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Sample records for adhesive optibond fl

  1. Microshear Bond Strength of OptiBond All-in-One Self-adhesive Agent to Er:YAG Laser Treated Enamel After Thermocycling and Water Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Yarmohammadi, Ebrahim; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the microshear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser using a self-etch one step bonding agent. Methods: Seventy-six enamel surfaces were prepared from 38 sound human third molar teeth. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 18. The enamel surface in half the specimens was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. One extra specimen from each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composite micro-cylinders were bonded to the specimen surfaces using OptiBond All-In-One (OB) adhesive agent and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. Half the specimens were thermocycled (2000 cycles) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for three months (TW). The microshear bond strength of composite to enamel was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The fractured surfaces were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification to determine the mode of failure. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. Results: The mean values (±standard deviation) were 17.96 ± 2.92 MPa in OB group, 22.29 ± 4.25 MPa in laser + OB group, 18.11 ± 3.52 MPa in laser + OB + TW group and 9.42 ± 2.47 MPa in OB + TW group. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that laser irradiation increased the microshear bond strength (P < 0.001). Bond strength decreased when the samples were thermocycled and stored for three months (P < 0.001). The interaction effect of water storage and laser treatment on bond strength was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Enamel surface preparation with Er:YAG laser is recommended to enhance the durability of the bond of self-etch bonding systems to enamel. PMID:28144434

  2. Microshear Bond Strength of OptiBond All-in-One Self-adhesive Agent to Er:YAG Laser Treated Enamel After Thermocycling and Water Storage.

    PubMed

    Kasraei, Shahin; Yarmohammadi, Ebrahim; Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the microshear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser using a self-etch one step bonding agent. Methods: Seventy-six enamel surfaces were prepared from 38 sound human third molar teeth. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 18. The enamel surface in half the specimens was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. One extra specimen from each group was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composite micro-cylinders were bonded to the specimen surfaces using OptiBond All-In-One (OB) adhesive agent and stored in distilled water for 24 hours. Half the specimens were thermocycled (2000 cycles) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for three months (TW). The microshear bond strength of composite to enamel was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The fractured surfaces were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification to determine the mode of failure. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test. Results: The mean values (±standard deviation) were 17.96 ± 2.92 MPa in OB group, 22.29 ± 4.25 MPa in laser + OB group, 18.11 ± 3.52 MPa in laser + OB + TW group and 9.42 ± 2.47 MPa in OB + TW group. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that laser irradiation increased the microshear bond strength (P < 0.001). Bond strength decreased when the samples were thermocycled and stored for three months (P < 0.001). The interaction effect of water storage and laser treatment on bond strength was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Enamel surface preparation with Er:YAG laser is recommended to enhance the durability of the bond of self-etch bonding systems to enamel.

  3. Tensile Bond Strengths of Two Adhesives on Irradiated and Nonirradiated Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Cécile; Abouelleil, Hazem; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of radiotherapy on bond efficiency of two different adhesive systems using tensile bond strength test. Twenty extracted teeth after radiotherapy and twenty nonirradiated extracted teeth were used. The irradiation was applied in vivo to a minimal dose of 50 Gy. The specimens of each group were randomly assigned to two subgroups to test two different adhesive systems. A three-step/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL) and a two-steps/self-etch adhesive system (Optibond XTR) were used. Composite buildups were performed with a nanohybrid composite (Herculite XTR). All specimens were submitted to thermocycling ageing (10000 cycles). The specimens were sectioned in 1 mm2 sticks. Microtensile bond strength tests were measured. Nonparametric statistical analyses were performed due to nonnormality of data. Optibond XTR on irradiated and nonirradiated teeth did not show any significant differences. However, Optibond FL bond strength was more effective on nonirradiated teeth than on irradiated teeth. Within the limitations of an in vitro study, it can be concluded that radiotherapy had a significant detrimental effect on bond strength to human dentin. However, it seems that adhesive choice could be adapted to the substrata. According to the present study, the two-steps/self-etch (Optibond XTR) adhesive system tested could be more effective on irradiated dentin compared to three-steps/etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Optibond FL). PMID:26783528

  4. Enamel and dentin bond strengths of a new self-etch adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Walter, Ricardo; Swift, Edward J; Boushell, Lee W; Braswell, Krista

    2011-12-01

    statement of problem:  Self-etch adhesives typically are mildly acidic and therefore less effective than etch-and-rinse adhesives for bonding to enamel.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel and dentin shear bond strengths of a new two-step self-etch adhesive system, OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA, USA).   The labial surfaces of 80 bovine teeth were ground to create flat, 600-grit enamel or dentin surfaces. Composite was bonded to enamel or dentin using the new two-step self-etch system or a three-step etch-and-rinse (OptiBond FL, Kerr), two-step self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray America, Houston, TX, USA), or one-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno IV, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA). Following storage in water for 24 hours, shear bond strengths were determined using a universal testing machine. The enamel and dentin data sets were subjected to separate analysis of variance and Tukey's tests. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the effects of each system on enamel.   Mean shear bond strengths to enamel ranged from 18.1 MPa for Xeno IV to 41.0 MPa for OptiBond FL. On dentin, the means ranged from 33.3 MPa for OptiBond FL to 47.1 MPa for Clearfil SE Bond. OptiBond XTR performed as well as Clearfil SE Bond on dentin and as well as OptiBond FL on enamel. Field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that OptiBond XTR produced an enamel etch pattern that was less defined than that of OptiBond FL (37.5% phosphoric acid) but more defined than that of Clearfil SE Bond or Xeno IV.   The new two-step self-etch adhesive system formed excellent bonds to enamel and dentin in vitro. OptiBond XTR, a new two-step self-etch adhesive system, is a promising material for bonding to enamel as well as to dentin. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quantitative comparison of the water permeable zone among four types of dental adhesives used with a dual-cured composite.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhea; Platt, Jeffrey A; Yi, Keewook; Cochran, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    This study compared silver penetration in the adhesive interface among four versions of adhesives from the same manufacturer: OptiBond FL, OptiBond Solo Plus, OptiBond Solo Plus Dual Cure, and OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch, when coupled with dual-cured composite, CoreRestore 2 (Kerr). Twenty flat dentin surfaces were prepared using one of the adhesives and bonded with the composite, following the manufacturer's instructions. The surfaces were sectioned into 2-mm slabs and immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate for 24 hours. Each specimen was exposed to a photodeveloping solution for eight hours and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The water permeable area occupied by the silver nitrate tracer was determined, and the relative weight of silver was analyzed by wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS). The OptiBond FL group had a significantly lower silver content than the other groups (p < 0.0001). Each group demonstrated different patterns of silver deposition within the adhesive layer and within various features of artifactual fracture from dehydration stress of the SEM. This may be indicative of weak links in the bonded interfaces. Simplified-step adhesives showed increased permeability, which can lead to disruption of coupling with composites.

  6. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  7. Polymerization kinetics of dental adhesives cured with LED: correlation between extent of conversion and permeability.

    PubMed

    Breschi, Lorenzo; Cadenaro, Milena; Antoniolli, Francesca; Sauro, Salvatore; Biasotto, Matteo; Prati, Carlo; Tay, Franklin R; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the polymerization kinetics of different adhesive films in relation to their permeability after exposure to different LED curing units. One adhesive from each class was analyzed: a three-step etch-and-rinse (OptiBond FL; Sybron-Kerr), a two-step etch-and-rinse (One-Step, Bisco), a two-step self-etch (Clearfil Protect Bond, Kuraray) and a one-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno III; Dentsply DeTrey). Adhesive films were prepared and cured with SmartLite IQ (Dentsply) or L.E. Demetron I (Demetron Kerr) up to complete curing. Polymerization kinetic curves of the tested adhesives were obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In particular, total reaction time and extent of polymerization (Ep) at 20, 40 or 60s were compared. Permeability of the adhesive films was evaluated on flat dentin surfaces of human extracted teeth connected to a permeability device and statistically analyzed. Total reaction time differed among the adhesives tested: OptiBond FLOptiBond FL showed the highest Ep, while the lowest values were obtained with One-Step and Xeno III (p<0.05). E(p) increased when curing time was prolonged (40 and 60s) for all adhesives tested (p<0.05), however, on simplified adhesives, incomplete polymerization took place even after prolonged exposure intervals. An inverse correlation was found between Ep of the adhesives and their permeability using LED curing units. This study supports the hypothesis that, longer curing times than those recommended by the respective manufacturer decrease permeability of the bonded interfaces.

  8. Bond strength and etching pattern of adhesive systems to enamel: effects of conditioning time and enamel preparation.

    PubMed

    Pivetta, Marcela Riguera; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Lascala, Antonio Carlos; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2008-01-01

    The performance of self-etch systems on enamel is controversial and seems to be dependent on the application technique and the enamel preparation. To examine the effects of conditioning time and enamel surface preparation on bond strength and etching pattern of adhesive systems to enamel. Ninety-six teeth were divided into 16 conditions (N=6) in function of enamel preparation and conditioning time for bond strength test. The adhesive systems OptiBond FL (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), OptiBond SOLO Plus (Kerr), Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) were applied on unground or ground enamel following the manufacturers' directions or doubling the conditioning time. Cylinders of Filtek Flow (0.5-mm height) were applied to each bonded enamel surface using a Tygon tube (0.7 mm in diameter; Saint-Gobain Corp., Aurora, OH, USA). After storage (24 h/37 degrees C), the specimens were subjected to shear force (0.5 mm/min). The data were treated by a three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The failure modes of the debonded interfaces and the etching pattern of adhesives were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Only the main factor "adhesive" was statistically significant (p<0.001). The lowest bond strength value was observed for OptiBond FL. The most defined etching pattern was observed for 35% phosphoric acid and for Adper Prompt L-Pop. Mixed failures were observed for all adhesives, but OptiBond FL showed cohesive failures in resin predominantly. The increase in the conditioning time as well as the enamel pretreatment did not provide an increase in the resin-enamel bond strength values for the studied adhesives. The surface enamel preparation and the conditioning time do not affect the performance of self-etch systems to enamel.

  9. The clinical effectiveness of various adhesive systems: an 18-month evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, H; Kimyai, S; Forghani, M; Khodadadi, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the clinical performance of three different adhesive systems over 18 months in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Thirty patients, with at least three noncarious cervical lesions, were enrolled in the study. One operator randomly restored a total of 90 lesions with resin composite (Herculite XRV). The restorations were bonded with either Optibond FL (OF), three-step total-etch; Optibond Solo Plus (OS), two-step total-etch; or Optibond All-In-One (OA), one step self-etch. The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and after six, 12, and 18 months using the eight United States Public Health Services criteria. Data were analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests (p<0.05). After 18 months, the retention rate was (OF) 96.5%, (OS) 93.1%, and (OA) 89.7%. Differences among the three adhesive systems for evaluated criteria were not observed in comparison of the mean Alfa score percentages. There was a significant increase in marginal discoloration for (OA) adhesive after 18 months compared with baseline (p=0.011). Other restoration criteria had no statistically significant differences among the three adhesives (p>0.05). With the exception of marginal discoloration, the clinical effectiveness of three types of adhesive systems in NCCLs was acceptable after 18 months. However, using the one-step self-etch adhesive may lead to some marginal discolorations.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in posterior restorations-18-month results.

    PubMed

    Delbons, Flávia B; Perdigão, Jorge; Araujo, Edson; Melo Freire, Charles A; Caldas, Danilo D; Cardoso, Jorge L; Pagani, Margarida; Borges, Gilberto A; Lima, Rodrigo B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the 18-month clinical performance of four adhesive strategies in posterior composite restorations placed in private practice. Upon approval by an institutional review board, 144 restorations were inserted in 45 subjects (average age = 32.6) to treat caries lesions or to replace existing restorations in vital molars and premolars. The adhesives OptiBond FL (three-step etch-and-rinse), OptiBond SOLO Plus (two-step etch-and-rinse), OptiBond XTR (two-step self-etch), and OptiBond All-in One (one-step self-etch) were applied as per manufacturer's (Kerr Co.) instructions followed by a nanofilled resin composite (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) under rubber dam isolation. Restorations were evaluated at baseline and at 18 months using United States Public Health Service (USPHS)-modified criteria and high-resolution digital photographs. Statistical analyses included the McNemar and the Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests (p < 0.05). A total of 137 restorations were evaluated after 18 months. The number of alfa ratings did not change significantly from baseline to 18 months for any of the adhesion strategies. When the 18-month evaluation criteria were pooled by pairs of adhesives, none of the adhesives resulted in a significantly different number of alfa ratings for any of the criteria compared with the other adhesives. Bonding strategy did not influence the clinical performance of posterior composite restorations under the clinical conditions used in this study. When used in ideal clinical conditions, the composition of current dentin adhesives may be more clinically relevant than their adhesion strategy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. One-day bonding effectiveness of new self-etch adhesives to bur-cut enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    De Munck, Jan; Vargas, Marcos; Iracki, Jacek; Van Landuyt, Kristen; Poitevin, André; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2005-01-01

    Self-etch adhesives try to solve difficulties commonly associated with the clinical application of etch-and-rinse adhesives. Their application procedure is considered less time-consuming and, more importantly, less technique-sensitive. The main objective of this study was to determine the bonding effectiveness to and the interaction with enamel/dentin of three contemporary one- and two-step self-etch adhesives by microtensile bond strength testing (microTBS), Fe-SEM and TEM when compared to a control two-step self-etch and a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. The one-step self-etch adhesive, Adper Prompt (3M ESPE), scored the lowest microTBS of all experimental and control adhesives tested. Conversely, the two-step self-etch adhesives Clearfil SE (Kuraray) and OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (Kerr) approached the values obtained by the three-step etch-and-rinse control (OptiBond FL, Kerr) when bonded to enamel and dentin. Ultramorphological characterization showed that interfacial morphology and the pH of the self-etch primer/adhesive are strongly associated. The interaction with dentin varied from the formation of a submicron, hydroxyapatite-containing hybrid layer for the "mild" self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE to a 3-5 microm thick, hydroxyapatite-depleted hybrid layer for the "strong" self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt. The two-step self-etch adhesives AdheSE and OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch presented with a hybrid layer with a hydroxyapatite-depleted top part and a hydroxyapatite-containing base part and were therefore classified into a new group of self-etch adhesives, namely "intermediary strong" self-etch adhesives.

  12. Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin with Different Adhesive Systems: Influence of Relative Humidity and Application Time.

    PubMed

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of relative humidity and application time on bond strength to dentin of different classes of adhesive systems. A total of 360 extracted human molars were ground to mid-coronal dentin. The dentin specimens were treated with one of six adhesive systems (Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, Clearfil SE Bond, AdheSE, Xeno Select, or Scotchbond Universal), and resin composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions (45% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 45% relative humidity/reduced application time; 85% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 85% relative humidity/reduced application time). After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), shear bond strength (SBS) was measured and data analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing (level of significance: α = 0.05). Increased relative humidity and reduced application time had no effect on SBS for Clearfil SE Bond and Scotchbond Universal (p = 1.00). For Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, AdheSE, and Xeno Select there was no effect on SBS of reduced application time of the adhesive system (p ≥ 0.403). However, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS for Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, and Xeno Select irrespective of application time (p ≤ 0.003), whereas for AdheSE, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS at recommended application time only (p = 0.002). Generally, increased relative humidity had a detrimental effect on SBS to dentin, but reduced application time had no effect.

  13. Bond durability of contemporary adhesive systems to pulp chamber dentin.

    PubMed

    Ayar, Muhammet Kerim

    2015-12-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term bond strengths of dentin adhesive systems, which include one-step self-etch adhesive systems (Optibond All-in-one, Kerr; Adper Prompt L-POP, 3 M ESPE), a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Optibond FL, Kerr) and two-step self-etch adhesive (AdheSE Bond, Ivoclar), applied to pulp chamber dentin surfaces after 12-month water storage by using microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test. Materials and methods: Dentin adhesive systems were applied to unprepared pulp chamber dentin surfaces according to manufacturer's directions, respectively (n = 5). After applying adhesive systems, composite buildups were done incrementally. Bond strengths to pulp chamber dentin surfaces were determined using µTBS test after water storage for 24 h and 12 month. Kruskal-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test for pairwise comparisons were used to determine statistical differences in µTBS between the groups at a significance level of 5%. Results: There were no significant differences in µTBS between storage periods for tested adhesives regardless adhesive class. Conclusion: Bond durability of tested adhesive systems, including one-bottle self-etch adhesives with pulp chamber dentin surfaces, may be considered stable after 12-month water storage. Therefore, one-step self-etch, also called "user-friendly" adhesives may perform and traditional three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in the long-term when used for bonding to pulp chamber dentin surfaces.

  14. Effect of postbleaching application of an antioxidant on enamel bond strength of three different adhesives.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Aghelinejad, Samaneh

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (sbs) of three different adhesives on bleached enamel immediately after bleaching, bleached/delayed for 1 week, and bleached/applied antioxidizing agent. The enamel surfaces of 144 freshly extracted incisors without any caries and restorations were flattened and divided into 12 groups. The following adhesives were investigated: Optibond FL (OFL) (three-step etch&rinse), Optibond Solo Plus (OSP) (two-step etch&rinse), Optibond All-in-One (OA) (one-step self-etch), (Kerr, Orange, USA). Unbleached enamel groups were prepared as negative controls. The remainder surfaces were bleached with 20% Opalescent PF (Ultradent, USA) 6 h/d for 5 consecutive days. Specimens were bonded immediately after bleaching, after 1 week or after using 10% sodium ascorbate gel for 6 hours. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, sbs was measured and data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests ( = 0.05). The sbs decreased for the adhesives after bleaching except for OFL. The effect of applying sodium ascorbate subsequent to bleaching was not equal for the studied adhesives. While for OFL, sbs of the sodium ascorbate group was significantly higher than the unbleached control group, for OSP, the sodium ascorbate group had no statistically significant difference with the unbleached control group and for OA, sbs was significantly lower than the unbleached control group. Different adhesives demonstrate different degrees of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant. It seems the method of application and the chemical composition of the adhesives could affect the antioxidant as a reducing agent.

  15. Post-bleaching application of an antioxidant on dentin bond strength of three dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Saneie, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidizing agents have recently been suggested to compensate decreased bond strength of resin materials to bleached tooth tissues. This study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three different adhesives on bleached dentin immediately after bleaching, bleached/delayed for 1 week, and bleached/applied antioxidizing agent. The dentinal surfaces of 132 intact extracted molars were prepared and divided into 12 groups. The following adhesives were investigated: Optibond FL (OFL) (three-step etch-and-rinse), Optibond Solo Plus (two-step etch-and-rinse), and Optibond all-in-one (OA) (one-step self-etch) (Kerr, Orange, USA). Unbleached dentin groups (groups 1-3) were prepared as negative controls (NC). The remainder surfaces (groups 4-12) were bleached with 20% Opalescent PF (Ultradent, USA). Specimens were bonded immediately after bleaching (groups 4-6), after 1 week (groups 7-9), or after using 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) gel (groups 10-12). Subsequent to bonding of composite resin, the samples were tested for SBS and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Regarding control groups, OA showed the highest SBS among the studied adhesives (P<0.05). The SBS decreased for the adhesives after bleaching except for OFL. No statistically significant difference in SBS were noted when the SA and delayed bonding groups were compared with their similar NC groups (P>0.05) except the of delay bonding with OA. The findings suggest that bond strength of resin to bleached dentin may be affected with the adhesive system. Reduced SBS to bleached dentin can be amended by the use of SA as an antioxidizing agent. However, the amount of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant might be related to the kind of dental adhesive.

  16. Post-bleaching application of an antioxidant on dentin bond strength of three dental adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Saneie, Tahereh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Antioxidizing agents have recently been suggested to compensate decreased bond strength of resin materials to bleached tooth tissues. This study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three different adhesives on bleached dentin immediately after bleaching, bleached/delayed for 1 week, and bleached/applied antioxidizing agent. Materials and Methods: The dentinal surfaces of 132 intact extracted molars were prepared and divided into 12 groups. The following adhesives were investigated: Optibond FL (OFL) (three-step etch-and-rinse), Optibond Solo Plus (two-step etch-and-rinse), and Optibond all-in-one (OA) (one-step self-etch) (Kerr, Orange, USA). Unbleached dentin groups (groups 1-3) were prepared as negative controls (NC). The remainder surfaces (groups 4-12) were bleached with 20% Opalescent PF (Ultradent, USA). Specimens were bonded immediately after bleaching (groups 4-6), after 1 week (groups 7-9), or after using 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) gel (groups 10-12). Subsequent to bonding of composite resin, the samples were tested for SBS and analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: Regarding control groups, OA showed the highest SBS among the studied adhesives (P<0.05). The SBS decreased for the adhesives after bleaching except for OFL. No statistically significant difference in SBS were noted when the SA and delayed bonding groups were compared with their similar NC groups (P>0.05) except the of delay bonding with OA. Conclusions: The findings suggest that bond strength of resin to bleached dentin may be affected with the adhesive system. Reduced SBS to bleached dentin can be amended by the use of SA as an antioxidizing agent. However, the amount of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant might be related to the kind of dental adhesive. PMID:22363363

  17. Are one-step adhesives easier to use and better performing? Multifactorial assessment of contemporary one-step self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Mine, Atsushi; De Munck, Jan; Jaecques, Siegfried; Peumans, Marleen; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether one-step self-etching adhesives (1-SEAs) really have an advantage over multistep systems. Nine one-step self-etching adhesives (Absolute, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil S3 Bond, G-Bond, Hybrid Bond, iBond, One-up Bond F Plus, Optibond All-in-one and Xeno III) were included in this study. One two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) and one three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Optibond FL) served as controls. Their microtensile bond strength to bur-cut enamel and dentin was determined using a standardized protocol and the respective adhesive/dentin interface of these adhesives was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Regarding bond strength, the control adhesives tended to perform superior to the one-step adhesives. However, a significant difference between the control adhesives and some one-step adhesives could not always be demonstrated, partly due to the statistical setup of this study. Interface analysis by electron microscopy showed wide variation among the one-step adhesives, depending on their composition and their acidity. 1-SEAs also exhibited two different kinds of droplets, depending on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophobic HEMA-free 1-SEAs such as G-Bond were prone to phase separation, while especially HEMA-containing hydrophilic 1-SEAs, such as Clearfil S3 Bond and Xeno III were predisposed to forming osmosis-induced droplets. Hybrid bond, Absolute, and iBond featured both phase separation as well as osmosis. Optibond All-in-one exhibited a clustering reaction of the filler particles upon solvent evaporation. All adhesives including the control adhesives showed signs of nanoleakage, indicating that all adhesives are to some extent permeable to water. A definitive conclusion with regard to quantitative assessment of nanoleakage was much hindered by inconsistencies in the silver deposition. The application

  18. Effect of cavity configuration and aging on the bonding effectiveness of six adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kenichi; De Munck, Jan; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Lambrechts, Paul; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Shintani, Hideaki; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect polymerization contraction stress may have on bond durability. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by micro-tensile bond strength testing (muTBS) and electron microscopy. The muTBS to flat dentin surfaces and in standardized cavities was determined (this after 1 day as well as 1 year water storage). Six adhesives representing all current classes were applied: two etch-and-rinse (OptiBond FL, Kerr; Scotchbond 1, 3M ESPE), two self-etch (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Adper Prompt, 3M ESPE) and two glass-ionomer (Fuji Bond LC, GC; Reactmer, Shofu) adhesives. The conventional 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive OptiBond FL bonded most effectively to dentin, and appeared insensitive to polymerization shrinkage stress and water degradation. The 2-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond most closely approached this superior bonding effectiveness and only slightly lost bond strength after 1-year water exposure. The 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Scotchbond 1 and the 'strong' 1-step self-etch adhesive Adper Prompt appeared very sensitive to cavity configuration and water-aging effects. The 2-step resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive Fuji Bond LC only suffered from shrinkage stress, but not from 1-year water-exposure. Remarkable also is the apparent repairability of the 'mild' 1-step glass-ionomer adhesive Reactmer when stored for 1 year in water, in spite of the very low 1-day muTBS. Simplified bonding procedures do not necessarily imply improved bonding performance, especially in the long term.

  19. Adhesive sealing of dentin surfaces in vitro: A review.

    PubMed

    Nawareg, Manar M Abu; Zidan, Ahmed Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Chiba, Ayaka; Tagami, Jungi; Pashley, David H

    2015-12-01

    This review describes the evolution of the use of dental adhesives to form a tight seal of freshly prepared dentin to protect the pulp from bacterial products, during the time between crown preparation and final cementation of full crowns. The evolution of these "immediate dentin sealants" follows the evolution of dental adhesives, in general. That is, they began with multiple-step, etch-and-rinse adhesives, and then switched to the use of simplified adhesives. Literature was reviewed for evidence that bacteria or bacterial products diffusing across dentin can irritate pulpal tissues before and after smear layer removal. Smear layers can be solubilized by plaque organisms within 7-10 days if they are directly exposed to oral fluids. It is likely that smear layers covered by temporary restorations may last more than 1 month. As long as smear layers remain in place, they can partially seal dentin. Thus, many in vitro studies evaluating the sealing ability of adhesive resins use smear layer-covered dentin as a reference condition. Surprisingly, many adhesives do not seal dentin as well as do smear layers. Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that resin- covered dentin allows dentin fluid to cross polymerized resins. The use of simplified single bottle adhesives to seal dentin was a step backwards. Currently, most authorities use either 3-step adhesives such as Scotchbond Multi-Purpose or OptiBond FL or two-step self-etching primer adhesives, such as Clearfil SE, Unifil Bond or AdheSE.

  20. A randomized clinical trial evaluating the success rate of ethanol wet bonding technique and two adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Samimi, Pouran; Rafizadeh, Mojgan; Kazemi, Shantia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Composite resin restorations may have a short lifespan due to the degradation of resin–dentin interface. Ethanol wet bonding technique may extend the longevity of resin–dentin bond. The purpose of this one year randomized clinical trial was to compare clinical performance of two adhesives with ethanol wet bonding technique. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed on 36 non-carious cervical lesions in 12 patients restored with composite resin using one of the following approaches: 1. OptiBond FL (Kerr, USA); 2. Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Japan) with enamel etching and 3. Ethanol wet bonding technique with the part of adhesive of OptiBond FL. The clinical success rate was assessed after 24 h, 6, 9 and 12 months according to the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria: Marginal discoloration, marginal defect, retention rate, caries occurrence, and postoperative sensitivity. The tooth vitality was also assessed. Results: The retention rate was 100% at baseline and at 6 months follow up for all types of bonding protocols and was 91.67% at 9 and 12 months follow up for ethanol wet bonding group. None of the restorations in three groups showed marginal defects, marginal discoloration or caries occurrence and were vital after 12 months. There was no statistically significant difference between three groups after 12 months follow up (p value = 0.358). Conclusions: Composite restorations placed using ethanol wet bonding technique presented equal performance to the other groups. PMID:23559924

  1. Degree of conversion and permeability of dental adhesives.

    PubMed

    Cadenaro, Milena; Antoniolli, Francesca; Sauro, Salvatore; Tay, Franklin R; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Prati, Carlo; Biasotto, Matteo; Contardo, Luca; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of polymerization of different adhesive films in relation to their permeability. One adhesive of each class was investigated: OptiBond FL; One-Step; Clearfil Protect Bond; and Xeno III. Adhesive films were prepared and cured with XL-2500 (3M ESPE) for 20, 40 or 60 s. Polymerization kinetic curves of the adhesives tested were obtained with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and data were correlated with microhardness. The permeability of the adhesives under the same experimental conditions was evaluated on human extracted teeth connected to a permeability device and analysed statistically. The results showed that the extent of polymerization obtained from DSC exotherms was directly correlated with microhardness. An increased level of polymerization after prolonged light-curing was confirmed for all adhesives. Simplified adhesives exhibited a lower extent of polymerization and showed incomplete polymerization, even after 60 s. An inverse correlation was found between the degree of cure and the permeability. This study supports the hypothesis that the permeability of simplified adhesives is correlated with incomplete polymerization of resin monomers and the extent of light exposure. These adhesives may be rendered less permeable by using longer curing times than those recommended by the respective manufacturer.

  2. Bond strength of adhesive/composite combinations to dentin involving total- and self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Molla, Karlheinz; Park, Hyun-Jung; Haller, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    To compare the bonding potential to human dentin of adhesive/composite combinations including five 2-step and two 3-step total-etch (TE) bonding systems, two systems with self-conditioning (SC) primers, and one SC all-in-one adhesive by use of the microtensile bond test. Hybrid resin composites were bonded to the occlusal dentin of 50 extracted human molars. After water storage (37 degrees C, 24 h), 31-mm-thick slabs were cut from the middle of the teeth perpendicular to their long axis. Microtensile bond strength was determined and debonded surfaces were examined under the SEM for mode of failure. GLM multivariate procedure for repeated measurements, Student-Newman-Keuls test (SPSS version 10.0; p = 0.05). Mean bond strengths of the simplified (2-step) TE systems (OptiBond Solo, Gluma One Bond, Solobond M, Prime&Bond NT, One Coat Bond; 19.9 MPa to 39.9 MPa) were not significantly lower than that of the traditional 3-step TE systems (EBS Multi: 26.0 MPa; OptiBond FL: 32.7 MPa), and not related to phosphoric acid concentration. Dentin treatment with SC primers (Clearfil Liner Bond 2: 22.0 MPa; Clearfil Liner Bond 2V: 22.4 MPa) was as effective as etching with phosphoric acid. The SC all-in-one adhesive (Etch&Prime 3.0: 10.1 MPa) produced significantly lower bond strength than all other systems evaluated. The use of adhesive/composite combinations including simplified bonding systems does not necessarily result in reduced bond strength to dentin. SC primers offer a promising alternative to phosphoric acid etching as far as bonding to dentin is concerned. In contrast, the SC all-in-one adhesive evaluated needs to be improved.

  3. Comparison of bonding performance of self-etching and etch-and-rinse adhesives on human dentin using reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Bradna, Pavel; Vrbova, Radka; Dudek, Michal; Roubickova, Adela; Housova, Devana

    2008-12-01

    To estimate the in vitro reliability of typical self-etching and etch-and-rinse adhesives of various application protocols. The following adhesives were applied on flat dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth (n = 223): self-etching two-step adhesives: AdheSE (AH), Clearfil SE Bond (CL), OptiBond SE (OS); one-step adhesives: Adper Prompt L-Pop (ADP), Adper Prompt (AD), and Xeno III (XE); all-in-one adhesive: iBond (IB); etch-and-rinse three-step adhesives: OptiBond FL (OF), two-step Gluma Comfort Bond (G), Excite (E) and Prime & Bond NT (PB). Composite buildups were prepared using a microhybrid composite, Opticor New. Shear bond strength was determined after 24 h of storage at 37 degrees C in distilled water. The results were analyzed with a nested ANOVA (adhesive, type of adhesive) followed by the Fisher post-hoc tests of group homogeneity at alpha = 0.05. A two-parameter Weibull distribution was used to calculate the critical shear bond strength corresponding to 5% probability of failure as a measure of system reliability. ANOVA revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the mean shear bond strength as follows: AH=CL=OS=G=E=OF>AD=IB=XE>PB=ADP, but no significant difference (p > 0.48) between the etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesives. The corresponding characteristic bond strength of Weibull distribution ranged between 24.1 and 12.1 MPa, Weibull modulus between 8.3 and 2.1, and the critical shear bond strength varied from 16.0 to 3.0 MPa. Pronounced differences in the critical shear bond strength suggest reliability variations in the adhesive systems tested, which originate from chemical composition rather than type of adhesive.

  4. Resin bonding using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to decalcified deciduous enamel after bioactive glass air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-09-01

    Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique for removal of initial decalcified enamel superficial layer and caries vs alumina air abrasion. This study evaluated shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified deciduous enamel using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives after alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. Ninety-six fat enamel surfaces, mounted in acrylic resin, were prepared from 48 deciduous molars. Half of the specimens were decalcified with a demineralizing solution. Both intact and decalcified specimens were assigned to two groups for alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two groups for application of Clearfil SE Bond or Optibond FL adhesives (n = 12). After composite resin bonding, the specimens underwent shear bond test. Data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear regression model and independent-sample t-test (α = 0.05). No significant differences were noted in bond strength of composite resin after alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion (p = 0.272). Optibond FL adhesive and enamel decalcification produced higher bond strength (p = 0.000, p = 0.001 respectively). In this study, bioactive glass air abrasion produced bond strength comparable to the conventional method. This technique might be an alternative method for preparation of normal and/or decalcified enamel of deciduous teeth for resin bonding.

  5. Microbial ingrowth around single- and multi-component adhesives studied in vitro.

    PubMed

    Preussker, S; Klimm, W; Pöschmann, M; Koch, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro microbial leakage in 4 micro-hybrid composites in combination with 4 single-component dental adhesives (Scotchbond 1/Z100 MP = group 1; Syntac Single-Component/Tetric Flow = group 3; OptiBond Solo/XRV Herculite = group 5; Solobond M/Arabesk Top = group 7) and 4 multi-component dental adhesives (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 MP = group 2; Syntac/Tetric Flow = group 4; OptiBond FL/XRV Herculite = group 6; Solobond Plus/Arabesk Top = group 8). Ninety-four mixed standardized Class V cavities of human caries-free extracted premolars were filled with eight different composite adhesive systems using a one-layer (groups 1-4) or a two-layer technique (groups 5-8). After thermocycling and incubation in a broth culture of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, followed by decalcification and staining, the extent and the type of microbial leakage were measured histologically. The extent of microbial leakage in the composite restorations was very low in all groups and there were no significant differences between adhesives. Z100 MP in combination with single- and multi-component adhesives showed a significantly higher microbial leakage than Tetric Flow systems (U test: p=0.037). XRV Herculite adhesive systems showed significantly less extensive microbial leakage than Arabesk Top adhesive systems (U test: p<0.001). The single-component dental adhesives achieved a marginal adaptation of composites comparable to that of multi-component adhesives in vitro. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Effect of thermocycling on the durability of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives on dentin.

    PubMed

    Sangwichit, Ketkamon; Kingkaew, Ruksaphon; Pongprueksa, Pong; Senawongse, Pisol

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to compare bond strengths of adhesives with/without thermocycling and to analyze the micromorphology of resindentin interfaces. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared and divided into eight groups to bond with four etch-and-rinse adhesives (Optibond FL, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond Solo Plus, and Single Bond 2) and four self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Adper SE Plus, Clearfil S(3) Bond and Adper Easy Bond). Specimens were further divided into two subgroups subjected for with/without thermocycling and then subjected to both micro-tensile test and resin-dentin interface evaluation. The results revealed that there were significant differences in bond strength between the groups with and without thermocycling for all etch-and-rinse groups and for the Adper Easy Bond self-etch group (p<0.01). Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated highly durable bond strengths. Furthermore, more silver ion uptake was observed at the resin-dentin interfaces for all etch-and-rinse adhesives and Adper SE Plus and Adper Easy Bond after thermocycling.

  7. Adhesion of multimode adhesives to enamel and dentin after one year of water storage.

    PubMed

    Vermelho, Paulo Moreira; Reis, André Figueiredo; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Giannini, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultramorphological characteristics of tooth-resin interfaces and the bond strength (BS) of multimode adhesive systems to enamel and dentin. Multimode adhesives (Scotchbond Universal (SBU) and All-Bond Universal) were tested in both self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes and compared to control groups (Optibond FL and Clearfil SE Bond (CSB)). Adhesives were applied to human molars and composite blocks were incrementally built up. Teeth were sectioned to obtain specimens for microtensile BS and TEM analysis. Specimens were tested after storage for either 24 h or 1 year. SEM analyses were performed to classify the failure pattern of beam specimens after BS testing. Etching increased the enamel BS of multimode adhesives; however, BS decreased after storage for 1 year. No significant differences in dentin BS were noted between multimode and control in either evaluation period. Storage for 1 year only reduced the dentin BS for SBU in self-etch mode. TEM analysis identified hybridization and interaction zones in dentin and enamel for all adhesives. Silver impregnation was detected on dentin-resin interfaces after storage of specimens for 1 year only with the SBU and CSB. Storage for 1 year reduced enamel BS when adhesives are applied on etched surface; however, BS of multimode adhesives did not differ from those of the control group. In dentin, no significant difference was noted between the multimode and control group adhesives, regardless of etching mode. In general, multimode adhesives showed similar behavior when compared to traditional adhesive techniques. Multimode adhesives are one-step self-etching adhesives that can also be used after enamel/dentin phosphoric acid etching, but each product may work better in specific conditions.

  8. Microleakage of adhesive resin systems in the primary and permanent dentitions.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Donald C; Lee, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro microleakage of fourth-generation filled and unfilled adhesive resin systems with fifth-generation filled and unfilled adhesive resin systems in both primary and permanent teeth. Eighty extracted or exfoliated human noncarious teeth (40 primary and 40 permanent) were assigned to each of 8 groups. Groups 1, 3, 5 and 7 were primary teeth, and groups 2, 4, 6 and 8 contained permanent teeth. Groups 1 and 2 were bonded with Optibond Fl (Kerr), groups 3 and 4 with Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M), groups 5 and 6 with Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr) and groups 7 and 8 with Single Bond (3M). All teeth received a Class V cavity preparation, and the cavosurface margins were placed entirely in enamel. They were then restored with TPH Spectrum Shade Al (Dentsply Caulk). All teeth were thermocycled, stained with basic fuchsin, sectioned and viewed under the microscope. Measurements were recorded in absolute millimeters and relative grades as judged by 2 evaluators. No significant difference in microleakage was observed between fourth- and fifth-generation adhesive resin systems, whether filled or unfilled, or applied on primary or permanent teeth. Significant differences were found in the amount of microleakage at the gingival and occlusal surfaces in all groups. One-bottle, fifth-generation adhesive resin systems permit easier application with the same effectives as the 2-bottle, fourth-generation systems. One-bottle, fifth-generation adhesive resin systems permit easier application with the same effectiveness as the 2-bottle, fourth-gerenration systems.

  9. Effect of lining with a flowable composite on internal adaptation of direct composite restorations using all-in-one adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Yahagi, Chika; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Ikeda, Masaomi; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lining with a flowable composite on internal adaptation of composite restorations using three all-in-one adhesive systems; Bond Force (BF), G-Bond Plus (GP), and OptiBond All-in-one (OP), and a two-step self-etching adhesive system; Clearfil SE Bond (SE). They were applied to each cylindrical cavity prepared on the human dentin. The cavity surface was lined with/without a flowable resin composite prior to filling with a resin composite (FL/NL). After water storage for 24 h, the specimens were sectioned and polished, and internal adaptation of the restorations was assessed using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. For SE, a perfect cavity adaptation was recognized in both FL and NL. For BF, GP and OP, cavity adaptation was material dependent in NL, whereas no gap formation was observed in FL. However, voids formation was observed at the composite-adhesive-dentin interface in every all-in-one adhesive system.

  10. Microtensile bond strength of eleven contemporary adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Vargas, M A; Abe, Y; Yoshida, Y; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G; Sano, H; Van Meerbeek, B

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of eleven contemporary adhesives to dentin, including three one-step self-etch systems, four two-step self-etch systems, three two-step total-etch systems, and one three-step total-etch system. Resin composite (Z100) was bonded to flat, mid-coronal dentin from 33 extracted human third molars using the adhesives strictly according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. After storage overnight in 37 degrees C water, the bonded specimens were sectioned into 3 to 6 slabs of approximately 1 mm thickness and 2.5 mm width. They were then trimmed into an hourglass shape resulting in an interface area of approximately 1 mm2, and subsequently subjected to microTBS testing with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The microTBS varied from 30.0 MPa for the one-step self-etch adhesive Prompt L-Pop 2 (ESPE) to 63.1 MPa for the three-step total-etch adhesive OptiBond FL (Kerr), the latter being the only one that significantly differed from all other microTBS values. Although not significantly different, one-step self-etch adhesives tended to have lower microTBS than two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives. Specimen failures during sample preparation occurred with Prompt L-Pop 2 (4 pretesting failures out of 17 specimens) and NRC/Prime & Bond NT (7 pretesting failures out of 14 specimens). Adhesives with simplified application procedures, either following a total-etch or self-etch approach, produced lower bond strengths to dentin than a conventional three-step total-etch adhesive. Some concern exists regarding the consistency in bonding effectiveness to dentin of some self-etch adhesives.

  11. Effect of caries infiltrant application on shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to sound and demineralized enamel.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liuhe; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the influence of caries infiltrant application on the shear bond strength of different adhesives on sound and demineralized enamel. Sound and artificially demineralized (14 days, acidic buffer, pH 5.0) bovine enamel specimens were treated with a caries infiltrant (Icon, DMG), three different commercial adhesives (unfilled etch and- rinse adhesive: Heliobond, Ivoclar Vivadent; filled etch-and-rinse adhesive: Optibond FL, Kerr; or self-etching adhesive: iBOND Self Etch, Heraeus Kulzer) or a combination of caries infiltrant and adhesive. The shear bond strength of a nanohybrid composite was analyzed after thermocycling (5000x, 5° to 55°C) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure mode was inspected under a stereomicroscope at 25X magnification. In both sound and demineralized enamel, the shear bond strength of the caries infiltrant was not significantly different from the etch-and-rinse adhesives, while the self-etching adhesive showed significantly lower values compared to all other groups. Pretreatment with the caries infiltrant significantly increased the bond strength of the self-etching adhesive in both substrates and of the filled etch-and-rinse adhesive in demineralized enamel. While shear bond strength was not significantly different between the two substrates, cohesive failures were more likely to occur in demineralized than sound specimens. The shear bond strength of the caries infiltrant was similar to the etch-and-rinse adhesives. The caries infiltrant did not impair bonding to sound or demineralized enamel, and even increased adhesion of the selfetching agent.

  12. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines, adhesions can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction . Adhesions inside the uterine cavity, called Asherman syndrome , ... 1. Read More Appendicitis Asherman syndrome Glaucoma Infertility Intestinal obstruction Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina ...

  13. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  14. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Yildiz, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel, Sevda

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-operative sensitivity to cold and air was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after 24 hours, 30, 90, and 180 days. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Friedman tests (P < 0.05). Post-operative sensitivity scores for OBF and CPB were higher for the dental student (P < 0.05), while IB scores did not differ statistical significantly according to the operator (P > 0.05). Operator skill and experience appears to play a role in determining the outcome of post-operative sensitivity of multi-step adhesive systems although the post-operative sensitivity was low. It is suggested that the less experienced clinicians (rather than experienced clinicians) should better use the self-etching dentin bonding systems with reduced application steps to minimize the potential risk of post-operative sensitivity of dental adhesives.

  15. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations

    PubMed Central

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Yildiz, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel, Sevda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Post-operative sensitivity to cold and air was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after 24 hours, 30, 90, and 180 days. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Friedman tests (P < 0.05). Results: Post-operative sensitivity scores for OBF and CPB were higher for the dental student (P < 0.05), while IB scores did not differ statistical significantly according to the operator (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Operator skill and experience appears to play a role in determining the outcome of post-operative sensitivity of multi-step adhesive systems although the post-operative sensitivity was low. It is suggested that the less experienced clinicians (rather than experienced clinicians) should better use the self-etching dentin bonding systems with reduced application steps to minimize the potential risk of post-operative sensitivity of dental adhesives. PMID:24966741

  16. The effect of oxalate desensitizers on the microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded by etch and rinse adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Motamedi, Mehran; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Namvar, Babak

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of an oxalate desensitizer (OX) on the marginal microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded by two three-step and two two-step etch and rinse adhesives. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 126 extracted premolars at the cementoenamel junction and randomly divided into nine groups of 14 each. In the control groups (1-4), four adhesives were applied, respectively, including Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP), Optibond FL (OBFL), One-Step Plus (OS) and Excite (EX). In the experimental groups (5-8), the same adhesives, in combination with OX (BisBlock), were applied. And, in one group, OX was applied without any adhesive, as the negative control group (9). All the groups were restored with a resin composite. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water and thermocycling, the samples were placed in 1% methylene blue dye solution. The dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests. The OX application, in combination with OBFL and EX, resulted in significantly increasing microleakage at the gingival margins (p < 0.05), while it had no effect on OS and SBMP (p > 0.05). At the occlusal margins, no significant difference in microleakage was observed after OX application for each of four adhesives (p > 0.05).

  17. Microtensile Bond Strength and Micromorphology of Bur-cut Enamel Using Five Adhesive Systems.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Alexandra; Ramos, João; Messias, Ana; Marques, Fernando; Caramelo, Francisco; Mata, António

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of two etch-and-rinse (ER) (OptiBond FL [OBFL]; Prime & Bond NT [PBNT]) and three self-etching (SE) (Clearfil SE Bond [CSEB]; Xeno III [XIII]; Xeno V+ [XV+]) adhesives systems to bur-prepared human enamel considering active (AA) and passive (PA) application of the self-etching systems. Ninety-six enamel surfaces were prepared with a medium-grit diamond bur and randomly allocated into 8 groups to receive adhesive restorations: G1: OBFL; G2: PBNT; G3: CSEB/PA; G4: CSEB/ AA; G5: XIII/PA; G6: XIII/AA; G7: XV+/PA; G8: XV+/AA. After composite buildup, samples were sectioned to obtain a total of 279 bonded sticks (1 mm2) that were submitted to microtensile testing (μTBS; 0.5 mm/min) after 24-h water storage (37°C). Etching patterns and adhesive interfacial ultramorphology were also evaluated with confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Weibull probabilistic distribution was also determined. Regarding μTBS, both adhesive system and application mode yielded statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) among groups. ER adhesive systems together with CSEB/AA and XIII/PA recorded the highest and statistically similar bond strength results. XV+ presented very low bond strength values, regardless of the application mode. Among self-etching adhesives, CSEB produced significantly higher μTBS values when applied actively. Qualitative evaluation by SEM and CLSM revealed substantial differences between groups both in adhesive interfaces and enamel conditioning patterns. ER and SE adhesive systems presented distinctive bond strengths to bur-cut enamel. The application mode effect was adhesive dependent. Active application improved etching patterns and resin interfaces micromorphology.

  18. Potential smear layer interference with bonding of self-etching adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Mine, Atsushi; Poitevin, André; Yamada, Toshimoto; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of smear-layer interposition on the bonding effectiveness of self-etching adhesives with different etching potential. Bur-cut dentin specimens were obtained from 25 human molars after preparation of the dentin surface with a medium-grit diamond bur (bur-cut). An additional 25 molars were fractured at the midcoronal dentin to create a smear-layer-free surface (smear-free dentin). The prepared teeth were assigned to 5 groups, according to the adhesive to be applied: a strong one-step self-etching adhesive (PLP, Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE, pH = 0.8); two ultra-mild one-step self-etching adhesives (C3S, Clearfil Tri-S Bond, Kuraray, pH = 2.7; AEB, Adper Easy Bond, 3M ESPE; pH = 2.7 ); as the self-etching control, a mild two-step self-etching adhesive (CSE, Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, pH of primer = 1.9); and as the etch-and-rinse control, a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (OFL, Optibond FL, Kerr). After composite buildups were made, all specimens were stored in distilled water (24 h/37°C) prior to microtensile bond strength testing (µTBS). The failure mode was determined with a stereomicroscope at 50X magnification. Representative µTBS specimens were processed for analysis in a Feg-SEM. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine statistical differences (p < 0.05). Except for the strong one-step self-etching adhesive, all other self-etching adhesives (mild and ultramild) revealed a significantly lower bond strength to bur-cut dentin than to smear-free dentin. The etch-and-rinse adhesive presented the highest µTBS, which was not significantly different when bonded to bur-cut or smear-free dentin. Fracture analysis demonstrated a prevalence of adhesive failures for the self-etching adhesives, while OFL revealed more mixed failures. SEM revealed that smear debris remained part of the adhesive interfacial complex produced by the ultra-mild one-step self-etching adhesive C3S when applied on bur-cut dentin. Smear debris interferes with

  19. Dynamic versus static bond-strength testing of adhesive interfaces.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Mine, Atsushi; Peumans, Marleen; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2010-11-01

    A static bond-strength test is often regarded as clinically less relevant, since such abrupt loading of the adhesive-tooth bond clinically never occurs. Therefore, dynamic fatigue testing is often claimed to better predict the clinical effectiveness of adhesives. To measure the micro-tensile fatigue resistance (μTFR) of adhesives bonded to dentin, and to compare their μTFR to their micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS). The bonding effectiveness (including fracture analysis) of three adhesives (OptiBond FL, Kerr: 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive or 3-E&Ra; Clearfil SE, Kuraray: 2-step self-etch adhesive or 2-SEa; G-Bond, GC: 1-step self-etch adhesive or 1-SEa) was measured by means of both a dynamic μTFR and a static μTBS approach. Preparation and test set-up of the micro-specimens were identical for both tests. In fatigue, specimens were tested with a wide range of selected loads at 2Hz and at 10Hz until failure, or until 10(4) cycles were reached. At 2Hz, the μTFR was also measured after 3-month water storage. The μTFR was determined using a logistic regression model. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD multiple comparisons test were used to determine statistical differences in μTBS. The 1-SEa recorded significantly lower values in μTFR at 10Hz and in μTBS than the 2-SEa and 3-E&Ra. The 1-SEa and the 2-SEa performed significantly lower in μTFR than the 3-E&Ra, when tested at 2Hz after 3-month water storage. Fatigue testing at 2Hz after 1-week water storage did not reveal any differences in μTFR between the three adhesives. The 3-E&Ra performed best in terms of bonding effectiveness, irrespective of the experimental condition or test used. The μTBS test proved once more to be a reliable laboratory test in ranking contemporary adhesives on their bonding effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems applied on occlusal primary enamel.

    PubMed

    Ramires-Romito, Ana Cláudia; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; de Góes, Mario Fernando; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strength of adhesive systems (OptiBond Solo, Kerr; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) on occlusal surface of primary molars. The adhesives were tested under manufacturers' specifications and after contamination of the bonding site with saliva. Hourglass cylindrical-shaped samples were obtained and subjected to a tensile force. No significant difference was observed among the groups. OptiBond Solo and Prime & Bond NT showed similar values of bond strengths when applied on occlusal enamel of primary molar under either saliva contamination or not.

  1. Influence of tooth preparation burs on the roughness and bond strength of adhesives to human dentin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Maghrabi, Abdulhamaid A; Saif, Ragab E; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2011-06-01

    To characterize the surface roughness of human dentin prepared with different rotary instruments and its influence on the micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) of self-etch adhesives. Dentin surfaces were created from mid-coronal sound dentin in extracted, human third molars. The teeth were ground with high-speed diamond, tungsten carbide finishing, and cross-cut carbide rotary instruments. Morphological changes obtained were investigated with a surface texture analyzer. Two additional specimens from each group were treated and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Resin composite (Z 100) was bonded to the surfaces using Optibond FL (control), Adper Prompt L-Pop (strong), Clearfil SE Bond (mild), or Clearfil S3 Bond (ultra-mild). Rectangular micro-specimens were prepared using the slow-speed diamond saw and tested in tensile to determine the microTBS. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD test (alpha= 0.05). Surface preparation resulted in significant differences for surface topography and micro-tensile bond strength (P< 0.001). The cross-cut carbide burs had significantly higher mean roughness readings (SD) for all parameters: Ra [8.6 (1.9) microm], Rq [10.9 (2.2) microm], and Ry [41.1 (2.1) microm], except for the mean Rz [12.1 (3.1) microm] value, which was recorded for diamonds. The other roughness parameters for the diamond rotary instruments were intermediate. Dentin surfaces completed with tungsten carbide finishing burs produced a smoother surface Ra [1.2 (0.5) microm)] Rq ([1.6 (0.6) microm], Ry [6.4 (2.6) microm)] and Rz [1.9 (0.6) microm)]. The etch-and-rinse adhesive (OptiBond FL) yielded high micro-tensile values (58.1-68.3 MPa), irrespective of the rotary instruments used. The micro-tensile bond strength values were comparable for self-etch adhesives (Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil S3 Bond) irrespective of the burs used. The microTBS values were significantly higher with tungsten carbide

  2. The competition between enamel and dentin adhesion within a cavity: an in vitro evaluation of class V restorations.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Tissiana; Doudou, Wassila; Kunzelmann, Karl Heinz; Krejci, Ivo

    2012-08-01

    To gain more insight into the consequences of curing contraction within the tooth cavity, we assessed the margin behavior of 12 contemporary restorative systems in class V restorations with margins located on enamel and dentin after mechanical loading and water storage. Mixed class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars and restored using five etch and rinse and seven self-etch adhesive systems with their corresponding composites. Marginal adaptation was evaluated by using a computer-assisted quantitative marginal analysis in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on epoxy replicas before, after thermal and mechanical stressing and after 1 year of water storage. The interactions of "testing conditions", "adhesive-composite combination" and "tooth substrate" with "marginal adaptation" were evaluated by two-way ANOVA. Fatigue, stress and storage conditions had significant effects on the marginal adaptation. Only two groups (Optibond FL and G Bond) presented equal percentages of marginal adaptation on enamel and dentin; in the other groups, the rate of degradation was product dependent. All materials tested showed a distinct behavior on enamel and dentin. In addition to mechanical resistance and long-term stability, differences within materials also exist in their ability to simultaneously bond to enamel and dentin.

  3. Influence of dentin cavity surface finishing on micro-tensile bond strength of adhesives.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcio V; Coutinho, Eduardo; Ermis, R Banu; Poitevin, André; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; De Munck, Jan; Carvalho, Rubens C R; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2008-04-01

    The current trend toward minimal-invasive dentistry has introduced innovative techniques for cavity preparation. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and laser-irradiation technology have been employed as an alternative to the common use of regular burs in high-speed turbines. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of alternative techniques for cavity preparation on the bonding effectiveness of different adhesives to dentin, and to evaluate the morphological characteristics of dentin prepared with those techniques. One etch&rinse adhesive (OptiBond FL, Kerr) and three self-etch systems (Adper Prompt L-Pop, 3M ESPE; Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray) were applied on dentin prepared with a regular bur in a turbine, with a CVD bur in a turbine, with a CVD tip in ultrasound and with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The micro-tensile bond strength (microTBS) was determined after storage in water for 24h at 37 degrees C, and morphological evaluation was performed by means of field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (Feg-SEM). Feg-SEM evaluation revealed different morphological features on the dentin surface after the usage of both the conventional and alternative techniques for cavity preparation, more specifically regarding smear-layer thickness and surface roughness. CVD bur-cut, CVD ultra-sonoabraded and laser-irradiated dentin resulted in lower microTBSs than conventionally bur-cut dentin, irrespective of the adhesive employed. The techniques, such as CVD diamond-bur cutting, CVD diamond ultra-sonoabrasion and laser-irradiation, used for cavity preparation may affect the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to dentin, irrespective of their acidity or approach.

  4. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatment on the microtensile bond strength of adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Coutinho, Edurado; Ermis, R Banu; Poitevin, André; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; De Munck, Jan; Carvalho, Rubens C R; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2008-02-01

    In light of the concept of minimally invasive dentistry, erbium lasers have been considered as an alternative technique to the use of diamond burs for cavity preparation. The purpose of this study was to assess the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated dentin using irradiation settings specific for cavity preparation. Fifty-four midcoronal dentin surfaces, obtained from sound human molars, were irradiated with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser or prepared with a diamond bur using a high-speed turbine. One etch-and-rinse (Optibond FL/Kerr) and three self-etching adhesives (Adper Prompt L-Pop/3M ESPE, Clearfil SE Bond/Kuraray, and Clearfil S3 Bond/Kuraray) were used to bond the composite to dentin. The microtensile bond strength (microTBS) was determined after 24 h of storage in water at 37 degrees C. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine pairwise statistical differences (p < 0.05). Prepared dentin surfaces, adhesive interfaces, and failure patterns were analyzed using a stereomicroscope and Field-emission gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (Feg-SEM). Significantly lower microTBS was observed to laser-irradiated than to bur-cut dentin (p < 0.05), irrespective of the adhesive employed. Feg-SEM photomicrographs of lased dentin revealed an imbricate patterned substrate and the presence of microcracks at the dentin surface. Morphological alterations produced by Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiation adversely influence the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to dentin.

  5. Fuel Load (FL)

    Treesearch

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  6. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives.

  7. Effect of Bioactive Glass air Abrasion on Shear Bond Strength of Two Adhesive Resins to Decalcified Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Alireza; Khoroushi, Maryam; Rezvani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bioactive glass air abrasion is a conservative technique to remove initial decalcified tissue and caries. This study examined the shear bond strength of composite resin to sound and decalcified enamel air-abraded by bioactive glass (BAG) or alumina using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight permanent molars were root-amputated and sectioned mesiodistally. The obtained 96 specimens were mounted in acrylic resin; the buccal and lingual surfaces remained exposed. A demineralizing solution was used to decalcify half the specimens. Both sound and decalcified specimens were divided into two groups of alumina and bioactive glass air abrasion. In each group, the specimens were subdivided into two subgroups of Clearfil SE Bond or OptiBond FL adhesives (n=12). Composite resin cylinders were bonded on enamel surfaces cured and underwent thermocycling. The specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and three-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Similar to the experimental groups, the enamel surface of one specimen underwent SEM evaluation. Results: No significant differences were observed in composite resin bond strength subsequent to alumina or bioactive glass air abrasion preparation techniques (P=0.987). There were no statistically significant differences between the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive groups (P=1). Also, decalcified or intact enamel groups had no significant difference (P=0.918). However, SEM analysis showed much less enamel irregularities with BAG air abrasion compared to alumina air abrasion. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, preparation of both intact and decalcified enamel surfaces with bioactive glass air abrasion results in similar bond strength of composite resin in comparison with alumina air abrasion using etch-&-rinse or self-etch adhesives. PMID:25628694

  8. Orlando, FL, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This color infrared photo of the Orlando, FL area (28.5N,81.5W) shows the extensive citrus tree orchards as neat bright red field patterns. The extensive road and highway network in the central Florida region is clearly visible. Also, the recent urban growth caused by the opening of the Disney World amusement complex just southwest of Orlando is clearly evident. This view spans the width of the state from Tampa Bay to the Atlantic coast.

  9. Orlando, FL, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This color infrared photo of the Orlando, FL area (28.5N,81.5W) shows the extensive citrus tree orchards as neat bright red field patterns. The extensive road and highway network in the central Florida region is clearly visible. Also, the recent urban growth caused by the opening of the Disney World amusement complex just southwest of Orlando is clearly evident. This view spans the width of the state from Tampa Bay to the Atlantic coast.

  10. Effect of different surface pre-treatment methods on the microleakage of two different self-adhesive composites in Class V cavities.

    PubMed

    Celik, E U; Kucukyilmaz, E; Savas, S

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of different surface pre-treatment methods on the microleakage of self-adhesive flowable composites (SAFCs) in comparison with a conventional flowable composite applied with an etch-and-rinse adhesive system. One hundred and thirty-five standardised Class V cavities were randomly divided into nine groups: (1) three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Optibond FL - Kerr, Orange, USA)/flowable composite (Clearfil Majesty Flow - Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) (E&Ra/flowC); (2) Fusio Liquid Dentin (Pentron Clinical, Orange, USA); (3) Er:YAG Laser/Fusio Liquid Dentin (Er&Las/Fusio Liquid Dentin); (4) Phosphoric Acid/Fusio Liquid Dentin (PhosA/Fusio Liquid Dentin); (5) Polyacrylic Acid/Fusio Liquid Dentin (PolyA/Fusio Liquid Dentin); (6) Vertise Flow (Kerr, Orange, USA); (7) Er:YAG Laser/Vertise Flow (Er&Las/Vertise Flow); (8) Phosphoric Acid/Vertise Flow (PhosA/Vertise Flow); (9) Polyacrylic Acid/Vertise Flow (PolyA/Vertise Flow). After thermocycling and immersion in a 0.5% basic fuchsin, the restorations were evaluated under a stereomicroscope (n = 30). The data were statistically analysed (α = 0.05). Both SAFCs showed higher leakage scores than E&Ra/flowC in enamel and dentin (p < 0.05). Vertise Flow showed lower leakage than Fusio Liquid Dentin in dentin (p < 0.05). Pre-phosphoric acid etching reduced the microleakage scores of Fusio Liquid Dentin in both enamel and dentin (p < 0.05), while all surface pre-treatment methods led to a significant reduction in the microleakage scores of Vertise Flow at the enamel margin (p < 0.05). Pre-etching of enamel and dentin by phosphoric acid may be satisfactory in improving the sealing ability of Fusio Liquid Dentin, while phosphoric acid or polyacrylic acid etching or laser irradiation may be used to improve the adhesion of Vertise Flow to enamel.

  11. Fatigue resistance and failure mode of adhesively restored custom metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments.

    PubMed

    Boff, Luís Leonildo; Oderich, Elisa; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Magne, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the fatigue resistance and failure mode of composite resin and porcelain onlays and crowns bonded to premolar custom metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments. Sixty composite resin mesostructures were fabricated with computer assistance with two preparation designs (crown vs onlay) and bonded to a metal implant abutment. Following insertion into an implant with a tapered abutment interface (Titamax CM), each metal-composite resin abutment was restored with either composite resin (Paradigm MZ100) or ceramic (Paradigm C) (n = 15) and attached with adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a preheated light-curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was then simulated, starting with 5,000 cycles at a load of 50 N, followed by stages of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 N (25,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 180,000 cycles. The four groups were compared using life table survival analysis (log-rank test). Previously published data using zirconia abutments of the same design were included for comparison. Paradigm C and MZ100 specimens fractured at average loads of 1,133 N and 1,266 N, respectively. Survival rates ranged from 20% to 33.3% (ceramic crowns and onlays) to 60% (composite resin crowns and onlays) and were significantly different (pooled data for restorative material). There were no restoration failures, but there were adhesive failures at the connection between the abutment and the mesostructure. The survival of the metal-composite resin premolar abutments was inferior to that of identical zirconia abutments from a previous study (pooled data for abutment material). Composite resin onlays/crowns bonded to metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments presented higher survival rates than comparable ceramic onlays/crowns. Zirconia abutments outperformed the metal-composite resin premolar abutments.

  12. Follicular lymphoma (FL): Immunological tolerance theory in FL.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, Ricardo; Panizo, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The ultimate cause of follicular lymphoma (FL) remains unknown. Remarkably, almost nothing is known about immunological tolerance mechanisms that might contribute to FL development. Immunological tolerance mechanisms, like other stimuli, also induce persistent changes of B cell receptors that induce genetic instability and molecular aberrations promoting the development of a neoplasm. Using the same method as Burnet, we provide a new perspective taking advantage of the comparison of a normal linear B cell differentiation process and FL development within the framework of clonal selection theory. We propose that FL is a malignancy of cells that acquire both translocation t(14;18) and self-BCR, inducing them to proliferate and mature, resistant to negative selection. Additional genetic damage induced by non-apoptotic tolerance mechanisms, such as receptor editing, may transform a self-reactive B cell with t(14;18) into an FL. The result of tolerogenic mechanisms and genetic aberrations is the survival of FL B cell clones with similar markers and homogenous gene expression signatures despite the different stages of maturation at which the molecular damage occurs. To antagonize further growth advantage due to self-antigen recognition and chronic activation of tolerance mechanisms in the apoptosis-resistant background of FL B cells, inhibitors of BCR signaling may be promising therapeutic options.

  13. Influence of ageing on self-etch adhesives: one-step vs. two-step systems.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Giulio; Frassetto, Andrea; Visintini, Erika; Diolosà, Marina; Turco, Gianluca; Salgarello, Stefano; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentine, interfacial nanoleakage expression, and stability after ageing, of two-step vs. one-step self-etch adhesives. Human molars were cut to expose middle/deep dentine, assigned to groups (n = 15), and treated with the following bonding systems: (i) Optibond XTR (a two-step self-etch adhesive; Kerr), (ii) Clearfil SE Bond (a two-step self-etch adhesive; Kuraray), (iii) Adper Easy Bond (a one-step self-etch adhesive; 3M ESPE), and (iv) Bond Force (a one-step self-etch adhesive; Tokuyama). Specimens were processed for μTBS testing after 24 h, 6 months, or 1 yr of storage in artificial saliva at 37°C. Nanoleakage expression was examined in similarly processed additional specimens. At baseline the μTBS results ranked in the following order: Adper Easy Bond = Optibond XTR ≥Clearfil SE = Bond Force, and interfacial nanoleakage analysis showed Clearfil SE Bond = Adper Easy Bond = Optibond XTR> Bond Force. After 1 yr of storage, Optibond XTR, Clearfil SE Bond, and Adper Easy Bond showed higher μTBS and lower interfacial nanoleakage expression compared with Bond Force. In conclusion, immediate bond strength, nanoleakage expression, and stability over time were not related to the number of steps of the bonding systems, but to their chemical formulations. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Influence of adhesive application methods and rebonding agent application on sealing effectiveness of all-in-one self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa; Tekçe, Neslihan; Erdilek, Dina; Uysal, Ömer

    2013-10-01

    The choice of adhesive application methods could affect the microleakage of self-etch adhesives. To evaluate the effect of acid-etching, doubling adhesive application time, doubling adhesive coating, and rebonding agent application on microleakage of self-etch adhesives in Class V cavities. Seventy human third molars with Class V cavities assigned to five groups according to different adhesive application protocols for the three dentin adhesives (Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray Medical, Okayama, Japan; Optibond All-in-One, Kerr Corporation Orange, CA, USA; G-Aenial Bond, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan): group 1, manufacturer's recommendations; group 2, prior acid-etching of cavities; group 3, double application time; group 4, two consecutive coats of the adhesives; group 5, rebonding application on restoration margins. After bonding, the cavities were filled with a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE Dental Products, St. Paul, MN, USA). The teeth were thermocycled, and the specimens were examined for microleakage using methylene blue as a marker. For Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond All-in-One, microleakage in groups 2 and 5 were significantly lower than other groups' enamel margins. In groups 1, 2, 4, and 5, Clearfil S3 Bond exhibited significantly more leakage than the other dentin bonding agents in dentin margins. Microleakage was significantly higher on dentinal margins compared with the enamel margins for Clearfil S3 Bond in all of the groups. Optibond All-in-One showed significantly lower microleakage in dentin margins in all groups except groups 2 and 5. Acid-etching usually promoted the reduction of microleakage in enamel margins. On the other hand, rebonding application usually contributed to the reduction of microleakage more than other methods in enamel and dentin margins. Acid-etching or rebonding application may contribute to reduction of microleakage of all-in-one self-etching adhesives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Marginal microleakage of resin-modified glass-ionomer and composite resin restorations: effect of using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Karvandi, Tayebeh Mansouri; Kamali, Bentolhoda; Mazaheri, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that dental adhesives increase the bond strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) restorative materials to dentin. This in vitro study has evaluated the effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etch bonding systems v/s cavity conditioner, and in comparison to similar composite resin restorations on maintaining the marginal sealing of RMGI restorations. 98 rectangular cavities (2.5×3×1.5 mm) were prepared on buccal and palatal aspects of 49 human maxillary premolars, randomly divided into 7 groups (N=14). The cavities in groups 1, 2 and 3 were restored using a composite resin (APX). The cavities in groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 were restored using a resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC). Before restoring, adhesive systems (Optibond FL = OFL, three-step etch-and-rinse; One Step Plus = OSP, two-step etch-and-rinse; Clearfil Protect Bond = CPB, two-step self-etch) were used as bonding agents in groups 1-6 as follow: OFL in groups 1 and 4, OSP in groups 2 and 5, and CPB in groups 3 and 6, respectively. The specimens in group 7 were restored with GC cavity conditioner and Fuji II LC. All the specimens were thermo-cycled for 1000 cycles. Microleakage scores were determined using dye penetration method. Statistical analyzes were carried out with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.05). There were significant differences in microleakage scores at both enamel and dentinal margins between the study groups (P<0.05). The lowest microleakage scores at enamel and dentin margins of RMGI restorations were observed in group 6. Use of two-step self-etch adhesive, prior to restoring cervical cavities with RMGIC, seems to be more efficacious than the conventional cavity conditioner in decreasing marginal microleakage.

  16. Antibacterial Effect of All-in-one Self-etch Adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Abed Kahnamouei, Mehdi; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Tehranchi, Pardis; Zand, Vahid; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sohrabi, Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of one-step self-etch adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis on days 1, 7 and 14 with the use of modified direct contact test. Materials and methods. The modified directcontact test was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Adper Easy One, Bond Force, Clearfil S3 Bond, Futurabond M, G-Bond, iBond and OptiBond All-in-one adhesives on Enterococcus faecalis after aging the samples in phosphate-buffered saline for one, seven and fourteen days. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Aging effect of each adhesive was evaluated by paired-sample test. In this study, P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. All the tested adhesives exhibited antibacterial activity after one day and had significant differences with the positive control group (P<0.05). After one week, OptiBond All-in-one, iBond and Futurabond M exhibited significant differences in bacterial growth from other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups in two weeks (P>0.05). Conclusion. iBond exhibited the highest antibacterial effect on E. faecalis after one week. Futurabond and OptiBond All-in-one exhibited antibacterial effects against E. faecalis for one week. PMID:25587384

  17. Shear bond strength of different types of adhesive systems to dentin and enamel of deciduous teeth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kensche, A; Dähne, F; Wagenschwanz, C; Richter, G; Viergutz, G; Hannig, C

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the suitability of self-etch adhesives for restoration of deciduous teeth compared with etch and rinse approaches. One hundred twenty primary teeth were divided into five groups, each being assigned to an adhesive system. Self-etch adhesives XenoV (XV) and Clearfil S(3) Bond (CB), Prime&Bond NT with (PBE)/without preliminary etching (PBN), and Optibond FL (OBFL) as an etch and rinse system were included. Enamel and dentin specimens were prepared (n = 36/group), adhesives applied, and compomer cylinders polymerized. After 24-h storage in 37 °C distilled water and thermo-cycling (1440 cycles, 5/55 °C, 27 s), shear bond tests and fracture mode classification based on SEM investigation were performed. Statistical analysis involved ANOVA and Scheffé procedure with Bonferroni-Holm correction (p ≤ 0.005). High shear bond strengths to primary enamel were determined for PBE (mean [M] = 22.48 ± 7.7 MPa) > OBFL (M = 19.06 ± 5.62 MPa) > CB (M = 17.6 ± 6.55 MPa), and XV (M = 16.85 ± 5.38 MPa) and PBN (M = 8.26 ± 4.46 MPa) formed significantly less reliable enamel-resin interfaces (p ≤ 0.005). PBE generated the highest bond strength on primary dentin (M = 21.97 ± 8.02 MPa); significantly lower values were measured for XV (M = 13.44 ± 5.43 MPa) and OBFL (M = 12.92 ± 4.31 MPa) (p ≤ 0.005). Adhesives requiring preliminary etching ensure optimal bond strength to primary enamel. If separate etching is to be avoided, selected self-etch adhesives obtain acceptable shear bond values on primary enamel and dentin. The treatment of pediatric patients presents a great challenge in dental practice, and optimization of treatment processes is important.

  18. Adhesion performance of new hydrolytically stable one-component self-etching enamel/dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten

    2010-02-01

    To demonstrate that hydrolytically stable methacrylamide monomers allow one-component self-etching adhesives with comparable adhesive properties and better storage stability than hitherto available methyacrylate-based adhesive formulations. The shear bond strength and storage stability of the new one-component self-etching, methacrylamide-based adhesive AdheSE One F (Ivoclar Vivadent) to enamel and dentin was compared to the methacrylate-based Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray), G-Bond (GC), Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical), iBond (Heraeus Kulzer), Optibond All In One (Sybron-Kerr), and the methacrylamide-based Xeno V (Dentsply). Hydrolytic stability and adhesive performance of these adhesives was evaluated by accelerated aging at 42 degrees C over 16 weeks and monthly assessment of shear bond strength to dentin. The null hypothesis was that the bond strength of one-bottle self-etching dental adhesives is independent of storage duration and that, disregarding their higher stability against hydrolysis, methacrylamide- based materials offer performance beyond shelf-life time, comparable to methacrylate-based adhesives. Statistical analysis included 1-way-ANOVA and the Tukey-B post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Shear bond strengths on enamel ranged from 32.7 MPa (AdheSE One F) to 16.6 MPa (iBond) and on dentin from 36.1 MPa (Optibond All In One) to 20.5 MPa (G-Bond). During accelerated aging, methacrylate-based adhesives with a pH < 2 exhibited decreasing bond strengths over time with material-dependent losses of up to 68% (Hybrid Bond, 8 weeks, 42 degrees C). Under the same conditions, the methacrylamide-based formulations AdheSE One F and Xeno V were stable for 16 weeks regarding shear bond strength to dentin. The shelf life of one-component self-etching adhesives is determined by their chemical composition. In conventional methacrylate-based adhesives, the inherently acidic environment of such formulations leads to monomer degradation due to hydrolysis. In contrast, methacrylamide

  19. Comparison between universal adhesives and two-step self-etch adhesives in terms of dentin bond fatigue durability in self-etch mode.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-06-01

    This aim of this study was to compare universal adhesives and two-step self-etch adhesives in terms of dentin bond fatigue durability in self-etch mode. Three universal adhesives - Clearfil Universal, G-Premio Bond, and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive - and three-two-step self-etch adhesives - Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil SE Bond 2, and OptiBond XTR - were used. The initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength of resin composite bonded to adhesive on dentin in self-etch mode were determined. Scanning electron microscopy observations of fracture surfaces after bond strength tests were also made. The initial shear bond strength of universal adhesives was material dependent, unlike that of two-step self-etch adhesives. The shear fatigue strength of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive was not significantly different from that of two-step self-etch adhesives, unlike the other universal adhesives. The shear fatigue strength of universal adhesives differed depending on the type of adhesive, unlike those of two-step self-etch adhesives. The results of this study encourage the continued use of two-step self-etch adhesive over some universal adhesives but suggest that changes to the composition of universal adhesives may lead to a dentin bond fatigue durability similar to that of two-step self-etch adhesives. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Dentin bond strengths of simplified adhesives: effect of dentin depth.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Guilherme Carpena; Perdigão, Jorge; Lopes, Mariana de F; Vieira, Luiz Clovis Cardoso; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro, Sylvio

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of 3 simplified adhesive systems applied on shallow vs deep dentin. For superficial dentin, 30 human molars were sectioned with a diamond saw to expose dentin immediately below the dentoenamel junction. For deep dentin, 30 molars were sectioned 3 mm below the dentoenamel junction. The teeth were mounted, polished to 600-grit, and randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=10): Single Bonda and OptiBond Solo, total-etch adhesives, and Clearfil Liner Bond 2V, a self-etching primer adhesive. Adhesives were applied, the restorative material Filtek Z250 inserted in a No. 5 gelatin capsule, and light-cured. After 24 hours in water at 37 degrees C, shear bond strength was measured with an Instron at 5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test. The results showed the following shear bond strengths (mean +/- SD in MPa): Single Bond/superficial dentin = 22.1 +/- 2.8; Single Bond/deep dentin = 14.2 +/- 7.0; OptiBond Solo/superficial dentin = 18.9 +/- 4.1; OptiBond Solo/deep dentin = 18.4 +/- 4.8; Clearfil Liner Bond 2V/superficial dentin = 21.0 +/- 7.4; Clearfil Liner Bond 2V/deep dentin = 17.6 +/- 5.9. There were no significant differences between mean shear bond strength for the factor "adhesive system" (P>.822). The Duncan's test showed that Single Bond resulted in higher shear bond strength on superficial dentin than on deep dentin. The mean shear bond strength for Clearfil Liner Bond 2V and OptiBond Solo were not influenced by dentin depth. When data were pooled for dentin depth, deep dentin resulted in statistically lower bond strengths than superficial dentin (P<.01). The influence of dentin depth on shear bond strength depends on the specific composition of the dentin adhesive.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the interface of three adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Macari, Soraia; Gonçalves, Mariane; Nonaka, Tomio; Santos, Jaime Maia dos

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the resin-dentin interface of three adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, Optibond and Denthesive Bond II by scanning electron microscopy. The adhesives and their respective composite resins were applied inside the cervical root canal of human incisors and canines according to manufacturer recommendations. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and sliced transversally to the root canal and perpendicularly to the resin-dentin interface. The adhesive systems Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Optibond had a homogenous hybrid layer and similar characteristics, involving resin penetration of peritubular and intertubular dentin matrix. Morphological differences of resin tags were seen; Scotchbond Multi-Purpose had more and longer tags than Optibond. Denthesive Bond II did not have the same consistency of bonding. Tubular orifices were not opened and the smear layer was not removed. This was due to the absence of previous acid conditioning of dentin that damages hybrid layer formation. Analysis of the hybrid layer revealed different patterns, suggesting that the attachment was influenced by many factors and a standardization of dentinal substrate was impossible.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory properties of benzalkonium chloride stabilizes adhesive interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila; Patel, Shaival K

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the preservation of adhesive interfaces created with two etch-and-rinse adhesives and its inhibitory properties on dentin matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The following groups were tested with the adhesive systems Optibond Solo Plus and All-Bond 3: Group 1, adhesive without inhibitor (control); Group 2, topical 2.0% chlorhexidine (2.0% CHX); Group 3, phosphoric acid with 1.0%wt BAC (BAC-PA); Group 4, 0.25% BAC-adhesive (0.25% BAC); Group 5, 0.5% BAC-adhesive (0.5% BAC); Group 6, 1.0% BAC-adhesive (1.0% BAC); and Group 7, 2.0% BAC-adhesive (2.0% BAC). Composite cylinders were fabricated, and shear bond strength (SBS) was evaluated after 24 h, 6 months, and 18 months of storage. Extracts from concentrated demineralized human dentin powder were subjected to SDS-PAGE and incubated in the presence of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% BAC. Overall, stable bonds were maintained for 18 months. Improved bond strengths were seen for 0.5% BAC and 1.0% BAC when bonding with Optibond Solo Plus, and for 0.25% BAC and 0.5% BAC when bonding with All-Bond 3. Zymographic analysis revealed complete inhibition of gelatinolytic activity with BAC. Benzalkonium chloride, at all concentrations, inhibited dentin proteolytic activity, which seems to have contributed to the improved bond stability after 18 months for specific combinations of BAC concentration and adhesive.

  3. 33 CFR 80.740 - Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL. 80.740 Section 80.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.740 Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL....

  4. 33 CFR 80.740 - Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL. 80.740 Section 80.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.740 Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL....

  5. Wood : adhesives

    Treesearch

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  6. Morphological Evaluation of the Adhesive/Enamel interfaces of Two-step Self-etching Adhesives and Multimode One-bottle Self-etching Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Matsui, Naoko; Hamba, Hidenori; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    To evaluate the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) at the adhesive/enamel interface of self-etching adhesives with or without prior phosphoric acid etching. Four adhesives were used in 8 groups: Clearfil SE Bond (SEB), Optibond XTR (XTR), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU), and Clearfil BOND SE ONE (ONE) without prior phosphoric-acid etching, and each adhesive with phosphoric acid etching for 10 s (P-SEB, P-XTR, P-SBU and P-ONE, respectively). After application of self-etching adhesives on ground enamel surfaces of human teeth, a flowable composite was placed. For observation of the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ), the bonded interface was exposed to demineralizing solution (pH 4.5) for 4.5 h, followed by 5% NaOCl with ultrasonication for 20 min. After the acid-base challenge, morphological attributes of the interface were observed using SEM. ABRZ formation was confirmed in all groups. The funnel-shaped erosion beneath the interface was present in SBU and ONE, where nearly 10 to 15 μm of enamel was dissolved. With phosphoric acid etching, the ABRZs were obviously thicker compared with no phosphoric acid etching. Enamel beneath the bonding interface was more susceptible to acid dissolution in SBU and ONE. In the case of the one-bottle self-etching adhesives and universal adhesives that intrinsically have higher pH values, enamel etching should be recommended to improve the interfacial quality.

  7. 46 CFR 7.100 - Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL. 7.100 Section 7.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.100 Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to...

  8. 46 CFR 7.100 - Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL. 7.100 Section 7.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.100 Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to...

  9. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to the...

  10. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to the...

  11. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to the...

  12. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to the...

  13. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to the...

  14. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  15. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  16. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  17. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  18. 33 CFR 80.805 - Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rock Island, FL to Cape San Blas, FL. 80.805 Section 80.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Eighth District § 80.805 Rock Island, FL...

  19. Reducing composite restoration polymerization shrinkage stress through resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives.

    PubMed

    Naoum, S J; Mutzelburg, P R; Shumack, T G; Thode, Djg; Martin, F E; Ellakwa, A E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether employing resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives can reduce polymerization contraction stress generated at the interface of restorative composite adhesive systems. Five resin based adhesives (G Bond, Optibond-All-in-One, Optibond-Solo, Optibond-XTR and Scotchbond-Universal) and two resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives (Riva Bond-LC, Fuji Bond-LC) were analysed. Each adhesive was applied to bond restorative composite Filtek-Z250 to opposing acrylic rods secured within a universal testing machine. Stress developed at the interface of each adhesive-restorative composite system (n = 5) was calculated at 5-minute intervals over 6 hours. The resin based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RBA-RCS) demonstrated similar interface stress profiles over 6 hours; initial rapid contraction stress development (0-300 seconds) followed by continued contraction stress development ≤0.02MPa/s (300 seconds - 6 hours). The interface stress profile of the resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesive-restorative composite systems (RMGIBA-RCS) differed substantially to the RBA-RCS in several ways. Firstly, during 0-300 seconds the rate of contraction stress development at the interface of the RMGIBA-RCS was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than at the interface of the RBA-RCS. Secondly, at 300 seconds and 6 hours the interface contraction stress magnitude of the RMGIBA-RCS was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the stress of all assessed RBA-RCS. Thirdly, from 300 seconds to 6 hours both the magnitude and rate of interface stress of the RMGIBA-RCS continued to decline over the 6 hours from the 300 seconds peak. The use of resin modified glass-ionomer based adhesives can significantly reduce the magnitude and rate of polymerization contraction stress developed at the interface of adhesive-restorative composite systems. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome The Digestive System & How it Works Abdominal Adhesions What are abdominal adhesions? Abdominal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that ... or stool through the intestines. What causes abdominal adhesions? Abdominal surgery is the most frequent cause of ...

  1. Ruhende Flüssigkeiten und Gase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten und Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:

  2. Shear bond strengths of composite to dentin using six dental adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Triolo, P T; Swift, E J; Barkmeier, W W

    1995-01-01

    The development of adhesive agents for bonding composite to dentin has rapidly evolved in recent years. It is postulated that dentin bond strengths in the range of 17 MPa are sufficient to resist the polymerization shrinkage of composite resins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths of the following dentin adhesive systems: All-Bond 2 (Bisco), Imperva Bond (Shofu), Optibond (Kerr), Permagen (Ultradent), ProBond (Caulk/Dentsply), and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (3M). Sixty human molars (10 per group) were mounted in phenolic rings, and the occlusal surfaces were flat ground in dentin to 600 grit. The prepared dentin bonding sites were treated according to the directions for each of the systems evaluated. A gelatin capsule technique was used to bond Bis-Fil composite cylinders to the teeth. The specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Mean shear bond strengths were as follows: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose: 23.1 +/- 2.6 MPa, All-Bond 2: 21.4 +/- 7.8 MPa, Imperva Bond: 19.8 +/- 6.1 MPa, Optibond: 19.7 +/- 3.6 MPa, ProBond: 16.3 +/- 4.5 MPa, and Permagen: 16.2 +/- 3.0 MPa. There was not a significant difference (P<0.05) in the bond strengths of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, All-Bond 2, Imperva Bond, and Optibond. The bond strengths of Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and All-Bond 2 were significantly greater (P<0.05) than ProBond and Permagen. Current-generation dentin adhesive systems have approached or exceeded the theoretical threshold value to resist contraction stresses during polymerization of resin materials.

  3. Shear Bond Strength of an Etch-and-rinse Adhesive to Er:YAG Laser- and/or Phosphoric Acid-treated Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Abdolrahim; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhshi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Er:YAG laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin; therefore, it has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the shear bond strength of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to dentin surfaces following Er:YAG laser and/or phosphoric acid etching. Materials and methods. The roots of 75 sound maxillary premolars were sectioned below the CEJ and the crowns were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin with the buccal surfaces facing up. The buccal surfaces were ground using a diamond bur and polished until the dentin was exposed; the samples were randomly divided into five groups (n=15) according to the surface treatment: (1) acid etching; (2) laser etching; (3) laser etching followed by acid etching; (4) acid etching followed by laser etching and (5) no acid etching and no laser etching (control group). Composite resin rods (Point 4, Kerr Co) were bonded to treated dentin surfaces with an etch-and-rise adhesive system (Optibond FL, Kerr Co) and light-cured.After storage for two weeks at 37°C and 100% humidity and then thermocycling, bond strength was measured with a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests (P<0.05). Results. Mean shear bond strength for acid etching (20.1±1.8 MPa) and acid+laser (15.6±3.5 MPa) groups were significantly higher than those for laser+acid (15.6±3.5 MPa), laser etching (14.1±3.4 MPa) and control (8.1±2.1 MPa) groups. However, there were no significant differences between acid etching and acid+laser groups, and between laser+acid and laser groups. Conclusion. When the cavity is prepared by bur, it is not necessary to etch the dentin surface by Er:YAG laser following acid etching and acid etching after laser etching. PMID:23875083

  4. Wood adhesion and adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2005-01-01

    An appreciation of rheology, material science, organic chemistry, polymer science, and mechanics leads to better understanding of the factors controlling the performance of the bonded assemblies. Given the complexity of wood as a substrate, it is hard to understand why some wood adhesives work better than other wood adhesives, especially when under the more severe...

  5. Effect of laser preparation on adhesion of a self-adhesive flowable composite resin to primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Razmjoei, Faranak; Kianimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion of a self-adhering flowable composite resin to primary tooth enamel and dentin after silicon carbide paper (SiC) and laser pretreatment. Adhesive properties were evaluated as shear bond strength (SBS) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) characteristics. A total 120 primary canine teeth were randomly divided into two groups to study enamel and dentin. Each group was divided into 6 subgroups (n = 10) according to type of surface preparation (SiC or Er:YAG laser) of enamel or dentin. Three methods were used to build cylinders of restoration on tooth surface: OptiBond All-In-One + Premise Flowable composite, OptiBond All-In-One + Vertise Flow and Vertise flow. After restoration, samples were tested for SBS and failure mode. Twenty eight samples were examined by SEM. The results of the study showed SBS of Vertise Flow was lower than others in enamel and dentin samples pretreated with SiC and in dentin samples pretreated with laser (P < 0.001). Compared to SiC pretreatment, laser pretreatment led to a significantly higher SBS with Vertise Flow on enamel (P < 0.001). Vertise Flow associated with the adhesive led to a higher SBS in enamel and dentin compared to Vertise Flow alone. Adhesive and mixed failure modes were observed more frequently in Vertise Flow groups. SEM images showed that Vertise Flow led to more irregularities on enamel and more open dentinal tubules after laser ablation compared SiC pretreatment.

  6. Influence of dentin and enamel pretreatment with acidic sulfur compounds on adhesive performance.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Alexis; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2013-11-01

    This study tested the potential hampering effects of acidic sulfur compounds (ASC) containing hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid, hydroxymethoxybenzene sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid, prior to self-etch and etch-and-rinse bonding procedures on enamel and dentin. According to the manufacturer, ASC should be applied after cavity preparation and prior to application of a primer in order to reduce the remaining biofilm in the preparation cavity. Despite promoted marketing, data on the investigated liquid are almost completely lacking. One hundred and fifty-two extracted mandibular bovine incisors were embedded and polished to expose either enamel (E) or dentin (D). Then, specimens were randomly divided and conditioned as follows (n = 12/group): ASC and consecutive phosphoric acid application (E1/D1), ASC (E2/D2; E5/D5), phosphoric acid (E3/D3), and no conditioning (E4/D4; E6/D6). Groups were then treated with either Optibond FL(®) (etch-and-rinse; 1-4) or Clearfil SE Bond(®) (self-etch; 5-6). Hollow acrylic cylinders were bonded with a hybrid composite resin (Filtek Supreme XTE®) to the specimens, and the shear bond strength was measured (1 mm/min). In addition, failure types were assessed. Descriptive statistics and statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffé post hoc test. For enamel, the highest shear bond strength values were obtained applying routine bonding procedures (23.5 ± 5.6 MPa for etch-and-rinse and 26.0 ± 6.0 MPa for self-etch, respectively). In contrast, dentin pretreatment with a combination of ASC and phosphoric acid led to the highest shear bond values (22.8 ± 4.1 MPa). This study shows that ASC prior to dental restoration placement cannot be recommended for etch-and-rinse procedures on enamel but is appropriate for dentin without interfering with routine bonding procedures. The application of acidic sulfur compounds prior to adhesive restoration placement should be restricted to dentin only as it may negatively

  7. FL V1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Frederick

    2009-08-03

    A library of utility classes for computer vision. Contains implementations of various well-known image processing techniques, such as interest point operators and region descriptors. Includes interfaces to various libraries for image and video I/O, as well as an interface to LAPACK/BLAS. FL was developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and released under an open source license. Version 1.2 was a maintenance release provided by SNL under the LGPL license. Version 1.3 is a maintenance release, containing the following changes: - Improved image format handling. Now handles strided and planar memory layouts and a wider range of pixel formats. - Improved image file I/O, including better support for metadata, a wider range of stored pixel types, and a couple of new file formats. - Improvements to DOG and SIFT, and efficiency improvements in low-level convolution. - Improvements to networking, including a generic TCP listener. - Various improvements to numerical processing. The HISTORY file included in the distribution contains a more detailed description of the changes.

  8. 78 FR 34557 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ..., Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On March 6, 2013, the FAA... Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO FL E5 Sanibel, FL Sanibel Island Heliport, FL (Lat. 26...

  9. Biocompatible Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    pressure sensitive elastomer, polyisobutylene. with water soluble adhesives such as carboxy methyl ceiiulose, pectin and gelatin for adhesion to... cellulose and nylon films, were most often used in 180 peel adhesion tests on the adhesives. Films were cast on one substrate and the other was moistened...irritation. 4. Peel adhesion to hydrated cellulose , nylon and cotton cloth substrates was satisfactory. So too was the peel adhesion as a function of

  10. Shear bond strength of partial coverage restorations to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Alonso-Pérez-Barquero, Jorge; Fons-Font, Antonio; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background When partial coverage restorations (veneers, inlays, onlays…) must be cemented to dentin, bond strength may not reach the same predictable values as to enamel. The purpose of this study was: 1. To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesive requiring acid etching, and Clearfil SE Bond® (Kuraray), two-bottle self-etching adhesive. The vestibular, lingual, distal and mesial surfaces of ten molars (n=10) were ground to remove all enamel and 40 ceramic samples were cemented with Variolink II® (Ivoclar Vivadent). Half the molar surfaces were treated to create round microretention (pits) to determine whether these could influence bond strength to dentin. The 40 molar surfaces were divided into four groups (n=10): Optibond FL (O); Clearfil SE (C); Optibond FL + microretention (OM); Clearfil SE + micro retention (CM). A shear bond test was performed and the bond failures provoked examined under an optical microscope. Results O=35.27±8.02 MPa; C=36.23±11.23 MPa; OM=28.61±6.27 MPa; CM=27.01±7.57 MPa. No statistically significant differences were found between the adhesives. Optibond FL showed less statistical dispersion than Clearfil SE. The presence of microretentions reduced bond strength values regardless of the adhesive used. Conclusions 1. Clearfil SE self-etching adhesive and Optibond FL acid-etch showed adequate bond strengths and can be recommended for bonding ceramic restorations to dentin. 2. The creation of round microretention pits compromises these adhesives’ bond strength to dentin. Key words:Adhesion to dentin, bonding agent, Optibond FL, Clearfil SE, microretention, shear bond test. PMID:26330937

  11. 33 CFR 80.750 - Sanibel Island, FL to St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sanibel Island, FL to St... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.750 Sanibel Island, FL to..., between Captiva Island and Sanibel Island, and lines drawn across Redfish and Captiva Passes parallel to...

  12. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T across...

  13. 33 CFR 80.750 - Sanibel Island, FL to St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanibel Island, FL to St... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.750 Sanibel Island, FL to..., between Captiva Island and Sanibel Island, and lines drawn across Redfish and Captiva Passes parallel to...

  14. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T across...

  15. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T across...

  16. 33 CFR 80.750 - Sanibel Island, FL to St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanibel Island, FL to St... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.750 Sanibel Island, FL to..., between Captiva Island and Sanibel Island, and lines drawn across Redfish and Captiva Passes parallel to...

  17. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T across...

  18. 33 CFR 80.748 - Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Romano, FL to Sanibel Island... Sanibel Island, FL. (a) A line drawn across Big Marco Pass parallel to the general trend of the seaward, highwater shoreline. (b) A line drawn from the northwesternmost extremity of Coconut Island 000°T across...

  19. 33 CFR 80.750 - Sanibel Island, FL to St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanibel Island, FL to St... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.750 Sanibel Island, FL to..., between Captiva Island and Sanibel Island, and lines drawn across Redfish and Captiva Passes parallel to...

  20. 33 CFR 80.750 - Sanibel Island, FL to St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sanibel Island, FL to St... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Gulf Coast § 80.750 Sanibel Island, FL to..., between Captiva Island and Sanibel Island, and lines drawn across Redfish and Captiva Passes parallel to...

  1. 33 CFR 80.740 - Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Key, FL to Cape Sable, FL. 80.740 Section 80.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...., longitude 80°49.6′ W., to Long Key Light 1; thence to Arsenic Bank Light 2; thence to Sprigger Bank Light...

  2. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the Rock...

  3. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the Rock...

  4. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the Rock...

  5. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the Rock...

  6. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on the bays, bayous, creeks, marinas, and rivers from Horseshoe Point to the Rock...

  7. Adhesive sealing of dentin surfaces in vitro: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Nawareg, Manar M; Zidan, Ahmed Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Agee, Kelli; Chiba, Ayaka; Tagami, Jungi; Pashley, David H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of the use of dental adhesives to form a tight seal of freshly prepared dentin to protect the pulp from bacterial products, during the time between crown preparation and final cementum of full crowns. The evolution of these “immediate dentin sealants” follows the evolution of dental adhesives, in general. That is, they began with multiple-step, etch-and-rinse adhesives, and then switched to the use of simplified adhesives. Methods Literature was reviewed for evidence that bacteria or bacterial products diffusing across dentin can irritate pulpal tissues before and after smear layer removal. Smear layers can be solubilized by plaque organisms within 7–10 days if they are directly exposed to oral fluids. It is likely that smear layers covered by temporary restorations may last more than one month. As long as smear layers remain in place, they can partially seal dentin. Thus, many in vitro studies evaluating the sealing ability of adhesive resins use smear layer-covered dentin as a reference condition. Surprisingly, many adhesives do not seal dentin as well as do smear layers. Results Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that resin-covered dentin allows dentinal fluid to cross polymerized resins. The use of simplified single bottle adhesives to seal dentin was a step backwards. Currently, most authorities use either 3-step adhesives such as Scotchbond Multi-Purposea or OptiBond FLb or two-step self-etching primer adhesives, such as Clearfil SEc, Unifil Bondd or AdheSEe, respectfully. PMID:26846037

  8. Microleakage and SEM interfacial micromorphology of amalgam restorations using three adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Toledano, M; Osorio, E; Osorio, R; García-Godoy, F

    2000-08-01

    This study evaluated the microleakage and interfacial micromorphology of Class V cervical amalgam restorations lined with OptiBond, AElitebond, or Panavia 21. Unlined amalgams served as control. Cavities were treated with each dentin bonding system according to the manufacturers' instructions and restored with Tytin non-gamma 2 spherical amalgam. After one week of storage in tap water at 37 degrees C, the specimens were thermocycled (1000 cycles, 6-60 degrees C, 30s dwell time). Microleakage was assessed by means of basic fuchsin dye penetration and recorded according to an ordinal scale. None of the systems tested in this study completely eliminated microleakage. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test found that on the occlusal wall, Panavia 21 and the control group had the least leakage (P<0.05). No statistically significant differences were found at dentin margins (P>0.05). Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test found that Panavia 21 and the control group had less leakage at the occlusal than at the dentin margins (P<0.05); when AElitebond and OptiBond groups were evaluated, microleakage at the enamel and at the dentin margins was similar for each group. With the adhesive systems, perhaps the hydrophilic bonding agents incorporated the dye during specimen immersion and/or sectioning. The use of adhesives may not be as worthy as resin cements for sealing and bonding amalgam restorations to enamel and dentin.

  9. Shear bond strengths of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall.

    PubMed

    Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Sengun, Abdulkadir; Ozer, Fusun; Sener, Yagmur; Gokalp, Alparslan

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding ability of five current self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall. Seventy extracted human molars with approximal dentin caries were employed in this study. In order to obtain caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall, grinding was performed under running water. Following which, specimens mounted in acrylic blocks and composite resins of the bonding systems were bonded to dentin with plastic rings and then debonded by shear bond strength. With Clearfil SE Bond, bonding to caries-affected dentin showed the highest bond strength. With Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch, bonding to caries-affected dentin showed higher shear bond strength than AQ Bond, Tyrian SPE & One-Step Plus, and Prompt-L-Pop (p<0.05). Further, the bond strengths of Clearfil SE Bond and Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch to sound dentin were higher than those of Prompt-L-Pop, AQ Bond, and Tyrian SPE & One-Step Plus (p<0.05). In conclusion, besides micromechanical interlocking through hybrid layer formation, bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin may be increased from additional chemical interaction between the functional monomer and residual hydroxyapatite. The results of this study confirmed that differences in bond strength among self-etching adhesives to both caries-affected and sound dentin were due to chemical composition rather than acidity.

  10. 77 FR 42352 - Florida Disaster #FL-00072

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Florida (FEMA- 4068-DR), dated 07/09/2012. Incident: Tropical Storm Debby. Incident Period: 06...

  11. 78 FR 59410 - Florida Disaster #FL-00093

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00093 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Florida dated 09/17... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Hernando. Contiguous Counties: Florida: Citrus; Pasco...

  12. 75 FR 1420 - Florida Disaster # FL-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. Summary: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Florida dated 12/29... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Broward. Contiguous Counties: Florida: Collier, Hendry...

  13. 77 FR 66083 - Florida Disaster # FL-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Florida (FEMA- 4084-DR), dated 10/18/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident Period: 08/27...

  14. 76 FR 21090 - Florida Disaster #FL-00060

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Florida dated 04/07...: Florida: Hardee, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage...

  15. 78 FR 48763 - Florida Disaster #FL-00090

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00090 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Florida (FEMA- 4138-DR), dated 08/02/2013. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding. Incident...

  16. 77 FR 52104 - Florida Disaster #FL-00070

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00070 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Florida dated 08/21... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Escambia. Contiguous Counties: Florida: Santa Rosa...

  17. 77 FR 41874 - Florida Disaster #FL-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida (FEMA... Loans Only): Florida: Alachua, Baker, Clay, Duval, Franklin, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Hernando, Hillsborough...

  18. 76 FR 72021 - Florida Disaster #FL-00066

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00066 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Florida dated 11/14... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Broward. Contiguous Counties: Florida: Collier, Hendry...

  19. 75 FR 30870 - Florida Disaster #FL-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Florida dated 05/25...: Florida: Hardee, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas, Polk. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage...

  20. Ego Boundaries and Attainments in FL Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran-Lucarz, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to examine the relationship between the thickness of ego boundaries and attainments in FL pronunciation after a clearly structured form-focused practical course of phonetics. The research involved 45 first-year students of the Institute of English Studies in Wroclaw, Poland, who had attended around thirty…

  1. 46 CFR 7.100 - Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.100 Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to... baseline from which the territorial sea is measured in approximate position latitude 24°47.5′ N....

  2. 46 CFR 7.100 - Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.100 Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to... baseline from which the territorial sea is measured in approximate position latitude 24°47.5′ N....

  3. 46 CFR 7.100 - Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to Marquesas Keys... TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.100 Florida Reefs and Keys from Miami, FL to... to Fowey Rocks Light (latitude 25°35.4′ N. longitude 80°05.8′ W.); thence to Pacific Reef Light...

  4. Effects of Etch-and-Rinse and Self-etch Adhesives on Dentin MMP-2 and MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, A.; Scaffa, P.; Carrilho, M.; Tjäderhane, L.; Di Lenarda, R.; Polimeni, A.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Auto-degradation of collagen matrices occurs within hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin bonding systems, by the slow action of host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in the activities of MMP-2 and -9 after treatment with different etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Tested adhesives were: Adper Scotchbond 1XT (3M ESPE), PQ1 (Ultradent), Peak LC (Ultradent), Optibond Solo Plus (Kerr), Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply) (all 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives), and Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE), Tri-S (Kuraray), and Xeno-V (Dentsply) (1-step self-etch adhesives). MMP-2 and -9 activities were quantified in adhesive-treated dentin powder by means of an activity assay and gelatin zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found after treatment with all of the simplified etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives; however, the activation was adhesive-dependent. It is concluded that all two-step etch-and-rinse and the one-step self-etch adhesives tested can activate endogenous MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human dentin. These results support the role of endogenous MMPs in the degradation of hybrid layers created by these adhesives. PMID:23128110

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169T, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, though Fl-016...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, Vasily; Kessler, Collin; McLimans, Christopher; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Wright, Justin; King, Dawn; Lamendella, Regina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169T was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, although Fl-0169T possesses unique virulence genes. PMID:28232435

  7. 78 FR 25384 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL... Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Immokalee, FL (78 FR 6262) Docket No. FAA-2012-1051. Interested parties...

  8. Three-year Randomized Clinical Study of a One-step Universal Adhesive and a Two-step Self-etch Adhesive in Class II Composite Restorations.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate in a randomized clinical evaluation the 3-year clinical durability of a one-step universal adhesive and compare it intraindividually with a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II restorations. Each of 57 participants (mean age 58.3 years) received at least two extended Class II restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities in each of the 60 individual pairs of cavities were randomly distributed to the 1-step universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal: AU) and the control 2-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond XTR: OX). A low shrinkage composite (Aelite LS) was used for all restorations, which were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and 1, 2, and 3 years. 114 Class II restorations were evaluated at three years. Eight restorations, 3 AU and 5 OX, failed during the follow-up, resulting in 94.7% (AU) and 91.2% (OX) success rates (p > 0.05). Annual failure rates were 1.8% and 2.9%, respectively.The main reason for failure was composite fracture. Class II composite restorations placed with a 1-step universal adhesive showed good short-term efficacy.

  9. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Optibond™ FL, Kerr), G3 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (All-Bond 3®, Bisco), G4 - etch & rinse simplified system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), G5 - self-etching system with one step (Bond Force, Tokuyama), G6 - universal system in moist dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), G7 - universal system in dry dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then all groups received the cementing of a self-adhesive resin cement cylinder (Duo-link, Bisco) made from a polypropylene matrix. In the evaluation of bond strength, the samples were subjected to the microshear test and evaluated according to the fracture pattern by optical microscopy. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test suggests a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,039), and Tukey for multiple comparisons, indicating a statistically significant difference between G3 and G4 (p<0.05). It was verified high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed failure and cohesive in dentin. Conclusions The technique and the system used to dentin hybridization are able to affect the immediate bond strength of resin cement dual adhesive. Key words:Adhesion, adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:28149471

  10. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  11. Effects of adhesive composite core systems on adaptation of adhesive post and cores under load.

    PubMed

    Duc, Olivier; Krejci, Ivo

    2009-08-01

    To test marginal and internal adaptation of five different adhesive composite core systems under load. 30 human premolars were endodontically prepared and obturated with an epoxy sealer and vertically condensed gutta-percha. Thereafter the entire clinical crown was removed. The teeth were randomly assigned to five different composite core groups, all using the same fiber reinforced radicular post (DT White). Gr. 1: Optibond solo plus/Nexus II/Prodigy; Gr. 2: Scotchbond 1/Rely X Arc/Filtek P60; Gr. 3: EBS multi/Compolute applicap/Pertac II; Gr. 4: ART Bond/Parapost cement/Synergy; Gr. 5: Superbond C&B catalyst S+polymer/Metafil CX. Polyvinyl-siloxane impressions of the external margins of the cores were readied before and after 1,200,000 cycles of mechanical loading with max. 100 N at 45 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. After loading, 5 of the 6 samples of each group were cut longitudinally and the sixth sample was cut transversally to be able to take replicas for evaluation of internal adaptation after loading. Percentages of external "continuous margins" ranged from 97.9+-4.6 to 66.5+-7.8 before and from 87.4+-25.0 to 5.8+-12.5 after loading. Internal adaptation ranged from 96.4+-8.0 to 17.1+-20.4 after loading for the core adaptation and from 89.8+-12.2 to 65.9+-14.3 for the dentin-luting composite interface and from 99.4+-1.2 to 88.6+-9.4 for the composite-post interface. Surprisingly, the best materials' combination for the adhesive composite core was a self-etch light cured adhesive with a chemically cured luting agent.

  12. 75 FR 57373 - Amendment to Class D Airspace; Miami Opa Locka Airport, FL, and Hollywood, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ..., by correcting the geographic coordinates of the airport to aid in the navigation of our National... FAA received a request from the National Aeronautical Navigation Services to correct the geographic... airspace at Miami, and Hollywood, FL. The geographic coordinates of the Opa Locka Airport will be corrected...

  13. Evaluation of the interface between one-bottle adhesive systems and dentin by Goldner's trichrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the hybrid layers in interfaces between dentin and six contemporary one-bottle adhesive systems using a nondestructive differential staining micro-technique. The adhesive systems used in this study were divided to three groups based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic component ratios (i.e. ability to dissolve in water), from highest to lowest as follows: Group 1 (Dentastic UNO.DUO, PermaQuick PQ1) > Group 2 (One-Step, Primer&Bond NT) > Group 3 (Optibond Solo, Single Bond). The occlusal third of the crown was removed from 36 extracted, unerupted human 3rd molars. Smear layers were created by abrading the dentin with 600 grit SiC under water. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the adhesive systems per manufacturer's instructions. After 24 hours in water, 3-5 microm thin sections of the adhesive/dentin (adhesive/dentin ) interface were cut with a microtome and stained with Goldner's trichrome. Stained thin sections from each prepared tooth were imaged with light microscopy. The thickness and color difference of adhesive/dentin interfaces among these one-bottle adhesive systems were clearly visualized. The width of the hybrid layers varied, ranged from 4.1-9.2 microm for six adhesive systems. The color differences in the stained sections are reflected to the extent and degree to which the adhesive envelops the exposed collagen. Among these six bonding systems, resin encapsulation of collagen varied from highest to lowest as follows: Group 1 (UNO, PQ1) > Group 2 (OS, PBNT) > Group 3 (OP, SB). The differences in collagen encapsulation are dependent on the adhesive composition, or the ability to tolerate water during the infiltration of the wet demineralized matrix.

  14. Influence of different pre-etching times on fatigue strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Scheidel, Donal D; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence on dentin bonding of phosphoric acid pre-etching times before the application of self-etch adhesives. Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives [Prime & Bond Elect (EL) and Scotchbond Universal (SU)], a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive [G-aenial Bond (GB)], and a two-step self-etch adhesive [OptiBond XTR (OX)] were used. The SBS and SFS values were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching times of 3, 10, or 15 s before application of the adhesives, and for a control without pre-etching. For groups with 3 s of pre-etching, SU and EL showed higher SBS values than control groups. No significant difference was observed for GB among the 3 s, 10 s, and control groups, but the 15 s pre-etching group showed significantly lower SBS and SFS values than the control group. No significant difference was found for OX among the pre-etching groups. Reducing phosphoric acid pre-etching time can minimize the adverse effect on dentin bonding durability for the conventional self-etch adhesives. Furthermore, a short phosphoric acid pre-etching time enhances the dentin bonding performance of universal adhesives. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. The effect of delayed placement of composite and double application of single-bottle adhesives on microleakage of composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Alavi, Ali Asghar

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of delayed placement of composite and double application of adhesive on microleakage of two-step, total-etch (single-bottle) adhesives. Standard Class V cavities were prepared in 140 sound premolars and randomly assigned into 10 groups (n = 14). Excite, Optibond Solo Plus, and Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (as a control) were used. After the first layer of single-bottle adhesive was photocured, the adhesive was reapplied and photocured in four of the groups. A microhybrid composite was applied in five of the groups immediately after the adhesive was photocured; in the other five groups, the composite was placed after a three-minute delay. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water and thermocycling, the samples were placed in 1% methylene blue. All samples then were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated for microleakage at the occlusal and gingival margins under a stereomicroscope at 20x magnification. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Delayed placement of composite significantly increased leakage at the gingival margins when single-bottle adhesives were used (p < 0.05). Double application of the single-bottle adhesives significantly reduced leakage at the gingival margin when placement of the composite was delayed. There was no significant difference between single and double application when the composite was placed immediately (p < 0.05).

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium chimaera Type Strain Fl-0169.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Stacy; Tokarev, Vasily; Kessler, Collin; McLimans, Christopher; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Wright, Justin; King, Dawn; Lamendella, Regina

    2017-02-23

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the type strain Mycobacterium chimaera Fl-0169, a member of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). M. chimaera Fl-0169(T) was isolated from a patient in Italy and is highly similar to strains of M. chimaera isolated in Ireland, although Fl-0169(T) possesses unique virulence genes. Copyright © 2017 Pfaller et al.

  17. 78 FR 52425 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Umatilla, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Airspace at Umatilla, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... the controlled airspace required to accommodate the new RNAV (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach...

  18. Effects of dental adhesives on micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prica, Dunja; Tadin, Antonija; Marović, Danijela; Katunarić, Marina; Prica, Adriana; Galić, Nada

    2013-09-01

    Dental adhesives come into direct contact with oral tissues. Due to this close and long-term contact, the materials should exhibit a high degree of biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of dental adhesives on human lymphocytes in vitro. Polymerized dental adhesives (Excite, Adper Single Bond 2, Prompt L-pop and OptiBond Solo Plus) were eluted in dimethyl sulfoxide for 1 hour, 24 h and 120 h (5 days). Thereafter, lymphocyte cultures were treated with different concentrations of eluates (0.2 microg/mL, 0.5 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL) obtained from each of the tested materials. Genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus test. The chi2-test was used on statistical analysis (p < 0.05). After elution period of 1 h, only the highest dose of all tested materials affected the measured cytogenetic parameters. After 24 h, genotoxicity was demonstrated only in cultures treated with eluates in concentrations of 0.5 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL. Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of dental adhesives causes genotoxic effects in human lymphocytes. Toxic effect of these dental adhesives increases with the tested material concentration and decreases with the length of elution period.

  19. Effect of dentine conditioners on the bonding efficacy of one-bottle adhesives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J-T; Itoh, K; Kusunoki, M; Hasegawa, T; Wakumoto, S; Hisamitsu, H

    2005-01-01

    The bonding efficacy of four one-bottle adhesives (OptiBond Solo Plus, Gluma Comfort Bond, One Step and Prime & Bond NT) and a multi-step adhesive (Clearfil Photo Bond) as a control was evaluated. The dentine cavity wall was conditioned with phosphoric acid or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the marginal integrity was estimated by measuring the wall-to-wall contraction gap width between the composite and the dentine cavity surface. In the positive control group, the adhesive was applied following glyceryl methacrylate (GM) priming. The analyses were performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. One-bottle adhesives were clearly inferior to the multi-step bonding system in marginal integrity when dentine was conditioned with EDTA. The present findings also suggested that the marginal sealing ability of ethanol-based one-bottle systems was better than acetone-based one-bottle systems when dentine surfaces were conditioned with EDTA. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed on the function of fillers in one-bottle adhesives for the prevention of contraction gaps.

  20. Experimental comparison of cavity sealing ability of five dental adhesive systems after thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liem; Geerts, Sabine; Gueders, Audrey; Albert, Adelin; Seidel, Laurence; Charpentier, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the cavity sealing obtained after thermocycling with five adhesive systems in which one all-in-one adhesive was compared to three one-bottle adhesives, and to observe the effect of a low-charged resin layer added to a one-bottle adhesive. Twenty-five recently extracted teeth were randomly allocated to five experimental adhesive systems (n = 5 each): Optibond Solo (OS), Scotchbond 1 (SB1), PQ 1, Prompt-L-Pop (PLP), SB1+Revolution (R). On each tooth, two rectangular cavities at the cementoenamel junction were filled with a microhybrid composite (Z100) and the tested adhesives. Teeth were thermocycled and stained with AgNO3 + vitamin C. Leakage was evaluated on a 6-point (0-5) severity scale and the highest score was selected for each restoration. Results were treated by ordinal logistic regression and considered to be significant at p < 0.05. No significant difference was found between leakage values for enamel and dentin interfaces. Leakage scores never exceeded 2 for OS, SB1 and SB1+R, while they reached a maximum of 5 in 20% of PLP cases. OS was significantly better than the other adhesive systems, which were statistically equivalent. The addition of a flowable composite layer on SB1 did not yield a significant difference, but tended to give better results mainly at the dentin interface. The all-in-one adhesive PLP, because of quite variable results, seems less reliable than the one-bottle adhesives, of which OS provides significantly the best results. Addition of a flowable composite on SB1 appears to yield slightly better results.

  1. Bond Strength and Interfacial Morphology of Different Dentin Adhesives in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Mittal, Mudit; Goswami, Mousumi; Chaudhary, Seema; Dwivedi, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interfacial morphology and the bond strength produced by the three-step, two-step and single-step bonding systems in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 72 extracted human deciduous teeth were ground to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into four groups: (a) Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE), (b) Adh Se (Vivadent), (d) OptiBond All-in-One (Kerr) and (e)Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer’s instructions. Then, teeth from each group were divided into two groups: (A) For viewing interfacial morphology (32 teeth), with 8 teeth in each group, and (B) For measurement of bond strength (40 teeth), with 10 teeth in each group. All the samples were prepared for viewing under SEM. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 software. Results: Observational measurement of tag length in different adhesives revealed that Scotchbond had the most widely spread values with a range from 12.20 to 89.10μm while OptiBond AIO had the narrowest range (0 to 22.50). The bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose was significantly higher (7.4744±1.88763) (p<0.001) as compared to Futurabond NR (3.8070±1.61345), Adhe SE (4.4478 ± 1.3820) and OptiBond-all-in-one (4.4856±1.07925). Conclusion: The three-step bonding system showed better results as compared to simplified studied bonding systems PMID:24910694

  2. 46 CFR 7.90 - St. Johns River, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Johns River, FL. 7.90 Section 7.90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.90 St. Johns River, FL. A line drawn from the southeasternmost extremity of Little Talbot (Spike...

  3. 46 CFR 7.90 - St. Johns River, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Johns River, FL. 7.90 Section 7.90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.90 St. Johns River, FL. A line drawn from the southeasternmost extremity of Little Talbot (Spike...

  4. 77 FR 34210 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at... E airspace at Orlando, FL (77 FR 16783). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  5. 77 FR 45240 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Arcadia, FL... Class E Airspace at Arcadia, FL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (77 FR 33685) Docket No. FAA-2012-0365. Interested parties...

  6. 76 FR 47061 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lakeland, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lakeland, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Lakeland Linder Regional Airport, Lakeland, FL...

  7. Teachers' Role, Learners' Gender Differences, and FL Anxiety among Seventh-Grade Students Studying English as a FL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between foreign language (FL) anxiety and achievement in that language. The role of the FL teacher as perceived by the learners was also tested. Participants were 67 seventh-grade students. They were administered an anxiety questionnaire, a Hebrew reading comprehension test, an English reading comprehension…

  8. BOND STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY OF ENAMEL USING SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE SYSTEMS WITH DIFFERENT ACIDITIES

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Pelizzaro, Arlete; Dal-Bianco, Karen; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the bond strength and the morphology of enamel after application of self-etching adhesive systems with different acidities. The tested hypothesis was that the performance of the self-etching adhesive systems does not vary for the studied parameters. Material and methods: Composite resin (Filtek Z250) buildups were bonded to untreated (prophylaxis) and treated (burcut or SiC-paper) enamel surfaces of third molars after application of four self-etching and two etch-and-rinse adhesive systems (n=6/condition): Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); OptiBond Solo Plus Self-Etch (OP); AdheSe (AD); Tyrian Self Priming Etching (TY), Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) and Adper Single Bond (SB). After storage in water (24 h/37°C), the bonded specimens were sectioned into sticks with 0.8 mm2 cross-sectional area and the microtensile bond strength was tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The etching patterns of the adhesive systems were also observed with a scanning electron microscope. Results: The main factor adhesive system was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean bond strength values (MPa) and standard deviations were: CSE (20.5±3.5), OP (11.3±2.3), AD (11.2±2.8), TY (11.1±3.0), SBMP (21.9±4.0) and SB (24.9±3.0). Different etching patterns were observed for the self-etching primers depending on the enamel treatment and the pH of the adhesive system. Conclusion: Although there is a tendency towards using adhesive systems with simplified application procedures, this may compromise the bonding performance of some systems to enamel, even when the prismless enamel is removed. PMID:19668991

  9. Marginal permeability of self-etch and total-etch adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Owens, Barry M; Johnson, William W; Harris, Edward F

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated microleakage in vitro of self-etch and multi-step, total-etch adhesive systems. Ninety-six extracted non-carious human molars were randomly assigned to eight groups (n=12) and restored with different adhesive systems: Optibond Solo Plus, iBond, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Xeno III, Simplicity, Nano-Bond, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and Touch & Bond. Each group was treated following the manufacturer's instructions. Class V cavities were prepared on the facial or lingual surfaces of each tooth with coronal margins in enamel and apical margins in cementum (dentin). The teeth were restored with Z-100 resin composite. After polishing with Sof-Lex disks, the teeth were thermocycled for 1000 cycles and coated with nail varnish to within 1.0 mm of the restoration. The teeth were stained in 1% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned from the facial to lingual surface. Dye penetration (microleakage) was examined with a 20x binocular microscope. Enamel and dentin margin leakage was scored on a 0 to 3 ordinal scale. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Comparison of the adhesive groups at the enamel margin revealed: 1) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose exhibited significantly less leakage than the other adhesive groups (except iBond); 2) among the self-etch adhesive groups, iBond exhibited significantly less leakage than Nano-Bond and 3) the other adhesive groups clustered intermediately. In contrast, there were no significant differences among the adhesive groups when the dentin margin was evaluated. A Wilcoxin signed rank test showed significantly less leakage at the enamel margins compared to the dentin margins of the eight adhesive systems tested. All data were submitted to statistical analysis at p<0.05 level of significance.

  10. Shear Bond Strengths and Morphological Evaluation of Filled and Unfilled Adhesive Interfaces to Enamel and Dentine

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Fathi, Mohammadhosein; Ataei, Ebrahim; Khodaeian, Niloufar; Askari, Navid

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory study shear bond strengths of three filled and one unfilled adhesive systems to enamel and dentine were compared. Forty-eight extracted intact noncarious human mandibular molars were randomly assigned to two groups of 24 one for bonding to enamel and the other for bonding to dentine. Buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth were randomly assigned for application of each one of filled (Prime & Bond NT (PBNT), Optibond Solo Plus (OBSP), and Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB)) and unfilled (Single Bond (SB)) adhesive systems (n = 12). A universal resin composite was placed into the translucent plastic cylinders (3 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length) and seated against the enamel and dentine surfaces and polymerized for 40 seconds. Shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine, and the results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Tukey HSD post hoc test with a 5% level of significance.There were no statistically significant differences in bond strength between the adhesive systems in enamel, but CSEB and SB exhibited significantly higher and lower bond strength to dentine, respectively, than the other tested adhesive systems while there were no statistically significant differences between PBNT and OBSP. PMID:23209471

  11. A 12-year clinical evaluation of a three-step dentin adhesive in noncarious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Aldridge D; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Ritter, André V; Sturdevant, John R; Bayne, Stephen C

    2009-05-01

    The authors conducted a study to evaluate the clinical performance of a dual-cured, three-step dentin adhesive (OptiBond Dual Cure, Kerr, a subsidiary of Sybron Dental Specialties, Orange, Calif.; no longer on the market) at 12 years. The authors restored 100 noncarious cervical lesions without use of macromechanical retention or enamel bevels. In one-half of the lesions (group A), the authors etched only the enamel; in the other half (group B), they etched both enamel and dentin. After etching, they applied a light-cured primer and dual-cured adhesive to enamel and dentin in both groups. They restored the preparations with a resin-based composite. They performed direct evaluations by using modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria at insertion (baseline) and at one year and 12 years after insertion. The 12-year retention rates were 93 percent in group A and 84 percent in group B, for an overall retention rate of 89 percent. Except for marginal discoloration in both groups and retention in group B, the restorations in both groups had Alfa ratings of 88 percent or greater in all of the direct clinical evaluation categories. The 12-year clinical performance, including retention rate, of a dual-cured dental adhesive was excellent and was not affected by dentin acid-etching. This clinical study provides additional evidence for the long-term durability of a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions.

  12. Laboratory bonding ability of a multi-purpose dentin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge; Sezinando, Ana; Monteiro, Paulo C

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the laboratory dentin and enamel microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) and interfacial ultra-morphology of a new multi-purpose dental adhesive applied under different bonding strategies. microTBS - 36 extracted caries-free human molars were assigned to six groups: Group CSE - Clearfil SE Bond, a 2-step self-etch adhesive (self-etch control); Group SBU-SE - Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU), applied as a one-step self-etch adhesive; Group OSLm - OptiBond SOLO Plus (OSL), a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive applied on moist dentin (etch-and-rinse control); Group OSLd - OSL applied on air-dried dentin; Group SBU-ERm - SBU applied as a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive on moist dentin; Group SBU-ERd - SBU applied as a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive on air-dried dentin. Build-ups were constructed with Filtek Z250 and cured in three increments of 2 mm each. Specimens were sectioned with a slow-speed diamond saw under water in X and Y directions to obtain bonded beams that were tested to failure in tension at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. Statistical analyses were computed using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc tests at P< 0.05. Ultra-morphologic evaluation - dentin-resin interfaces were prepared for each of the six groups, processed, and observed under a FESEM. microTBS - OSLm resulted in significantly higher mean microTBS (63.0 MPa) than the other five groups. All SBU groups ranked in the same statistical subset regardless of the dentin treatment. The lowest mean microTBS were obtained with CSE (47.2 MPa) and OSLd (50.2 MPa), which were ranked in the same statistical subset. Ultramorphologic evaluation - The two self-etch adhesives resulted in a similar ultra-morphology. Dried dentin did not preclude the formation of a hybrid layer with SBU-ERd, as opposed to OSLd.

  13. 75 FR 14385 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... City, FL, as the old airport and control tower is scheduled to be closed. Controlled airspace will be... feet or More Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO FL E5 Panama City, FL Issued in College...

  14. [Curing mode of universal adhesives affects the bond strength of resin cements to dentin].

    PubMed

    Fu, Z R; Tian, F C; Zhang, L; Han, B; Wang, X Y

    2017-02-18

    To determine the effects of curing mode of one-step and two-step universal adhesives on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of different dual-cure resin cements to dentin. One-step universal adhesive Single Bond Universal (SBU), and two-step universal adhesive OptiBond Versa (VSA) were chosen as the subjects, one-step self-etching adhesive OptiBond All in One (AIO) and two-step self-etching adhesive Clearfil SE Bond (SEB) were control groups, and two dual-cure resin cements RelyX Ultimate (RLX) and Nexus 3 Universal (NX3) were used in this study. In this study, 80 extracted human molars were selected and the dentin surface was exposed using diamond saw. The teeth were divided into 16 groups according to the adhesives (AIO, SBU, SEB, VSA), cure modes of adhesives (light cure, non-light cure) and resin cements (RLX, NX3). The adhesives were applied on the dentin surface following the instruction and whether light cured or not, then the resin cements were applied on the adhesives with 1 mm thickness and light cured (650 mW/cm(2) for 20 s. A resin was built up (5 mm) on the cements and light cured layer by layer. After water storage for 24 h, the specimens were cut into resin-cement-dentin strips with a cross sectional area of 1 mm×1 mm and the μTBS was measured. Regarding one-step universal adhesive (SBU) light cured, the μTBS with RLX [(35.45±7.04) MPa] or NX3 [(26.84±10.39) MPa] were higher than SBU non-light cured with RLX [(17.93±8.93) MPa)] or NX3 [(10.07±5.89) MPa, P<0.001]. Compared with AIO, light-cured SBU combined with RLX presented higher μTBS than AIO group [(35.45±7.04) MPa vs. (24.86±8.42) MPa, P<0.05]. When SBU was not lighted, the μTBS was lower than AIO [(17.93±8.93) MPa vs. (22.28±7.57) MPa, P<0.05]. For two-step universal adhesive (VSA) and control adhesive (SEB), curing mode did not affect the μTBS when used with either RLX or NX3 (25.98-32.24 MPa, P>0.05). Curing mode of one-step universal adhesive may affect the μTBS between

  15. Effects of solvent evaporation on water sorption/solubility and nanoleakage of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Chimeli, Talita Baumgratz Cachapuz; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Pereira, Patrícia Nóbrega; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of solvent evaporation in the kinetics of water diffusion (water sorption-WS, solubility-SL, and net water uptake) and nanoleakage of adhesive systems. Disk-shaped specimens (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm in thickness) were produced (N=48) using the adhesives: Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3)/Kuraray, Clearfil SE Bond - control group (CSE)/Kuraray, Optibond Solo Plus (OS)/Kerr and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU)/3M ESPE. The solvents were either evaporated for 30 s or not evaporated (N=24/per group), and then photoactivated for 80 s (550 mW/cm2). After desiccation, the specimens were weighed and stored in distilled water (N=12) or mineral oil (N=12) to evaluate the water diffusion over a 7-day period. Net water uptake (%) was also calculated as the sum of WS and SL. Data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α=5%). The nanoleakage expression in three additional specimens per group was also evaluated after ammoniacal silver impregnation after 7 days of water storage under SEM. Statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "adhesive" was significant (p<0.05). Solvent evaporation had no influence in the WS and SL of the adhesives. CSE (control) presented significantly lower net uptake (5.4%). The nanoleakage was enhanced by the presence of solvent in the adhesives. Although the evaporation has no effect in the kinetics of water diffusion, the nanoleakage expression of the adhesives tested increases when the solvents are not evaporated.

  16. Effects of solvent evaporation on water sorption/solubility and nanoleakage of adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    CHIMELI, Talita Baumgratz Cachapuz; D'ALPINO, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; PEREIRA, Patrícia Nóbrega; HILGERT, Leandro Augusto; DI HIPÓLITO, Vinicius; GARCIA, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of solvent evaporation in the kinetics of water diffusion (water sorption-WS, solubility-SL, and net water uptake) and nanoleakage of adhesive systems. Material and Methods Disk-shaped specimens (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm in thickness) were produced (N=48) using the adhesives: Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3)/Kuraray, Clearfil SE Bond - control group (CSE)/Kuraray, Optibond Solo Plus (OS)/Kerr and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU)/3M ESPE. The solvents were either evaporated for 30 s or not evaporated (N=24/per group), and then photoactivated for 80 s (550 mW/cm2). After desiccation, the specimens were weighed and stored in distilled water (N=12) or mineral oil (N=12) to evaluate the water diffusion over a 7-day period. Net water uptake (%) was also calculated as the sum of WS and SL. Data were submitted to 3-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α=5%). The nanoleakage expression in three additional specimens per group was also evaluated after ammoniacal silver impregnation after 7 days of water storage under SEM. Results Statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "adhesive" was significant (p<0.05). Solvent evaporation had no influence in the WS and SL of the adhesives. CSE (control) presented significantly lower net uptake (5.4%). The nanoleakage was enhanced by the presence of solvent in the adhesives. Conclusions Although the evaporation has no effect in the kinetics of water diffusion, the nanoleakage expression of the adhesives tested increases when the solvents are not evaporated. PMID:25141201

  17. RadNet Air Data From Tallahassee, FL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Tallahassee, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  18. RadNet Air Data From Tampa, FL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Tampa, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. RadNet Air Data From Miami, FL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Miami, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. RadNet Air Data From Jacksonville, FL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Jacksonville, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. RadNet Air Data From Orlando, FL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Orlando, FL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  2. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Stclair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process was developed for preparing aromatic polyamide acids for use as adhesives by reacting an aromatic dianhydride to an approximately equimolar amount of an aromatic diamine in a water or lower alkanol miscible ether solvent. The polyamide acids are converted to polyimides by heating to the temperature range of 200 - 300 C. The polyimides are thermally stable and insoluble in ethers and other organic solvents.

  3. Adhesive plasters

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Swain, Ronald L.; Banker, John G.; Edwards, Charlene C.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive plaster compositions are provided by treating particles of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 or Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with dilute acid solutions. The resulting compositions have been found to spontaneously harden into rigid reticulated masses resembling plaster of Paris. Upon heating, the hardened material is decomposed into the oxide, yet retains the reticulated rigid structure.

  4. A comparative study of clinical effectiveness of fissure sealing with and without bonding systems: 3-year results.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, C; Khomenko, L; Trachuk, I

    2013-04-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated the sealant retention rate and caries-preventive efficacy of two fissure sealing techniques over a 3-year period. Subjects (87) aged between 6.5 and 11.5 years were enrolled into two groups. In Group I (41 subjects), a resin-based fissure sealant (Fissurit FX, VOCO, Germany) was placed on all four sound permanent first molars (FPM-164 teeth) of each subject and in Group II (46 subjects) on 4 caries-free premolars (P1-2 182 teeth),using the following adhesives systems: Optibond FL (Kerr, USA), Optibond Solo plus (Kerr, USA), Prompt-L-Pop (3 M ESPE, USA) or the conventional acid-etch technique. Sealed teeth were evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36-month intervals with regard to retention and new caries development. Sealant retention was scored as: (1) complete retention; (2) partial loss; (3) complete loss of sealant. Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used to analyse the data. The complete retention rate was: Optibond FL/sealant 80.01-82.92 %, Optibond Solo plus/sealant 73.78-74.27 %, Prompt-L-Pop/sealant 42.84-53.65 % versus acid-etch technique 62.86-71.44 % on FPM and P1-2 (p < 0.05). The fissure caries incidence rate was: Optibond FL/sealant 2.43-2.85 %, Optibond Solo plus/sealant 2.85-4.76 %, Prompt-L-Pop/sealant 24.40-34.28 % versus acid-etch technique 16.66-17.14 % (p < 0.05) on FPM and P1-2. A statistically significant difference in sealant retention rate was observed between FPM and P1-2, using the self-etching adhesive system Prompt-L-Pop and acid-etch technique. It may be concluded that the use of adhesive systems Optibond FL and Optibond Solo plus yielded better fissure sealing performance.

  5. One-Year Clinical Evaluation of the Bonding Effectiveness of a One-Step, Self-Etch Adhesive in Noncarious Cervical Lesion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mouhamed; Bane, Khaly; Aidara, Adjaratou Wakha; Niang, Seydina Ousmane; Kane, Abdoul Wakhabe

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the one-year clinical performance of a one-step, self-etch adhesive (Optibond All-in-One, Kerr, CA, USA) combined with a composite (Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr Hawe, CA, USA) to restore NCCLs with or without prior acid etching. Restorations performed by the same practitioner were evaluated at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months using modified USPHS criteria. At 6 months, the recall rate was 100%. The retention rate was 84.2% for restorations with prior acid etching, but statistically significant differences were observed between baseline and 6 months. Without acid etching, the retention rate was 77%, and no statistically significant difference was noted between 3 and 6 months. Marginal integrity (93.7% with and 87.7% without acid etching) and discoloration (95.3% with and 92.9% without acid etching) were scored as Alpha or Bravo, with better results after acid etching. After one year, the recall rate was 58.06%. Loss of pulp vitality, postoperative sensitivity, or secondary caries were not observed. After one year retention rate was of 90.6% and 76.9% with and without acid conditioning. Optibond All-in-One performs at a satisfactory clinical performance level for restoration of NCCLs after 12 months especially after acid etching. PMID:25810720

  6. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change.

  7. Modulation of Streptococcus mutans virulence by dental adhesives containing anti-caries agents.

    PubMed

    André, Carolina Bosso; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Galvão, Lívia Câmara de Carvalho; Fronza, Bruna Marin; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Ferracane, Jack Liborio; Giannini, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the effect of the incorporation of two anti-caries agents into dental adhesives on the reduction of the virulence of Streptococcus mutans and on the adhesion to dentin. Apigenin (1mM) and tt-Farnesol (5mM) were added separately and in combination to a self-etch adhesive (CS3 - Clearfil S3 Bond Plus) and to an each-and-rinse adhesive (OPT - OptiBond S). Biofilm of S. mutans was grown on adhesive-coated hydroxyapatite disks for 115h and bacterial viability, dry-weight, alkali soluble, water soluble, intracellular polysaccharides and protein were quantified. Bond strength and dentin-adhesive interface were performed to analyze the effects of the incorporation on the physical properties and to identify changes in hybrid layer morphology. Addition of Apigenin and Apigenin+tt-Farnesol to CS3, and Apigenin or tt-Farnesol to OPT reduced the dry-weight of S. mutans biofilm. Insoluble polysaccharide decreased with the addition of Apigenin to CS3 and tt-Farnesol to OPT. Intracellular polysaccharide decreased with addition of Apigenin and Apigenin+tt-Farnesol to CS3. No changes in dentin bond strength, resin-dentin interfacial morphology, total amount of protein and soluble polysaccharide were observed with the additions. Biofilms that are less cariogenic around dental restorations could decrease secondary caries formation; in addition, the reduction of virulence of S. mutans without necessarily killing the microorganism is more unlikely to induce antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction morphology and bond strength of nanofilled simplified-step adhesives to acid etched dentin

    PubMed Central

    Di Hipólito, Vinicius; Reis, André Figueiredo; Mitra, Sumita B.; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of nanofillers incorporated into adhesives on the microtensile bond strength (μ-TBS) and interfacial micromorphology to dentin. Methods: The occlusal enamel of 5 human molars was removed and each tooth sectioned into four quarters. The exposed dentin was treated with one of the following adhesives: Adper Single Bond (SB-unfilled), OptiBond Solo Plus (OS-barium aluminoborosilicate, 400nm Ø), Prime & Bond NT (NT-colloidal silica, 7–40 nm Ø) and Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2-colloidal silica, 5nm Ø). Cylinders of resin-based composite were constructed on the adhesive layers. After 24-hour storage, the restored tooth-quadrants were sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens (0.8 mm2, cross-sectional area) and submitted to μ-TBS at a cross-speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha = .05). Twenty-eight additional teeth were used for interfacial micro-morphologic analysis by SEM (16-teeth) and TEM (12-teeth). The dentin surfaces of 32 discs were treated with the adhesives (8 discs for adhesive) and laminated to form disc-pairs using a flowable resin composite for SEM/EDS analysis. For TEM, 90nm-thick nondemineralized unstained sections were processed. Results: SB2 showed significant higher bond strength than SB, OS and NT. The SEM/EDS and TEM analysis revealed nanofillers infiltrated within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer. Fillers were concentrated around patent tubular orifices and in the adhesive layer for OS and NT. Conclusion: The presence of nanofillers within the interfibrillar spaces of the SB2-hybrid layer suggests its importance in the improvement of the μ-TBS. PMID:23077413

  9. Pattern formation in cell membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Hategan, A.; Sengupta, K.; Sackmann, E.

    2004-03-01

    Strong adhesion of highly active cells often nucleates focal adhesions or related structures that are, over time, reinforced by cytoskeleton (actin, etc.). Red cells lack such complex adhesion systems, but they are shown here to also exhibit complex spatial patterns within an adhesive contact zone. While strong adhesion and spreading of the red cell to a dense poly-L-lysine surface appears complete in < 1 s by reflective interference microscopy, over longer times of 10-15 min or more distinct patterns in fluorescently labeled membrane components emerge. The fluorescent lipid Fl-PE (fluorescein phosphoethanolamine), in particular, is seen to diffuse and reorganize (eg. worm-like domains of <500 nm) within the contact zone, independent of whether the cell is intact or ruptured. Lipid patterns are accompanied by visible perturbations in band 3 distribution and weaker perturbations in membrane skeleton actin. Although fluorescent poly-L-lysine is shown to be uniform under cells, pressing down on the membrane quenches the lipid patterns and reveals the topographical basis for pattern formation. Regions of strong contact are thus separated by regions where the membrane is more distant from the surface.

  10. Adhesion and Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    von Fraunhofer, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed. PMID:22505913

  11. Correlative transmission electron microscopy examination of nondemineralized and demineralized resin-dentin interfaces formed by two dentin adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, B; Conn, L J; Duke, E S; Eick, J D; Robinson, S J; Guerrero, D

    1996-03-01

    The resin-dentin interface formed by two dentin adhesives, Optibond (OPTI, Kerr) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP, 3M), was ultramorphologically examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ultrastructural information from nondemineralized and demineralized sections was correlated. It was hypothesized that the different chemical formulations of the two adhesives would result in a different morphological appearance of the hybrid layer. Ultrastructural TEM examination proved that each of the two dentin adhesive systems was able to establish a micromechanical bond between dentin and resin with the formation of a hybrid layer. However, the interfacial hybridization process that took place to produce this resin-dentin bond appeared to be specifically related to the chemical composition and application modes of both systems. OPTI consistently presented with a hybrid layer with a relatively uniform ultrastructure, electron density, and acid resistance. These three parameters were found to be more variable for the hybrid layer formed by SBMP. Characteristic of SBMP was the identification of an amorphous phase deposited at the outer surface of the hybrid layer. Although both adhesive systems investigated follow a total-etch concept, their specific chemical formulations result in different interfacial ultrastructures that are probably related to different underlying bonding mechanisms. The clinical significance of these morphological findings, however, is still unknown.

  12. Cell-based therapy for preventing postoperative adhesion and promoting regeneration after hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Natsuko F; Inagaki, Fuyuki F; Kokudo, Norihiro; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2015-07-01

    Postoperative adhesion is a critical clinical issue after almost all abdominal or pelvic surgeries including liver surgery. Postoperative adhesion causes several complications, such as small bowel obstruction and chronic abdominal pain. Furthermore, it makes reoperation much more difficult, leading to increased mortality and morbidity rate. Postoperative adhesion is particularly problematic for repeated hepatectomy, since hepatic malignant neoplasm recurs frequently and repeated hepatectomy is widely used as one of the most curative treatments. Several treatments to reduce postoperative adhesion have been developed, which include laparoscopic surgery, administration of pharmacological agents and use of prophylactic barrier materials. However, none of them are optimal. We have proposed a novel treatment using a cell sheet of fetal liver mesothelial cells (FL-MCs) to prevent postoperative adhesion in a novel mouse model. Besides adhesion, repeated hepatectomy has another serious problem; although the liver has a remarkable ability to regenerate, the recovery of liver mass and function of the remnant liver after multiple repeated hepatectomy is limited. The FL-MC cell sheet enhances proliferation of hepatocytes after hepatectomy by providing growth factors for hepatocytes. Thus the FL-MC sheet could simultaneously solve the two problems associated with repeated hepatectomy. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  13. Effects of surface hydration state and application method on the bond strength of self-etching adhesives to cut enamel.

    PubMed

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Torres, Carlos Rocha Carlos; Sassaki, Alan; Valdetaro, Fernanda; Fernandes, Ricardo Silva; Prieto de Freitas, Carolina; Batista, Graziela Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface hydration state and application method on the microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etching adhesives systems to cut enamel. One hundred ninety-five bovine teeth were used. The enamel on the buccal side was flattened with 600-grit SiC paper. For the control group, 15 teeth received Adper Single Bond 2, applied according to manufacturer's recommendations. The other specimens were divided into three groups according to the adhesive system used: Futura Bond M (FM; Voco), Clearfil S3 Bond (CS; Kuraray), and Optibond All in One (OA; Kerr). For each group, two hydration states were tested: D: blown dry with air; W: the excess of water was removed with absorbent paper. Two application methods were tested: P (passive): the adhesive was simply left on the surface; A (active): the adhesive was rubbed with an applicator point. A coat of Grandio composite resin (Voco) was applied on the surface. The teeth were sectioned to obtain enamel-resin sticks (1 x 1 mm), which underwent microtensile bond testing. The data in MPa were submitted to a three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). The ANOVA showed significant differences for application method and the type of adhesive, but not for hydration state. For the application method, the results of Tukey's test were: P: 31.46 (± 7.09)a; A: 34.04 (± 7.19)b. For the type of adhesive, the results were: OA: 31.29 (± 7.05)a; CS: 32.28 (± 7.14)a; FM: 34.68 (± 7.17)b; different lower-case letters indicate statistically significant differences. Active application improved the bond strength to cut enamel. The adhesive Futurabond M showed the highest bond strength to cut enamel.

  14. 24. SATURN V Fl ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SATURN V F-l ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND 1A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 77 FR 43412 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00072

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... Only for the State of Florida (FEMA-4068-DR), dated 07/09/2012. Incident: Tropical Storm Debby... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Florida, dated 07/09/2012, is hereby amended to include the...

  16. 77 FR 46550 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 5. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida...: The notice of the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Florida, dated 07/03/2012 is...

  17. 77 FR 46550 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00072

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3... Only for the State of Florida (FEMA-4068-DR), dated 07/09/2012. Incident: Tropical Storm Debby... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of Florida, dated 07/09/2012, is hereby amended to establish...

  18. 77 FR 43412 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida... disaster declaration for the State of Florida, dated 07/03/2012 is hereby amended to include the following...

  19. 77 FR 43130 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida... disaster declaration for the State of Florida, dated 07/03/2012 is hereby amended to include the following...

  20. 77 FR 42075 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of FLORIDA... disaster declaration for the State of Florida, dated 07/03/2012 is hereby amended to include the following...

  1. 77 FR 43130 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00072

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00072 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of FLORIDA (FEMA-4068-DR), dated 07/09/2012. Incident: Tropical Storm Debby... Non-Profit organizations in the State of Florida, dated 07/09/2012, is hereby amended to include the...

  2. 77 FR 69691 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00076

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00076 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Only for the State of Florida (FEMA-4084-DR), dated 10/18/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of FLORIDA, dated 10/18/2012, is hereby amended to include the...

  3. 77 FR 42546 - Florida Disaster Number FL-00071

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster Number FL-00071 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida... disaster declaration for the State of Florida, dated 07/03/2012 is hereby amended to include the following...

  4. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal... project in Santa Rosa County, Florida. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cathy Kendall, AICP... Department of Transportation will prepare an EIS for a proposal to improve SR 87 in Santa Rosa County...

  5. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Hollywood, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation... rule published in the Federal Register on July 23, 1997, amending Class D airspace at North Perry... airspace area exclusion as Class D airspace area. This action corrects that error. The FAAs National...

  6. FL 101: A Cultural Introduction to Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Howard H.

    FL-101 is an interdisciplinary, team-taught orientation to foreign languages. It has been designed to accomplish two goals: (1) provide a language-related academic experience for students who would otherwise not have any contact with languages, and (2) attract students to the further study of language. There are nine major components in the…

  7. SPECIAL FLES ISSUE OF "THE FLORIDA FL REPORTER."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AARONS, ALFRED C.

    HOPEFUL OF SEEKING MUCH-NEEDED SOLUTIONS TO FLES PROBLEMS, "THE FLORIDA FL REPORTER" DEVOTED ITS FALL 1965 ISSUE TO A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. HIGHLIGHTED ARE ARTICLES (1) BY FILOMENA AND GUILLERMO DEL OLMO ON A 6-PHASED APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF STRUCTURE THAT MIGHT HELP SOLVE THE…

  8. 78 FR 41290 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sanibel, FL... June 10, 2013, the FAA published a final rule, in the Federal Register establishing Class E airspace at.... This action makes the corrections and is rewritten for clarity. The Class E airspace designations...

  9. 77 FR 34209 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tallahassee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Tallahassee, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace in...

  10. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at..., the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace...

  11. 77 FR 1012 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Inverness, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  12. 77 FR 45241 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Apopka, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace...

  13. Evaluation of the bond strength of different adhesive agents to a resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC).

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammed; Cantekin, Kenan; Gumus, Husniye; Ateş, Sabit Melih; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of different adhesive agents to TheraCal LC and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and examined the morphologic changes of these materials with different surface treatments. A total of 120 specimens, 60 of MTA Angelus (AMTA), and 60 of TheraCal LC, were prepared and divided into six subgroups according to the adhesive agent used; these agents included Scotchbond Multipurpose, Clearfil SE Bond, Clearfil Protect Bond, Clearfil S(3) Bond, OptiBond All-in-One, and G-aenial Bond. After application of adhesive agents, Filtek Z250 composite resin was placed onto the specimens. Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine, followed by examination of the fractured surfaces. The surface changes of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance. Although no significant differences were found among the bond strengths of different adhesives to AMTA (p = 0.69), a significant difference was found in terms of bond strengths of different adhesives to the TheraCal LC surface (p < 0.001). The total-etch adhesive system more strongly bonded to TheraCal LC compared to the bond with other adhesives. TheraCal LC bonded significantly more strongly than AMTA regardless of the adhesive agents tested. Resin-modified calcium silicate showed higher bond strength than AMTA in terms of the composite bond to these materials with different bonding systems. On the other hand, the highest shear bond-strength values were found for composite bonds with the combination of TheraCal LC and the total-etch adhesive system. SCANNING 38:403-411, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Experiments on the synthesis of superheavy nuclei 284Fl and 285Fl in the Pu,240239+48Ca reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabel'nikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Irradiations of 239Pu and 240Pu targets with 48Ca beams aimed at the synthesis of Z =114 flerovium isotopes were performed at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator. A new spontaneously fissioning (SF) isotope 284Fl was produced for the first time in the 240Pu+48Ca (250 MeV) and 239Pu+48Ca (245 MeV) reactions. The cross section of the 239Pu(48Ca,3 n )284Fl reaction channel was about 20 times lower than predicted by theoretical models and about 50 times lower than the maximum fusion-evaporation cross section for the 3 n and 4 n channels measured in the 244Pu+48Ca reaction. In the 240Pu+48Ca experiment, performed at 245 MeV in order to maximize the 3 n -evaporation channel, three decay chains of 285Fl were detected. The α -decay energy of 285Fl was measured for the first time and decay properties of its descendants 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, 269Sg, and 265Rf were determined with higher accuracy. The assignment of SF events observed during the irradiation of the 240Pu target with a 250 MeV 48Ca beam to 284Fl decay is presented and discussed. The cross sections at both 48Ca energies are similar and exceed that observed in the reaction with the lighter isotope 239Pu by a factor of 10. The decay properties of the synthesized nuclei and their production cross sections indicate a rapid decrease of stability of superheavy nuclei as the neutron number decreases from the predicted magic neutron number N =184 .

  15. Thermal Characterization of Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.

    1999-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Down-selection and performance testing of the structural adhesives resulted in the selection of two candidate replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's Tiga 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. This paper describes rocket motor testing of these two adhesives. Four forty-pound charge motors were fabricated in configurations that would allow side by side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives and the current RSRM adhesives. The motors provided an environment where the thermal performance of adhesives in flame surface bondlines was compared. Results of the FPC testing show that: 1) The phenolic char depths on radial bond lines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used; 2) The adhesive char depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the char depth of the current adhesives; 3) The heat-affected depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the heat-affected depth of the current adhesives; and 4) The ablation rates for both replacement adhesives are slower than that of the current adhesives.

  16. Two-year clinical performance of self-etching adhesive systems in composite restorations of anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, D C; Batista, G R; Silva, M A; Pleffken, P R; Rangel, P M; Fernandes, V V B; Di Nicoló, R; Torres, C R G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the two-year clinical performance of Class III, IV, and V composite restorations using a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system (2-ERA) and three one-step self-etching adhesive systems (1-SEAs). Two hundred Class III, IV, and V composite restorations were placed into 50 patients. Each patient received four composite restorations (Amaris, Voco), and these restorations were bonded with one of three 1-SEAs (Futurabond M, Voco; Clearfil S3 Bond, Kuraray; and Optibond All-in-One, Kerr) or one 2-ERA (Adper Single Bond 2/3M ESPE). The four adhesive systems were evaluated at baseline and after 24 months using the following criteria: restoration retention, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, postoperative sensitivity and preservation of tooth vitality. After two years, 162 restorations were evaluated in 41 patients. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2-ERA and the 1-SEAs regarding the evaluated parameters (p>0.05). The 1-SEAs showed good clinical performance at the end of 24 months.

  17. 77 FR 65462 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; La Belle, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ..., Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On July 5, 2012, the FAA... from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO FL E5 La Belle, FL La...

  18. 76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the office of the Eastern Service... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ASO FL E5 Cocoa, FL [Amended] Merritt...

  19. Shear Bond Strength between Fiber-Reinforced Composite and Veneering Resin Composites with Various Adhesive Resin Systems.

    PubMed

    AlJehani, Yousef A; Baskaradoss, Jagan K; Geevarghese, Amrita; AlShehry, Marey A; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the shear bond strength of different laboratory resin composites bonded to a fiber-reinforced composite substrate with some intermediate adhesive resins. Mounted test specimens of a bidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced substrate (StickNet) were randomly assigned to three equal groups. Three types of commercially available veneering resin composites - BelleGlass®, Sinfony®, and GC Gradia® were bonded to these specimens using four different adhesive resins. Half the specimens per group were stored for 24 hours; the remaining were stored for 30 days. There were 10 specimens in the test group (n). The shear bond strengths were calculated and expressed in MPa. Data were analyzed statistically, and variations in bond strength within each group were additionally evaluated by calculating the Weibull modulus. Shear bond values of those composites are influenced by the different bonding resins and different indirect composites. There was a significant difference in the shear bond strengths using different types of adhesive resins (p = 0.02) and using different veneering composites (p < 0.01). Belle-Glass® had the highest mean shear bond strength when bonded to StickNet substrate using both Prime & Bond NT and OptiBond Solo Plus. Sinfony® composite resin exhibited the lowest shear bond strength values when used with the same adhesive resins. The adhesive mode of failure was higher than cohesive with all laboratory composite resins bonded to the StickNet substructure at both storage times. Water storage had a tendency to lower the bond strengths of all laboratory composites, although the statistical differences were not significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was found that bonding of the veneering composite to bidirectional continuous fiber-reinforced substrate is influenced by the brand of the adhesive resin and veneering composite. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Modifications of the organic and mineral fractions of dental tissues following conditioning by self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Dieng-Sarr, Farimata; Sharrock, Patrick; Dabsie, Firas; Grégoire, Geneviève

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to analyse the acid strengths and concentrations in contemporary self-etch adhesives and test whether the adhesion/decalcification concept functions the same way for all products. The self-etching adhesives were dissolved in a 50% water-ethanol solvent, these were reacted with biological apatite (HA) in the form of powder of human dentine in order to quantify calcium release and study the reaction products as a function of acid strengths and concentrations. The four self-etching adhesives investigated were AdheSE One (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), Adper Easy Bond (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), Optibond All-In-One (KERR, Orange, CA, USA), Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany). Acid concentrations were found to span the range from 1 to 2 mmol/l, and the acid dissociation constants varied between apparent pKa values of 3.4 and 4.2. The pH values changed with time from values near 2.8 to 3.6, confirming the buffering action of HA. The stronger acids dissolved more calcium ions but left less organic matter attached to the tissue particles. Thermogravimetric and infrared analysis demonstrated that the weaker acids tended to bind to HA surfaces and increased significantly the organic to mineral ratios of the powders. Self-etching adhesives can be differentiated and classified in two types: weak acids attach to the mineral phase and leach little calcium; strong acids bind to the calcium ions, demineralize more and tend to debond from the dentinal hard tissues by forming more soluble calcium salts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  2. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  3. Microhardness of dentin underneath fluoride-releasing adhesive systems subjected to cariogenic challenge and fluoride therapy.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Giovanna A; Takahashi, Marcos Kenzo; Rached, Rodrigo N; Giannini, Marcelo; Souza, Evelise M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of dentin subjacent to the bonding interface of composite restorations using fluoride-releasing adhesive systems submitted to pH-cycling regimen associated or not to fluoride therapies. Thirty human third molars were prepared with class V cavities with dentin cervical margins. The adhesive systems One-Up Bond F Plus (OU), Prime&Bond NT (NT), Clearfil Protect Bond (CF), Optibond Solo Plus (OP) and also the controls [-] Single Bond 2 (SB) and [+] Ketac Molar (KM) were used previously to composite resin restorations. The restorations were sectioned into four slabs and submitted to different storage media for 15 days: distilled water, pH-cycling, pH-cycling associated to NaF 0.05% and associated to NaF 1.23%. The Knoop microhardness test was performed in dentin at 50, 100, 150 and 300 microm from the adhesive interface. Data was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (p<0.05). KM resulted in significantly higher microhardness when compared to all the adhesive systems at 50 microm, with the exception of OU, that was similar to KM when submitted to pH-cycling alone or associated to 1.23% NaF. Microhardness of dentin was significantly higher with all the tested materials, when pH-cycling was associated to NaF 0.05%, at 50 microm and 100 microm depths. OU resulted in similar dentin hardness at all depths and storage media. The incorporation of NaF 0.05% fluoride therapy to the cariogenic challenge was capable to recover the original microhardness of dentin at 50 and 100 microm with all the tested materials. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of prolonged air drying on the bond strength of adhesive systems to dentin.

    PubMed

    Werle, Stefanie Bressan; Steglich, Ana; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of air-drying time on degree of solvent evaporation (DE), dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS), and degree of conversion (DC) of 5 adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2, XP Bond, Prime & Bond 2.1, OptiBond Solo, and Adper Easy One. For DE testing, 20 µL of each material was submitted to measurements in a digital balance after an air stream of 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, or 60 seconds; the weight loss was computed and converted to a percentage (DE). For µTBS testing, 50 sound human molars were divided into groups (n = 5). The 5 adhesive systems were applied either in accordance with manufacturers' instructions for solvent drying time (control) or with a prolonged drying time (20-30 seconds). After composite resin was built up on the hybridized surfaces, the teeth were stored for 24 hours and then sectioned to obtain beams that were loaded until fracture. For DC testing, specimens of each adhesive and air-drying condition (n = 3) were evaluated by means of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Data were submitted to 2-way analysis of variance, t test, and Spearman test for correlation analysis. Prolonged air drying resulted in significantly greater DE than did the time suggested by the manufacturers. The adhesives XP Bond and Adper Easy One showed significantly greater µTBS with prolonged air drying. The DC was not affected by air-drying time. No statistically significant correlation was found between DC and µTBS values. Depending on the material, bond strength can be improved by prolonged air-drying times.

  5. 76 FR 78529 - Establishment of Class D and E Airspace and Amendment of Class E; Brooksville, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ...: History On September 7, 2011, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking... the Earth. * * * * * ASO FL E5 Brooksville, FL Hernando County Airport, FL (Lat. 28 28'42'' N.,...

  6. 75 FR 74145 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2010 Harley Davidson FL Series Motorcycles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Harley Davidson FL Series Motorcycles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... Harley Davidson FL Series Motorcycles are eligible for importation. SUMMARY: This document announces... 2010 Harley Davidson FL Series Motorcycles that were not originally manufactured to comply with all...

  7. 77 FR 40541 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... temporary safety zone for a portion of GICW in Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This proposed...

  8. 78 FR 17085 - Amendment of Multiple Restricted Areas; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... within the Eglin Range Complex was changed from ``Armament Center'' to ``Test Wing.'' This action is an..., FL, from ``U.S. Air Force, Commander, Air Armament Center, Eglin AFB, FL,'' to ``U.S. Air Force... the words ``Using agency. U.S. Air Force, Commander, Air Armament Center, Eglin AFB, FL,''...

  9. Transfer or Threshold: The Relationship between L1 and FL Comprehension Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    A crucial area in FL reading research is the transfer of reading skills from L1 to FL. Among all the reading skills, comprehension monitoring plays an important role. This study examines relationship between comprehension monitoring outcomes in L1 and FL reading among Chinese learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) with different FL…

  10. 77 FR 56772 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... portion of GICW in Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This temporary safety zone is deemed...

  11. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... in the Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES... D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in the...

  12. 78 FR 38554 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Live Oak, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Live Oak, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the Live Oak, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been... management of instrument flight rules (IFR) operations within the Live Oak, FL, airspace area. This...

  13. Adhesive interfacial characteristics and the related bonding performance of four self-etching adhesives with different functional monomers applied to dentin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruirui; Shi, Yilin; Li, Tingting; Pan, Yueping; Cui, Yu; Xia, Wenwei

    2017-07-01

    To examine the interfacial chemical and morphological characteristics of four self-etching adhesives bonded to dentin with different functional monomers. Further, to evaluate the effects of this interaction between functional monomers and dentin on short-term in vitro bonding performance of the four adhesives. Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) and Scotchbond Universal (SU) containing 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP), Optibond XTR (OX) containing glycero-phosphate dimethacrylate (GPDM), and Adper Easy One (AEO) containing 6-methacryloyloxyhexyl dihydrogen phosphate (6-MHP) were applied to the dentin surface according to the instructions supplied with each. Interaction between the functional monomers and dentin was characterized using thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrophilicity of each acidic monomer was also assessed by chemical structure drawing software. Micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage were used to evaluate the bonding effectiveness of the adhesives, either immediately or after thermo-cycling (5°C-55°C) for 5000 cycles. TF-XRD showed that both CSE and SU exhibited 10-MDP-Ca nano-layering at the adhesive interface, but with different intensity when reacted with dentin. OX, that contains GPDM, demineralized the dentin surface more severely, forming long resin tags into the dentinal tubules, and gained the highest μTBS at the immediate time-point. Thermo-cycling adversely affected the μTBS and nanoleakage of AEO and OX, but had no significant influence on CSE and SU which contain 10-MDP. Self-etching adhesives containing different structures/concentrations of functional monomers produced adhesive interfaces with obviously different chemical and morphological characteristics, which may have a direct impact on bonding effectiveness. Our findings support the concept that the stable chemical bonding produced by 10-MDP to the Ca of hydroxyapatite is advantageous for durability of adhesive

  14. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  15. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  16. Functionally Graded Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    ASTM 907-05. Standard Terminology of Adhesives. West Conshohocken, PA, May 2005. 4. 3M Scotch-Grip Nitrile High Performance Rubber & Gasket Adhesive...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to increase rubber to metal adhesion in Army materials using...1 Figure 2. Steel and rubber

  17. Effect of re-etching oxalate-occluded dentin and enamel on bonding effectiveness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    PubMed

    Yousry, Mai Mahmoud

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether or not re-etching of oxalate-treated dentin and enamel increases microshear bond strength (µSBS) and improves hybridization. Two single-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesives, SingleBond (3M/ESPE) and OptiBond S (Kerr), were bonded to deep occlusal dentin and enamel after perfusion under 20 mmHg simulated intrapulpal pressure. For each adhesive tested, the experimental groups were: G1: bonding according to manufacturer's instructions (control); G2: application of oxalate desensitizer (D/Sense Crystal, Centrix) to acid-etched substrate followed by 60 s water rinsing prior to bonding; G3: same as G2, but with a further 15-s re-etching with 35% phosphoric acid before bonding. The microshear bond strength (µSBS) to dentin and enamel was tested (n = 15); a scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of surface topography (n = 2), interface (n = 2), and failure mode was also performed. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at p ≤ 0.05. In enamel, both adhesives showed no significant difference in μSBS among groups. In dentin, the highest statistically μSBS for both adhesives was recorded for G1, followed by G2, with the lowest values revealed remnants of calcium oxalate crystals that were removed only from enamel surfaces after re-etching. SEM images of the interface revealed inadequate dentin hybridization in G2 and G3 compared to G1. Re-etching after oxalate treatment compromises bonding of single-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesives to dentin and provides no added benefits to enamel bonding.

  18. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering.

  19. Understanding adhesive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Michael

    2010-03-01

    This review paper firstly provides an outline of the development of resin-based adhesives. A simple classification method is described based on whether an acid etching agent requiring a washing and drying step is used. These systems are called etch and rinse systems. The other adhesives that do not have the washing and drying steps are referred to as self-etching adhesives. The advantages and disadvantages of these groups of adhesives are discussed. Methods of adhering to the tooth surface are provided, especially where the resin-based adhesive reliability is difficult to control.

  20. Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using single-bottle primer/adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Cobb, D S; Denehy, G E; Vargas, M A

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of a spherical amalgam alloy (Tytin) to dentin using several single-bottle primer/adhesive systems both alone: Single Bond (SB), OptiBond Solo (Sol), Prime & Bond 2.1 (PB), One-Step (OS) and in combination with the manufacturer's supplemental amalgam bonding agent: Single Bond w/3M RelyX ARC (SBX) and Prime & Bond 2.1 w/Amalgam Bonding Accessory Kit (PBA). Two, three-component adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus w/light curing (S + V) and w/o light curing (S+) were used for comparison. One hundred eight extracted human third molars were mounted lengthwise in phenolic rings with acrylic resin. The proximal surfaces were ground to expose a flat dentin surface, then polished to 600 grit silicon carbide paper. The teeth were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n = 12), and dentin surfaces in each group were treated with an adhesive system according to the manufacturer's instructions, except for S + V specimens, where the adhesive was light cured for 10 s before placing the amalgam. Specimens were then secured in a split Teflon mold, having a 3 mm diameter opening and amalgam was triturated and condensed onto the treated dentin surfaces. Twenty minutes after condensation, the split mold was separated. Specimens were placed in distilled water for 24 hrs, then thermocycled (300 cycles, between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with 12 s dwell time). All specimens were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 7 days, prior to shear strength testing using a Zwick Universal Testing Machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The highest to the lowest mean dentin shear bond strength values (MPa) for the adhesive systems tested were: S + V (10.3 +/- 2.3), SBX (10.2 +/- 3.5), PBA, (6.4 +/- 3.6), SOL (5.8 +/- 2.5), SBMP (5.7 +/- 1.8), S+ (4.8 +/- 2.3), PB (2.7 +/- 2.6), SB (2.7 +/- 1.1) and OS (2.5 +/- 1.8). One-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant

  1. Hochwasser und Sturzfluten an Flüssen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstert, Axel; Bormann, Helge; Bürger, Gerd; Haberlandt, Uwe; Hattermann, Fred; Heistermann, Maik; Huang, Shaochun; Kolokotronis, Vassilis; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Menzel, Lucas; Meon, Günter; Merz, Bruno; Meuser, Andreas; Paton, Eva Nora; Petrow, Theresia

    Flusshochwasser werden in lokale und plötzliche Sturzfluten und in Hochwasser an größeren Flüssen unterschieden. Für verschiedene Hochwasserindikatoren und Flusseinzugsgebiete ergeben sich erhebliche Unterschiede, wobei sowohl überwiegend aus Regen als auch überwiegend aus Schmelzwasser gespeiste Hochwasserereignisse betrachtet werden. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit finden Hochwasserereignisse an Rhein, Elbe, Weser und Ems sowie die Entwicklung von Sturzfluten infolge von Extremniederschlägen kurzer Dauer, wobei die Beobachtungen und Trends zu Modellierungsergebnissen in Beziehung gesetzt werden. Auch die Notwendigkeit von Anpassungsmaßnahmen aufgrund überwiegend positiver Trends wird diskutiert.

  2. Microleakage of Class II composite resin restorations with self-adhesive composite resin liners.

    PubMed

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the microleakage of Class II composite restorations with composite resin liners. Standardized box cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 84 extracted intact human molars. Proximal margins were located in enamel (occlusal) and 1.0 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction (gingival). The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 28 cavities) and restored with Filtek Z350 nanohybrid composite resin (FZ). The test groups were lined with a conventional flowable composite resin, Premise Flowable (PF), or 1 of 2 self-adhesive composites (SACs): Vertise Flow (VF) or Clearfil SA luting cement (CSA) with or without their respective self-etching adhesives: Optibond All-in-One (OB) or Clearfil SE Bond (CSE). The adhesive/lining procedure was performed as follows: OB/FZ (control), OB/PF/FZ, VF/FZ, OB/VF/FZ, CSA/FZ, or CSE/CSA/FZ. Microleakage was evaluated at the occlusal and gingival margins using a dye penetration technique and quantitative assessment. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data at the significance level of α = 0.05. None of the restorative techniques was capable of preventing microleakage completely. The greatest amount of microleakage was detected in the VF/FZ and CSA/FZ groups at both margins (P < 0.02). Among the groups placed with a bonding agent, OB/VF/FZ showed significantly greater values of microleakage at the occlusal margins than did OB/FZ, OB/PF/FZ, and CSE/CSA/FZ (P < 0.05). At the gingival margins, the OB/PF/FZ group exhibited the least leakage compared with the OB/VF/FZ and CSE/CSA/FZ groups (P < 0.001). The results indicated that the additional application of bonding agents improved the marginal sealing of SACs in Class II composite restorations.

  3. Genomic and phenotypic analysis reveals a key role for CCN1 (CYR61) in BAG3-modulated adhesion and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Jareer N; Virador, Victoria M; Guancial, Elizabeth A; Kimm, Daniel; Ho, Allen S; Mishra, Mark; Chuang, Eric Y; Cook, John; Gius, David; Kohn, Elise C

    2009-08-01

    Chaperone protein quantity may regulate the balance of proteins involved in invasion and malignancy. BAG3 is a co-chaperone and pro-survival protein that has been implicated in adhesion, migration, and metastasis. We reported that BAG3 overexpression in MDA435 human breast cancer cells results in a significant decrease in migration and adhesion to matrix molecules that is reversed upon deletion of the BAG3 proline-rich domain (dPXXP). We now hypothesize that transcriptional analysis would identify proteins involved in matrix-related processes that are regulated by BAG3 and/or its PXXP domain mutant. Expression array analysis of MDA435 cells overexpressing either wild-type BAG3 (FL) or dPXXP identified CCN1 as a BAG3 target protein. CCN1 is a known AP-1 target. Increased AP-1 transcriptional activity and AP-1 DNA-binding was found in MDA435 dPXXP cells. Consistent with these findings, CCN1 quantity and secretion were increased in dPXXP mutants but suppressed in FL cells; both BAG3 forms resulted in up-regulated CCN1 in HeLa cells. CCN1 silencing in the BAG3 FL overexpressors reduced the already low phospho-integrin beta1 in response to attachment on collagen IV. Matrigel invasion of HeLa cells engineered with the BAG3 constructs was enhanced in FL cells and minimal in dPXXP cells. CCN1 silencing blocked a greater percentage of the serum-induced invasion in FL cells than in dPXXP cells. This implies a context-dependent function of BAG3 on CCN1 and thus mesenchymal behaviour. CCN1 may be necessary for adhesion and matrix-related signalling in FL cells, abrogating a negative signal of the PXXP domain when BAG3 is intact. We propose that BAG3 regulates CCN1 expression to regulate tumour cell adhesion and migration.

  4. Impact of oxalate desensitizer combined with ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid-conditioning on dentin bond strength of one-bottle adhesives during dry bonding

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elimination of water entrapment in hybrid layer during bonding procedure would increase bonding durability. Aims: This study evaluated the effect of oxalate desensitizer (OX) pretreatment on bond strength of three one-bottle adhesives to ethylene-diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA)-conditioned dentin under dry bonding. Materials and Methods: Three adhesive systems, One-Step Plus (OS), Optibond Solo Plus (OP) and Adper Single Bond (SB) were bonded on dentin surfaces under four bonding conditions: (1) Wet-bonding on acid-etched dentin, (2) wet bonding on EDTA-conditioned dentin, (3) dry bonding on EDTA-conditioned dentin, (4) dry bonding associated with OX on the EDTA-conditioned dentin. After storage and thermo cycling, shear bond strength test was performed. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Wet bonding with EDTA or acid etching showed similar bond strength for test adhesives. Dry bonding with EDTA significantly decreased the bond strength of OS, but it had no effect on the bonding of OP and SB. OX application in the forth bonding condition, in comparison with the third condition, had a negative effect on the bond strength of OP, but not influence on OS and SB. Conclusions: The use of an OX on EDTA-conditioned dentin compromised the bonding efficacy of OS and OP under dry bonding but compatible for SB. PMID:23833461

  5. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  6. Desmosomal adhesion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Berika, Mohamed; Garrod, David

    2014-02-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that provide strong adhesion or hyper-adhesion in tissues. Here, we discuss the molecular and structural basis of this with particular reference to the desmosomal cadherins (DCs), their isoforms and evolution. We also assess the role of DCs as regulators of epithelial differentiation. New data on the role of desmosomes in development and human disease, especially wound healing and pemphigus, are briefly discussed, and the importance of regulation of the adhesiveness of desmosomes in tissue dynamics is considered.

  7. Adhesives, silver amalgam.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    The most recent advancement in silver amalgam is use of resin formulations to bond metal to tooth both chemically &/or physically, Since, historically, amalgam has been used successfully without adhesion to tooth, obvious clinical question is: Why is bonding now desirable? Two major clinical reasons to bond are: (1) Adhesive can increase fracture resistance of amalgam restored teeth & decrease cusp fractures; & (2) Seal provided by adhesive can greatly decrease, & often eliminate post-operative sensitivity. Following report summarizes CRA laboratory study of shear bond strength & sealing capability of 23 commercial adhesives used to bond 2 types of silver amalgam to tooth structure.

  8. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  9. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  10. Effect of phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength of two self-etch adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Camila

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of optional phosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two self-etch adhesives to enamel and dentin. Ninety-six bovine mandibular incisors were ground flat to obtain enamel and dentin substrates. A two-step self-etch adhesive (FL-Bond II) and a one-step self-etch adhesive (BeautiBond) were applied with and without a preliminary acid etching to both the enamel and dentin. The specimens were equally and randomly assigned to 4 groups per substrate (n=12) as follows: FL-Bond II etched; FL-Bond II un-etched; BeautiBond etched; BeautiBond un-etched. Composite cylinders (Filtek Z100) were bonded onto the treated tooth structure. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 hours of storage (37°C, 100% humidity) with a testing machine (Ultra-tester) at a speed of 1 mm/min. The data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test with a significance level of p<0.05. A field emission scanning electron microscope was used for the failure mode analysis. Both adhesives evidenced a significant decrease in the dentin SBS with the use of an optional phosphoric acid-etching step (p<0.05). Preliminary phosphoric acid etching yielded significantly higher enamel SBS for FL-Bond II (p<0.05) only, but not for BeautiBond. FL-Bond II applied to un-etched dentin demonstrated the highest mean bond strength (37.7±3.2 MPa) and BeautiBond applied to etched dentin showed the lowest mean bond strength (18.3±6.7 MPa) among all tested groups (p<0.05). The use of a preliminary acid-etching step with 37.5% phosphoric acid had a significant adverse effect on the dentin bond strength of the self-etch adhesives evaluated while providing improvement on the enamel bond strength only for FL-Bond II. This suggests that the potential benefit that may be derived from an additional etching step with phosphoric acid does not justify the risk of adversely affecting the bond strength to dentin.

  11. Instant acting adhesive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Haines, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Adhesive developes 80 percent of minimum bond strength of 250 psi less than 30 sec after activation is required. Adhesive is stable, handles easily, is a low toxic hazard, and is useful in industrial and domestic prototype bonding and clamping operations.

  12. Soy protein adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2010-01-01

    In the quest to manufacture and use building materials that are more environmentally friendly, soy adhesives can be an important component. Trees fix and store carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. After the trees are harvested, machinery converts the wood into strands, which are then bonded together with adhesives to form strandboard, used in constructing long-lasting...

  13. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  14. Effect of self-etching adhesives on dentin permeability in a fluid flow model.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Geneviève; Guignes, Philippe; Millas, Arlette

    2005-01-01

    Numerous self-etching bonding systems exist, with composition differing from one product to another. It is important for the clinician to know if they are all equally effective, and whether they provide an effective seal between dentin and restorative materials. This study was designed to measure the hydraulic conductance of physiologic saline across dentin after application of various self-etching bonding systems or of a 1-bottle adhesive system preceded by a phosphoric acid etch. One hundred extracted noncarious human third molars from patients 18-25 years old were used for this study. Dentin disks were cut from crown segments parallel to the occlusal surface at the top of the pulp cavity. The 100 disks, each 1 mm thick, were divided into 10 groups (n=10 per group), each of which was treated with 1 of 9 self-etching systems-AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil SE Bond, Etch & Prime 3.0, Prime & Bond NRC Nt, One-Up Bond F, optiBond solo Plus Self Etch, Prompt L-Pop, or Xeno III-or a control bonding system (Prime & Bond NT) preceded by a phosphoric acid etch. Hydraulic conductance, the volume of fluid transported across a known area of surface (0.28 cm2) per unit time under a unit pressure gradient (200 cm H2O), was analyzed for the adhesive systems using a fluid flow apparatus (Flodec). First, both sides of each specimen were etched with 36% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds, and the hydraulic conductance was measured every 30 seconds for 15 minutes. The initial set of measurements served as the reference value for each specimen. The measurements were repeated when a smear layer had been formed and, finally, after 1 of the 10 bonding systems had been applied. The data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test (alpha=.05). The control 1-bottle adhesive used with a phosphoric acid pre-etch did not provide the largest reduction in penetration (42.3%). The greatest mean reduction (68.9%, P<.05) was observed with the self-etching product Xeno III

  15. Simplified cementation of lithium disilicate crowns: Retention with various adhesive resin cement combinations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Patterson, Amanda; Schäfer, Oliver

    2017-09-27

    A composite resin cement and matching self-etch adhesive was developed to simplify the dependable retention of lithium disilicate crowns. The efficacy of this new system is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether lithium disilicate crowns cemented with a new composite resin and adhesive system and 2 other popular systems provide clinically acceptable crown retention after long-term aging with monthly thermocycling. Extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree convergence, and 4 mm axial length. The axio-occlusal line angle was slightly rounded. The preparation surface area was determined by optical scanning and the analysis of the standard tessellation language (STL) files. The specimens were distributed into 3 cement groups (n=12) to obtain equal mean surface areas. Lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated for each preparation, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 15 seconds, and cleaned. Cement systems were RelyX Ultimate with Scotch Bond Universal (3M Dental Products); Monobond S, Multilink Automix with Multilink Primer A and B (Ivoclar Vivadent AG); and NX3 Nexus with OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp). Each adhesive provided self-etching of the dentin. Before cementation, the prepared specimens were stored in 35°C water. A force of 196 N was used to cement the crowns, and the specimens were polymerized in a 35°C oven at 100% humidity. After 24 hours of storage at 100% humidity, the cemented crowns were thermocycled (5°C to 55°C) for 5000 cycles each month for 6 months. The crowns were removed axially at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded and the dislodgement stress calculated using the preparation surface area. The type of cement failure was recorded, and the data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the chi-square test (α=.05) after the equality of variances had been assessed with the Levene test. The Levene test was nonsignificant (P=.936). The ANOVA revealed the mean removal

  16. Tissue adhesives in otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Gerlind

    2011-01-01

    The development of medical tissue adhesives has a long history without finding an all-purpose tissue adhesive for clinical daily routine. This is caused by the specific demands which are made on a tissue adhesive, and the different areas of application. In otorhinolaryngology, on the one hand, this is the mucosal environment as well as the application on bones, cartilage and periphery nerves. On the other hand, there are stressed regions (skin, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, trachea) and unstressed regions (middle ear, nose and paranasal sinuses, cranial bones). But due to the facts that adhesives can have considerable advantages in assuring surgery results, prevention of complications and so reduction of medical costs/treatment expenses, the search for new adhesives for use in otorhinolaryngology will be continued intensively. In parallel, appropriate application systems have to be developed for microscopic and endoscopic use. PMID:22073094

  17. LARC-13 adhesive development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, S. G.; Sheppard, C. H.; Johnson, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A LARC-13 type adhesive system was developed and property data obtained that demonstrated improved thermomechanical properties superior to base LARC-13 adhesive. An improved adhesive for 589 K (600 F) use was developed by physical or chemical modification of LARC-13. The adhesive was optimized for titanium and composite bonding, and a compatible surface preparation for titanium and composite substrates was identified. The data obtained with the improved adhesive system indicated it would meet the 589 K (600 F) properties desired for application on space shuttle components. Average titanium lap shear data were: (1) 21.1 MPa (3355 psi) at RT, (2) 13.0 MPa (1881 psi) at 600 F, and (3) 16.4 MPa (2335) after aging 125 hours at 600 F and tested at 600 F.

  18. In vitro fracture resistance of root-filled teeth using new-generation dentine bonding adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hürmüzlü, F; Serper, A; Siso, S H; Er, K

    2003-11-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of root-filled premolar teeth restored with new-generation dentine bonding adhesives. Sixty extracted single-rooted human maxillary premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared, and the roots were instrumented with K-files to an apical size 50 using a step-back technique. Root fillings were accomplished using gutta percha (Sure-Endo, Seoul, Korea) and AH Plus root canal sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) using the lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each. A mesiodistocclusal (MOD) cavity was prepared in the teeth to the level of the canal orifices so that the thickness of the buccal wall of the teeth measured 2 mm at the occlusal surface and 3 mm at the cemento-enamel junction. Preparations were restored using the following adhesive systems: Etch & Prime 3.0 (Degussa AG, Hanau, Germany), Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), Prompt L-Pop (ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), Panavia F (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), Optibond Plus (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and Admira Bond (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany); all preparations except those of the Panavia F and Admira Bond groups were further restored with resin composites. The Panavia F group was restored with amalgam and the Admira Bond group with Ormocer (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany). The teeth were mounted in a Universal Testing Machine (Hounsfield, Surrey, UK), and the buccal walls were subjected to a slowly increasing compressive force until fracture occurred. The force of fracture of the walls of each tooth was recorded and the results in the various groups were compared. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using one-way anova. There was no significant difference in the fracture resistance of any of the test groups. In this laboratory study, the type of dentine bonding agents had no influence in the fracture resistance of teeth.

  19. 76 FR 38580 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class D Airspace in the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL airspace area. The... amendment to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to amend Class D airspace in the...

  20. 76 FR 74843 - Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property, Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL AGENCY... properties, namely approximately 200 acres at the Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL, from the conditions, reservations, and restrictions as contained in a Surplus Property Agreement between the FAA and the...

  1. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  2. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  3. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  4. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  5. 33 CFR 334.525 - Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 Atlantic Ocean off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  6. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated area...

  7. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated area...

  8. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated area...

  9. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated area...

  10. 33 CFR 100.740 - Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.740 Section 100.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Offshore Super Series Boat Race; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a) Regulated area. (1) The regulated area...

  11. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  12. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  13. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  14. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  15. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  16. 76 FR 24813 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Isles Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida for the Fourth... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL in the...

  17. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  18. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  20. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  1. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  2. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  3. 78 FR 14477 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Pine Island, FL, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Pine Island Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument...

  4. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  5. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  6. 33 CFR 110.73c. - Okeechobee Waterway, St. Lucie River, Stuart, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Stuart, FL. 110.73c. Section 110.73c. Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF..., St. Lucie River, Stuart, FL. The following is a special anchorage area: Beginning on the Okeechobee... in this area is administered by the local Harbormaster, City of Stuart, Florida. ...

  7. Preclinical pharmacology of FL442, a novel nonsteroidal androgen receptor modulator.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, Pekka K; Huhtala, Tuulia; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Küblbeck, Jenni; Kaikkonen, Sanna; Palvimo, Jorma J; Raunio, Hannu; Närvänen, Ale; Peräkylä, Mikael; Juvonen, Risto O; Honkakoski, Paavo; Laatikainen, Reino; Pulkkinen, Juha T

    2014-04-25

    The preclinical profiles of two most potent compounds of our recently published cycloalkane[d]isoxazole pharmacophore-based androgen receptor (AR) modulators, FL442 (4-(3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile) and its nitro analog FL425 (3-(4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydrobenzo[d]isoxazole), were explored to evaluate their druggability for the treatment of AR dependent prostate cancer. The studies revealed that both compounds are selective to AR over other closely related steroid hormone receptors and that FL442 exhibits equal inhibition efficiency towards the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line as the most widely used antiandrogen bicalutamide and the more recently discovered enzalutamide. Notably, FL442 maintains antiandrogenic activity with enzalutamide-activated AR mutant F876L. In contrast to bicalutamide, FL442 does not stimulate the VCaP prostate cancer cells which express elevated levels of the AR. Distribution analyses showed that [(14)CN]FL442 accumulates strongly in the mouse prostate. In spite of its low plasma concentration obtained by intraperitoneal administration, FL442 significantly inhibited LNCaP xenograft tumor growth. These findings provide a preclinical proof for FL442 as a promising AR targeted candidate for a further optimization.

  8. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL...) Enforcement period. This rule will be in enforced annually on Columbus Day weekend, starting at 12:01 p.m....

  9. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Page Field, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Property: Page Field, Fort Myers, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request... properties 1.52 acres at Page Field, Fort Myers, FL from the conditions, release certain properties from all... the Lee County Port Authority, owner of Page Field, to dispose of the property for other...

  10. 77 FR 16783 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Orlando, FL, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Orlando Executive Airport. This action would enhance the safety...

  11. 33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. 100.728 Section 100.728 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. (a) Regulated..., from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. EDT. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore...

  12. 33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. 100.728 Section 100.728 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. (a) Regulated..., from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. EDT. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore...

  13. 33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. 100.728 Section 100.728 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. (a) Regulated..., from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. EDT. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore...

  14. 33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. 100.728 Section 100.728 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. (a) Regulated..., from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. EDT. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore...

  15. 33 CFR 100.728 - Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. 100.728 Section 100.728 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.728 Special Local Regulations; Hurricane Offshore Classic, St. Petersburg, FL. (a) Regulated..., from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. EDT. (3) All vessel traffic, not involved in the Hurricane Offshore...

  16. 33 CFR 165.779 - Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. 165.779 Section 165.779 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.779 Regulated Navigation Area; Columbus Day Weekend, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated navigation area encompasses all waters in Biscayne Bay...

  17. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL, USA: ROLE OF PHYTOPLANKTON AND DETRIAL CARBON SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton Dynamics in Pensacola Bay, FL, USA: Role of Phytoplankton and Detrital Carbon Sources (Abstract). To be presented at the16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Foundation, ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey, 4-8 November 2001, St. Pete Beach, FL. 1 p. (ER...

  18. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary for the continued...

  19. 78 FR 6258 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace in the West ] Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport....

  20. 33 CFR 100.718 - Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. 100.718 Section 100.718 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is established in...

  1. 33 CFR 100.718 - Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. 100.718 Section 100.718 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is established in...

  2. 33 CFR 100.718 - Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. 100.718 Section 100.718 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is established in...

  3. 33 CFR 100.718 - Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. 100.718 Section 100.718 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is established in...

  4. Cyanoacrylate Adhesives in Eye Wounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EYE, *WOUNDS AND INJURIES), (*ADHESIVES, EYE), (*ACRYLIC RESINS, ADHESIVES), CORNEA , HEALING, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), NECROSIS, SURGICAL SUPPLIES, STRENGTH(PHYSIOLOGY), SURGERY, THERAPY

  5. Shear bond strength between alumina substrate and prosthodontic resin composites with various adhesive resin systems.

    PubMed

    AlJehani, Yousef A; Baskaradoss, Jagan K; Geevarghese, Amrita; AlShehry, Marey A; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-05-02

    With the increase in demand for cosmetics and esthetics, resin composite restorations and all-ceramic restorations have become an important treatment alternative. Taking into consideration the large number of prosthodontic and adhesive resins currently available, the strength and durability of these materials needs to be evaluated. This laboratory study presents the shear bond strengths of a range of veneering resin composites bonded to all-ceramic core material using different adhesive resins. Alumina ceramic specimens (Techceram Ltd, Shipley, UK) were assigned to three groups. Three types of commercially available prosthodontic resin composites [BelleGlass®, (BG, Kerr, CA, USA), Sinfony® (SF, 3 M ESPE, Dental Products, Germany), and GC Gradia® (GCG, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan)] were bonded to the alumina substrate using four different adhesive resins. Half the specimens per group (N = 40) were stored dry for 24 hours, the remaining were stored for 30 days in water. The bonding strength, so-called shear bond strengths between composite resin and alumina substrate were measured. Data were analysed statistically and variations in bond strength within each group were additionally evaluated by calculating the Weibull modulus. Bond strengths were influenced by the brand of prosthodontic resin composites. Shear bond strengths of material combinations varied from 24.17 ± 3.72-10.15 ± 3.69 MPa and 21.20 ± 4.64-7.50 ± 4.22 at 24 h and 30 days, respectively. BG resin composite compared with the other resin composites provided the strongest bond with alumina substrate (p < 0.01). SF resin composite was found to have a lower bond strength than the other composites. The Weibull moduli were highest for BG, which was bonded by using Optibond Solo Plus adhesive resin at 24 h and 30 days. There was no effect of storage time and adhesive brand on bond strength. Within the limitations of this study, the shear bond strengths of composite resins to alumina substrate are related to

  6. A comparative evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-generation adhesives: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nirwan, Mitakshra; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Marwah, Nikhil; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Bansal, Aayushi; Gahlot, Manvendra Singh

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood infections. a number of measures are available to prevent occlusal caries; pit and fissure sealants are one of the various methods currently available to cost effectively reduce dental caries. To evaluate the retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth (Adper promt), seventh (Optibond) and eighth (Futurabond Dual Cure) generations of adhesives. A total of 37 healthy children who fulfilled the inclusion were randomly selected. A total of 148 teeth (4 in each subject) were used as samples for the study. The teeth to be sealed were then isolated using rubber dam. The placement of adhesives was done using split mouth design. The first permanent molars were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of sealant placed without and with using 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents as follows: GROUP A (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed without bonding agent. GROUP B (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following sixth generation bonding agent (ADPER PROMT). GROUP C (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following seventh generation bonding agent. (OPTIBOND). GROUP D (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following eighth generation bonding agent. (FUTURA BOND DUAL CURE). The integrity of the sealant placed was assessed immediately after completion of the procedure, 3 months and 6 months after placement. The post-operative evaluation for retention was done using Simonsen criteria. A score of 0 was given for complete retention, 1 for partial retention and 2 for no retention. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software version 21. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups after 3 and 6 months as the value obtained (0.133) was much greater than the p-value (0.05). This study concluded that the use of bonding agent prior to application of pit and fissure sealant does not necessarily aid in

  7. Mussel adhesion - essential footwork.

    PubMed

    Waite, J Herbert

    2017-02-15

    Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins. The premise of this Review is that although Dopa does have the potential for diverse cohesive and adhesive interactions, these will be difficult to achieve in synthetic homologs without a deeper knowledge of mussel biology; that is, how, at different length and time scales, mussels regulate the reactivity of their adhesive proteins. To deposit adhesive proteins onto target surfaces, the mussel foot creates an insulated reaction chamber with extreme reaction conditions such as low pH, low ionic strength and high reducing poise. These conditions enable adhesive proteins to undergo controlled fluid-fluid phase separation, surface adsorption and spreading, microstructure formation and, finally, solidification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Cytotoxicity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    de Gomes, Pedro Sousa; Figueiral, Maria Helena; Fernandes, Maria Helena R; Scully, Crispian

    2011-12-01

    Ten commercially available denture adhesives, nine soluble formulations (six creams, three powders) and one insoluble product (pad), were analyzed regarding the cytotoxicity profile in direct and indirect assays using L929 fibroblast cells. In the direct assay, fibroblasts were seeded over the surface of a thick adhesive gel (5%, creams; 2.5%, powders and pad). In the indirect assay, cells were cultured in the presence of adhesive extracts prepared in static and dynamic conditions (0.5-2%, creams; 0.25-1%, powders and pad). Cell toxicity was assessed for cell viability/proliferation (MTT assay) and cell morphology (observation of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization by confocal laser scanning microscopy). Direct contact of the L929 fibroblasts with the thick adhesive gels caused no, or only a slight, decrease in cell viability/proliferation. The adhesive extracts (especially those prepared in dynamic conditions) caused significantly higher growth inhibition of fibroblasts and, in addition, caused dose- and time-dependent effects, throughout the 6-72 h exposure time. Also, dose-dependent effects on cell morphology, with evident disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization, were seen in the presence of most adhesives. In conclusion, the adhesives possessed different degrees of cytotoxicity, but similar dose- and time-dependent biological profiles.

  9. FL118, a novel camptothecin analogue, overcomes irinotecan and topotecan resistance in human tumor xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiang; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhong, Kai; Smith, Nicholas; Prey, Joshua; Li, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    Irinotecan and topotecan are the only camptothecin analogues approved by the FDA for cancer treatment. However, inherent and/or acquired irinotecan and topotecan resistance is a challenging issue in clinical practice. In this report, we showed that FL118, a novel camptothecin analogue, effectively obliterated human xenograft tumors that acquire irinotecan and topotecan resistance. Consistent with this finding, Pharmacokinetics studies indicated that FL118 rapidly clears from circulation, while effectively accumulating in tumors with a long elimination half-life. Consistent with our previous studies on irinotecan, FL118 exhibited ≥25 fold more effectiveness than topotecan at inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation; we further showed that although topotecan can inhibit the expression of survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP or cIAP2, its effectiveness is about 10-100 fold weaker than FL118. Lastly, in contrast to both SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan) and topotecan are substrates of the efflux pump proteins P-gp/MDR1 and ABCG2/BCRP, FL118 is not a substrate of P-gp and ABCG2. Consistently, sildenafil, a multiple efflux pump inhibitor, sensitized SN-38 much more than these of the ABCG2-selective inhibitor KO143 in growth inhibition of SW620 and HCT-8 cells. In contrast, both inhibitors showed no effect on FL118 efficacy. Given that both P-gp and ABCG2 express in SW620 and HCT-8 cells and FL118 is not a substrate for P-gp and ABCG2, this suggests that FL118 appears to bypass multiple efflux pump protein-induced resistance, which may contribute to FL118 overcoming irinotecan and topotecan resistance in vivo. These new findings provide renewed perspectives for further development of FL118 for clinical applications. PMID:26692923

  10. Adhesive Bonding for Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    weru uvaluated, the type of etch bath " sweetener " and the type of rinse\\water used. The type of etch bath " sweetener " was found to have a dramatic effect...EA9601NW Adhesives on 50521134 Bare Adherenas 39 13 Stress-Durability Behavior Sun-mary 40 14 Effect of Ltch Bath Sweetening Alloy on Interracial Durability...34"’ -,,• , •’• •"• " ,,,,, 9 Adhesive/Primer/Adherend Alloy/Surface Preparation Combinations Adherend OFPL Sweetening Rinse Adhesive:Primer Alloy Alloy

  11. Adhesion of Polymer Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, John J.; Bates, Frank S.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Silas, James A.

    2005-07-01

    The adhesion and bending modulus of polybutadiene-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer vesicles made from a bidisperse mixture of polymers is measured using micropipette aspiration. The adhesion energy between biotinylated vesicles and avidin beads is modeled by incorporating the extension of the adhesive ligands above the surface brush of the vesicle according to the blob model of bidisperse polymer mixtures of Komura and Safran assuming the polymer brush at the surface of the vesicle is compact. The same model accurately reproduces the scaling of the bending modulus with polymer composition.

  12. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  13. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  14. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  15. Assessment of the Shear Bond Strength between Nanofilled Composite Bonded to Glass-ionomer Cement Using Self-etch Adhesive with Different pHs and Total-Etch Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Choobineh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem In the sandwich technique, the undesirable bond between the composite resin and glass-ionomer cement (GIc) is one of the most important factors which lead to the failure of restoration. Total-etch and self-etch adhesives may improve the bond strength based on their pH. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between the nanofilled composite resin and GIc using different adhesives. Materials and Method In this experimental study, 40 specimens (6×6mm) in 4 groups (n=10) were prepared in acrylic mold. Each specimen contained conventional GI ChemFil Superior with a height of 3mm, bonded to Z350 composite resin with a height measured 3mm. In order to bond the composite to the GI, the following adhesives were used, respectively: A: mild Clearfil SE Bond self-etch (pH=2), B: intermediate OptiBond self-etch (pH=1.4), C: strong Adper Prompt L-Pop (pH=1), and D: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch (pH=7.2). The shear bond strength was measured by using universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the data (p< 0.05). Results The shear bond strength in group A was significantly higher than group B (p= 0.002), C (p< 0.001), and D (p< 0.001). Moreover, the shear bond strength of groups A and B (self-etch) was significantly different from group D (total-etch) (p< 0.001); and C (self-etch) with D (p= 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study showed that applying the mild self-etch adhesive between the composite and the GIc results in stronger shear bond strength compared to intermediate and strong self-etch adhesives. Moreover, the self-etch adhesive increased the shear bond strength between composite resin and GIc more significantly than total-etch adhesive. PMID:26966701

  16. Infants Fed a Lower Calorie Formula With 2′FL Show Growth and 2′FL Uptake Like Breast-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Marriage, Barbara J.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Williams, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine the growth and tolerance of infants fed infant formulas with a caloric density closer to human milk (HM) supplemented with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and to study uptake of the HMOs. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, growth and tolerance study was conducted in healthy, singleton infants (birth weight ≥2490 g), who were enrolled by day of life (DOL) 5. Formula-fed infants were randomized to 1 of 3 formulas with a caloric density of 64.3 kcal/dL. Each formula contained galactooligosaccharides, and the 2 experimental formulas contained varying levels (0.2 and 1.0 g/L) of the HMO 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL). The 3 formula groups were compared with an HM-fed reference group. Infants were exclusively fed either formula (n = 189) or HM (n = 65) from enrollment to 119 DOL. 2′FL was measured in the blood and urine collected from a subset of infants at DOL 42 and 119, and in HM collected from breast-feeding mothers at DOL 42. Results: There were no significant differences among any groups for weight, length, or head circumference growth during the 4-month study period. All of the formulas were well tolerated and comparable for average stool consistency, number of stools per day, and percent of feedings associated with spitting up or vomit. 2′FL was present in the plasma and urine of infants fed 2′FL, and there were no significant differences in 2′FL uptake relative to the concentration fed. Conclusions: This is the first report of infants fed 2′FL-fortified formulas with a caloric density similar to HM. Growth and 2′FL uptake were similar to those of HM-fed infants. PMID:26154029

  17. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  18. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  19. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  20. 77 FR 70681 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Glynn Mayo Highway Bridge in Jupiter, FL. A special local regulation was previously promulgated at 33... Loxahatchee River Daymark 7 east of the Glynn Mayo Highway Bridge in Jupiter, FL, which will include a buffer...

  1. 77 FR 66938 - Special Local Regulations; 2012 Holiday Boat Parades, Captain of the Port Miami Zone; FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Highway Bridge in Jupiter, FL. A special local regulation was previously promulgated at 33 CFR 100.701... Loxahatchee River Daymark 7 east of the Glynn Mayo Highway Bridge in Jupiter, FL, which will include a buffer...

  2. Epithelial adhesive junctions

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Christopher T.; Farkas, Attila E.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial adhesive cell-to-cell contacts contain large, plasma membrane-spanning multiprotein aggregates that perform vital structural and signaling functions. Three prominent adhesive contacts are the tight junction, adherens junction, and the desmosome. Each junction type has unique cellular functions and a complex molecular composition. In this review, we comment on recent and exciting advances in our understanding of junction composition and function. PMID:24592313

  3. Adhesion to porcelain and metal.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Raymond L

    2007-04-01

    Some compelling clinical benefits of porcelain and metal adhesion are presented. Current concepts for metal adhesion are reviewed, including modifications of metal surface and resin chemistry. Porcelain adhesion is reviewed, including little-known methods that use silane but no hydrofluoric acid etching. Clinical protocols for use of metal and porcelain adhesives are presented.

  4. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  5. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  6. Micromorphology and bond strength evaluation of adhesive interface of a self-adhering flowable composite resin-dentin: Effect of surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Saadat, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of dentin surface treatment on the micromorphology and shear bond strength (SBS) of a self-adhering flowable composite, Vertis Flow (VF). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from sixty extracted human molars were divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the following surface treatments: (G1) control, no treatment; (G2) self-etching adhesive, Optibond All-in-One; (G3) phosphoric acid etching for 15 s; (G4) polyacrylic acid for 10 s; (G5) EDTA for 60 s; and G6) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 15 s. After restoration using VF, SBS was measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test (α = 0.05). Six additional specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis. SBS was significantly affected by surface treatment (P < 0.001). SBS of six groups from the highest to the lowest were as follows: (G3) 13.5(A); (G5) 8.98(AB); (G2) 8.85(AB); (G4) 8.21(AB); (G1) 7.53(BC); and (G6) 4.49(C) (groups with the same superscript letter were statistically similar). Morphological analysis revealed numerous long resin tags at the adhesive interface for acid-etched group, with a few short resin tags for the control group and small gap formation for NaOCl-treated group. In conclusion, dentin surface treatments tested differently affected bonding performance of VF; only acid-etching effectively improved this.

  7. Influence of adhesive systems and flowable composite lining on bond strength of class II restorations submitted to thermal and mechanical stresses.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; Mitsui, Fabio Hiroyuki Ogata; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adhesive systems and flowable composite lining on bond strength to gingival margins of Class II restorations after thermal/mechanical stresses. Proximal cavities were prepared in 90 bovine incisors. Teeth were assigned into nine groups (n = 10), according to the combination of bonding agent [Single Bond (SB), Optibond Solo Plus (OP), Prime & Bond NT (NT)] and layer (1 mm) of flowable composite Filtek Flow (FF) [absent, one layer, two layers]. Materials were applied according to manufacturers' instructions, and FF layers were photoactivated separately. Restorations were concluded with composite resin and were submitted to thermal (1000x, 5-55 degrees C) and mechanical stresses (100,000x, 80 N). For microtensile evaluation, slabs from the gingival bonded interface were obtained, tested under tension, and their failure mode was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA/Tukey's test. No interaction was observed between adhesive systems and FF lining (p = 0.89). Also, no significant difference was found between bond strength values, whether or not FF layers were used (p = 0.33). However, bonding systems demonstrated significant differences (p = 0.01). SB and NT presented means higher than those observed with OP. Fracture modes varied considerably between experimental groups, and a greater frequency of cohesive failures was noted when FF layers were used. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Visualizing and quantifying adhesive signals

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen; Wu, Yi; Hahn, Klaus; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the structural adaptation and signaling of adhesion sites in response to mechanical stimuli requires in situ characterization of the dynamic activation of a large number of adhesion components. Here, we review high resolution live cell imaging approaches to measure forces, assembly and interaction of adhesion components, and the activation of adhesion-mediated signals. We conclude by outlining computational multiplexing as a framework for the integration of these data into comprehensive models of adhesion signaling pathways. PMID:18586481

  9. Effect of air-blowing duration on the bond strength of current one-step adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiale; Saikaew, Pipop; Kawano, Shimpei; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Hannig, Matthias; Sano, Hidehiko; Selimovic, Denis

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of different air-blowing durations on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of five current one-step adhesive systems to dentin. One hundred and five caries-free human molars and five current one-step adhesive systems were used: ABU (All Bond Universal, Bisco, Inc.), CUB (CLEARFIL™ Universal Bond, Kuraray), GPB (G-Premio BOND, GC), OBA (OptiBond All-in-one, Kerr) and SBU (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE). The adhesives were applied to 600 SiC paper-flat dentin surfaces according to each manufacturer's instructions and were air-dried with standard, oil-free air pressure of 0.25MPa for either 0s, 5s, 15s or 30s before light-curing. Bond strength to dentin was determined by using μTBS test after 24h of water storage. The fracture pattern on the dentin surface was analyzed by SEM. The resin-dentin interface of untested specimens was visualized by panoramic SEM image. Data from μTBS were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (adhesive vs. air-blowing time), and Games-Howell (a=0.05). Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of materials (p=0.000) and air-blowing time (p=0.000) on bond strength to dentin. The interaction between factors was also significantly different (p=0.000). Maximum bond strength for each system were recorded, OBA/15s (76.34±19.15MPa), SBU/15s (75.18±12.83MPa), CUB/15s (68.23±16.36MPa), GPB/30s (55.82±12.99MPa) and ABU/15s (44.75±8.95MPa). The maximum bond strength of OBA and SUB were significantly higher than that of GPB and ABU (p<0.05). The bond strength of the current one-step adhesive systems is material-dependent (p=0.000), and was influenced by air-blowing duration (p=0.000). For the current one-step adhesive systems, higher bond strengths could be achieved with prolonged air-blowing duration between 15-30s. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flexibilized copolyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Two copolyimides, LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2, with flexible backbones were processed and characterized as adhesives. The processability and adhesive properties were compared to those of a commercially available form of LARC-TPI. Lap shear specimens were fabricated using adhesive tape prepared from each of the three polymers. Lap shear tests were performed at room temperature, 177 C, and 204 C before and after exposure to water-boil and to thermal aging at 204 C for up to 1000 hours. The three adhesive systems possess exceptional lap shear strengths at room temperature and elevated temperatures both before and after thermal exposure. LARC-STPI, because of its high glass transition temperature provided high lap shear strengths up to 260 C. After water-boil, LARC-TPI exhibited the highest lap shear strengths at room temperature and 177 C, whereas the LARC-STPI retained a higher percentage of its original strength when tested at 204 C. These flexible thermoplastic copolyimides show considerable potential as adhesives based on this study and because of the ease of preparation with low cost, commercially available materials.

  11. Platelet Adhesion under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet adhesive mechanisms play a well-defined role in hemostasis and thrombosis, but evidence continues to emerge for a relevant contribution to other pathophysiological processes including inflammation, immune-mediated responses to microbial and viral pathogens, and cancer metastasis. Hemostasis and thrombosis are related aspects of the response to vascular injury, but the former protects from bleeding after trauma while the latter is a disease mechanism. In either situation, adhesive interactions mediated by specific membrane receptors support the initial attachment of single platelets to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. In the subsequent steps of thrombus growth and stabilization, adhesive interactions mediate platelet to platelet cohesion (aggregation) and anchoring to the fibrin clot. A key functional aspect of platelets is their ability to circulate in a quiescent state surveying the integrity of the inner vascular surface, coupled to a prompt reaction wherever alterations are detected. In many respects, therefore, platelet adhesion to vascular wall structures, to one another or to other blood cells are facets of the same fundamental biological process. The adaptation of platelet adhesive functions to the effects of blood flow is the main focus of this review. PMID:19191170

  12. Adhesion and wetting: Similarities and differences

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, M.E.R. )

    1991-10-01

    This article examines what is understood about adhesion and wetting both from the historical and scientific perspectives. Topics covered include mechanical adhesion, specific adhesion, chemical adhesion, adhesion by diffusion, the adsorption or wetting theory, bulk adhesion, the rheological theory, hysteresis effects in rubber adhesion, and hysteresis of wetting.

  13. Reduction of postoperative adhesion development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    Despite use of meticulous surgical techniques, and regardless of surgical access via laparotomy or laparoscopy, postoperative adhesions develop in the vast majority of women undergoing abdominopelvic surgery. Such adhesions represent not only adhesion reformation at sites of adhesiolysis, but also de novo adhesion formation at sites of surgical procedures. Application of antiadhesion adjuvants compliment the benefits of meticulous surgical techniques, providing an opportunity to further reduce postoperative adhesion development. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of adhesion development and distinguishing variations in the molecular biologic mechanisms from adhesion-free peritoneal repair represent future opportunities to improve the reduction of postoperative adhesions. Optimization of the reduction of postoperative adhesions will likely require identification of unique, personalized approaches in each individual, representing interindividual variation in peritoneal repair processes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-04

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  15. The clinical performance of adhesives.

    PubMed

    Van Meerbeek, B; Perdigão, J; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1998-01-01

    Traditional mechanical methods of retaining restorative materials have been replaced to a large extent by tooth conserving adhesive restorative techniques. Because adhesives have been evolving so rapidly for the last few years, the timing is right for evaluating the clinical status of present day adhesives. Current literature with regard to the clinical performance of adhesives has been reviewed. An overview of currently available adhesive systems is provided and a categorization of these adhesives according to their clinical application procedure and their intended mechanism of adhesion is proposed. Parameters of direct relevance to the clinical effectiveness of adhesives are discussed in relation to the clinical effectiveness of today's adhesives. The clinical performance of present day adhesives has significantly improved, allowing adhesive restorations to be placed with a high predictable level of clinical success. Most modern adhesive systems are superior to their predecessors, especially in terms of retention that is no longer the main cause of premature clinical failure. Recent adhesives also appear less sensitive to substrate and other clinical co-variables. As the remaining major shortcoming of modern adhesives, none of these modern systems however appears yet to be able to guarantee hermetically sealed restorations with margins free of discoloration for a long time.

  16. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  17. 75 FR 23588 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Riviera Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Riviera Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations..., at Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida. The deviation is necessary to allow timely bridge...

  18. BENTHIC-PELAGIC PROCESSES IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL: EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON OXYGEN FLUXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication caused by excess nutrients can exacerbate hypoxia by increasing bottom water and sediment respiration. However, in shallow sub-tropical estuaries, the euphotic zone often extends below the pycnocline allowing oxygen fluxes in Pensacola Bay, FL, USA. Measurements we...

  19. 77 FR 27792 - Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  20. BENTHIC-PELAGIC PROCESSES IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL: EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON OXYGEN FLUXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication caused by excess nutrients can exacerbate hypoxia by increasing bottom water and sediment respiration. However, in shallow sub-tropical estuaries, the euphotic zone often extends below the pycnocline allowing oxygen fluxes in Pensacola Bay, FL, USA. Measurements we...

  1. 76 FR 68439 - BCX Tank Superfund Site; Jacksonville, Duval County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... AGENCY BCX Tank Superfund Site; Jacksonville, Duval County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Tank Superfund Site located in Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida for publication. DATES: The Agency... name BCX Tank Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  2. Mapping cell surface adhesion by rotation tracking and adhesion footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Isaac T. S.; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R.

    2017-01-01

    Rolling adhesion, in which cells passively roll along surfaces under shear flow, is a critical process involved in inflammatory responses and cancer metastasis. Surface adhesion properties regulated by adhesion receptors and membrane tethers are critical in understanding cell rolling behavior. Locally, adhesion molecules are distributed at the tips of membrane tethers. However, how functional adhesion properties are globally distributed on the individual cell’s surface is unknown. Here, we developed a label-free technique to determine the spatial distribution of adhesive properties on rolling cell surfaces. Using dark-field imaging and particle tracking, we extract the rotational motion of individual rolling cells. The rotational information allows us to construct an adhesion map along the contact circumference of a single cell. To complement this approach, we also developed a fluorescent adhesion footprint assay to record the molecular adhesion events from cell rolling. Applying the combination of the two methods on human promyelocytic leukemia cells, our results surprisingly reveal that adhesion is non-uniformly distributed in patches on the cell surfaces. Our label-free adhesion mapping methods are applicable to the variety of cell types that undergo rolling adhesion and provide a quantitative picture of cell surface adhesion at the functional and molecular level. PMID:28290531

  3. Mapping cell surface adhesion by rotation tracking and adhesion footprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Isaac T. S.; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R.

    2017-03-01

    Rolling adhesion, in which cells passively roll along surfaces under shear flow, is a critical process involved in inflammatory responses and cancer metastasis. Surface adhesion properties regulated by adhesion receptors and membrane tethers are critical in understanding cell rolling behavior. Locally, adhesion molecules are distributed at the tips of membrane tethers. However, how functional adhesion properties are globally distributed on the individual cell’s surface is unknown. Here, we developed a label-free technique to determine the spatial distribution of adhesive properties on rolling cell surfaces. Using dark-field imaging and particle tracking, we extract the rotational motion of individual rolling cells. The rotational information allows us to construct an adhesion map along the contact circumference of a single cell. To complement this approach, we also developed a fluorescent adhesion footprint assay to record the molecular adhesion events from cell rolling. Applying the combination of the two methods on human promyelocytic leukemia cells, our results surprisingly reveal that adhesion is non-uniformly distributed in patches on the cell surfaces. Our label-free adhesion mapping methods are applicable to the variety of cell types that undergo rolling adhesion and provide a quantitative picture of cell surface adhesion at the functional and molecular level.

  4. Photograph No. FL1259 is an 8' x 10" enlargement from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph No. FL-12-59 is an 8' x 10" enlargement from a 4" x 5" negative. Photocopy of drawing (1937 construction drawing by State of Florida State Road Department in possession of Florida Department of Transportation District 3 Office, Chipley, Florida) STANDARD CONCRETE HANDRAIL, SHOWING PLAN, ELEVATION, AND DETAILS - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  5. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  6. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  7. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  8. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  10. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John; Walton, Christopher; Folta, James

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  11. Natural Underwater Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Russell J; Ransom, Todd C; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)(3) coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent

  12. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent

  13. E2fl1 is a meiosis-specific transcription factor in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Miao; Yan, Guan-Xiong; Shodhan, Anura; Miao, Wei

    2017-01-02

    Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement. This is the first time that an E2F family member has been shown to regulate meiotic events. Moreover, BrdU incorporation showed that DSB processing during meiosis was abnormal upon the deletion of E2FL1. Transcriptome sequencing analysis revealed that E2FL1 knockout decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA repair in T. thermophila, suggesting that the function of E2F is highly conserved in eukaryotes. In addition, E2FL1 deletion inhibited the expression of related homologous chromosome segregation genes in T. thermophila. The result may explain the meiotic arrest phenotype at anaphase I. Finally, by searching for E2F DNA-binding motifs in the entire T. thermophila genome, we identified 714 genes containing at least one E2F DNA-binding motif; of these, 235 downregulated represent putative E2FL1 target genes.

  14. Does hybridized dentin affect bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement?

    PubMed Central

    do Valle, Accácio-Lins; de Andrade, Gustavo-Henrique-Barbosa; Vidotti, Hugo-Alberto; Só, Marcus-Vinícius-Reis; Pereira, Jefferson-Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluate the influence of different hybridization bonding techniques of a self-adhesive resin cement. Material and Methods 30 human health molars were divided into six groups (n=10). The specimens received three longitudinal sections, allowing insertion of central cuts in PVC matrices. Each group received a different dentin pretreatment according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, except the control group (G1), as follows. G2 - a 3-step total-etch adhesive system (Optibond™ FL, Kerr); G3 - a 3-step total-etch adhesive system (Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE); G4 - a 2-step total-etch adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE); G5 - a single-step self-etching system (Bond Force, Tokuyama); and G6 - universal bonding system (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then, cylinders made of self-adhesive resin cement with polypropylene matrix was cemented in all groups (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). Bond strength was assessed by submitting the specimens to micro-shear test and was characterized according to the fracture pattern observed through optical microscopy. Results The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test, which indicated a statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.04), and Tukey’s multiple comparisons, which indicated a statistically significant difference between G1 and G3 (p<0.05). The microscopic analysis revealed a high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed fractures, and cohesive failures in the dentin. Conclusions The use of a previous dentin hybridization protocol is able to increase adhesive bonding resistance of self-adhesive resin cement, especially when used Adper™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose system. Key words:Bonding, self-adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:27703609

  15. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  16. Cell adhesion under flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion under flow is a central function of the microcirculation during inflammation, hemostasis, and immune regulation. This special issue of Microcirculation explores the common and distinct mechanisms that myeloid cells, lymphocytes, platelets, and sickle erythrocytes use to adhere to microvascular endothelium and the underlying basement membrane structures. A common theme in these processes is the need for rapid integrin activation, often initiated by binding of ligands to their cognate G protein-coupled receptors, followed by adhesion strengthening associated with integrin redistribution and outside-in signaling. These elements have been identified for all cells tested except sickle erythrocytes.

  17. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. R.; Jay, G. D.; Kim, K.-S.; Bothun, G. D.

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  18. Adhesion in hydrogel contacts.

    PubMed

    Torres, J R; Jay, G D; Kim, K-S; Bothun, G D

    2016-05-01

    A generalized thermomechanical model for adhesion was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of dissipation within the viscoelastic bulk of a hyperelastic hydrogel. Results show that in addition to the expected energy release rate of interface formation, as well as the viscous flow dissipation, the bulk composition exhibits dissipation due to phase inhomogeneity morphological changes. The mixing thermodynamics of the matrix and solvent determines the dynamics of the phase inhomogeneities, which can enhance or disrupt adhesion. The model also accounts for the time-dependent behaviour. A parameter is proposed to discern the dominant dissipation mechanism in hydrogel contact detachment.

  19. Metallic Adhesion and Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Although metallic adhesion has played a central part in much tribological speculation, few quantitative theoretical calculations are available. This is in part because of the difficulties involved in such calculations and in part because the theoretical physics community is not particularly involved with tribology. The calculations currently involved in metallic adhesion are summarized and shown that these can be generalized into a scaled universal relationship. Relationships exist to other types of covalent bonding, such as cohesive, chemisorptive, and molecular bonding. A simple relationship between surface energy and cohesive energy is offered.

  20. Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jossin, Yves; Lee, Minhui; Klezovitch, Olga; Kon, Elif; Cossard, Alexia; Lien, Wen-Hui; Fernandez, Tania E; Cooper, Jonathan A; Vasioukhin, Valera

    2017-06-05

    Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1(fl/fl)), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1(fl/fl) brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  2. Influence of Er:YAG and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength of several adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M; Lorenzo, M C; Moreno, P; García, A; Montero, J; Ceballos, L; Fuentes, M V; Albaladejo, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and Ti:sapphire laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of three different adhesive systems to dentin. Flat dentin surfaces from 27 molars were divided into three groups according to laser irradiation: control, Er:YAG (2,940 nm, 100 μs, 2.7 W, 9 Hz) and Ti:sapphire laser (795 nm, 120 fs, 1 W, 1 kHz). Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the adhesive system used: two-step total-etching adhesive (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, from now on XT), two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, from now on CSE), and all-in-one self-etching adhesive (Optibond All-in-One, from now on OAO). After 24 h of water storage, beams of section at 1 mm(2) were longitudinally cut from the samples. Each beam underwent traction test in an Instron machine. Fifteen polished dentin specimens were used for the surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Failure modes of representative debonded microbars were SEM-assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression (p < 0.05). In the control group, XT obtained higher MTBS than that of laser groups that performed equally. CSE showed higher MTBS without laser than that with laser groups, where Er:YAG attained higher MTBS than ultrashort laser. When OAO was used, MTBS values were equal in the three treatments. CSE obtained the highest MTBS regardless of the surface treatment applied. The Er:YAG and ultrashort laser irradiation reduce the bonding effectiveness when a two-step total-etching adhesive or a two-step self-etching adhesive are used and do not affect their effectiveness when an all-in-one self-etching adhesive is applied.

  3. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  4. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  5. 3-D foam adhesive deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1976-01-01

    Bonding method, which reduces amount and weight of adhesive, is applicable to foam-filled honeycomb constructions. Novel features of process include temperature-viscosity control and removal of excess adhesive by transfer to cellophane film.

  6. Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    of mask respirators with bio -inspired adhesive integrated into their peripheral seals; and (2) assessment of the competitive position of the new bio -inspired adhesives in broader fields of application.

  7. [Dentin adhesives. An update].

    PubMed

    Grandini, R; Novelli, C; Pierleoni, P

    1991-11-01

    Even if mechanical bonding to enamel utilizing the acid-etch technique has been very successful, adhesion to dentin is still a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Dentin is a vital tissue and differs in composition from enamel: acid-etching does not enhance the bond strength of composite resins to dentin and may elicit a severe pulpal response. For an effective bond to occur, a dentin bonding system has to be used. The first generation of methacrylate-based dentin adhesives was capable of chemical bonding to the inorganic phase of dentin. The chemical basis for this resin-dentin adhesive was the interaction between a phosphate group attached to the methacrylate and the calcium ions on the dentin surface. This system yielded rather low bond strengths which were clinically unsatisfying. The second generation of dentin adhesives became available to the profession recently. Each of these new bonding systems use similar chemical composition for the same purpose of bonding with physicochemical interaction to the hard tooth tissues. All these systems contain a mild acid dentin conditioner to remove the smear layer and an aqueous resin containing primer to improve monomer penetration into the hydrophilic dentin surface. The second generation dentin bonding systems are extremely sensitive to variations upon the completeness of instructions and how accurately these are followed by dental practitioners.

  8. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  9. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  10. Effect of food and oral simulating fluids on structure of adhesive composite systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Greener, E H; Mueller, H J

    1995-02-01

    This work evaluates the degradation of three adhesive/composite systems (Tenure/Marathon One. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose/Z100 and Optibond/Herculite XRV) upon immersion in 75% ethanol solution and in an artificial saliva (Moi-Stir). Shear bond strength (SBS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) specimens were employed for this study. For the SBS specimens, the bonded interface and composite were exposed to food and oral simulating fluids at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. A similar control series was stored in air. DTS specimens were stored in 75% ethanol at 37 degrees C for up to 30 days. The SBS specimens were sheared to failure. Small quantities of bonding resin were removed from the tooth side of the fractured surface and from the non-fractured fractured end of the composite for Fourier transform infrared microscopic evaluation. Similar scrapings were taken from DTS specimen surfaces. The infrared absorbance intensity (AI) of the major peaks was measured as a function of storage time and ratioed against the aromatic C = C (1609.4 cm-1) peak. The data were analysed using ANOVA and the Tukey LSD test. The AI of major peaks was similar for the materials stored either in air or in Moi-Stir for all testing periods. Storage in ethanol caused the AI of aliphatic C = C (1638 cm-1) and of O-H (approximately 3500 cm-1) bonds to significantly decrease (30-50%) for specimens of bonding resin while the AI of C = O bonds (1730 cm-1) increased (60-120%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  12. Gordon Conference on Microbial Adhesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    immunity against certain pathogens, the role of exopolysaccharides in adhesion and the role of lectin-glycolipid interactions in adhesion. Have...pathogenesis? What governs the specificity of p; exopolysaccharides in adhesion to surfaces? This session emphasized the molecular aspects of

  13. Ceramic Adhesive for High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Everett G.

    1987-01-01

    Fused-silica/magnesium-phosphate adhesive resists high temperatures and vibrations. New adhesive unaffected by extreme temperatures and vibrations. Assuring direct bonding of gap filters to tile sidewalls, adhesive obviates expensive and time-consuming task of removal, treatment, and replacement of tiles.

  14. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  15. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  16. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  17. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  18. Adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2014-04-18

    The adhesion behaviors of superhydrophobic surfaces have become an emerging topic to researchers in various fields as a vital step in the interactions between materials and organisms/materials. Controlling the chemical compositions and topological structures via various methods or technologies is essential to fabricate and modulate different adhesion properties, such as low-adhesion, high-adhesion and anisotropic adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces. We summarize the recent developments in both natural superhydrophobic surfaces and artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with various adhesions and also pay attention to superhydrophobic surfaces switching between low- and high-adhesion. The methods to regulate or translate the adhesion of superhydrophobic surfaces can be considered from two perspectives. One is to control the chemical composition and change the surface geometric structure on the surfaces, respectively or simultaneously. The other is to provide external stimulations to induce transitions, which is the most common method for obtaining switchable adhesions. Additionally, adhesion behaviors on solid-solid interfaces, such as the behaviors of cells, bacteria, biomolecules and icing on superhydrophobic surfaces are also noticeable and controversial. This review is aimed at giving a brief and crucial overview of adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  19. New developments in dental adhesion.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Jorge

    2007-04-01

    Numerous simplified adhesives have been introduced to the dental market within the last few years, sometimes without comprehensive testing to validate the performance claimed by the respective manufacturers. Mild self-etch adhesives are unable to etch enamel to provide adequate retention for bonded restorations. Although high early resin-dentin bond strength values can be achieved with some self-etch adhesives, their resistance to thermal and mechanical stresses over time is disappointing. In light of the current drawbacks attributed to all-in-one self-etch adhesives, etch-and-rinse adhesives are still the benchmark for dental adhesion in routine clinical use. This article summarizes current issues and factors related to the performance of adhesives.

  20. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  1. Adhesion barrier reduces postoperative adhesions after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukihiro; Hirata, Yasutaka; Achiwa, Ikuya; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Soto, Hajime; Kobayahsi, Jotaro

    2012-06-01

    Reoperation in cardiac surgery is associated with increased risk due to surgical adhesions. Application of a bioresorbable material could theoretically reduce adhesions and allow later development of a free dissection plane for cardiac reoperation. Twenty-one patients in whom a bioresorbable hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose adhesion barrier had been applied in a preceding surgery underwent reoperations, while 23 patients underwent reoperations during the same period without a prior adhesion barrier. Blinded observers graded the tenacity of the adhesions from surgical video recordings of the reoperations. No excessive bleeding requiring wound reexploration, mediastinal infection, or other complication attributable to the adhesion barrier occurred. Multiple regression analysis showed that shorter duration of the preceding surgery, non-use of cardiopulmonary bypass in the preceding surgery, and use of the adhesion barrier were significantly associated with less tenacious surgical adhesions. The use of a bioresorbable material in cardiac surgery reduced postoperative adhesions, facilitated reoperation, and did not promote complications. The use of adhesion barrier is recommended in planned staged procedures and those in which future reoperation is likely.

  2. Polyimide adhesive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D.

    1979-01-01

    Adhesive systems which could be used to bond composite-to-composite, composite-to-titanium, and honeycomb sandwich structures with operational capability at 589K for a minimum of 125 hours were evaluated. Evaluations were based on mechanical property tests such as lap shear and flatwise tensile and on processability. Quasi-isotropic Celion 6000/PMR-15 composite adherend was used to construct lap shear and flatwise tensile specimens. Hexcel's HRH-327-3/16-6.0 glass polyimide honeycomb core was also utilized in the flatwise tensile specimens. Numerous processing variations were also studied that led to selected cure cycles for each adhesive. Shear specimens having either 12 mm or 75 mm overlaps were used to determine the effect of bond size on processability and lap shear properties. The data indicate that processing of FM-34, FM-34B-18, LARC-13 and NRO56X can be achieved using a cure compatible with the composite adherend. No significant differences in mechanical properties were observed among the three adhesive systems and all three are suitable candidates for 589K/125 hour service.

  3. Development of phosphorylated adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.; Jenkins, R. K.; Campbell, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame.

  4. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  5. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  6. [Fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis].

    PubMed

    Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam; Staszewski, Jacek; Sadowska, Marta; Bogusławska-Walecka, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare disease with insidious course. It causes damage of the spinal cord and nerve roots. The causes of adhesive arachnoiditis include earlier traumatic injury of the spinal cord, surgery, intrathecal administration of therapeutic substances (e.g. anaesthetics, chemotherapy) or contrast media, bleeding, and inflammation. It can also be idiopathic or iatrogenic. We present the case of a 42-year-old patient with fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis which was provoked by spinal surgery and caused severe neurological disability with profound, progressive, flaccid paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. The electromyography (EMG) showed serious damage of nerves of both lower limbs at the level of motor roots L2-S2 and damage of the motor neuron at the level of Th11-Th12 on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral and thoracic part of the spinal cord demonstrated cystic liquid spaces in the lumen of the dural sac in the bottom part of the cervical spine and at the Th2-Th10 level, modelling the lateral and anterior surface of the cord. Because of the vast lesions, surgery could not be performed. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation brought only a small clinical improvement.

  7. Focal Adhesion Kinase Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening via Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Kristin E.; Dumbauld, David W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Hanks, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell–ECM forces. PMID:19297531

  8. [Influence of different dentin depths on microtensile bond strength of two dentin adhesive systems].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tie-li; Huang, Cui; Zheng, Zhi-xing

    2009-10-01

    To determine the microtensile bond strength of two adhesives systems to either superficial or deep dentin. The crowns extracted human premolars were transversally sectioned next to the occlusal DEJ to expose flat dentin surfaces. The surfaces were bonded with: (1)two-step, total-etch adhesive Prime&Bond NT (PB),(2)wo-step, self-etching adhesive FL-Bond (FB), according to manufacturers' directions. Composite build-ups were constructed incrementally. After storage for 24 hours in water at 37 degrees, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned in the "x" and "y" directions to obtain bonded sticks with a cross-sectional area of 0.81mm(2) with a slow-speed diamond saw. The remaining dentin thickness (RDT) was measured to assess the superficial dentin group (RDT> or =3mm) and the deep dentin group (RDT< or =2mm). Microtensile bond strength measurements were evaluated. Fractured specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope at 60 magnification to determine the mode of failure. SPSS11.5 software package was used for analysis of the bond strengths. The results showed the bond strength of Prime&Bond NT were significantly higher either to superficial or deep dentin(P<0.05). Different dentin depths had no effect on the microtensile bond strengths of dentin bonding agent (P>0.05). No cohesive failure was observed in either superficial or deep dentin. Most of the failure was adhesive failure. From this study, it can be concluded that different dentin depths can not influence the microtensile bond strengths of Prime&Bond NT and FL-Bond adhesive systems.

  9. High Speed Optical Observations of Cataclysmic Variables: FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Gomez, S.; Robinson, E. L.; Andronov, I. L.; Gonzalez, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric data on three cataclysmic variables. Broad-band CCD observations of FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her were obtained with 1-3s integrations at the Otto Struve, 2.1m, Telescope of McDonald Observatory. High speed optical photometry reveals details in these cataclysmic variables not possible using longer time integrations. In FL Ceti, the shortest period eclipsing polar known, the eclipse of two separate well localized accretion regions is resolved. In BY Cam and DQ Her, the spin period of the white dwarf is revealed. We discuss model constrains provided by these observations.

  10. An intravenous (i.v.) route-compatible formulation of FL118, a survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, and cIAP2 selective inhibitor, improves FL118 antitumor efficacy and therapeutic index (TI)

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiang; Li, Fengzhi

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported a novel anticancer small molecule, designated FL118, which was discovered via high throughput screening (HTS), and followed by hit-lead in vitro and in vivo analysis. FL118 selectively inhibits the expression of four major cancer survival-associated gene products (survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, and cIAP2) and shows promising antitumor activity in animal models of human cancers when administered using a weekly x 4 schedule (Ling et al., PLOS ONE. 2012, 7: e45571). Here, we compared the antitumor efficacy and therapeutic index (TI) of FL118 in a newly developed Tween 80-free formulation that can be delivered intravenously (i.v.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) against the previous Tween 80-containing formulation that can only be delivered via an i.p. route. We found that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for FL118 in the i.v. formulation increases 3-7 fold in comparison with the MTD of FL118 in the i.p. formulation. FL118 in the i.v. recipe was able to eliminate human tumor xenografts in all three major schedules tested (daily x 5, q2 x 5 and weekly x 5). In contrast, FL118 was able to eliminate human tumor xenografts in the i.p. formulation only with the weekly x 4 schedule previously reported. The TI of FL118 in the i.v. formulation reached 5-6 in the most effective schedule, while the TI of FL118 in the i.p. formulation was only 1.3 - 2. These findings overcome several clinical challenges including FL118 formulation to realize clinically compatible drug administration routes, and expanding effective treatment schedules. The striking improvement of the TI makes FL118 a much safer drug for further development toward clinical trials. PMID:23573360

  11. Microleakage after thermocycling of 4 etch and rinse and 3 self-etch adhesives with and without a flowable composite lining.

    PubMed

    Guéders, A M; Charpentier, J F; Albert, A I; Geerts, S O

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the microleakage of composite fillings prepared with 4 etch and rinse and 3 self-etch adhesive systems after thermocycling. Also evaluated was the potential improvement of cavity sealing when utilizing a low charged resin lining for cavity preparations. Seventy recently extracted teeth were randomly allocated to 7 experimental adhesive systems: two 3-step etch and rinse adhesive systems, Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP) and Optibond Solo Plus (OS); two 2-step etch and rinse adhesive systems, referred to as "one-bottle," Scotchbond 1 (SB1) and Gluma Comfort Bond + Desensitizer (G); and 3 self-etch "all-in-one" adhesives, Adper Prompt-L-Pop (PLP), Xeno III (X-III) and iBond (iB). On each tooth, 2 rectangular cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction: 1 cavity was prepared with adhesive and the hybrid composite and the second was filled with the same adhesive and a thin layer of flowable composite (Filtek Flow) under the resin composite (Z100). All teeth were thermocycled for 800 cycles (5 degrees C-55 degrees C, 30 seconds dwell time). Leakage was evaluated on a 6-point (0-5) severity scale for enamel and dentin on 4 interfaces for each restoration. The results are expressed as means +/- standard deviation (SD). Microleakage scores were analyzed by means of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), assuming an ordinal logistic link function. Covariates in the model were: (1) adhesives, (2) fluid composite and (3) interface. The model also accounts for repeated measurements on the various teeth. The authors found that the mean score of microleakage per tooth was significantly higher at the enamel rather than at the dentin interfaces (1.21 +/- 0.51 and 0.87 +/- 0.48; p<0.0001). In this study, there was no significant difference among the 4 etch and rinse adhesive systems. On the other hand, these adhesives yielded smaller mean scores of microleakage than the 3 self-etch systems (respectively, 0.85 +/- 0.2 and 1.3 +/- 0.5; p<0.0001). Among

  12. High Temperature Adhesive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    ADHESIVES 1. Napkin Ring Specimen 4-4 2. Napkin Ring Specimen Under Bond-Normal Loading 4- 5 3. Napkin Ring Specimen With Rounded Adherend Under Bond...Normal Loading 4-5 4. Residual Stress State in a Napkin Ring Specimen With Rounded Adherends 4-7 5. Cone and Plate Specimen 4-7 6. Stresses in a Cone...properties. The approach that was taken in developing a suitable specimen was to compare the stress distributions in napkin ring, cone-and-plate and

  13. Spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.

    PubMed

    Dolan, R A

    1993-06-01

    Forty-one cases of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis are presented. The key points are, first, that lumbar disc lesions, their investigations and surgical treatment and the use of nonabsorbable contrast materials are the most common etiological factors and, secondly, that operation is the best treatment. It is our contention that the majority of patients so treated do experience some improvement in what otherwise can be an unbearable amount of pain and disability. The use of adsorbable, nonirritative contrast materials such as Iohexol Parenteral will result in a marked reduction in the frequency of occurrence of arachnoiditis.

  14. Zero adhesion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Joseph N., Jr.

    1986-07-01

    This patent discloses a zero adhesion system whereby a protective missile launch pad is held against an Environmental Protection Material (EPM) coated missile skin surface having an intermediary cloth sheet inbetween. The pad comprises a steel sheet having perforated cleats defined therein, which sheet is affixed to the underside of the pad and releasably bears against the intermediary cloth sheet. This arrangement operates such that the protective missile launch pad is freely released from the missile at launch without adhession to the EPM coated missile skin.

  15. Virulent and nonvirulent Flavobacterium columnare colony morphologies: characterization of chondroitin AC lyase activity and adhesion to polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Kunttu, H M T; Jokinen, E I; Valtonen, E T; Sundberg, L-R

    2011-12-01

    Colony morphology variants of fish pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare were studied to clarify the role of colony morphology change in the virulence of the bacterium. Typical rhizoid colony (Rz) variants are virulent and moderately adherent, nonrhizoid rough (R) colony variants are nonvirulent and highly adherent, and soft colony (S) variants are nonvirulent and poorly adherent. Chondroitin AC lyase activity, adhesion to polystyrene at different temperatures and after modification of bacterial surface, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles of the variants were studied. The chondroitinase activity was significantly higher in the virulent, rhizoid variants than in the rough variants of the same strain. Temperature significantly increased the adhesion of rhizoid variants up to 20°C. Modification of bacterial surface suggested that adhesion molecules contain both carbohydrates and proteins. LPS did not differ between the variants of the same strain. The results suggest that in Fl. columnare both rhizoid colony morphology and high chondroitinase activity are needed for virulence and that temperature may promote the adhesion of the virulent variants to surfaces at fish farms. New information is produced on the virulence mechanisms of Fl. columnare and the reasons behind the survival of the bacterium at fish farms. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Durability of Adhesively Bonded Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-11

    frequently. Significant technology improvements have occurred In surface treatment, primers, joint analyses, adhesives and process controls. These have...clearly established the Initial cost savings potential for adhesive bonding. While this approach addresses the adequacy of joints early in service, there...processes with those changes which occur as a result of residual stress or cyclic loading in the adhesive joint 074-2R-bh 1 To fill a small part of this

  17. CYANOACRYLATE ADHESIVES IN EYE WOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    adhesives. The following adhesives were tested: methyl, isobutyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-octyl, n-decyl, -trifluoroisopropyl 2- cyanoacrylate , and...Biobond. Of these, methyl and -trifluoroisopropyl cyanoacrylates are not well tolerated by eye tissues. Biobond sets too slowly, and does not seem... cyanoacrylate is the best adhesive found so far when tissue tolerance, tensile strength, and ability to seal eye perforations (alone and with silicone rubber patches) are the criteria. (Author)

  18. Strain gage adhesives -- Operating characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, R. L.; Reese, R. T.

    1994-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the adhesives which are used to bond the strain gages to substrates. Strain gage installations include four basic parts: the gage, the adhesive used to attach the gage to the stressed surface, the coatings used to protect the gage over its service life, and the electrical circuitry and data acquisition system used to record the strains. This paper describes the operating characteristics of the adhesives. The figures developed in this paper summarize the information available on adhesives from excellent manufacturer's catalogs, texts and references, and from experiences from the SEM Western Regional Strain Gage Committee.

  19. Hot melt adhesive attachment pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzill, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Gleason, J. R.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hot melt adhesive attachment pad for releasably securing distinct elements together is described which is particularly useful in the construction industry or a spatial vacuum environment. The attachment pad consists primarily of a cloth selectively impregnated with a charge of hot melt adhesive, a thermo-foil heater, and a thermo-cooler. These components are securely mounted in a mounting assembly. In operation, the operator activates the heating cycle transforming the hot melt adhesive to a substantially liquid state, positions the pad against the attachment surface, and activates the cooling cycle solidifying the adhesive and forming a strong, releasable bond.

  20. Elastomer-toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the effects of added elastomers on the Tg, thermal stability, adhesive strength, and fracture toughness of LARC-13, a high-temperature addition polyimide adhesive. Various butadiene/acrylonitrile and silicone elastomers were incorporated into the polyimide resin (1) as physical polyblends, and (2) by chemically reacting the elastomers with the polyimide backbone. Adhesive single lap-shear and T-peel strengths were measured before and after aging at elevated temperature. A tapered double-cantilever beam specimen was used to determine the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified polyimide adhesives.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Edwardsiella tarda (isolate FL95-01)recovered from channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe isolated from fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, including humans. This is a report of the complete and annotated genome of E. tarda isolate FL95-01, recovered from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)....

  2. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Indiantown Road and Donald Ross Road, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World... will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high speed...

  3. DROUGHT-INDUCED DECLINE OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA BAY, FL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Locally, the recent decline of SAV was first noticed in Blackwater Bay, FL by N. Craft of Northwest Florida Aquatic Preserves (personal communication). High salinity persisted throughout the summer and fall of 2000 due to a severe drought that has affected much of the southeast ...

  4. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  5. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  6. 46 CFR 7.105 - Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marquesas Keys, FL to Rio Grande, TX. 7.105 Section 7.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY... the seaward limits of the territorial sea (as defined in 33 CFR 2.22(a)(1)) to Rio Grande, Texas...

  7. 75 FR 28310 - Florida Disaster # FL-00056 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Florida Disaster FL-00056 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... for the State of Florida, dated 05/13/2010. Incident: Deepwater BP Oil Spill. Incident Period: 04/20.... Contiguous Counties: Florida: Alachua, Calhoun, Charlotte, Desoto, Gilchrist, Hardee, Holmes, Jackson...

  8. 76 FR 78329 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Martin County Airport, Stuart, FL AGENCY...) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Martin County Board of County Commissioners for Martin County Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et. Seq (Aviation Safety...

  9. 76 FR 8656 - Safety Zone; Miami International Triathlon, Bayfront Park, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Park, Miami, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the waters east of Bayfront Park for the Miami International Triathlon... 0.9 mile swim, which will take place in the waters east of Bayfront Park in Miami, Florida...

  10. 33 CFR 100.734 - Annual Gasparilla Marine Parade; Hillsborough Bay, Tampa, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Gasparilla Marine Parade... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.734 Annual Gasparilla Marine Parade; Hillsborough Bay, Tampa, FL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is...

  11. "ZOOMANIA": The See-Hear-and-Do Approach to FL Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontas, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Since the publication of "Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century," the development of communicative competence both within and beyond the confined walls of the language classroom has become a national priority for the foreign language (FL) teaching profession. The literature on standards and proficiency suggests…

  12. 75 FR 11936 - Radisys Corporation, Boca Raton, FL; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Radisys Corporation, Boca Raton, FL; Notice of Termination of... Corporation, Boca Raton, Florida. The petitioning worker group is covered by an earlier petition (TA- W-72,784...

  13. 75 FR 39555 - Environmental Impact Statement; Fort Hamer Bridge, Manatee County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Environmental Impact Statement; Fort Hamer Bridge, Manatee County, FL AGENCY: Coast... Guard announces its intent to prepare an EIS for a proposed new bridge (Fort Hamer Bridge) crossing over the Manatee River in Manatee County, Florida. The proposed location for the Fort Hamer Bridge is in...

  14. 77 FR 34208 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Leesburg, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...: This action amends Class D and Class E airspace at Leesburg, FL, changing the airport's name to Leesburg International Airport. The FAAs Aeronautical Products office requested the change to reflect the...

  15. 77 FR 22667 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-2917, De Funiak Springs, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Area R-2917, De... action modifies restricted area R-2917 by reducing the lateral and vertical dimensions of the area. The U... vertical dimensions of restricted area R-2917, De Funiak Springs, FL, which surrounds an FPS-85...

  16. 78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will... Beach, Florida. Approximately 25 high- speed power boats will be participating in the races, and it is...

  17. 76 FR 36014 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Beach International Airport, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). ] SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify the Palm Beach International Airport Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace above Palm Beach County Park Airport (LNA...

  18. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International... modifies the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and increase...

  19. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach Municipal Airport, Vero Beach, FL. The Vero Beach Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new...

  20. 76 FR 9278 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Offshore Challenge, Sunny Isles Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Isles Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone in the Atlantic Ocean east of Sunny Isles Beach... held in the Atlantic Ocean offshore of Sunny Isles Beach, Florida. Approximately 50 offshore power...

  1. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach, Florida... Beach. The special local regulations will establish the following two areas: A race area, where all...

  2. 77 FR 3031 - Release of Airport Property: Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ...: Section 125 of The Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR-21...: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822-5024. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager...

  3. 77 FR 3324 - Release of Airport Property: Fort Myers International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Sponsor's request must be delivered or mailed to: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports... CONTACT: Rebecca R. Henry, Program Manager, Orlando Airports District Office, 5950 Hazeltine National Drive, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32822-5024. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 125 of The Wendell H. Ford...

  4. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  5. 77 FR 50062 - Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean; Daytona Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic... Daytona Beach, Florida during the Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves air show. The event is scheduled to take...: Sec. 165.T07-0653 Safety Zone; Embry Riddle Wings and Waves, Atlantic Ocean, Daytona Beach, FL....

  6. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of..., November 13, 2011. These special local regulations are necessary to provide for the safety of life...

  7. 33 CFR 100.729 - Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.729 Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. A regulated area is established for the Columbus...

  8. 33 CFR 100.729 - Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.729 Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. A regulated area is established for the Columbus...

  9. 33 CFR 100.729 - Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.729 Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. A regulated area is established for the Columbus...

  10. 33 CFR 100.729 - Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.729 Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. A regulated area is established for the Columbus...

  11. 33 CFR 100.729 - Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne... HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.729 Columbus Day Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL. (a) Regulated area. A regulated area is established for the Columbus...

  12. 77 FR 4394 - Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Release of Airport Property: Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, FL AGENCY... provides notice of intent to release certain airport properties 12.4 acres at the Orlando Executive Airport... restrictions of a Quitclaim Deed agreement, dated August 9, 1961, between the subject airport and the...

  13. 77 FR 66979 - Ellis Road/American Electric Corporation, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL, Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... AGENCY Ellis Road/American Electric Corporation, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL, Notice of Settlement... over 80 settling parties at the Ellis Road/American Electric Corporation Superfund Site located in... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ellis Road/American Electric Corporation Site...

  14. A FIVE YEAR RECORD OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENT PATTERNS IN ESCAMBIA/PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton pigments were monitored quarterly at over 50 stations in Escambia/Pensacola Bay System (Pensacola, FL) from spring of 1996 to fall 2000. HPLC accessory pigments were used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure. HPLC data suggest a dominance of blue-green a...

  15. 76 FR 44912 - Landia Chemical Company Site; Lakeland, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... No: 2011-18990] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2011-3760, FRL-9444-4] Landia Chemical Company Site; Lakeland, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental...

  16. 33 CFR 100.718 - Annual Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Suncoast Kilo Run... Suncoast Kilo Run; Sarasota Bay, Sarasota, FL. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area is established in... southwest corner point at Quick Point, position 27°20′18″ N, 82°34′36″ W. All coordinates referenced use...

  17. 76 FR 55553 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Eglin AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Airspace in the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), FL airspace area. The Destin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... airport. This action also corrects the geographic coordinates of Eglin AFB, Duke Field, and Hulbert Field... that correction. Also, this action adjusts the geographic coordinates for Duke Field and Hurlburt...

  18. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is...

  19. 78 FR 16296 - Record of Decision for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... National Park Service Record of Decision for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park, FL... the availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan) for... occur annually in Biscayne National Park, causing injuries to submerged resources. The goal of...

  20. Using the Second Life Digital Environment for FL Education: A Postmodern Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzun, Levent

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to raise awareness related to the postmodern educational philosophies, and to the opportunities provided by the emerging technologies and conditions of our era with regard to foreign language (FL) education. The main discussion was that educators and educational practices are not in complete harmony with the recent…

  1. 78 FR 33965 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee-Big Cypress Airfield, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee-Big Cypress... Federal Register of May 1, 2013. The title and airspace descriptor are corrected to read Immokalee-Big..., establishes Class E airspace at Big Cypress Airfield, Immokalee, FL (78 FR 25384). Subsequent to publication...

  2. A FIVE YEAR RECORD OF PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENT PATTERNS IN ESCAMBIA/PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton pigments were monitored quarterly at over 50 stations in Escambia/Pensacola Bay System (Pensacola, FL) from spring of 1996 to fall 2000. HPLC accessory pigments were used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure. HPLC data suggest a dominance of blue-green a...

  3. "ZOOMANIA": The See-Hear-and-Do Approach to FL Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontas, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Since the publication of "Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century," the development of communicative competence both within and beyond the confined walls of the language classroom has become a national priority for the foreign language (FL) teaching profession. The literature on standards and proficiency suggests…

  4. Multilingual Competence Development in the Greek Educational System: FL Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griva, Eleni; Chostelidou, Dora

    2012-01-01

    The European Commission has aimed to increase diversification in the languages taught at primary and secondary educational level and to strive for multilingualism in all state members for the past two decades. The study was conducted with the aim to provide an account of foreign language (FL) teachers' beliefs regarding multilingualism and FL…

  5. 75 FR 53694 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County, Florida for publication..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0729 or Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocessors...

  6. 78 FR 13339 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement with 2238 NW. 86th Street Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...

  7. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  8. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... purpose of the rule is to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the 2013 Orange Bowl...

  9. 77 FR 16668 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Brooksville, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... the airport are being adjusted to coincide with the FAA's aeronautical database, which shows the... Hernando County Airport, Brooksville, FL, to be in concert with the FAAs aeronautical database, which shows... Aeronautical Products database. The FAA has determined that this regulation only involves an established...

  10. 75 FR 4839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, St. Lucie County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, St. Lucie County, FL... of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat... anticipates taking approximately 1 acre (0.4 hectares (ha)) of Florida scrub-jay breeding, feeding and...

  11. Action, Interaction, and Reaction: The Video Camera and the FL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kimberly M.; Yetter-Vassot, Cindy

    Uses of pre-recorded and student-generated videotape recordings in the foreign language (FL) classroom are described and discussed from the perspective of their utility in helping students achieve target language communicative competence. It is suggested that viewing authentic video materials provides an opportunity to observe extralinguistic…

  12. 76 FR 51394 - DRAFT General Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National Park, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... National Park Service DRAFT General Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National Park, FL AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C), the National Park Service (NPS) announces the...

  13. Studies on the Adhesive Property of Snail Adhesive Mucus.

    PubMed

    Newar, Janu; Ghatak, Archana

    2015-11-10

    Many gastropod molluscs are known to secrete mucus which allow these animals to adhere to a substrate while foraging over it. While the mucus is known to provide strong adhesion to both dry and wet surfaces, including both horizontal and vertical ones, no systematic study has been carried out to understand the strength of such adhesion under different conditions. We report here results from preliminary studies on adhesion characteristics of the mucus of a snail found in eastern India, Macrochlamys indica. When perturbed, the snail was found to secrete its adhesive mucus, which was collected and subjected to regular adhesion tests. The hydrated mucus was used as such, and also as mixed with buffer of different pH. These experiments suggest that the mucus was slightly alkaline, and showed the maximum adhesion strength of 9 kPa when present in an alkaline buffer. Preliminary studies indicate that adhesive force is related to the ability of the mucus to incorporate water. In alkaline condition, the gel like mass that it forms, incorporate water from a wet surface and enable strong adhesion.

  14. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  15. 75 FR 3984 - Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace, Modification of Class E Airspace; Ocala, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... E airspace at Ocala International Airport-Jim Taylor Field, Ocala, FL. This action also makes a... for Ocala International Airport--Jim Taylor Field, Ocala, FL, published in the Federal Register June... Taylor Field was stated incorrectly. This action corrects that error. Confirmation of Effective Date...

  16. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property..., identified as Key Largo Beacon Annex Site, Key Largo, FL to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of...

  17. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  18. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  19. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo

    2015-08-05

    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate.

  20. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  1. Durability of adhesives in plywood

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Gillespie; Bryan H. River

    1976-01-01

    Seven different adhesives were evaluated for durability as plywood adhesives by exposing panels and shear-test specimens to weathering at the Madison exposure site for nearly 8 years. Wet-strength loss and wood-failure changes were measured as a function of exposure time. The method of exposure accelerated the degradation that would have resulted from exposure in most...

  2. Severe adhesive small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Catena, Fausto; Kelly, Michael D; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ansaloni, Luca

    2012-12-01

    Adhesive small bowel obstruction is a frequent cause of hospital admission. Water soluble contrast studies may have diagnostic and therapeutic value and avoid challenging demanding surgical operations, but if bowel ischemia is suspected, prompt surgical intervention is mandatory. A 58-year-old patient was operated for extensive adhesive small bowel obstruction after having had two previous laparotomies for colorectal surgery, and had a complex clinical course with multiple operations and several complications. Different strategies of management have been adopted, including non-operative management with the use of hyperosmolar water soluble contrast medium, multiple surgical procedures, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support, and finally use of antiadherences icodextrin solution. After 2 years follow-up the patient was doing well without presenting recurrent episodes of adhesive small bowel obstruction. For patients admitted several times for adhesive small bowel obstruction, the relative risk of recurring obstruction increases in relation to the number of prior episodes. Several strategies for non-operative conservative management of adhesive small bowel obstruction have already addressed diagnostic and therapeutic value of hyperosmolar water soluble contrast. According to the most recent evidence-based guidelines, open surgery is the preferred method for surgical treatment of strangulating adhesive small bowel obstruction as well as after failed conservative management. Research interest and clinical evidence are increasing in adhesions prevention. Hyaluronic acid-carboxycellulose membrane and icodextrin may reduce incidence of adhesions.

  3. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Treesearch

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  4. Measuring Adhesion And Friction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    Cavendish balance adapted to new purpose. Apparatus developed which measures forces of adhesion and friction between specimens of solid materials in vacuum at temperatures from ambient to 900 degrees C. Intended primarily for use in studying adhesion properties of ceramics and metals, including silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys.

  5. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  6. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis.

  7. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  8. Hyaluronan-mediated cellular adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Many cells surround themselves with a cushioning halo of polysaccharides that is further strengthened and organized by proteins. In fibroblasts and chrondrocytes, the primary component of this pericellular matrix is hyaluronan, a large linear polyanion. Hyaluronan production is linked to a variety of disease, developmental, and physiological processes. Cells manipulate the concentration of hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors for numerous activities including modulation of cell adhesion, cell motility, and differentiation. Recent investigations by identify hyaluronan's role in mediating early-stage cell adhesion. An open question is how the cell removes the 0.5-10 micron thick pericellular matrix to allow for further mature adhesion events requiring nanometer scale separations. In this investigation, holographic optical tweezers are used to study the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes' pericellular matrix. Ultimately, we aim to shed further light on the spatial and temporal details of the dramatic transition from micron to nanometer gaps between the cell and its adhesive substrate.

  9. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  10. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  11. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  12. Propulsion by directional adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Prakash, Manu

    2008-03-01

    The rough, hairy integument of water-walking arthropods is well known to be responsible for their water-repellency; we here consider its additional propulsive role. We demonstrate that the tilted flexible leg hairs of water-walking arthropods render the leg cuticle directionally anisotropic: contact lines advance most readily towards the leg tips. The dynamical role of the resulting unidirectional adhesion is explored, and yields new insight into the manner in which water-walking arthropods generate thrust, glide and leap from the free surface. We thus provide new rationale for the fundamental topological difference in the roughness on plants and insects, and suggest novel directions for biomimetic design of smart, hydrophobic surfaces.

  13. Unbinding of adhesive vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochard-Wyart, FrançOise de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles

    We consider a vesicle, bound on one side to a pipette and sticking on the other side to a flat plate. When a pulling force f is applied to the pipette, the radius Rc of the contact patch decreases, and jumps to zero at a critical value of the force. We present here an extension of the Evans theory for these processes. Then we discuss the dynamics of separation for two distinct cases: (a) nonspecific adhesion; and (b) specific adhesion induced by mobile proteins. To cite this article: F. Brochard-Wyart, P.-G. de Gennes, C. R. Physique 4 (2003). On considère une vésicule qui, aspirée par une pipette d'un coteé adhèe de l'autre sur une surface plane. Lorsqu'on tire sur la pipette avec une force f le rayon du contact adhesif decroit, et s'annule brusquement a une valeur critique de la force. On présente ici une extension de la théorie d'Evans pour interpréter ces processus de détachement. Puis l'on discute la dynamique de la séparation pour deux cas distincts : (a) adhésion non spécifique ; et (b) adhésion spécifique par des protéines mobiles. Pour citer cet article : F. Brochard-Wyart, P.-G. de Gennes, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  14. The adhesive properties of coacervated recombinant hybrid mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seonghye; Choi, Yoo Seong; Kang, Dong Gyun; Song, Young Hoon; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-05-01

    Marine mussels attach to substrates using adhesive proteins. It has been suggested that complex coacervation (liquid-liquid phase separation via concentration) might be involved in the highly condensed and non-water dispersed adhesion process of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, as purified natural MAPs are difficult to obtain, it has not been possible to experimentally validate the coacervation model. In the present work, we demonstrate complex coacervation in a system including recombinant MAPs and hyaluronic acid (HA). Our recombinant hybrid MAPs, fp-151 and fp-131, can be produced in large quantities, and are readily purified. We observed successful complex coacervation using cationic fp-151 or fp-131, and an anionic HA partner. Importantly, we found that highly condensed complex coacervates significantly increased the bulk adhesive strength of MAPs in both dry and wet environments. In addition, oil droplets were successfully engulfed using a MAP-based interfacial coacervation process, to form microencapsulated particles. Collectively, our results indicate that a complex coacervation system based on MAPs shows superior adhesive properties, combined with additional valuable features including liquid/liquid phase separation and appropriate viscoelasticity. Our microencapsulation system could be useful in the development of new adhesive biomaterials, including self-adhesive microencapsulated drug carriers, for use in biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  15. Universal adhesives: the next evolution in adhesive dentistry?

    PubMed

    Alex, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Every so often a new material, technique, or technological breakthrough spurs a paradigm shift in the way dentistry is practiced. The development and evolution of reliable enamel and dentin bonding agents is one such example. Indeed, the so-called "cosmetic revolution" in dentistry blossomed in large part due to dramatic advances in adhesive technology. It is the ability to bond various materials in a reasonably predictable fashion to both enamel and dentin substrates that enables dentists to routinely place porcelain veneers, direct and indirect composites, and a plethora of other restorative and esthetic materials. In fact, the longevity and predictability of many (if not most) current restorative procedures is wholly predicated on the dentist's ability to bond various materials to tooth tissues. Adhesive systems have progressed from the largely ineffective systems of the 1970s and early 1980s to the relatively successful total- and self-etching systems of today. The latest players in the adhesive marketplace are the so-called "universal adhesives." In theory, these systems have the potential to significantly simplify and expedite adhesive protocols and may indeed represent the next evolution in adhesive dentistry. But what defines a universal system, and are all these new systems truly "universal" and everything they are claimed to be? This article will examine the origin, chemistry, strengths, weaknesses, and clinical relevance of this new genre of dental adhesives.

  16. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications.

  17. Enhanced adhesion by gecko-inspired hierarchical fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Kim, Seok; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    The complex structures that allow geckos to repeatably adhere to surfaces consist of multilevel branching fibers with specialized tips. We present a novel technique for fabricating similar multilevel structures from polymer materials and demonstrate the fabrication of arrays of two- and three-level structures, wherein each level terminates in flat mushroom-type tips. Adhesion experiments are conducted on two-level fiber arrays on a 12-mm-diameter glass hemisphere, which exhibit both increased adhesion and interface toughness over one-level fiber samples and unstructured control samples. These adhesion enhancements are the result of increased surface conformation as well as increased extension during detachment.

  18. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  19. Contractility Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening Through Focal Adhesion Kinase and Assembly of Vinculin-Containing Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Dumbauld, David W.; Shin, Heungsoo; Gallant, Nathan D.; Michael, Kristin E.; Radhakrishna, Harish; García, Andrés J.

    2010-01-01

    Actin-myosin contractility modulates focal adhesion assembly, stress fiber formation, and cell migration. We analyzed the contributions of contractility to fibroblast adhesion strengthening using a hydrodynamic adhesion assay and micropatterned substrates to control cell shape and adhesive area. Serum addition resulted in adhesion strengthening to levels 30–40% higher than serum-free cultures. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase or Rho-kinase blocked phosphorylation of myosin light chain to similar extents and eliminated the serum-induced enhancements in strengthening. Blebbistatin-induced inhibition of myosin II reduced serum-induced adhesion strength to similar levels as those obtained by blocking myosin light chain phosphorylation. Reductions in adhesion strengthening by inhibitors of contractility correlated with loss of vinculin and talin from focal adhesions without changes in integrin binding. In vinculin-null cells, inhibition of contractility did not alter adhesive force, whereas controls displayed a 20% reduction in adhesion strength, indicating that the effects of contractility on adhesive force are vinculin-dependent. Furthermore, in cells expressing FAK, inhibitors of contractility reduced serum-induced adhesion strengthening as well as eliminated focal adhesion assembly. In contrast, in the absence of FAK, these inhibitors did not alter adhesion strength or focal adhesion assembly. These results indicate that contractility modulates adhesion strengthening via FAK-dependent, vinculin-containing focal adhesion assembly. PMID:20205236

  20. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-09

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications.

  1. [Improving adhesion to antiretroviral treatment].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate unified criteria for health professionals to improve adhesion to antiretroviral therapy. The recommendations were drawn up and agreed upon by an expert panel from the SPNS, GESIDA and SEFH, after an exhaustive review of the latest relevant epidemiological and clinical studies that have been published in the medical literature and/or presented at congresses and scientific forums. The factors related to adhesion with antiretroviral therapy came from individuals, health care professionals and treatment variables. Current available methods for measuring adhesion are diverse and classified as direct and indirect. The ideal method is shown to be one which is highly sensitive and specific, enables quantitative and continuous measurement and is reliable, reproducible, economical and quick. The doctor, nurse and pharmacist play a key role in the strategies for adhesion improvement. Specific programmes based on exhaustive knowledge of individualized variables from patients and their antiretroviral therapy should be developed. The use of combined methods which are adapted to healthcare facility characteristics for adhesion improvement is recommended. The structured support to interpersonal adhesion developed by trained healthcare professionals and individualized strategies has been demonstrated as being the most effective intervention strategy to improve adhesion with antiretroviral treatment.

  2. Visceral adhesions to hernia prostheses.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, W B; Bonsack, M E; Delaney, J P

    2010-08-01

    To report our experience with abdominal adhesion formation to various synthetic and biologic prosthetic materials in a rat ventral hernia model. A total of 14 prostheses, nine synthetic, four biologic, and one bioresorbable, were evaluated in the rat. Two synthetic prostheses had bioresorbable coatings and one consisted of synthetic and bioresorbable materials woven together. The model involved the removal from the midline of a 2.5 x 2.5-cm segment of full-thickness ventral abdominal wall with the test prosthetic material sewed into the defect, thus, exposing the viscera directly to one surface of the prosthesis. There were four or more rats in each group. Adhesions were assessed at autopsy 7 days after operation or later. The results were expressed as the percentage area of prosthesis surface involved. All 14 of the tested prosthetic materials induced adhesions. Vicryl Mesh and the four biologic varieties had lesser overall adhesion coverage than the bare synthetic prostheses. Sepramesh developed the least adhesion coverage (15%). The two synthetic materials with bioresorbable coatings had smaller areas involved compared to bare synthetic prostheses. All of the tested prostheses attracted adhesions. Biologic prostheses had smaller areas of coverage compared to synthetic prostheses. Barrier surfaces on synthetic meshes were associated with a much lesser extent of adhesion involvement.

  3. Adhesion molecules in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Asrar, A.; Geboes, K.; Al-Kharashi, S.; Tabbara, K.; Missotten, L.; Desmet, V.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Adhesion molecules play a key role in the selective recruitment of different leucocyte population to inflammatory sites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of adhesion molecules in the conjunctiva of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—The presence and distribution of adhesion molecules were studied in 14 conjunctival biopsy specimens from seven patients with active VKC and in four normal conjunctival biopsy specimens. We used a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3), lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1). In addition, a panel of mAbs were used to characterise the composition of the inflammatory infiltrate.
RESULTS—In the normal conjunctiva, ICAM-1 was expressed on the vascular endothelium only, LFA-1 and ICAM-3 on epithelial and stromal mononuclear cells , and VLA-4 on stromal mononuclear cells. The expression of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was absent. The number of cells expressing adhesion molecules was found to be markedly increased in all VKC specimens. This was concurrent with a heavy inflammatory infiltrate. Strong ICAM-1 expression was induced on the basal epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, ICAM-1 was expressed on stromal mononuclear cells. LFA-1 and ICAM-3 were expressed on the majority of epithelial and stromal infiltrating mononuclear cells. VLA-4 expression was noted on stromal mononuclear cells. Compared with controls, VKC specimens showed significantly more ICAM-3+, LFA-1+, and VLA-4+ cells. VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 were induced on the vascular endothelial cells.
CONCLUSIONS—Increased expression of adhesion molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of VKC.

 PMID

  4. Adhesive Performance of Biomimetic Adhesive-Coated Biologic Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John L.; Vollenweider, Laura; Xu, Fangmin; Lee, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical repair of a discontinuity in traumatized or degenerated soft tissues is traditionally accomplished using sutures. A current trend is to reinforce this primary repair with surgical grafts, meshes, or patches secured with perforating mechanical devices (i.e., sutures, staples, or tacks). These fixation methods frequently lead to chronic pain and mesh detachment. We developed a series of biodegradable adhesive polymers that are synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), composed of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-derivatives, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polycaprolactone (PCL). These polymers can be cast into films, and their mechanical properties, extent of swelling, and degradation rate can be tailored through the composition of the polymers as well as blending with additives. When coated onto a biologic mesh used for hernia repair, these adhesive constructs demonstrated adhesive strengths significantly higher than fibrin glue. With further development, a pre-coated bioadhesive mesh may represent a new surgical option for soft tissue repair. PMID:20919699

  5. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  6. Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Kong, X H; Ruan, M; Ma, F M; Jiang, Y F; Liu, M Z; Chen, Y; Zuo, X H

    2010-10-28

    General characteristics of waxes, adhesives and lubricants as well as the recent fundamental investigations on their physical and mechanical behaviour are introduced. The current R&D status for new type/generation of waxes, adhesives and lubricants from natural products is reviewed, with an emphasis on their tribological applications. In particular, some crucial issues and challenges relating to technological improvement and materials development are discussed. Based on the current predicted shortage of energy resources and environmental concerns, prospective research on the development of green waxes, adhesives and lubricants is suggested.

  7. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  8. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  9. Interfacial adhesion of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    Relative adhesion strengths between AS4, AS1, and XAS carbon fibers and thermoplastic polymers were determined using the embedded single filament test. Polymers studied included polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, polysulfone, polyphenylene oxide blends with polystyrene, and polycarbonate blends with a polycarbonate polysiloxane block copolymer. Fiber surface treatments and sizings improved adhesion somewhat, but adhesion remained well below levels obtained with epoxy matrices. An explanation for the differences between the Hercules and Grafil fibers was sought using X ray photon spectroscopy, wetting, scanning electron microscopy and thermal desorption analysis.

  10. Comparing Soy Flour Wood Adhesives to Purified Soy Protein Adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    While economics dictate that soy-based wood adhesives be made with soy flour, much of the recent literature on soy-based wood adhesives has involved using soy protein isolate. The obvious assumption is that the additional carbohydrates in the flour but not in the isolate only serve as inert diluents. Our studies have shown that the isolate can provide 10 times the wet...

  11. The FL/AC ratio for prediction of shoulder dystocia in women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Elaine L; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Twickler, Diane M

    2017-10-01

    To determine if sonographic variables, including fetal femur length to abdominal circumference (FL/AC) ratio, are associated with shoulder dystocia in women with gestational diabetes. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with gestational diabetes who delivered singleton infants at Parkland Hospital from 1997 to 2015. Diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes were uniform including sonography at 32-36 weeks. Biometric calculations were evaluated for correlation with shoulder dystocia. During the study period, 6952 women with gestational diabetes underwent a sonogram at a mean gestation of 34.8 ± 1.8 weeks. Of 4183 vaginal deliveries, 66 experienced shoulder dystocia (16/1000). The FL/AC was associated with shoulder dystocia (p < 0.001) with an AUC of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.64-0.77). This was similar to age-adjusted AC and head circumference to AC ratio (HC/AC) (both with an AUC of 0.72). All other measurements, including estimated fetal weight, were inferior. When examining the 257 women with multiple sonograms after 32 weeks' gestation, FL/AC was stable with advancing gestational age (p = 0.54) whereas age-adjusted AC and HC/AC were not (p < 0.001). The FL/AC is associated with shoulder dystocia in women with gestational diabetes. Additionally, it is a simple ratio that is independent of the reference used and remains stable, unlike age-adjusted AC and HC/AC ratio.

  12. Bacterial endotoxin adhesion to different types of orthodontic adhesives

    PubMed Central

    ROMUALDO, Priscilla Coutinho; GUERRA, Thaís Rodrigues; ROMANO, Fábio Lourenço; da SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra; BRANDÃO, Izaíra Tincani; SILVA, Célio Lopes; da SILVA, Lea Assed Bezerra; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial endotoxin (LPS) adhesion to orthodontic brackets is a known contributing factor to inflammation of the adjacent gingival tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems, comparing two commercial brands. Material and Methods Forty specimens were fabricated from Transbond XT and Light Bond composite and bonding agent components (n=10/component), then contaminated by immersion in a bacterial endotoxin solution. Contaminated and non-contaminated acrylic resin samples were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. LPS quantification was performed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate QCL-1000™ test. Data obtained were scored and subjected to the Chi-square test using a significance level of 5%. Results There was endotoxin adhesion to all materials (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between composites/bonding agents and acrylic resin (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among commercial brands. Affinity of endotoxin was significantly greater for the bonding agents (p=0.0025). Conclusions LPS adhered to both orthodontic adhesive systems. Regardless of the brand, the endotoxin had higher affinity for the bonding agents than for the composites. There is no previous study assessing the affinity of LPS for orthodontic adhesive systems. This study revealed that LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems. Therefore, additional care is recommended to orthodontic applications of these materials. PMID:28877283

  13. Reversing Adhesion: A Triggered Release Self‐Reporting Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Schenzel, Alexander M.; Klein, Christopher; Rist, Kai; Moszner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Here, the development of an adhesive is reported – generated via free radical polymerization – which can be degraded upon thermal impact within minutes. The degradation is based on a stimuli responsive moiety (SRM) that is incorporated into the network. The selected SRM is a hetero Diels‐Alder (HDA) moiety that features three key properties. First, the adhesive can be degraded at relatively low temperatures (≈80 °C), second the degradation occurs very rapidly (less than 3 min), and third, the degradation of the network can readily be analyzed and quantified due to its self‐reporting nature. The new reversible self‐reporting adhesion system is characterized in detail starting from molecular studies of the retro HDA reaction. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the network, as well as the adhesion forces, are investigated in detail and compared to common methacrylate‐based systems, demonstrating a significant decrease in mechanic stability at elevated temperatures. The current study thus represents a significant advance of the current state of the art for debonding on demand adhesives, making the system interesting for several fields of application including dental adhesives. PMID:27812461

  14. Long-term dentin retention of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement in non-carious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical long-term retention to dentin of seven adhesive systems. A total of 270 Class V restorations of four etch-and-rinse, one self-etch adhesive system and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement were placed in non-carious cervical lesions without intentional enamel involvement. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and then every year during a 13-year follow-up. Dentin bonding efficiency was determined by the percentage of lost restorations. During the 13 years, 215 restorations could be evaluated. The cumulative loss rate at 13 years was 53.0%, with significant different failures rates for the different systems varying between 35.6 and 86.8%. Four systems fulfilled the ADA 18-month full acceptance retention criteria. Two systems showed at 18 months and earlier high debonding rates. The annual failure rates for the etch-and-rinse systems were Optibond 3.1%, Permagen 13.0%, Scotchbond MP 4.8%, Syntac classic 2.8%; for the self-etch system P&S 4.4%; and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement Vitremer 2.7%. It can be concluded that all systems showed a continuous degradation of the bond with a wide variation, which was independent of the adhesion strategy. Three bonding systems showed a cumulative failure rate after 13 years between 36 and 41% with the best retention for the resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a four-step etch-and-rinse system.

  15. Cyclic debonding of adhesive joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.; June, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Bonded lap joints were manufactured and tested under static and fatigue loading. Specimens were designed to fail in the bondline, and all fatigue tests included monitoring the crack growth to failure. Test specimens included aluminum details joined by two different adhesives. Specimens also included titanium and boron-epoxy details joined by an epoxy laminating resin. Additonal program variables included bondline thickness, adherend and spice plate thickness, specimen width, and specimen fabrication procedure. Adhesive aging was found to be generally detrimental to the lives of most of the specimens bonded with one adhesive system. Adhesive material was found to have a major influence on debond rate. Co-cured titanium/boron-epoxy specimens were found to resist debonding better than specimens fabricated with a sequential cure. Splice plate thickness and test section width were found to have little effect on debond rate. The data also suggested the existence of an optimum bondline thickness.

  16. Testing Adhesive Bonds to Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive tool simple and inexpensive. Easy-to-use tool nondestructively tests strength of adhesive bond between cloth and straight rigid edge. Developed for testing advanced flexible reusable surface insulation.

  17. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  18. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2016-07-12

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  19. Adhesive interactions between vesicles in the strong adhesion limit

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Arun; Anderson, Travers H.; Leal, L. Gary; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the adhesive interaction energy between a pair of vesicles in the strong adhesion limit, in which bending forces play a negligible role in determining vesicle shape compared to forces due to membrane stretching. Although force-distance or energy distance relationships characterizing adhesive interactions between fluid bilayers are routinely measured using the surface forces apparatus, the atomic force microscope and the biomembrane force probe, the interacting bilayers in these methods are supported on surfaces (e.g. mica sheet) and cannot be deformed. However, it is known that in a suspension, vesicles composed of the same bilayer can deform by stretching or bending, and can also undergo changes in volume. Adhesively interacting vesicles can thus form flat regions in the contact zone, which will result in an enhanced interaction energy as compared to rigid vesicles. The focus of this paper is to examine the magnitude of the interaction energy between adhesively interacting, deformed vesicles relative to free, undeformed vesicles as a function of the intervesicle separation. The modification of the intervesicle interaction energy due to vesicle deformability can be calculated knowing the undeformed radius of the vesicles, R0, the bending modulus kb, the area expansion modulus Ka, and the adhesive minimum WP(0) and separation DP(0) in the energy of interaction between two flat bilayers, which can be obtained from the force-distance measurements made using the above supported-bilayer methods. For vesicles with constant volumes, we show that adhesive potentials between non-deforming bilayers such as ∣WP(0)∣∼5×10−4mJ/m2, which are ordinarily considered weak in colloidal physics literature, can result in significantly deep (>10×) energy minima due to increase in vesicle area and flattening in the contact region. If the osmotic expulsion of water across the vesicles driven by the tense, stretched membrane in the presence of an osmotically active

  20. Multi-Scale Biomimetic Adhesives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-10

    Objectives: Same as originally stated 3. Status of Effort: Over the life of this grant, significant technical contributions have been made. When this...department of Defense as well, broadening our goals. 4. Accomplishments/New Findings (over the life of the grant): The mechanism of adhesion in the gecko...enabling microrobotics to explore extraterrestrial surfaces or harsh climates otherwise not accessible to man. In contrast to the adhesion seen in a rest

  1. Silorane adhesive system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Vanessa Carla; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Monteiro Júnior, Sylvio; Andrada, Mauro Amaral Caldeira de

    2014-01-01

    Silorane-based composite resin requires a specific adhesive system: a 2-step self-etching adhesive. Clinical protocols are well established and are based on the principles of adhesion to mineralized dental tissues. In this paper, we present a clinical application of the silorane adhesive system in a class-II restoration using silorane-based composite resin.

  2. A review of adhesion science.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sally J; Bayne, Stephen C; Baier, Robert; Tomsia, Antoni P; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    Adhesion or cohesion includes an adherend, adhesive, and intervening interface. Adhesive joints may include one or more interfaces. Adhesion science focuses on understanding the materials properties associated with formation of the interfaces, changes in the interfaces with time, and events associated with failure of the interfaces. The key principles for good interface formation are creation of a clean surface, generation of a rough surface for interfacial interlocking, good wetting of the substratum by the adhesive/cohesive materials, adequate flow and adaptation for intimate interaction, and acceptable curing when phase changes are required for final joint formation. Much more effort is needed in the future to carefully assess each of these using available testing methods that attempt to characterize the energetics of the interfaces. Bonding involves potential contributions from physical, chemical, and mechanical sources but primarily relies on micro-mechanical interaction for success. Characterization of the interface before adhesion, during service, and after failure would be much more useful for future investigations and remains as a great challenge. Scientists should more rigorously apply techniques such as comprehensive contact angle analysis (rather than simple water wettability) for surface energy determination, and AFM in addition to SEM for surface texture analysis. Copyright 2009 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrin-mediated adhesion complex

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau

    2010-01-01

    The integrin-mediated adhesion machinery is the primary cell-matrix adhesion mechanism in Metazoa. The integrin adhesion complex, which modulates important aspects of the cell physiology, is composed of integrins (alpha and beta subunits) and several scaffolding and signaling proteins. Integrins appeared to be absent in all non-metazoan eukaryotes so-far analyzed, including fungi, plants and choanoflagellates, the sister-group to Metazoa. Thus, integrins and, therefore, the integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling mechanism was considered a metazoan innovation. Recently, a broad comparative genomic analysis including new genome data from several unicellular organisms closely related to fungi and metazoans shattered previous views. The integrin adhesion and signaling complex is not specific to Metazoa, but rather it is present in apusozoans and holozoan protists. Thus, this important signaling and adhesion system predated the origin of Fungi and Metazoa, and was subsequently lost in fungi and choanoflagellates. This finding suggests that cooption played a more important role in the origin of Metazoa than previously believed. Here, we hypothesize that the integrin adhesome was ancestrally involved in signaling. PMID:21057645

  4. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  5. An Overview of Dental Adhesive Systems and the Dynamic Tooth-Adhesive Interface.

    PubMed

    Bedran-Russo, Ana; Leme-Kraus, Ariene A; Vidal, Cristina M P; Teixeira, Erica C

    2017-10-01

    From the conception of resin-enamel adhesion to today's contemporary dental adhesive systems, clinicians are no longer afraid of exploring the many advantages brought by adhesive restorative concepts. To maximize the performance of adhesive-based restorative procedures, practitioners must be familiar with the mechanism of adhesion, clinical indications, proper handling, the inherent limitations of the materials and the biological challenges. This review provides an overview of the current status of restorative dental adhesives, their mechanism of adhesion, mechanisms of degradation of dental adhesive interfaces, how to maximize performance, and future trends in adhesive dentistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were investigated to acquire information for a guideline document regarding the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specifically, investigations were made of (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives, (2) effects of long term aging at 150 C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives, (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics, (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive, (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters, (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives, and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES TO ASSESS EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN LIVING IN JACKSONVILLE, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Duval County Health Department (DCHD, Jacksonville, FL), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted a research study to characterize young children's potential exposures to organopho...

  8. 76 FR 55298 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and E Airspace and Amendment of Class E; Brooksville, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... existing Class E airspace at Brooksville, FL. to accommodate a new air traffic control tower at Hernando... operation of the new air traffic control tower, and new standard instrument approach procedures, and...

  9. 33 CFR 334.778 - Pensacola Bay and waters contiguous to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., FL; restricted area. (a) The area: Beginning at a point on the northerly shoreline of Grande (Big....; thence, maintaining a minimum distance of 500 feet offshore for the remainder of the area to: PT...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES TO ASSESS EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN LIVING IN JACKSONVILLE, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Duval County Health Department (DCHD, Jacksonville, FL), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted a research study to characterize young children's potential exposures to organopho...

  11. 77 FR 42425 - Amendment of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes in the Vicinity of Vero Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... the above ATS routes, and does not involve a change in the dimensions or operating requirements of the... alternate outside the United States has no upper limit. * * * * * V-295 From Virginia Key, FL; INT Virginia...

  12. [Adhesive lumbar arachnoiditis].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, C; Reis, F C

    1998-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis, an inflammatory process involving all three meningeal layers as well as the nerve roots, is a cause of persistent symptoms in 6% to 16% of postoperative patients. Although spinal surgery is the most common antecedent associated with arachnoiditis, multiple causes have been reported, including infection, intrathecal steroids or anesthetic agents, trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and ionic myelographic contrast material--both oil soluble and water soluble. In the past, oil-based intrathecal contrast agents (Pantopaque) were associated with arachnoiditis especially when this material was introduced into the thecal sac and mixed with blood. Arachnoiditis is apparently rarely idiopathic. The pathogenesis of spinal arachnoiditis is similar to the repair process of serous membranes, such as the peritoneum, with a negligible inflammatory cellular exudate and a prominent fibrinous exudate. Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis of the lower spine is a myelographic diagnosis. The myelographic findings of arachnoiditis were divided into two types by Jorgensen et al. In type 1, "the empty thecal sac" appearance, there is homogeneous filling of the thecal sac with either absence of or defects involving nerve root sleeve filling. In type 2 arachnoiditis, there are localized or diffuse filling defects within the contrast column. MRI has demonstrated a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 100% in the diagnosis of arachnoiditis. The appearance of arachnoiditis on MRI can be assigned to three main groups. The MRI findings in group I are a conglomeration of adherent roots positioned centrally in the thecal sac. Patients in group II show roots peripherally adherent to the meninges--the so called empty sac. MRI findings in group III are a soft tissue mass within the subarachnoid space. It corresponds to the type 2 categorization defined by Jorgensen et al, where as the MRI imaging types I and II correspond to the myelographic type 1.

  13. Temporary zinc oxide-eugenol cement: eugenol quantity in dentin and bond strength of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tamara; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Malinovskii, Vladimir; Flury, Simon; Häner, Robert; Lussi, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    Uptake of eugenol from eugenol-containing temporary materials may reduce the adhesion of subsequent resin-based restorations. This study investigated the effect of duration of exposure to zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement on the quantity of eugenol retained in dentin and on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of the resin composite. The ZOE cement (IRM Caps) was applied onto the dentin of human molars (21 per group) for 1, 7, or 28 d. One half of each molar was used to determine the quantity of eugenol (by spectrofluorimetry) and the other half was used for μTBS testing. The ZOE-exposed dentin was treated with either OptiBond FL using phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) or with Gluma Classic using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning. One group without conditioning (for eugenol quantity) and two groups not exposed to ZOE (for eugenol quantity and μTBS testing) served as controls. The quantity of eugenol ranged between 0.33 and 2.9 nmol mg⁻¹ of dentin (median values). No effect of the duration of exposure to ZOE was found. Conditioning with H₃PO₄ or EDTA significantly reduced the quantity of eugenol in dentin. Nevertheless, for OptiBond FL, exposure to ZOE significantly decreased the μTBS, regardless of the duration of exposure. For Gluma Classic, the μTBS decreased after exposure to ZOE for 7 and 28 d. OptiBond FL yielded a significantly higher μTBS than did Gluma Classic. Thus, ZOE should be avoided in cavities later to be restored with resin-based materials.

  14. Bacterial endotoxin adhesion to different types of orthodontic adhesives.

    PubMed

    Romualdo, Priscilla Coutinho; Guerra, Thaís Rodrigues; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Brandão, Izaíra Tincani; Silva, Célio Lopes; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems, comparing two commercial brands. Forty specimens were fabricated from Transbond XT and Light Bond composite and bonding agent components (n=10/component), then contaminated by immersion in a bacterial endotoxin solution. Contaminated and non-contaminated acrylic resin samples were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. LPS quantification was performed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate QCL-1000™ test. Data obtained were scored and subjected to the Chi-square test using a significance level of 5%. There was endotoxin adhesion to all materials (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between composites/bonding agents and acrylic resin (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among commercial brands. Affinity of endotoxin was significantly greater for the bonding agents (p=0.0025). LPS adhered to both orthodontic adhesive systems. Regardless of the brand, the endotoxin had higher affinity for the bonding agents than for the composites. There is no previous study assessing the affinity of LPS for orthodontic adhesive systems. This study revealed that LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems. Therefore, additional care is recommended to orthodontic applications of these materials.

  15. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  16. FL3, a Synthetic Flavagline and Ligand of Prohibitins, Protects Cardiomyocytes via STAT3 from Doxorubicin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Adeline; Basmadjian, Christine; Zhao, Qian; Wilmet, Jean-Philippe; Désaubry, Laurent; Nebigil, Canan G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The clinical use of doxorubicin for the treatment of cancer is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Flavaglines are natural products that have both potent anticancer and cardioprotective properties. A synthetic analog of flavaglines, FL3, efficiently protects mice from the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The mechanism underlying this cardioprotective effect has yet to be elucidated. Methods and Results Here, we show that FL3 binds to the scaffold proteins prohibitins (PHBs) and thus promotes their translocation to mitochondria in the H9c2 cardiomyocytes. FL3 induces heterodimerization of PHB1 with STAT3, thereby ensuring cardioprotection from doxorubicin toxicity. This interaction is associated with phosphorylation of STAT3. A JAK2 inhibitor, WP1066, suppresses both the phosphorylation of STAT3 and the protective effect of FL3 in cardiomyocytes. The involvement of PHBs in the FL3-mediated cardioprotection was confirmed by means of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting PHB1 and PHB2. The siRNA knockdown of PHBs inhibits both phosphorylation of STAT3 and the cardioprotective effect of FL3. Conclusion Activation of mitochondrial STAT3/PHB1 complex by PHB ligands may be a new strategy against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and possibly other cardiac problems. PMID:26536361

  17. Denture adhesives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis; Papadiochos, Ioannis

    2015-05-01

    Denture adhesives have been the objective of scientific research for over half a century. Although they are used by denture wearers worldwide, investigations of their effectiveness and biocompatibility have led to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to review the literature data with regard to the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives as well as the attitudes of both patients and dental professionals toward these materials. An electronic search of English peer-reviewed dental literature in the Medline database was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives. There was no limitation in publication year, so the search included all the available scientific evidence included in that particular database until March 2014. Specific inclusion criteria were used for the selection of the appropriate articles. A manual search of the citations of the obtained articles followed to extend the electronic search. A full text review was carried out for only 32 articles. Of the 32 articles, 21 examined the efficacy of denture adhesives in terms of retention and stability and masticatory performance, 6 evaluated the issue of the biocompatibility of denture adhesives, and 5 presented the attitudes of either professionals or patients toward these materials. The majority of clinical studies supported the fact that denture adhesives enhance the retention, stability, and masticatory performance of a removable prosthesis. In terms of biocompatibility, long-term in vivo studies to investigate potential harmful effects were lacking. Patients are satisfied with denture adhesives that meet their needs. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Topoisomerase I (Top1): a major target of FL118 for its antitumor efficacy or mainly involved in its side effects of hematopoietic toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengzhi; Ling, Xiang; Harris, Danni L; Liao, Jianqun; Wang, Yuping; Westover, David; Jiang, Guohui; Xu, Bo; Boland, Patrick M; Jin, Chunyang

    2017-01-01

    FL118 is a novel camptothecin (CPT) analogue that possesses exceptional antitumor efficacy in human tumor animal models. To date, two CPT analogues, irinotecan and topotecan, have been approved by the FDA for cancer treatment. FL118 exhibits superior antitumor activity over irinotecan and topotecan, and effectively overcomes the irinotecan- or topotecan-resistant human tumors in animal models. Accordingly, FL118 selectively inhibits the expression of multiple cancer-associated proteins (survivin, Mcl-1, XIAP, cIAP2, MdmX). However, FL118 has hematopoietic toxicity similar to irinotecan and topotecan, suggesting that FL118’s hematopoietic toxicity may share a mechanism similar to irinotecan and topotecan. It is known that CPTs including irinotecan, SN-38 (active metabolite of irinotecan) and topotecan are topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors. However, the evidence from our studies failed to reveal that FL118 is a better Top1 inhibitor than SN-38. It was documented that Top1 expression level is positively associated with CPTs’ sensitivity. Low Top1 expression links to CPTs’ resistance. In contrast to these findings, we found that human colorectal tumor sensitivity to FL118 is irrelevant to the expression level of Top1 protein. FL118 can show high antitumor efficacy in Top1-negative tumors, while Top1 highly positive tumors can exhibit FL118 resistance. This suggests that the presence of Top1 target is not critical for FL118 antitumor activity. In other words, targeting Top1 by FL118 may not play a major role for its antitumor efficacy. However, studies indicate that FL118 can bind to, and inhibit Top1 activity. This raises the possibility that inhibition of Top1 by FL118 may predominantly be involved in hematopoietic toxicity, but not in FL118 antitumor activity. In this article, we will summarize existing observations and provide our up-to-date research results to support our opinion on this important topic. PMID:28337384

  19. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; Williams, S.; McCoy, B.; MacLeod, T.

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development

  20. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and