tibial sleeve and stem junction. The prosthesis was considered loose with mechanical failure. At implant removal, it was noted that the femoral and tibial components at the modular metaphyseal sleeve-stem junction were fractured. Surgeons should be cautious in the use of these implants in morbidly obese patients where the stresses generated maybe above the yield stress of the material and the frictional forces that may overcome the modular taper junction’s locking mechanism.

  6. How can health literacy influence outcomes in heart failure patients? Mechanisms and interventions.

    PubMed

    Westlake, Cheryl; Sethares, Kristen; Davidson, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Health literacy is discussed in papers from 25 countries where findings suggest that approximately a third up to one half of the people in developed countries have low health literacy. Specifically, health literacy is the mechanism by which individuals obtain and use health information to make health decisions about individual treatments in the home, access care in the community, promote provider-patient interactions, structure self-care, and navigate health care programs both locally and nationally. Further, health literacy is a key determinant of health and a critical dimension for assessing individuals' needs, and, importantly, their capacity for self-care. Poorer health knowledge/status, more medication errors, costs, and higher rates of morbidity, readmissions, emergency room visits, and mortality among patients with health illiteracy have been demonstrated. Individuals at high risk for low health literacy include the elderly, disabled, Blacks, those with a poverty-level income, some or less high school education, either no insurance or Medicare or Medicaid, and those for whom English is a second language. As a consequence, health literacy is a complex, multifaceted, and evolving construct including aspects of social, psychological, cultural and economic circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms and consequences of health illiteracy. Specifically, the prevalence, associated demographics, and models of health literacy are described. The mechanism of health illiteracy's influence on outcomes in heart failure is proposed. Tools for health literacy assessment are described and compared. Finally, the health outcomes and general interventions to enhance the health outcomes in heart failure are discussed.

  7. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering.

  8. Failure analysis of porcupine quills under axial compression reveals their mechanical response during buckling.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fernando G; Troncoso, Omar P; Diaz, John; Arce, Diego

    2014-11-01

    Porcupine quills are natural structures formed by a thin walled conical shell and an inner foam core. Axial compression tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were all used to compare the characteristics and mechanical properties of porcupine quills with and without core. The failure mechanisms that occur during buckling were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that delamination buckling is mostly responsible for the decrease in the measured buckling stress of the quills with regard to predicted theoretical values. Our analysis also confirmed that the foam core works as an energy dissipater improving the mechanical response of an empty cylindrical shell, retarding the onset of buckling as well as producing a step wise decrease in force after buckling, instead of an instantaneous decrease in force typical for specimens without core. Cell collapse and cell densification in the inner foam core were identified as the key mechanisms that allow for energy absorption during buckling.

  9. Failure analysis of porcupine quills under axial compression reveals their mechanical response during buckling.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fernando G; Troncoso, Omar P; Diaz, John; Arce, Diego

    2014-11-01

    Porcupine quills are natural structures formed by a thin walled conical shell and an inner foam core. Axial compression tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were all used to compare the characteristics and mechanical properties of porcupine quills with and without core. The failure mechanisms that occur during buckling were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and it was found that delamination buckling is mostly responsible for the decrease in the measured buckling stress of the quills with regard to predicted theoretical values. Our analysis also confirmed that the foam core works as an energy dissipater improving the mechanical response of an empty cylindrical shell, retarding the onset of buckling as well as producing a step wise decrease in force after buckling, instead of an instantaneous decrease in force typical for specimens without core. Cell collapse and cell densification in the inner foam core were identified as the key mechanisms that allow for energy absorption during buckling. PMID:25123434

  10. Impact of mechanical- and maintenance-induced failures of main reactor coolant pump seals on plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M A; Boccio, J L; Mitra, S

    1985-12-01

    This document presents an investigation of the safety impact resulting from mechanical- and maintenance-induced reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failures in nuclear power plants. A data survey of the pump seal failures for existing nuclear power plants in the US from several available sources was performed. The annual frequency of pump seal failures in a nuclear power plant was estimated based on the concept of hazard rate and dependency evaluation. The conditional probability of various sizes of leak rates given seal failures was then evaluated. The safety impact of RCP seal failures, in terms of contribution to plant core-melt frequency, was also evaluated for three nuclear power plants. For leak rates below the normal makeup capacity and the impact of plant safety were discussed qualitatively, whereas for leak rates beyond the normal make up capacity, formal PRA methodologies were applied. 22 refs., 17 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Effects of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation in preventing respiratory failure after extubation: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Weaning protocols that include noninvasive ventilation (NIV) decrease re-intubation rates and ICU length of stay. However, impaired airway clearance is associated with NIV failure. Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) has been proven to be very effective in patients receiving NIV. We aimed to assess the efficacy of MI-E as part of an extubation protocol. Method Patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours with specific inclusion criteria, who successfully tolerated a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), were randomly allocated before extubation, either for (A) a conventional extubation protocol (control group), or (B) the MI-E extubation protocol (study group). During the postextubation period (48 hours), group A patients received standard medical treatment (SMT), including NIV in case of specific indications, whereas group B received the same postextubation approach plus three daily sessions of mechanical in-exsufflation (MI-E). Reintubation rates, ICU length of stay, and NIV failure rates were analyzed. Results Seventy-five patients (26 women) with a mean age of 61.8 ± 17.3 years were randomized to a control group (n = 40; mean SAPS II, 47.8 ± 17.7) and to a study group (n = 35; mean SAPS II, 45.0 ± 15.0). MV time before enrollment was 9.4 ± 4.8 and 10.5 ± 4.1 days for the control and the study group, respectively. In the 48 hours after extubation, 20 control patients (50%) and 14 study patients (40%) used NIV. Study group patients had a significant lower reintubation rate than did controls; six patients (17%) versus 19 patients (48%), P < 0.05; respectively, and a significantly lower time under MV; 17.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.7 ± 3.5 days; P < 0.05; respectively. Considering only the subgroup of patients that used NIV, the reintubation rates related to NIV failure were significantly lower in the study group when compared with controls; two patients (6%) versus 13 (33%); P < 0.05, respectively. Mean ICU length of stay after

  12. Biophysically inspired model for functionalized nanocarrier adhesion to cell surface: roles of protein expression and mechanical factors

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Tourdot, Richard W.; Eckmann, David M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve selective targeting of affinity–ligand coated nanoparticles to the target tissue, it is essential to understand the key mechanisms that govern their capture by the target cell. Next-generation pharmacokinetic (PK) models that systematically account for proteomic and mechanical factors can accelerate the design, validation and translation of targeted nanocarriers (NCs) in the clinic. Towards this objective, we have developed a computational model to delineate the roles played by target protein expression and mechanical factors of the target cell membrane in determining the avidity of functionalized NCs to live cells. Model results show quantitative agreement with in vivo experiments when specific and non-specific contributions to NC binding are taken into account. The specific contributions are accounted for through extensive simulations of multivalent receptor–ligand interactions, membrane mechanics and entropic factors such as membrane undulations and receptor translation. The computed NC avidity is strongly dependent on ligand density, receptor expression, bending mechanics of the target cell membrane, as well as entropic factors associated with the membrane and the receptor motion. Our computational model can predict the in vivo targeting levels of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1)-coated NCs targeted to the lung, heart, kidney, liver and spleen of mouse, when the contributions due to endothelial capture are accounted for. The effect of other cells (such as monocytes, etc.) do not improve the model predictions at steady state. We demonstrate the predictive utility of our model by predicting partitioning coefficients of functionalized NCs in mice and human tissues and report the statistical accuracy of our model predictions under different scenarios. PMID:27429783

  13. Biophysically inspired model for functionalized nanocarrier adhesion to cell surface: roles of protein expression and mechanical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Tourdot, Richard W.; Eckmann, David M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    In order to achieve selective targeting of affinity-ligand coated nanoparticles to the target tissue, it is essential to understand the key mechanisms that govern their capture by the target cell. Next-generation pharmacokinetic (PK) models that systematically account for proteomic and mechanical factors can accelerate the design, validation and translation of targeted nanocarriers (NCs) in the clinic. Towards this objective, we have developed a computational model to delineate the roles played by target protein expression and mechanical factors of the target cell membrane in determining the avidity of functionalized NCs to live cells. Model results show quantitative agreement with in vivo experiments when specific and non-specific contributions to NC binding are taken into account. The specific contributions are accounted for through extensive simulations of multivalent receptor-ligand interactions, membrane mechanics and entropic factors such as membrane undulations and receptor translation. The computed NC avidity is strongly dependent on ligand density, receptor expression, bending mechanics of the target cell membrane, as well as entropic factors associated with the membrane and the receptor motion. Our computational model can predict the in vivo targeting levels of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1)-coated NCs targeted to the lung, heart, kidney, liver and spleen of mouse, when the contributions due to endothelial capture are accounted for. The effect of other cells (such as monocytes, etc.) do not improve the model predictions at steady state. We demonstrate the predictive utility of our model by predicting partitioning coefficients of functionalized NCs in mice and human tissues and report the statistical accuracy of our model predictions under different scenarios.

  14. Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

  15. Levosimendan may improve survival in patients requiring mechanical assist devices for post-cardiotomy heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Jan-Peter; Jasulaitis, Dominik; Moshirzadeh, Maryam; Doepfmer, Ulrich R; Kastrup, Marc; von Heymann, Christian; Dohmen, Pascal M; Konertz, Wolfgang; Spies, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Most case series suggest that less than half of the patients receiving a mechanical cardiac assist device as a bridge to recovery due to severe post-cardiotomy heart failure survive to hospital discharge. Levosimendan is the only inotropic substance known to improve medium term survival in patients suffering from severe heart failure. Methods This retrospective analysis covers our single centre experience. Between July 2000 and December 2004, 41 consecutive patients were treated for this complication. Of these, 38 patients are included in this retrospective analysis as 3 patients died in the operating room. Levosimendan was added to the treatment protocol for the last nine patients. Results Of 29 patients treated without levosimendan, 20 could be weaned off the device, 9 survived to intensive care unit discharge, 7 left hospital alive and 3 survived 180 days. All 9 patients treated with levosimendan could be weaned, 8 were discharged alive from ICU and hospital, and 7 lived 180 days after surgery (p < 0.002 for 180 day survival). Plasma lactate after explantation of the device was significantly lower (p = 0.002), as were epinephrine doses. Time spent on renal replacement therapy was significantly shorter (p = 0.023). Conclusion Levosimendan seems to improve medium term survival in patients failing to wean off cardiopulmonary bypass and requiring cardiac assist devices as a bridge to recovery. This retrospective analysis justifies prospective randomised investigations of levosimendan in this group of patients. PMID:16420666

  16. Mechanics-based statistics of failure risk of quasibrittle structures and size effect on safety factors.

    PubMed

    Bazant, Zdenĕk P; Pang, Sze-Dai

    2006-06-20

    In mechanical design as well as protection from various natural hazards, one must ensure an extremely low failure probability such as 10(-6). How to achieve that goal is adequately understood only for the limiting cases of brittle or ductile structures. Here we present a theory to do that for the transitional class of quasibrittle structures, having brittle constituents and characterized by nonnegligible size of material inhomogeneities. We show that the probability distribution of strength of the representative volume element of material is governed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of atomic energies and the stress dependence of activation energy barriers; that it is statistically modeled by a hierarchy of series and parallel couplings; and that it consists of a broad Gaussian core having a grafted far-left power-law tail with zero threshold and amplitude depending on temperature and load duration. With increasing structure size, the Gaussian core shrinks and Weibull tail expands according to the weakest-link model for a finite chain of representative volume elements. The model captures experimentally observed deviations of the strength distribution from Weibull distribution and of the mean strength scaling law from a power law. These deviations can be exploited for verification and calibration. The proposed theory will increase the safety of concrete structures, composite parts of aircraft or ships, microelectronic components, microelectromechanical systems, prosthetic devices, etc. It also will improve protection against hazards such as landslides, avalanches, ice breaks, and rock or soil failures. PMID:16769888

  17. Failure of fluid-saturated granular materials: a unified approach to capture diffuse and localized instability mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalache, Constance; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Granular materials are susceptible to a wide variety of failure and deformation mechanisms, especially because of their interaction with the pore fluids and the surrounding environment. An adequate modeling of their mechanical response is therefore essential for understanding a number of geological processes, such as the onset of rapid landslides, hillslope denudation and sediment transport, or even the mechanics of fault gauges. Depending on the type of material, the groundwater conditions and the surrounding kinematic constraints, both diffuse and localized mechanisms are possible, and these may occur under either drained or undrained conditions. In the geomechanics literature, failure modes are usually explained and modeled with the tools of continuum mechanics, such as the mathematical theory of plasticity. Due to the complexity of granular material behavior, however, most classical models for frictional strength are unable to capture the variety of instability mechanisms observed for such class of geomaterials (e.g., liquefaction, shear banding, etc.). Sophisticated strain-hardening plasticity models are therefore required for numerical modeling purposes, thus making the evaluation of critical failure conditions less straightforward than in perfect plasticity theories. Here we propose a mathematical strategy that can be adapted to any elastoplastic model and allows the onset of failure in elastoplastic geomaterials to be expressed in a more general manner. More specifically, our theory expresses the failure conditions as a function of local kinematics and solid-fluid interactions. The stability criterion used in this study is based on the so-called stability modulus, a scalar index of failure that was formulated by linking the physical concept controllability to the mathematical notion of plastic admissibility upon an incremental loading path [Buscarnera et al, 2011]. In this contribution, different loading constraints are considered, accounting for the

  18. Initiation of vacuum breakdown and failure mechanism of the carbon nanotube during thermal field emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Cai; Lie, Liu; Jin-Chuan, Ju; Xue-Long, Zhao; Hong-Yu, Zhou; Xiao, Wang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT)-based materials can be used as vacuum device cathodes. Owing to the excellent field emission properties of CNT, it has great potentials in the applications of an explosive field emission cathode. The falling off of CNT from the substrate, which frequently appears in experiments, restricts its application. In addition, the onset time of vacuum breakdown limits the performance of the high-power explosive-emission-cathode-based diode. In this paper, the characteristics of the CNT, electric field strength, contact resistance and the kind of substrate material are varied to study the parameter effects on the onset time of vacuum breakdown and failure mechanism of the CNT by using the finite element method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11305263 and 61401484).

  19. Assessing cell fusion and cytokinesis failure as mechanisms of clone 9 hepatocyte multinucleation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Simic, Damir; Euler, Catherine; Thurby, Christina; Peden, Mike; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah; Bunch, Todd; Sanderson, Thomas; Van Vleet, Terry

    2012-08-01

    In this in vitro model of hepatocyte multinucleation, separate cultures of rat Clone 9 cells are labeled with either red or green cell tracker dyes (Red Cell Tracker CMPTX or Vybrant CFDA SE Cell Tracer), plated together in mixed-color colonies, and treated with positive or negative control agents for 4 days. The fluorescent dyes become cell-impermeant after entering cells and are not transferred to adjacent cells in a population, but are inherited by daughter cells after fusion. The mixed-color cultures are then evaluated microscopically for multinucleation and analysis of the underlying mechanism (cell fusion/cytokinesis). Multinucleated cells containing only one dye have undergone cytokinesis failure, whereas dual-labeled multinucleated cells have resulted from fusion.

  20. Cognitive Mechanisms in Chronic Tinnitus: Psychological Markers of a Failure to Switch Attention

    PubMed Central

    Trevis, Krysta J.; McLachlan, Neil M.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning chronic tinnitus (CT; phantom auditory perceptions) are underexplored but may reflect a failure to switch attention away from a tinnitus sound. Here, we investigated a range of components that influence the ability to switch attention, including cognitive control, inhibition, working memory and mood, on the presence and severity of CT. Our participants with tinnitus showed significant impairments in cognitive control and inhibition as well as lower levels of emotional well-being, compared to healthy-hearing participants. Moreover, the subjective cognitive complaints of tinnitus participants correlated with their emotional well-being whereas complaints in healthy participants correlated with objective cognitive functioning. Combined, cognitive control and depressive symptoms correctly classified 67% of participants. These results demonstrate the core role of cognition in CT. They also provide the foundations for a neurocognitive account of the maintenance of tinnitus, involving impaired interactions between the neurocognitive networks underpinning attention-switching and mood. PMID:27605920

  1. A mechanics framework for a progressive failure methodology for laminated composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.; Lo, David C.

    1989-01-01

    A laminate strength and life prediction methodology has been postulated for laminated composites which accounts for the progressive development of microstructural damage to structural failure. A damage dependent constitutive model predicts the stress redistribution in an average sense that accompanies damage development in laminates. Each mode of microstructural damage is represented by a second-order tensor valued internal state variable which is a strain like quantity. The mechanics framework together with the global-local strategy for predicting laminate strength and life is presented in the paper. The kinematic effects of damage are represented by effective engineering moduli in the global analysis and the results of the global analysis provide the boundary conditions for the local ply level stress analysis. Damage evolution laws are based on experimental results.

  2. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  3. Cognitive Mechanisms in Chronic Tinnitus: Psychological Markers of a Failure to Switch Attention.

    PubMed

    Trevis, Krysta J; McLachlan, Neil M; Wilson, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning chronic tinnitus (CT; phantom auditory perceptions) are underexplored but may reflect a failure to switch attention away from a tinnitus sound. Here, we investigated a range of components that influence the ability to switch attention, including cognitive control, inhibition, working memory and mood, on the presence and severity of CT. Our participants with tinnitus showed significant impairments in cognitive control and inhibition as well as lower levels of emotional well-being, compared to healthy-hearing participants. Moreover, the subjective cognitive complaints of tinnitus participants correlated with their emotional well-being whereas complaints in healthy participants correlated with objective cognitive functioning. Combined, cognitive control and depressive symptoms correctly classified 67% of participants. These results demonstrate the core role of cognition in CT. They also provide the foundations for a neurocognitive account of the maintenance of tinnitus, involving impaired interactions between the neurocognitive networks underpinning attention-switching and mood. PMID:27605920

  4. Cognitive Mechanisms in Chronic Tinnitus: Psychological Markers of a Failure to Switch Attention

    PubMed Central

    Trevis, Krysta J.; McLachlan, Neil M.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underpinning chronic tinnitus (CT; phantom auditory perceptions) are underexplored but may reflect a failure to switch attention away from a tinnitus sound. Here, we investigated a range of components that influence the ability to switch attention, including cognitive control, inhibition, working memory and mood, on the presence and severity of CT. Our participants with tinnitus showed significant impairments in cognitive control and inhibition as well as lower levels of emotional well-being, compared to healthy-hearing participants. Moreover, the subjective cognitive complaints of tinnitus participants correlated with their emotional well-being whereas complaints in healthy participants correlated with objective cognitive functioning. Combined, cognitive control and depressive symptoms correctly classified 67% of participants. These results demonstrate the core role of cognition in CT. They also provide the foundations for a neurocognitive account of the maintenance of tinnitus, involving impaired interactions between the neurocognitive networks underpinning attention-switching and mood.

  5. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Alfonso Megido, Joaquín; González Franco, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    When acute heart failure progresses and there is acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, routine therapeutic measures should be accompanied by other measures that help to correct oxygenation of the patient. The final and most drastic step is mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation has been developed in the last few years as a method that attempts to improve oxygenation without the need for intubation, thus, in theory, reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present article describes the controversies surrounding the results of this technique and discusses its indications. The article also discusses how to start non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary edema from a practical point of view. PMID:24930085

  6. Finite Element Modeling of the Different Failure Mechanisms of a Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.

    2012-12-01

    A new finite element model is used to investigate catastrophic failures of a thermal barrier coatings system due to crack propagation along the interfaces between the ceramic top-coat, thermally grown oxide, and bond-coat layers, as well as between the lamellas structure of the ceramic layer. The thermo-mechanical model is designed to take into account a non-homogenous temperature distribution and the effects of the residual stresses generated during the coating process. Crack propagation is simulated using the contact tool "Debond" present in the ABAQUS finite element code. Simulations are performed with a geometry corresponding to similar or dissimilar amplitudes of asperity, and for different thicknesses of the oxide layer. The numerical results have shown that crack evolution depends crucially on the ratio of the loading rate caused by growth and swelling of the oxide layer and also on the interface roughness obtained during the spraying of coatings.

  7. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-06-01

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.

  8. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De'an; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft.

  9. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De’an; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft. PMID:27618989

  10. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De’An; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-09-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft.

  11. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives. PMID:27297565

  12. Mechanical properties and failure behaviors of the interface of hybrid graphene/hexagonal boron nitride sheets

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ning; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid graphene/h-BN sheet has been fabricated recently and verified to possess unusual physical properties. During the growth process, defects such as vacancies are unavoidably present at the interface between graphene and h-BN. In the present work, typical vacancy defects, which were located at the interface between graphene and h-BN, were studied by density functional theory. The interface structure, mechanical and electronic properties, and failure behavior of the hybrid graphene/h-BN sheet were investigated and compared. The results showed that the formation energy of the defective graphene/h-BN interface basically increased with increasing inflection angles. However, Young’s modulus for all graphene/h-BN systems studied decreased with the increase in inflection angles. The intrinsic strength of the hybrid graphene/h-BN sheets was affected not only by the inflection angles, but also by the type of interface connection and the type of defects. The energy band structure of the hybrid interface could be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the systems. These results demonstrated that vacancies introduced significant effects on the mechanical and electronic properties of the hybrid graphene/h-BN sheet. PMID:27527371

  13. Mechanical properties and failure behaviors of the interface of hybrid graphene/hexagonal boron nitride sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ning; Chen, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid graphene/h-BN sheet has been fabricated recently and verified to possess unusual physical properties. During the growth process, defects such as vacancies are unavoidably present at the interface between graphene and h-BN. In the present work, typical vacancy defects, which were located at the interface between graphene and h-BN, were studied by density functional theory. The interface structure, mechanical and electronic properties, and failure behavior of the hybrid graphene/h-BN sheet were investigated and compared. The results showed that the formation energy of the defective graphene/h-BN interface basically increased with increasing inflection angles. However, Young’s modulus for all graphene/h-BN systems studied decreased with the increase in inflection angles. The intrinsic strength of the hybrid graphene/h-BN sheets was affected not only by the inflection angles, but also by the type of interface connection and the type of defects. The energy band structure of the hybrid interface could be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the systems. These results demonstrated that vacancies introduced significant effects on the mechanical and electronic properties of the hybrid graphene/h-BN sheet.

  14. Failure mechanism of monolayer graphene under hypervelocity impact of spherical projectile.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kang; Zhan, Haifei; Hu, De'an; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of graphene have enabled it as appealing candidate in the field of impact protection or protective shield. By considering a monolayer graphene membrane, in this work, we assessed its deformation mechanisms under hypervelocity impact (from 2 to 6 km/s), based on a serial of in silico studies. It is found that the cracks are formed preferentially in the zigzag directions which are consistent with that observed from tensile deformation. Specifically, the boundary condition is found to exert an obvious influence on the stress distribution and transmission during the impact process, which eventually influences the penetration energy and crack growth. For similar sample size, the circular shape graphene possesses the best impact resistance, followed by hexagonal graphene membrane. Moreover, it is found the failure shape of graphene membrane has a strong relationship with the initial kinetic energy of the projectile. The higher kinetic energy, the more number the cracks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of the deformation mechanisms of monolayer graphene under impact, which is crucial in order to facilitate their emerging future applications for impact protection, such as protective shield from orbital debris for spacecraft. PMID:27618989

  15. Failure mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feifei; Song, Zhichao; Ross, Philip N; Somorjai, Gabor A; Ritchie, Robert O; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-06-14

    Long-term durability is a major obstacle limiting the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications and others demanding extended lifetime. As one of the root causes of the degradation of battery performance, the electrode failure mechanisms are still unknown. In this paper, we reveal the fundamental fracture mechanisms of single-crystal silicon electrodes over extended lithiation/delithiation cycles, using electrochemical testing, microstructure characterization, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis. Anisotropic lithium invasion causes crack initiation perpendicular to the electrode surface, followed by growth through the electrode thickness. The low fracture energy of the lithiated/unlithiated silicon interface provides a weak microstructural path for crack deflection, accounting for the crack patterns and delamination observed after repeated cycling. On the basis of this physical understanding, we demonstrate how electrolyte additives can heal electrode cracks and provide strategies to enhance the fracture resistance in future lithium-ion batteries from surface chemical, electrochemical and material science perspectives.

  16. Microstructure-property relationships of SiC fiber-reinforced magnesium aluminosilicates. 2: Mechanical properties and failure characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Knowles, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Interfacial frictional shear stresses, flexural properties and failure mechanisms are reported for two magnesium aluminosilicates unidirectionally reinforced with Nicalon SiC fibers. Composites A and B were hot-pressed at 1,500 and 920 C, respectively. High values of interfacial frictional shear stresses inferred from Marshall`s analysis of the micro-indentation technique could be attributed in part to the presence of compressive radial stresses at the fiber-matrix interfaces. Although both composites failed non-catastrophically in symmetrical four point bend testing at room temperature, the failure modes were different. Extensive matrix microcracking, fiber failure and then fiber pull-put were commonly observed in composite A. Failure modes in composite B included the formation of a limited number of matrix cracks, the failure of fibers in the matrix crack front and progressive delamination. The observations demonstrate that the mechanical properties, the interfacial frictional shear stresses and the failure mechanisms of both composites are governed by their microstructural features, in particular the chemistry and structure of the matrix-fiber interfacial region.

  17. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical impacts bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock wave have been identified.

  18. The unsteady nature of sea cliff retreat due to mechanical abrasion, failure and comminution feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Shaun W.; Adams, Peter N.; Limber, Patrick W.

    2014-08-01

    Sea cliff retreat is often linked to large waves, heavy precipitation and seismic events, but the specific operative mechanics have not been well constrained. In particular, what is the role of mechanical abrasion by beach sediments in cliff/platform evolution and how does it relate to the episodic nature of cliff retreat observed at certain locations? Here we present a simple, numerical model of sea cliff retreat that incorporates mechanical abrasion of a basal notch, threshold-controlled failure of the cantilevered block, and a feedback mechanism wherein retreat is dependent on the rate of sediment comminution within the surf zone. Using shore platform and cliff characteristics found in two coastal settings (the central California coast and the English North Sea coast), the model produces retreat rates comparable to those observed via field measurements. The highest retreat rates coincide with the steepest shore platforms and increasing wave height. Steeper platforms promote wave access to the cliff toe and, correspondingly, the receding cliff face produces additional accommodation space for the platform beach, preserving the erosive efficacy of the beach sediments. When exposed to energetic wave forcing, the slope of the inner platform segment controls retreat rates for concave platforms, whereas the slope of the outer platform segment exerts greater control for convex platforms. Platform beaches approached a long-term dynamic equilibrium on the concave profiles, leading to more consistent and steady retreat. Platform beaches were ephemeral on convex profiles, mirroring observed sand wave (Ord) migration on the Holderness coast, UK. These findings agree with previous field observations and support mechanical abrasion as a viable cause of temporal heterogeneity in cliff retreat rate for both coastlines.

  19. Atomic force microscopy, lateral force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy investigations and adhesion force measurements for elucidation of tungsten removal mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, D.J.; Cecchi, J.L.; Hetherington, D.L.

    1999-09-01

    We investigated various interactions between alumina and tungsten films that occur during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Atomic force microscopy surface topography measurements of post-CMP tungsten indicate that the roughness of the tungsten is independent of polish pressure and rotation rate. Pure mechanical abrasion is therefore an unlikely mechanism of material removal during CMP. Transmission electron microscopy images corroborate these results. The adhesion force between alumina and tungsten was measured in solution. The adhesive force increased with KIO{sub 3} concentration. Friction forces were measured in solution using lateral force microscopy. The friction force in buffered solutions was independent of KIO{sub 3} concentration. These results indicate that interactions other than purely mechanical interactions exist during CMP. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

  20. Neuroligin1: a cell adhesion molecule that recruits PSD-95 and NMDA receptors by distinct mechanisms during synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The cell adhesion molecule pair neuroligin1 (Nlg1) and β-neurexin (β-NRX) is a powerful inducer of postsynaptic differentiation of glutamatergic synapses in vitro. Because Nlg1 induces accumulation of two essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) – PSD-95 and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) – and can physically bind PSD-95 and NMDARs at mature synapses, it has been proposed that Nlg1 recruits NMDARs to synapses through its interaction with PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and NMDARs are recruited to nascent synapses independently and it is not known if Nlg1 accumulates at synapses before these PSD proteins. Here, we investigate how a single type of cell adhesion molecule can recruit multiple types of synaptic proteins to new synapses with distinct mechanisms and time courses. Results Nlg1 was present in young cortical neurons in two distinct pools before synaptogenesis, diffuse and clustered. Time-lapse imaging revealed that the diffuse Nlg1 aggregated at, and the clustered Nlg1 moved to, sites of axodendritic contact with a rapid time course. Using a patching assay that artificially induced clusters of Nlg, the time course and mechanisms of recruitment of PSD-95 and NMDARs to those Nlg clusters were characterized. Patching Nlg induced clustering of PSD-95 via a slow palmitoylation-dependent step. In contrast, NMDARs directly associated with clusters of Nlg1 during trafficking. Nlg1 and NMDARs were highly colocalized in dendrites before synaptogenesis and they became enriched with a similar time course at synapses with age. Patching of Nlg1 dramatically decreased the mobility of NMDAR transport packets. Finally, Nlg1 was biochemically associated with NMDAR transport packets, presumably through binding of NMDARs to MAGUK proteins that, in turn, bind Nlg1. This interaction was essential for colocalization and co-transport of Nlg1 with NMDARs. Conclusion Our results suggest that axodendritic contact leads to rapid accumulation of Nlg1, recruitment of

  1. Development of a shock wave adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.

    2014-05-01

    Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock wave, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical impacts on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock wave propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock waves have been identified.

  2. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  3. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  4. Structural integrity and failure mechanisms of a smart piezoelectric actuator under a cyclic bending mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    2008-08-01

    Information on the onset and evolution of damage within materials is essential for guaranteeing the integrity of actuator systems. The authors have evaluated the structural integrity and the failure mechanisms of smart composite actuators with a PZT ceramic plate under electric cyclic loading. For this, two kinds of actuators, actuator 1 and actuator 2, were manufactured. Prior to the main testing, performance testing was performed on the actuators to determine their resonant frequencies. Electric cyclic tests were conducted up to twenty million cycles. An acoustic emission technique was used for monitoring the damage evolution in real time. We observed the extent of the damage after testing using scanning electron microscopy and reflected optical microscopy to support characteristics in the acoustic emission behavior that corresponded to specific types of damage mechanisms. It was shown that the initial damage mechanism of the smart composite actuator under electric cyclic loading originated from the transgranular micro-fatigue damage in the PZT ceramic layer. With increasing cycles, a local intergranular crack initiated and developed onto the surface of the PZT ceramic layer or propagated into the internal layer. Finally, short-circuiting led to the electric breakdown of the actuator. These results were different depending on the drive frequencies and the configuration of the actuators. Moreover, we differentiated between the aforementioned damage mechanisms via AE signal pattern analyses based on the primary frequency and the waveform. From our results, we conclude that the drive frequency and the existence of a protecting layer are dominant factors in the structural integrity of the smart composite actuator.

  5. Influence of Cell-Adhesive Peptide Ligands on Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogel Physical, Mechanical and Transport Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zustiak, Silviya P.; Durbal, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for cell and tissue engineering routinely utilize peptide ligands to provide sites for cell adhesion and to promote cellular activity. Given the fact that recent studies have dedicated great attention to the mechanisms by which cell behavior is influenced by various ligands and scaffold material properties, it is surprising that little work to date has been carried out to investigate the influence of covalently-bound ligands on hydrogel material properties. Herein we report the influence of 3 common ligands utilized in tissue engineering, namely RGD, YIGSR, and IKVAV on the mechanical properties of cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. The effect of the ligands on hydrogel storage modulus, swelling ratio, mesh size, and also on the diffusivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the hydrogel were investigated in detail. We identified conditions at which these ligands strikingly influence the properties of the material: the extent of influence and whether the ligand increases or decreases a specific property is linked to ligand type and concentration. Further, we pinpoint mechanisms by which the ligands interact with the PEG network. This work thus provides specific evidence for interactions between peptide ligands and cross-linked PEG hydrogels that significantly impact hydrogel material and transport properties. As a result, this work may have important implications for interpreting cell experiments carried out with ligand-modified hydrogels because the addition of ligand may affect not only the scaffold’s biological properties, but also key physical properties of the system. PMID:20385260

  6. Constructing an effective prevention mechanism for MSW lifecycle using failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Wu, Wen-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Municipal solid waste in Taiwan is a valuable source of renewable energy. Phases of municipal solid waste lifecycle (classification, disposal, storage, collection and transportation) before incineration or landfilled face various potential failures. Applying a proper technique to eliminate or decrease potential failures is desirable and needed. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to municipal solid waste lifecycle was found in literature. This study utilized the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a convenient technique for determining, classifying and analyzing common failures in the municipal solid waste lifecycle. As a result, an appropriate risk scoring of severity, occurrence, and detection of failure modes and computing the Risk Priority Number for identifying the high potential failure modes were made. Nineteen failure modes were identified, and nine of them were ranked as the priority items for improvement. Recommended actions for all failure modes were suggested. Occurrences of failures were remarkably reduced after implementing the procedure for six months. The results of this study have minimized potential failures and brought continuous improvement, thus achieving a better protection of the environment.

  7. Constructing an effective prevention mechanism for MSW lifecycle using failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Wu, Wen-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Municipal solid waste in Taiwan is a valuable source of renewable energy. Phases of municipal solid waste lifecycle (classification, disposal, storage, collection and transportation) before incineration or landfilled face various potential failures. Applying a proper technique to eliminate or decrease potential failures is desirable and needed. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to municipal solid waste lifecycle was found in literature. This study utilized the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a convenient technique for determining, classifying and analyzing common failures in the municipal solid waste lifecycle. As a result, an appropriate risk scoring of severity, occurrence, and detection of failure modes and computing the Risk Priority Number for identifying the high potential failure modes were made. Nineteen failure modes were identified, and nine of them were ranked as the priority items for improvement. Recommended actions for all failure modes were suggested. Occurrences of failures were remarkably reduced after implementing the procedure for six months. The results of this study have minimized potential failures and brought continuous improvement, thus achieving a better protection of the environment. PMID:26372404

  8. The renal nerves in chronic heart failure: efferent and afferent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Alicia M.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF. PMID:26300788

  9. Mechanisms of decompensation and organ failure in cirrhosis: From peripheral arterial vasodilation to systemic inflammation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Mauro; Moreau, Richard; Angeli, Paolo; Schnabl, Bernd; Arroyo, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis has been most influential in the field of cirrhosis and its complications. It has given rise to hundreds of pathophysiological studies in experimental and human cirrhosis and is the theoretical basis of life-saving treatments. It is undisputed that splanchnic arterial vasodilation contributes to portal hypertension and is the basis for manifestations such as ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, but the body of research generated by the hypothesis has revealed gaps in the original pathophysiological interpretation of these complications. The expansion of our knowledge on the mechanisms regulating vascular tone, inflammation and the host-microbiota interaction require a broader approach to advanced cirrhosis encompassing the whole spectrum of its manifestations. Indeed, multiorgan dysfunction and failure likely result from a complex interplay where the systemic spread of bacterial products represents the primary event. The consequent activation of the host innate immune response triggers endothelial molecular mechanisms responsible for arterial vasodilation, and also jeopardizes organ integrity with a storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, the picture of advanced cirrhosis could be seen as the result of an inflammatory syndrome in contradiction with a simple hemodynamic disturbance. PMID:26192220

  10. Numerical modeling of the failure mechanisms in silicon thin film anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Siddharth H.

    2011-12-01

    In recent times, the demand for the storage of electrical energy has grown rapidly for both static applications and the portable electronics enforcing the substantial improvement in battery systems, and Li-ion batteries have been proven to have maximum energy storage density in all rechargeable batteries. However, major breakthroughs are required to consummate the requirement of higher energy density with lower cost to penetrate new markets. Graphite anode having limited capacity has become a bottle neck in the process of developing next generation batteries and can be replaced by higher capacity metals such as Silicon. In the present study we are focusing on the mechanical behavior of the Si-thin film anode under various operating conditions. A numerical model is developed to simulate the intercalation induced stress and the failure mechanism of the complex anode structure. Effect of the various physical phenomena such as diffusion induced stress, plasticity and the crack propagation are investigated to predict better performance parameters for improved design.

  11. Effect and mechanism of Bushen Huoxue recipe on ovarian reserve in mice with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Song, Kun-Kun; Ma, Wen-Wen; Huang, Cong; Ding, Jia-Hui; Cui, Dan-Dan; Tan, Xiu-Juan; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Ming-Min

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect and mechanism of Bushen Huoxue recipe (BHR) on ovarian reserve in mice with premature ovarian failure (POF). Mice were divided into 3 groups: normal group, model group and BHR group. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide was performed to create the POF model. Primordial follicular (PDF) number, ovarian wet weight, ovarian index, and estrous cycle were analyzed to evaluate the effect of BHR on POF. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein level of Mouse Vasa Homologue (MVH) in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and ovary were detected, to explore the underlying mechanism of the treatment efficacy of BHR on ovarian reserve. By the time of BHR treatment for 28 days, BHR increased the PDF number and shortened the estrous cycle of POF mice. BHR also decreased the mRNA level of MVH in the bone marrow, and increased mRNA and protein level of MVH in the ovary of POF mice. Our results demonstrated a treatment efficacy of BHR on POF mice, and revealed that BHR might repair the dysfunction of germline stem cells in the bone marrow, and thus to improve the ovarian reserve and enhance the ovarian function of POF mice through neo-oogenesis. PMID:27465335

  12. Unraveling new mechanisms of exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure: role of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Conraads, Viviane M; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; De Maeyer, Catherine; Van Berendoncks, An M; Beckers, Paul J; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2013-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in the therapeutic approach of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), exercise intolerance remains one of the hallmarks of the disease. During the past two decades, evidence has accumulated to underscore the key role of both endothelial dysfunction and skeletal muscle wasting in the process that gradually leads to physical incapacity. Whereas reverse ventricular remodeling has been attributed to aerobic exercise training, the vast majority of studies conducted in this specific patient population emphasize the reversal of peripheral abnormalities. In this review, we provide a general overview on underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, emphasis is put on recently identified pathways, which contribute to a deeper understanding of the main causes of exercise tolerance and the potential for reversal through exercise training. Recently, deficient bone marrow-related endothelial repair mechanisms have received considerable attention. Both acute exercise bouts, as well as exercise training, affect the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells and their function. The observed changes following exercise training are believed to significantly contribute to improvement of peripheral endothelial function, as well as exercise capacity. With regard to skeletal muscle dysfunction and energy deprivation, adiponectin has been suggested to play a significant role. The demonstration of local skeletal muscle adiponectin resistance may provide an interesting and new link between the insulin resistant state and skeletal muscle wasting in CHF patients. PMID:22684340

  13. Modeling Structure Property Relations and Failure Mechanisms of PPTA Fibers using Reactive Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Dundar

    Failure mechanisms of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide (PPTA) under extreme tensile deformation has been studied using reactive potentials with molecular dynamics simulations. Amorphous PPTA systems with different molecular weights generated using an in-house developed amorphous builder. Tensile modulus of amorphous PPTA has been calculated as up to 6.7 GPa. Nitrogen and carbon vacancy defects were introduced to both crystalline and amorphous systems. The tensile modulus of defects-free crystalline PPTA calculated as 350 GPa. Introduction of 5% nitrogen vacancy defects reduced the tensile modulus to 197 GPa. PPTA fibers generated with skin core structure where skin region composed of PPTA chains in crystalline order and core region was composed of unordered PPTA chains vice versa. Relation between ratios of skin and core regions and mechanical properties of the fiber studied. Tensile load was mostly accommodated through stretching of bonds between amide group and phenyl groups. Under extreme tensile deformation PPTA chains failed at these C-N bonds. TUBITAK Grant No: 113F358.

  14. [Pain perception, mechanisms of action of local anesthetics and possible causes of failure].

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, E

    2000-01-01

    First, the fundamentals of impulse transmission and pain perception are revised. The role of the primary afferent nociceptors is explained. Dental pain is described as a form of acute pain and the mechanism of nociception is fundamental. Peripheral and central sensitization can evolve. The second part covers the pharmacological aspects. Local anesthetics reduce impulse transmission by interfering with the mechanism of normal depolarisation. Binding to specific receptors located at the nerve membrane, more specifically on the sodium channel, results in decreased or eliminated permeability to sodium ions and leads to interruption of nerve conduction. The different types of local anesthetics used in dentistry are discussed in more detail with respect to their physico-chemical characteristics and analgetic properties. The importance of factors such as lipophilicity, degree of protein binding and dissociation constant pKa are explained together with the clinical implications of pH and possible toxic effects. Failure of local anesthesia can be the result of problems with the administration of the product or can have a pharmacological basis. Injection of the anesthetic should take place in amounts large enough, with suitable volume and as close as possible to the nerve. When infection and inflammation are present, the intravascular resorption of the anesthetic will accelerate and the lowered pH influences diffusion negatively. Repetitive administration can induce the phenomenon of tachyfylaxis (decreased anesthetic effect).

  15. Five cases of failure of the tibial polyethylene insert locking mechanism in one design of constrained knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rapuri, Venkata R; Clarke, Henry D; Spangehl, Mark J; Beauchamp, Christopher P

    2011-09-01

    We describe 5 cases of failure of the locking mechanism of the polyethylene insert and tibial base-plate in one design of constrained condylar knee prosthesis due to disengagement of the locking screw. Loosening of the screw is believed to occur because of a counterclockwise torque created by the axial rotation of the femur on the tibia that occurs as the knee extends during gait. This torque is transmitted via the highly rotationally constrained femoral housing and tibial post to the locking screw. These failures suggest that an alternative locking mechanism should be considered for this prosthesis.

  16. SLOPE FAILURE MECHANISMS IN COHESIVE SOILS: INSIGHTS FROM THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF FIELD AND LABORATORY-TRIGGERED EVENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet, J.; Spickermann, A.; van Asch, T.

    2009-12-01

    A landslide can show a variety of failure modes which depends on the given conditions of the slope such as geometry, material characteristics and presence of discontinuities. Besides the gravity as main loading factor, it is assumed that slope failures are often caused by hydrological processes. The identification and modelling of failure modes and triggering mechanisms are essential requirements in landslide forecasting and in the design of reliable early warning systems. This work is an attempt to get a better understanding of the mode of failure and possible failure mechanisms taking place in cohesive slopes. Theoretical analysis has been carried out on the basis of (1) field observations of two failure events of the clay-rich Super-Sauze mudslide (Southeast France) and (2) small-scale landslides triggered in a flume using clay from Zoelen (Netherlands) and reworked black marls from Super-Sauze. To investigate the failure behaviour numerically a simple analytical model, named 2LM (Landslide Liquefaction Model) (van Asch et al. 2006; van Asch & Malet, in press) is used. The model assumes that liquefaction is related to previous development of slip surfaces, i.e. deformation of the landslide body (sliding blocks, slumps) during motion leading to the generation of excess pore water pressure and thus to fluidization. The model is based on the theory of limiting equilibrium dividing the area above an estimated slip surface into slices of constant width. Immediately after failure, the difference in movement for each slice is calculated assuming a viscous shear band and using the Coulomb-viscous model. The differential movements conduct to differential strains which are transferred to excess pore water pressures. The potential fluidization is then evaluated for each slice in relation to the displacements. Results from an application of this model on the two slump-type failures that occurred in the Super-Sauze mudslide are presented. Then the model is applied to the

  17. Mechanism of a cytosolic O-glycosyltransferase essential for the synthesis of a bacterial adhesion protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Seepersaud, Ravin; Bensing, Barbara A.; Sullam, Paul M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2016-01-01

    O-glycosylation of Ser and Thr residues is an important process in all organisms, which is only poorly understood. Such modification is required for the export and function of adhesin proteins that mediate the attachment of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria to host cells. Here, we have analyzed the mechanism by which the cytosolic O-glycosyltransferase GtfA/B of Streptococcus gordonii modifies the Ser/Thr-rich repeats of adhesin. The enzyme is a tetramer containing two molecules each of GtfA and GtfB. The two subunits have the same fold, but only GtfA contains an active site, whereas GtfB provides the primary binding site for adhesin. During a first phase of glycosylation, the conformation of GtfB is restrained by GtfA to bind substrate with unmodified Ser/Thr residues. In a slow second phase, GtfB recognizes residues that are already modified with N-acetylglucosamine, likely by converting into a relaxed conformation in which one interface with GtfA is broken. These results explain how the glycosyltransferase modifies a progressively changing substrate molecule. PMID:26884191

  18. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  19. Damage and failure mechanisms of a 3-directional carbon/carbon composite under uniaxial tensile and shear loads

    SciTech Connect

    Siron, O.; Lamon, J.

    1998-11-20

    The mechanical behavior of a three-directional carbon/carbon (C/C) composite under tensile and shear loads is investigated in relation with the failure mechanisms and, the fiber architecture. This three-directional C/C composite was produced by Chemical Vapor Infiltration of a needled fiber preform of multiple layers of satin woven tows. The C/C composite exhibited several interesting features including an essentially non-linear stress-strain behavior and permanent deformations. Three families of matrix cracks were identified under tensile and shear loads, including microcracks in the tows, intertow delamination and cracks across the longitudinal tows. It was found that the delamination cracks affect preponderantly the stress-strain behavior and the mechanical properties. Similar features in the mechanical behavior and the failure mechanisms were highlighted under tension and under shear loading.

  20. Chronic heart failure modifies respiratory mechanics in rats: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Deise M.; Silveira, Viviane D.; Thomaz, Alex; Nunes, Ramiro B.; Elsner, Viviane R.; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic alterations in an experimental model of chronic heart failure (CHF) following myocardial infarction. Method Twenty-seven male adult Wistar rats were randomized to CHF group (n=12) or Sham group (n=15). Ten weeks after coronary ligation or sham surgery, the animals were anesthetized and submitted to respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic measurements. Pulmonary edema as well as cardiac remodeling were measured. Results The CHF rats showed pulmonary edema 26% higher than the Sham group. The respiratory system compliance (Crs) and the total lung capacity (TLC) were lower (40% and 27%, respectively) in the CHF rats when compared to the Sham group (P<0.01). There was also an increase in tissue resistance (Gti) and elastance (Hti) (28% and 45%, respectively) in the CHF group. Moreover, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher (32 mmHg vs 4 mmHg, P<0.01), while the left ventricular systolic pressure was lower (118 mmHg vs 130 mmHg, P=0.02) in the CHF group when compared to the control. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a negative association between pulmonary edema and Crs (r=–0.70, P=0.0001) and between pulmonary edema and TLC (r=–0.67, P=0.0034). Pulmonary edema correlated positively with Gti (r=0.68, P=0.001) and Hti (r=0.68, P=0.001). Finally, there was a strong positive relationship between pulmonary edema and heart weight (r=0.80, P=0.001). Conclusion Rats with CHF present important changes in hemodynamic and respiratory mechanics, which may be associated with alterations in cardiopulmonary interactions. PMID:27556388

  1. Calibration of the mechanical properties in a finite element model of a lumbar vertebra under dynamic compression up to failure.

    PubMed

    Garo, Anaïs; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Wagnac, Eric; Aubin, Carl Eric

    2011-12-01

    Finite element models (FEM) dedicated to vertebral fracture simulations rarely take into account the rate dependency of the bone material properties due to limited available data. This study aims to calibrate the mechanical properties of a vertebral body FEM using an inverse method based on experiments performed at slow and fast dynamic loading conditions. A detailed FEM of a human lumbar vertebral body (23,394 elements) was developed and tested under compression at 2,500 and 10 mm s⁻¹. A central composite design was used to adjust the mechanical properties (Young modulus, yield stress, and yield strain) while optimizing four criteria (ultimate strain and stress of cortical and trabecular bone) until the failure load and energy at failure reached experimental results from the literature. At 2,500 mm s⁻¹, results from the calibrated simulation were in good agreement with the average experimental data (1.5% difference for the failure load and 0.1% for the energy). At 10 mm s⁻¹, they were in good agreement with the average experimental failure load (0.6% difference), and within one standard deviation of the reported range of energy to failure. The proposed method provides a relevant mean to identify the mechanical properties of the vertebral body in dynamic loadings.

  2. Systems Biology Reveals Cigarette Smoke-Induced Concentration-Dependent Direct and Indirect Mechanisms That Promote Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Poussin, Carine; Laurent, Alexandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) affects the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, a critical step in atherogenesis. Using an in vitro adhesion assay together with innovative computational systems biology approaches to analyze omics data, our study aimed at investigating CS-induced mechanisms by which monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is promoted. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated for 4 h with (1) conditioned media of human monocytic Mono Mac-6 (MM6) cells preincubated with low or high concentrations of aqueous CS extract (sbPBS) from reference cigarette 3R4F for 2 h (indirect treatment, I), (2) unconditioned media similarly prepared without MM6 cells (direct treatment, D), or (3) freshly generated sbPBS (fresh direct treatment, FD). sbPBS promoted MM6 cells-HCAECs adhesion following I and FD, but not D. In I, the effect was mediated at a low concentration through activation of vascular inflammation processes promoted in HCAECs by a paracrine effect of the soluble mediators secreted by sbPBS-treated MM6 cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a major inducer, was actually shed by unstable CS compound-activated TNFα-converting enzyme. In FD, the effect was triggered at a high concentration that also induced some toxicity. This effect was mediated through an yet unknown mechanism associated with a stress damage response promoted in HCAECs by unstable CS compounds present in freshly generated sbPBS, which had decayed in D unconditioned media. Aqueous CS extract directly and indirectly promotes monocytic cell-endothelial cell adhesion in vitro via distinct concentration-dependent mechanisms.

  3. Development of a new code to solve hydro-mechanical coupling, shear failure and tensile failure due to hydraulic fracturing operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Gómez Castro, Berta; De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there are still some unsolved relevant questions which must be faced if we want to proceed to the hydraulic fracturing in a safe way. How much will the fracture propagate? This is one of the most important questions that have to be solved in order to avoid the formation of pathways leading to aquifer targets and atmospheric release. Will the fracture failure provoke a microseismic event? Probably this is the biggest fear that people have in fracking. The aim of this work (developed as a part of the EU - FracRisk project) is to understand the hydro-mechanical coupling that controls the shear of existing fractures and their propagation during a hydraulic fracturing operation, in order to identify the key parameters that dominate these processes and answer the mentioned questions. This investigation focuses on the development of a new C++ code which simulates hydro-mechanical coupling, shear movement and propagation of a fracture. The framework employed, called Kratos, uses the Finite Element Method and the fractures are represented with an interface element which is zero thickness. This means that both sides of the element lie together in the initial configuration (it seems a 1D element in a 2D domain, and a 2D element in a 3D domain) and separate as the adjacent matrix elements deform. Since we are working in hard, fragile rocks, we can assume an elastic matrix and impose irreversible displacements in fractures when rock failure occurs. The formulation used to simulate shear and tensile failures is based on the analytical solution proposed by Okada, 1992 and it is part of an iterative process. In conclusion, the objective of this work is to employ the new code developed to analyze the main uncertainties related with the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractures derived from the hydraulic fracturing operations.

  4. Regulation of Cell Adhesion Strength by Peripheral Focal Adhesion Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Elineni, Kranthi Kumar; Gallant, Nathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices is a tightly regulated process that involves the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical events at the cell-adhesive interface. Previous work established the spatiotemporal contributions of adhesive components to adhesion strength and identified a nonlinear dependence on cell spreading. This study was designed to investigate the regulation of cell-adhesion strength by the size and position of focal adhesions (FA). The cell-adhesive interface was engineered to direct FA assembly to the periphery of the cell-spreading area to delineate the cell-adhesive area from the cell-spreading area. It was observed that redistributing the same adhesive area over a larger cell-spreading area significantly enhanced cell-adhesion strength, but only up to a threshold area. Moreover, the size of the peripheral FAs, which was interpreted as an adhesive patch, did not directly govern the adhesion strength. Interestingly, this is in contrast to the previously reported functional role of FAs in regulating cellular traction where sizes of the peripheral FAs play a critical role. These findings demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that two spatial regimes in cell-spreading area exist that uniquely govern the structure-function role of FAs in regulating cell-adhesion strength. PMID:22208188

  5. Electrochemical layer-by-layer approach to fabricate mechanically stable platinum black microelectrodes using a mussel-inspired polydopamine adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Raeyoung; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Platinum black (PtBK) has long been used for microelectrode fabrication owing to its high recording performance of neural signals. The porous structure of PtBK enlarges the surface area and lowers the impedance, which results in background noise reduction. However, the brittleness of PtBK has been a problem in practice. In this work, we report mechanically stable PtBK microelectrodes using a bioinspired adhesive film, polydopamine (pDA), while maintaining the low impedance of PtBK. Approach. The pDA layer was incorporated into the PtBK structure through electrochemical layer-by-layer deposition. Varying the number of layers and the order of materials, multi-layered pDA-PtBK hybrids were fabricated and the electrical properties, both impedance and charge injection limit, were evaluated. Main results. Multilayered pDA-PtBK hybrids had electrical impedances as low as PtBK controls and charge injection limit twice larger than controls. For the 30 min-ultrasonication agitation test, impedance levels rarely changed for some of the pDA-PtBK hybrids indicating that the pDA improved the mechanical property of the PtBK structures. The pDA-PtBK hybrid microelectrodes readily recorded neural signals of cultured hippocampal neurons, where background noise levels and signal-to-noise were 2.43 ∼ 3.23 μVrms and 28.4 ∼ 69.1, respectively. Significance. The developed pDA-PtBK hybrid microelectrodes are expected to be applicable to neural sensors for neural prosthetic studies.

  6. Study the mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by impulse oscillometry

    PubMed Central

    Nourizadeh, Mohammad; Ghelich, Yunose; Amin, Ahmad; Eidani, Esmaeel; Gholampoor, Yousef; Asadmoghadam, Mahsa; Asadinia, Najme

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart failure is one of the most leading cause of death worldwide, but the mechanical characteristics of the pulmonary system in these patients have not been studied enough. The aim of this study was to measure mechanical pulmonary changes in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) by using impulse oscillometry (IOS), which can obtain data by simpler means and independently from respiratory muscle strength. Materials and methods We assessed 24 CHF patients and 24 controls by spirometry and IOS using the Jaeger IOS system. IOS measures central and peripheral airway resistances (R20, R5) and central and peripheral reactances (X20, X5) using sound waves with different frequencies, which superimposed on the patients respiratory tidal volume and then records reflects. P value < 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results The mean age of patients and controls was 61 ± 10 and 57 ± 7 years, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 37 ± 17% for patients and 55 ± 7% for controls. Patients had a lower X5 (−0.20 ± 0.13 vs −0.13 ± 0.07; P < 0.05), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; 2.26 ± 0.68 vs 3.09 ± 0.82: P < 0.01 L/min), and forced vital capacity (FVC; 2.55 ± 0.86 vs 3.32 ± 0.87; P < 0.05) compared to the controls. They also had elevated R5: 0.37 ± 0.21 vs 0.27 ± 0.09; P < 0.06). X5 was correlated with spirometric abnormalities (P < 0.05) and was lower in patients than in controls. Conclusion X5 was lower and R5 was higher in patients than in controls. CHF patients can be assessed by IOS more comfortable than by spirometry. IOS can reliably measure peripheral airway resistance in this group of patients. PMID:24027371

  7. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  8. Common and Diverging Integrin Signals Downstream of Adhesion and Mechanical Stimuli and Their Interplay with Reactive Oxygen Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Kathrin Stephanie; Johansson, Staffan

    The integrin family of adhesion receptors regulates basic functions of cells, and the signals they induce are altered in tumor cells. In this review we discuss how different integrindependent signals are generated during cell adhesion and by physical forces acting on cells. We also describe how reactive oxygen species are integral parts of integrin signaling and highlight a few important questions in the field. Answers to those may improve our understanding of integrins and their role in the development of cancer.

  9. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above